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I would like to express my sincere regards and gratitude towards Mr.VIVEK BHARDWAJ (MANAGER INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS),who has provided me an opportunity to do my organizational “ON THE JOB TRAINING” in this esteemed organization that has given me the sufficient corporate exposure and has helped me build up my competence and also given me a cutting edge. My heart-felt regards go to Ms. ANIKA ANAND(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS EXECUTIVE), who continuously guided & helped me with their valuable suggestions about the project work. Last but not the least I would like to thank to DR. R.K. MAHESHWARI (Director of M.B.A.I.B.),I.M.S. LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY who sincerely assisted me and cooperated with me in the successful completion of the training especially and of course all faculty members of M.B.A.(I.B.).
VIMAL KUMAR VERMA M.B.A. (I.B.)-IIIrd SEM. (2007-09) I.M.S. University of Lucknow, Lucknow
A project report can be defined as a detailed and systematic analysis of a predefined objective so that the future action could be formulated in order to achieve the objective or the target of the organization. Project report explodes the new dimensions and opportunities for the organization so that an organization can grow by using its strength, wining its threat and overcoming its weakness. Before proceeding to the recreation expending the arms of organization it is very necessary to reveal the high valued opportunities which can only be searched through a reliable project report so that: “A path can be described on which an organization can fly, In order to achieve the success which is greater than sky.”
1. INDIAN TEA INDUSTRY 2. INTRODUCTION 3. COMPANY PROFILE 4. TEA MARKET IN ARMENIA 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Brief History 3.3 Foreign Policies 3.4 India-Armenia Relations 3.5 Economic Summary 3.6 Communications 3.7 Armenia Transportation 3.8 Industries 3.9 Armenia-India trade 3.10 The Future 3.11 Abstract 3.12 methodology TEA MARKET 6. ARMENIAN TEA 7. TEA PROCESSING CHART 8. PACKAGING 9. BRANDS OF TEA IN ARMENIA 10.TAXATION 11.INVESTMENT CLIMATE 12.CONCLUSION 13.BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDIAN TEA INDUSTRY
Tea is indigenous to India and is an area where the country can take a lot of pride. This is mainly because of its pre-eminence as a foreign exchange earner and its contributions to the country's GNP. In all aspects of tea production, consumption and export, India has emerged to be the world leader, mainly because it accounts for 31% of global production. It is perhaps the only industry where India has retained its leadership over the last 150 years. Tea production in India has a very interesting history to it. The range of tea offered by India - from the original Orthodox to CTC and Green Tea, from the aroma and flavour of Darjeeling Tea to the strong Assam and Nilgiri Tea- remains unparalleled in the world. Here are some statistical facts about the Indian Tea Industry • The total turnover of the tea industry is around Rs. 10,000 crores. • Since independence tea production has grown over 250%, while land area has just grown by 40%. • There has been a considerable increase in export too in the past few years. Total net foreign exchange earned per annum is around Rs. 1847 crores.
The labour intensive tea industry directly employs over 1.1 million workers and generates income for another 10 million people approximately. Women constitute 50% of the workforce
Tea trading in the domestic market is done in two ways Auction and Private Selling. Market Reports are received from the six major auction centres in India, namely, Calcutta, Guwahati, Siliguri, Cochin, Coonoor, Coimbatore and N.I.teaauction.com Bulk trading is done through the auctions held in these centres.
In the present global scenario there are many evidences that the chemical based herbicides, pesticides are extremely harmful to our health and Environment. At present time conventional agriculture practices relies heavily on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides which effect human health & degenerate environment, by entering into food chain , penetrate water sources , harm the livestock, deplete the soil devastate natural ecosystem & contaminate the food production . Organically cultivated foods are the only way to ensure a good health and product environment degeneration. Certified Organic products are tested to guarantee that they are free from all toxic agro chemicals. Certified Organic mean a sure way to trust that the food we select or purchase are pure safe and uncontaminated. Due to many advantages of Organic food in each & every country, day by day is promoting the use of organic eatable goods. With all these views Organic India was formed to promote Organic food. It is a global leader in promotion of Organic food & health product. Organic India’s main products are Herbal Tea collection. These are totally herbal made by Tulsi, Ginger etc.
