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4.1 Introduction to Precast Concrete

The concept of precast construction includes those buildings where the majority of structural
components are standardized and produced in plants in a location away from the building, and then
transported to the site for assembly.
This type of construction requires a restructuring of the entire conventional construction process to
enable interaction between the design phase and production planning in order to improve and speed
up the construction. One of the key premises for achieving that objective is to design buildings with a
regular configuration in plan and elevation.

4.2 Precast Concrete in Detail

Precast concrete slabs, beams, and structural tees are one-way spanning units that may be
supported by site cast concrete, precast concrete, or masonry bearing walls, or by steel, site cast
concrete, or precast concrete frames.
The precast units are manufactured with normal density or structural lightweight concrete and
prestressed for greater structural efficiency, which results in less depth, reduced weight, and longer


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4.3 Prestressed Concrete

Prestressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses
during construction to oppose those found when in use.
Prestressed concrete refers to concrete that has applied stresses induced into the member.
Typically, wires or tendons are stretched and then blocked at the ends creating compressive stresses
throughout the member's entire cross-section. Most Prestressed concrete is precast in a plant.

4.4 Lift-Slab Method

Lift slab construction is a method of constructing concrete buildings by casting the floor or
roof slab on top of the previous slab and then raising (jacking) the slab up with hydraulic jacks, so
being cheaper and faster as it does not need forms & shores as it is needed for cast-in-place slabs.


4.5 Slip-form Construction

Slip-form construction (slip forming, continuous poured, or continuously formed) is a
construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. Basically, this
method involves the continuous placing of concrete in a shallow mould having the same plan as the
building to be constructed. This rigid mould, or "slip-form" as it is called, forms the working deck
which is jacked slowly upwards at a controlled rate until the required elevation is reached.

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4.6 Tilt-up Construction

Tilt-up construction is a method of casting reinforced concrete wall panels on site in a
horizontal position, then tilting them up into their final position. The principal advantage of tilt-up
construction is the elimination of the costs associated with constructing and stripping vertical wall
forms; this cost saving is offset by the cost of the crane required to lift the completed wall panels into

4.7 Tunnel Forms


Tunnel form is a formwork system that allows the contractor to cast walls and slabs in one
operation in a daily cycle. It combines the speed, quality oral accuracy of factory/off-site production
with the flexibility and economy of in-site construction and it is recognised as a modern method of
construction (MMC).


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The result is a cellular reinforced structure, the surfaces of which are sufficiently high quality
to require only minimal finishing for direct decoration, while the end walls and facades are easily
completed with thermally insulated units that can be clad as required.

4.7 Timber Construction

Timber construction (wood framing) is the predominant method of building homes and
apartments in the United States. Increasingly, wood framing is also being used in commercial and
industrial buildings. Wood frame buildings are economical to build, heat and cool, and provide
maximum comfort to occupants. Wood construction is readily adaptable to traditional, contemporary
and the most futuristic building styles. Its architectural possibilities are limitless.

4.8 Light Gauge Steel Framing

Light gauge steel construction is the non-combustible equivalent of wood light frame construction.
The external dimensions of the standard sizes of light gauge members correspond closely to the
dimensions of the sizes of nominal 2-inch framing lumber, and these steel members are used in
framing as closely spaced studs, joists, and rafters in much the same way as wood light frame
members are used.


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4.9 Prefabricated Buildings

Prefabrication in construction is the practice of assembling components of a building in a
factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the
construction site where the building is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from
the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction
site where all assembly is carried out. The term prefabrication also applies to the manufacturing of
things other than structures at a fixed site.


4.10 Portable & Temporary Buildings

Portable & temporary buildings are buildings designed and built to be movable rather than
permanently located. Portable are often used temporarily and taken away later. They have been used
since prehistoric times. The most familiar modern type of portable buildings are designed so that one
can be carried to or from site on a large lorry and slung on and off by a crane.


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4.11 Construction Equipment

It is a common fact that we find a wide variety of construction equipment on every construction site,
which makes the construction jobs easy, safe and quicker. The selection of the appropriate type and
size of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort and thus the jobsite productivity of a project.


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