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Heat Exchanger Design steps

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By

Dr. Reyad Shawabkeh

Department of Chemical Engineering

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

e-mail: rshawabk@kfupm.edu.sa

2. Assume fouling factor based on inside and outside tubes, hdi and hdo

3. Assume material of construction for the tubes thermal conductivity?

4. You have the option to assume three known temperature and find the fourth one

or four temperature values and find one of the shell or tube side flow rate. Use the

heat duty equation q m c cp c (Tc ou Tc in ) m h cp h (T h , out T h , in ) where

subscripts c and h refer to cold and hot streams. Then obtain the heat duty, q.

5. Based on the type of flow, calculate Log Mean Temperature Difference, LMTD.

(Thi Tco) (Tho Tci )

For counter current LMTD

(Thi Tco)

ln

(Tho Tci )

(Thi Tci ) (Tho Tco)

For co-current LMTD

(Thi Tci )

ln

(Tho Tco)

6. Based of the exchanger configuration obtain the Temperature correction factor.

Temperature correction factor: one shell pass; two or more even tube 'passes

Temperature correction factor: two shell passes; four or multiples of four tube passes

8. Assume overall heat transfer coefficient as initial guess from the table bellow:

q

U .DTm

10. Based on the assumed tube diameter (ID and OD at a given BWG) and tube

A

length, L, calculate number of tubes: N t

.d o .L

11. Calculate tube pitch and the bundle diameter

Where K 1 and n1 are obtained from the table bellow based on the type of tube

arrangement (Triangular or square pitch):

12. Provide/Assume the type of floating head of the exchanger and obtain the bundle

diameter clearance, BDC . Use the chart bellow:

14. Calculate the baffle spacing. Bs 0.4 Ds

( p d o ) Ds.Bs

15. Calculate the are for cross-flow, As t

pt

shell - side flowrate [kg/s]

16. Calculate the shell-side mass velocity, Gs

As

17. Calculate the shell equivalent diameter

.Cp

k

20. Obtain the shell-side heat transfer coefficient

22. Calculate the number of tubes per pass; Ntpp N t / number of passes

tube - side flowrate [kg/s]

23. Calculate tube-side mass velocity, Gm

N tpp d i2 / 4

24. Calculate tube-side velocity v

Gm

25. Calculate Prandtle and Reynolds numbers for fluids inside tubes

dv

.Cp

, Re i i where subscript i refers to fluid inside tubes.

Pr

i

k

26. Calculate heat transfer coefficient hi by using either the following relations

If Re 2100 (Laminar flow) then hi 1.86

kf

di

Re . Pr

Or by analogy

hi j h

kf

di

Re . Pr

0.33

0.14

0.33

kf

di

di

L

0.33

0.8

0.33

Re

Pr

0.14

di

1

L

0.7

1

di

d

1

1 d i ln(d o / d i )

i

hi hdi

2k w

d o hdo d o ho

1

Or based on outside tubes flow U o

d ln(d o / d i ) d o

d

1

1

o

ho hdo

2k w

d i ho d i hdi

Where hdi and hdo are the heat transfer coefficients for the scales (dirt) inside and

outside tubes, respectively.

28. Compare the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient you obtained from the

previous step with that you assumed in step 8. if it is close to what you assumed,

then you had a valid assumption, then tabulate your results such as total surface

area of tubes, number of tubes, exchanger length and diameter, heat duty and

other design specification. Otherwise, use the calculated value in step 8 and do

loop until the difference between the calculated U between two consecutive

iterations is small.

29. The tube-side pressure drop may be calculated using the relation

8jf L

v2

P 1.5 N t 2.5

( ) m i

di

w 2

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