Bharat Mitra, Prashanti and few others soon expanded the business to include trading various items from India to the west. Papaji named the business, Indo Israel Trading Corporation Private Limited, IITC and it was incorporated in 1997. There were several people who were inspired to invest in IITC, which helped us to get off to a good start. Thus began the humble beginnings of our company. In September 1997, Papaji left his mortal form, and many people left Lucknow as well. However Bharat Mitra, originally from Israel, stayed in Lucknow with a small number of other people from around the world, and continued to develop the business. We began growing and collecting our own herbs for our herbal formulations, not being satisfied with the quality of herbs available on the market. In 1998 Dr. Narendra Singh whose extensive research on Tulsi led him to write the book "Tulsi, the Mother Medicine of Nature", in collaboration with Dr. Yamuna Hoette from Germany, and Dr. Ralph Miller from Canada. Dr. N. Singh
has dedicated his life to studying and researching the medicinal value and application of thousands of Ayurvedic herbs. His research and clinical studies led him to develop a comprehensive range of herbal medicines for the care of chronic and acute illnesses. Our successful collaboration with Dr. Narendra Singh led us to develop our delicious and health promoting Tulsi Tea Collection and our successful line of Herbal Supplements, all based on his research and clinical studies. Dr. N. Singh has successfully treated tens of thousands of patients with these formulations over a period of more than forty years. Organic India’s first large cultivation of Tulsi by contracting farmers in the area around Dr. N. Singh's ancestral home near Azamgarh, UP. Our determination to have the highest quality Tulsi and Herbal Supplements led us to an unwavering commitment to grow and use only Organic Tulsi and Organic Herbs. Our entrance into the agricultural world of India revealed the horrors of chemical agriculture and the devastation left by the failure of the 'green revolution'. Farmland was devastated, water supplies were contaminated, livestock was unhealthy, wildlife was disappearing, and the health and well-being of all the people, young and old, was depleted by the permeation of toxic agro chemicals and the resultant extreme poverty. Thousands of farmers committed suicide in desperation. In additional to which genetically engineered crops were (and are) being introduced into India as elsewhere, which require a huge amount of toxic pesticides and cause numerous other environmental crises. This has all led to a growing demand all over the world for organically grown food. Company made a strategic business decision to concentrate exclusively on developing a complete range of organic products in order to both support sustainable agricultural life in India and to offer safe and healthful products to people all over the world. In 1999 we changed the name of our company to IITC ORGANIC INDIA Private Limited which was again renamed in the year 2006 as ORGANIC INDIA Private Limited to reflect our vision and our commitment.
During the 1990's thousands of people from all over the world came to Lucknow, India to meet Sri H.W.L. Poonja, lovingly known as Papaji. Drawn to India in search of Truth and Self Realization, people came flooding to Lucknow upon hearing of the simple teaching of Papaji: "Keep Quiet. The Eternal Truth exists within you. Do not entertain a single thought and the Truth will reveal itself to itself." A number of people settled in Lucknow at that time, living and working independently. A few people, including Prashanti de Jaeger, an Ayurvedic Practitioner and Bharat Mitra (Yoav Lev), Chairman and President of IITC ORGANIC INDIA Pvt. Ltd, began a small business of developing Ayurvedic herbal formulations for the health and well being of the many people coming to Lucknow. IITC ORGANIC INDIA Private Limited was renamed in the year 2006 as ORGANIC INDIA Private Limited. At the heart of ORGANIC INDIA is our commitment to promote holistic sustainable development for all beings through organic agriculture. We are committed to service, sanctity and integrity, and to operating an ethical and
sustainable business that harms none and benefits all. ORGANIC INDIA is a global leader in promoting organic products and in supporting sustainable farming, wild crafting and village/tribal agricultural communities in India. We cultivate, collect, process, manufacture and market Certified Organic Tulsi Teas, Herbal Supplements, Psyllium, Castor Oil, Ayurvedic and Medicinal Herbs, and many other organic foods and organic spices. Our products are of the highest quality and marketed all over the world. We are continually developing and expanding our range of organic foods and health products. All ORGANIC INDIA facilities and processing centers have been awarded SQF, HACCP, GMP, ISO-9001 and Kosher certifications, and are EU, Skal, ECO-Cert and USDA certified for organic production. We have designed and developed our unique processing methods and advanced dehydration technologies to ensure maximum retention of potency and nutritional values, so that we can remain true to our commitment to offer the highest quality organic products available today.
