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PCE 455

Pollution Control in the

Petrochemical Industry

E. Kwao-Boateng (Mrs.)
Dept of Chemical Engineering, KNUST

What the course is about

This course in focused on identifying the

various sources of pollution in the
petrochemical industry and to find ways
of managing the quantities of pollutants
Motivation: It has become generally
expensive lately as to the allowed
emission levels in industry. The desire to
live safely and also to safe-guard planet
earth has influenced the need to
eliminate, minimize or control as much
as possible the pollution from the

Course Content
Environmental impacts of
industrial pollution
Environmental quality standards
Industrial wastewater treatment
Control methods of particulates
and gaseous emissions
Solid waste management
Handling and disposal methods of
hazardous wastes
concepts of waste recovery,
recycling and minimization
Plant safety concepts

Air pollution:
Removal of particulates
Removal of gases and odours

Water pollution:
Physical, chemical and biological
Waste water disposal

New concepts in pollution control:

Emissions trading
Greenhouse gases
Clean development mechanisms

Significance of this course

Safety in the industry deals with areas of safety
engineering and public health that are concerned with
the protection of workers' health, through control of
the work environment to reduce or eliminate hazards.
Accidents and unsafe working conditions in the
industry can result in temporary or permanent injury,
illness, or even death.
Further, industrial pollution by air, water or land can
also be detrimental to public health.
Thus, this course is designed to identify such pollutants
and the technologies that can be applied to control

Significance of this course (contd)

The chemical and/or petrochemical engineers
have the responsibility to know and control
the pollution from the industry.
The industry stands to loose huge sums of
money in the form of penalties or in extreme
cases face closures depending on the emission
levels and the by-laws of the land.
The petrochemical industry would be
incomplete if the pollution aspect is ignored
and not catered for.

Course objectives
At the end of this course, the student is expected
1. Understand the importance of industrial safety
and pollution control
2. Hazard identification and ways to handle them

Course Organization
2 hours regular lectures per week (daily attendance would
be taken)
Weekly quick quizzes before or after every lecture (x)
5-10 tutorial sessions if need be
5-10 Homework Assignments (y)
mid-semester examination
Attendance+x+y+z (50%)
Final Examination (70%)
Office hours: Open door (feel free to walk in)



Industrial safety
Industrial safety deals with the areas of safety
engineering and public health that are
concerned with the protection of workers'
health, through control of the work
environment to reduce or eliminate hazards.
Accidents and unsafe working conditions in the
industry can result in temporary or permanent
injury, illness, or even death.
They also impact on reduced efficiency and loss
of productivity.

Environmental and Occupational

Environmental and occupational illnesses are

caused by exposureDiseases
to disease-causing agents in
the environment, as opposed to illnesses related
primarily to an individual's genetic makeup or to
immunological malfunctions.
Occupational disease, a major category of
environmental disease, refers to illness resulting
from job related exposures. Examples are:
(i) Silicosis; a lung disease of miners, industrial
workers, and potters exposed to silica dust

Environmental and Occupational

(ii) Scrotal skin cancer in chimney sweeps
exposed to soot
(iii) Neurological disease in potters exposed to
lead glazes
(iv) Bone disease in workers exposed to
phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.

Environmental and Occupational


Modern society has introduced or increased human

exposure to thousands of chemicals in the
environment. Examples are inorganic materials
such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and
asbestos, and organic substances such as
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), vinyl chloride,
and the pesticide DDT.
Of particular concern is the delayed potential for
these chemicals to cause cancer, as in the cases of:
lung cancer caused by asbestos,
liver cancer
caused by vinyl chloride, and
leukemia caused by benzene.

Ozone Depletion
Several pollutants attack the ozone layer. The
main one amongst the class of chemicals is
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used as
refrigerants (notably in air conditioners), as
agents in several manufacturing processes,
and formerly as propellants in spray cans.
CFC molecules are virtually indestructible until
they reach the stratosphere.

Humans are bringing about another global-scale

change in the atmosphere: the increase in what
are called greenhouse gases. These gases admit
the sun's light but tend to reflect back downward
the heat that is radiated from the ground below,
trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere. This
process is known as the greenhouse effect.
Carbon dioxide is the most significant of these
gasesthere is 25 percent more carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere today than there was a century
ago, the result of our burning coal and fuels
derived from oil.

Methane, nitrous
and CFCs are
greenhouse gases as well.
Scientists predict that increases in these
gases in the atmosphere will
make the earth warmer. A global rise in
average temperature somewhere between
1.0 and 3.5C (1.8 and 6.3 F) in the next
century is expected.



PPE is the last choice of safeguards and controls used to

protect workers. PPE is worn to protect the body
including hands, arms, feet, legs, trunk, eyes, head, ears,
and lungs.
PPE protects from blunt forces, crushes, amputations,
cuts, and bruises as well as exposure to hazardous
chemicals, airborne hazards, and noise.
Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and
eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs,
muffs), hard hats, respirators, and full body suits