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Feb 23, 2016

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Vibration

© All Rights Reserved

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Vibration

© All Rights Reserved

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11 Window Parallel

Velocity

Like Window velocity Used in parallel flow amplitude (line 26) calculations, this

12 Bundle Crossflow

Velocity

Based on B-stream flow fraction and integral average flow area in tube row

perpendicular to general direction of crossflow. In most cases, Center

velocity is the same as Shellside velocity on Final Results. However, values

at inlet and outlet are based on layout seen as flow entering the exchanger.

For example, for 30-degree layout and parallel baffle cut, flow looks like

60-degree bundle and velocity is calculated appropriately. Xist uses this

value to calculate Average crossflow velocity ratio in Fluidelastic Instability

Check area and Crossflow amplitude in Tube Vibration Check area of

output.

Xist uses this value to calculate vortex-shedding frequency ratio (line 24),

turbulent-buffeting frequency ratio (line 25), crossflow amplitude (line 27), and

turbulent buffeting amplitude (line 28).

13 Bundle/Shell Velocity Flow velocity of C-stream at each location in exchanger based on physical

This stream can cause flow-induced vibration in tubes near the shell if velocity is

high. Printed for information only.

Line Printed Heading Comments

15 Log Decrement Reprint of input or calculated value used to calculate critical velocity for fluidelastic

instability, line 16

Shell-and-Tube, Hairpins, Jacketed Pipe (Xist, Xhpe, Xjpe) Online Help, printed version Xist Output Reports

Heat Transfer Research, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 213

Confidential: For HTRI member use only.

Default HTRI method includes damping from tube supports and from fluid

viscosity. For two-phase fluids, an additional viscous damping term is included.

The minimum log decrement for gasses is 0.025, for liquids 0.038 o 0.10.

If you select the TEMA log decrement option, Vibration panel, Xist calculates

values per TEMA Standards, 8th edition.

16 Critical Velocity Critical crossflow velocity for predicting onset of fluidelastic instability using as

indicated on line 3 and log decrement on line 15

17 Baffle Tip Cross

Velocity Ratio

Based on B-stream flow fraction, local density, and minimum flow area at baffle tip

Calculated value is divided by critical velocity (line 16) to obtain baffle tip cross

velocity ratio. For conservative designs, this ratio should be less than 0.80. If this

ratio is greater than 1.0, fluidelastic instability vibration is probable.

18 Average Crossflow

Velocity Ratio

Main crossflow stream, calculated at integral average flow area using Stream

Analysis Method

This value is B-stream velocity used for crossflow heat transfer and pressure

drop calculations, same as bundle crossflow velocity for 30 and 90 but different

for 45 and 60 bundles. Xist uses it to calculate vortex-shedding and turbulentbuffeting

frequency ratios for acoustic vibration check in line 20 and line 22.

Calculated value is divided by critical velocity (line 16) to obtain average

crossflow velocity ratio. If this ratio is greater than 1.0, fluidelastic instability

vibration is probable.

Line Printed Heading Comments

20 Vortex-Shedding Ratio

(Gas or vapor only)

Ratio of vortex shedding frequency, calculated using average crossflow velocity

(line 18) and Fitz-Hugh Strouhal number, to lowest fundamental mode acoustic

frequency (line 9)

If ratio falls between 0.8 and 1.2 and Chen number threshold is exceeded,

acoustic vibration can occur.

If ratio exceeds 1.2, evaluate higher modes of acoustic vibration.

21 Chen Number

(Gas or vapor only)

Measure of energy content of fluid, used in conjunction with frequency ratios (lines

20 and 22) to determine if acoustic vibration problems are likely

If Chen number is less than 1300, acoustic vibration problem is unlikely.

If frequencies match and Chen number is between 1300 and 4000, acoustic

vibration problems are possible.

If frequencies match and Chen number is larger than 4000, an acoustic

vibration problem is probable.

22 Turbulent-Buffeting

Ratio (Gas or vapor

only)

Ratio of dominant turbulent-buffeting frequency calculated using average crossflow

velocity (line 18) to lowest fundamental mode acoustic frequency (line 10)

If ratio is between 0.8 and 1.2 and Chen number threshold is exceeded,

acoustic vibration can occur.

Xist Output Reports Shell-and-Tube, Hairpins, Jacketed Pipe (Xist, Xhpe, Xjpe) Online Help, printed version

Page 214 Heat Transfer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.

Confidential: For HTRI member use only.

Line Printed Heading Comments

24 Vortex-Shedding Ratio Ratio of vortex-shedding frequency using bundle crossflow velocity (line 12) and

Chen-Strouhal number to lowest frequency, indicated by plus sign (+) (line 8)

If ratio is greater than 0.5, tube vibration is possible with sufficient crossflow

amplitude (line 27).

25 Turbulent-Buffeting

Ratio

Ratio of dominant turbulent-buffeting frequency using bundle crossflow velocity

(line 12) to lowest frequency, indicated by plus sign (+) (line 8)

If ratio is greater than 0.5, tube vibration is possible with sufficient turbulent

buffeting amplitude (line 28).