To be a vehicle of consciousness in the global market by creating a holistic sustainable business modality, which
inspires, promotes and supports well-being and respect for all beings and for Mother Nature.
To be a trustworthy and innovative global leader in providing genuine organic products and solutions for conscious, healthy living.
• To provide our customers worldwide with exceptional quality organic foods and health products. • To introduce a unique and successful business modality that is committed to service, sanctity and integrity and therefore harms no one and benefits all. • To support natural sustainable Organic Agriculture practices that serve, honor and protect Mother Nature. • To support the livelihood and well-being of farmers and tribal wild crafters in rural India.
• • • • •
Service to All Total Integrity Absolute Commitment to Quality Respect and Devotion to Mother Nature No Compromise on Being Who We Are
• • • • • Cultivate Collection Processing Manufacturing Marketing
ORGANIC INDIA offers a large variety of Certified Organic commodities and ingredients including grains, cereals, pulses, spices, herbs, honey, dehydrated fruits and vegetables.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Barley Indian Millet Indian Millet Wheat, Whole Black Lentils, Whole Cowpea Garbanzo Beans or Chikpeas Moong Beans, Whole Red Lentils, Whole Peas Pigeon Pea Soy Beans Castor Beans Chicory Cubes Flax Seed
• • • • • • • • • •
Groundnut Mustard, Black Mustard, Yellow Peanuts Psyllium husk Senna Pods Senna Leaf Sesame Black Sesame Seeds Sesame Natural
A wide variety of full flavored, delicious and nutritive Certified Organic spices and condiments. Many spices are not only delicious but have significant nutritive properties as well.
• • • • • • •
Aniseed Bay Leaf Black Pepper Cardamom Cinnamon Clove Coriander
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Cumin Fennel Fenugreek Fresh Onion, Red Fresh Onion, White Ginger Powder Ginger Slices Ginger Whole Green Pepper Mace Nutmeg Powdered Turmeric Red Chili White Pepper Whole Turmeric
ORGANIC INDIA offers many common and exotic herbs in our rich collection of organically grown and Certified Organic herbs, including traditional Ayurvedic, medicinal and nutritional herbs.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Amla Arjun Bark Ashwagandha Calamus sweet flag Bacopa Bai Chandi Vidanga Heart leaf sida Bael Beuta/Palash Eclipta Phyllanthus Bougainbellia Gotu Kola Chamomile Jangli Haldi Crepe ginger Mulethi
• Neem products
• • • •
Shatavari Mint Leaf/Mentha Long Pepper Turmeric
HERBAL TEA COLLECTION: Tulsi Available in India
• Original Tulsi Tea • Green Tulsi Tea • Tulsi Chai Masala • Tulsi Ginger
Tulsi Available In U.S.A.
• Sweet Rose Tulsi Tea • Green Tulsi Tea • Original Tulsi Tea • Lemon Ginger Tulsi Tea • The Tulsi Suite • Sweet Lemon Tulsi Tea • India Breakfast Tulsi Tea • Red Chai Tulsi Tea
Pomegranate Green Tulsi Tea
• Red Mango Tulsi Tea
Peppermint Tulsi Tea
• Vanilla Cream Tulsi tea • Jasmine Tulsi Tea • Raspberry peach Tulsi tea • Orange Mint Tulsi Tea
Passion fruit Tulsi Tea
• Licorice Spice Tulsi Tea • Honey Chamomile Tulsi
Chai Masala Tulsi Tea
ORGANIC HERBAL COFFEE IN AMERICA::
• • • •
Organic Teeccino Maya Caffè Organic Teeccino Maya Mocha Organic Teeccino Maya Chai Organic Teeccino Maya set
Azamgarh Delhi Indore Chennai Dehradun Jaipur
Lucknow Surendra Nagar
U.S.A. Czech Republic Israel Japan U.K. Germany Australia
India Israel U.S.A.
All products are 100%certified organic by strict international certification agencies who work to monitor the farmer, the forests, te processing and every stage of production. The facilities and processing centers have been awarded SQF, ISO 9001:2000, HSCCP and GMP certification.