26 Parallel Flow Parallel flow amplitude based on Chen-Weber method

Amplitude If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes (line 28), collision damage is

probable.

27 Crossflow Amplitude Amplitude using span length (line 6), bundle crossflow velocity (line 12), and local

density

If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes, collision damage is

probable. Baffle damage and fatigue can result from lower amplitudes after long

periods of operation.

28 Turbulent Buffeting

Amplitude

Amplitude using bundle crossflow velocity (line 13) and local density using the

equations from TEMA Standards, 8th Edition, Section V-11.3

TEMA recommends that this value be less than 0.02 times the tube diameter.

29 Tube Gap spacing between adjacent tubes, equal to tube pitch minus one tube diameter

Overfin diameter is used for finned tubes.

30 Crossflow RHO-V-SQ Product of local density and bundle crossflow velocity squared,

Crossflow velocity (line 12) is used.

Bundle Entrance/Exit

Line Printed Heading Comments

33 Fluidelastic Instability

Ratio

Ratio of calculated crossflow velocity at first tuberow (line 36) to critical velocity for

fluidelastic instability. For perpendicular cut baffles, the critical velocity appears on

line 16. For parallel cut baffles, the entry region is rotated in comparison to the

crossflow direction in the bundle, so that the critical velocity on line 16 is first

corrected for the difference in the layout angle before the ratio is calculated.

2

sfVcros

Shell-and-Tube, Hairpins, Jacketed Pipe (Xist, Xhpe, Xjpe) Online Help, printed version Xist Output Reports

Heat Transfer Research, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 215

Confidential: For HTRI member use only.

entrance.

34 Vortex Shedding Ratio Ratio of vortex shedding frequency , calculated using crossflow velocity at first tube

row (line 36) and Chen-Strouhal no., to lowest natural frequency, indicated by a

plus sign (+) (line 8)

35 Crossflow Amplitude Amplitude calculated using span length (line 6), crossflow velocity at the first tube

row (line 36), and local density

If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes, collision damage is

probable. Baffle damage and fatigue can result from lower amplitudes after long

periods of operation.

36 Crossflow Velocity Calculated using TEMA definition of bundle entrance area. Values are based on

layout seen by flow entering exchanger. For example, for 30-degree layout and

parallel baffle cut, the flow actually looks like a 60-degree bundle at entrance;

velocity is calculated appropriately. Based on local density and available crossflow

area calculated according to TEMA RCB-4.622 and RCB-4.623

37 Turbulent Buffeting

Amplitude

Amplitude calculated using crossflow velocity at the first tube row (line 36) and

local density using the equations from TEMA Standards, 8th ed., Section V-11.3

TEMA recommends that this value be less than 0.02 times the tube diameter.

Line Printed Heading Comments

39 Impingement Plate Indicates presence of impingement plate

40 Flow Area Entrance area considers presence or absence of an impingement plate. Exit area

is the escape area. The program uses this value to calculate velocities (line 41).

41 Velocity Entrance and exit velocities, based on flow areas (line 40) and local density. Xist

calculates this velocity using TEMA definition of shell entrance flow area. Values

are based on layout seen by flow entering exchanger. For example, with 30-degree

layout and parallel baffle cut, flow actually looks like a 60-degree bundle, and

velocity is calculated appropriately.

High velocities at entrance can cause erosion of tubes under nozzle if no

impingement plate is present.

42 RHO-V-SQ V at entrance and exit, based on velocities (line 41) and local density

43

47

Tube Description and

Layout Data

These lines summarize shell type, tube type (plain or finned), baffle type, baffle

layout, tube material, tube size, tube field layout angle, pitch ratio, and supports per

baffle space.

Printed headings without comments are self-explanatory.

Line Printed Heading Comments

43A Shell Type

43B Baffle Type

44A Tube Type

44B Baffle Layout

45A Pitch Ratio

45B Tube Diameter

46A Layout Angle

46B Tube Material

47 Supports/Baffle space

Xist Output Reports Shell-and-Tube, Hairpins, Jacketed Pipe (Xist, Xhpe, Xjpe) Online Help, printed version

Page 216 Heat Transfer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.

Confidential: For HTRI member use only.

Based on the TEMA Specification Sheet, the Rating Data Sheet offers an alternate format with several

additional items designed to allow you to quickly review the case. In some instances, it may be the

only

report you need for a preliminary evaluation of the case.

The following items (not present on the TEMA specification sheet) appear on the Rating Data Sheet:

Inlet and outlet fluid density

Critical pressure

Average film heat transfer coefficients

Calculated overall heat transfer coefficient

Percent overdesign in exchanger

Shell entrance rhoV2

Thermal resistances

Midpoint velocities

Stream Analysis flow fractions

The following information is available on the TEMA Specification Sheet, but not on the Rating Data

Sheet:

Flow quantities of steam, water, and noncondensables

Molecular weights, vapor and noncondensable

Latent heat

Shell-and-Tube, Hairpins, Jacketed Pipe (Xist, Xhpe, Xjpe) Online Help, printed version Xist Output Reports

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