TEA MARKET IN ARMENIA
Map of Armenia
Official Name: Republic of Armenia, Hayastani Hanrapetutyun Capital -Yerevan, Pop. - 1.25 million 900 – 2000 mt. above sea level Largest city (2003 est.): Yerevan, 1,462,700 (metro. area), 1,267,600 (city proper) Other large cities: Vanadzor, Gyumri (Leninakan), Abovian. Prime Minister: Serzh Sarkisyan (2007) Currency Armenian Dram (AMD), 1 USD = 450 AMD April 2005) Location South West of Asia; 48°N, 45°E;landlocked with Georgia in North (164 km);Iran (35 km) and Nakhichevan Exclave of Azerbaijan in South (211 km);Azerbaijan in East (566 km) and Turkey in West (268 km)Area 29,743 sq. km (Forest 12.7 %, Water areas 5.6 %, Agricultural Lands 46.8 %,other lands 34.9 %) Administrative &Territorial Division:
(Total 11 Marzes or Regions) Yerevan, Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armaviv, Gegharkunik, Lory, Kotayk, Shirak, Syunik, Vajots Dzor, Tavush. Temperature Average temperature: January -6.80 C July +20.80 C Population (2008 est.): 2,968,586 (growth rate: –0.1%); Birth rate: 12.5/1000; Infant mortality rate: 20.9/1000; Life expectancy: 72.4; 3.2 million, density 128 per square km; Urban 66.7%, Rural 33.3%, Male 48 %, Female 52 % (3 adult males for every 4 females Religion Predominantly Armenian Orthodox Apostolic Church (99%) based in Echmiadzin, headed by the Catholicos of All Armenians Armenian Apostolic 95%, other Christian 4%, and Yezidi 1%. Languages: Armenian 98%, Yezidi, Russian Ethnicity/race: Armenian 97.9%, Russian 0.5%, Kurds 1.3%, other 0.3% (2001)
Literacy: Literacy rate- 99.4% (2001 est.) Average Life Expectancy-73.5 years; Male (70), Female (76.1) Independence Day -September 21, 1991 Brief History: The process of evolution of Armenian civilisation dates back to the second millennium B.C. The Kingdom of Urartu (9th–7th c. B.C.) was the first major state formation. The Armenian plateau, located where Persia, Russia and Turkey have butted heads for centuries, has been invaded by Romans, Greeks, Turks, Persians, etc. By the 15th century, Armenia was part of the Ottoman Empire. Independent Republic of Armenia was proclaimed in August 1920, but in December 1920 became part of the TransCaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1991, Armenia declared independence and adopted its present Constitution in 1995. Foreign Policy: Oriented towards Europe with strategic alliance with Russia. Seeks to maintain balance with USA. Blockade by Azerbaijan and Turkey over conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. The Organisation of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group - active in finding solution. Member of the UN, CIS, Council of Europe, Black Sea Economic Co-operation and WTO. Seeks greater integration into the world economy. Has ‘Observer’ status in NAM. Foreign policy guided by reciprocal approach.
Historically warm and friendly. Huge goodwill for India. Dr S Radhakrishnan visited in September 1964 and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in June 1976. After Armenia’s independence, former President Levon Ter-Petrossyan visited India in
December 1995. Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation and several other agreements and protocols. Institutionalized IndiaArmenia Inter-Governmental Commission and Foreign Office Consultations. Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian visited India in December 2000. MOS (EA) visited Yerevan in July 2003 (first ever visit by Indian Minister). About 400 Indian students, mainly studying medicine. President Robert Kocharian visited in October 2003. Real GDP Growth (2006): 10.1% (2003= 13.9%) GDP (2006): US$ 3.8 bn GDP per capita (2006): US$ 1,100 (app) GDP (Per Capita PPP): US$ 3,500 (app) GDP by main activity: Industry 28%, Agriculture 27%, Services 45% Labour force by sector Industry 25%, agriculture 45%. Services 30% External Debt (net): US$ 988.8 mn (2006) 95% soft loans Exports (FOB) 2006: US$ 715 mn cut and polished diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy (Belgium 18.2%, UK 16.8%, Israel 15.7%, Russia 12.1%, Iran 7.9%, US 6.3%, Germany 5%) Imports (CIF) 2006: US$ 1,351 mn natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, raw diamonds (Belgium 11.6%, Russia 11.6%, Israel 11.3%, US 9.5%, Iran 8.8%, Germany 6.7%, UAE 5.4%, Italy 4.7%, Ukraine 4.6%) Unemployment: 9.3% officially (actually closer to 40%) Foreign trade Jan 2005: US$ 161 mn (Exp: US$ 45 mn, Imp: US$ 116 mn)
Inflation (2006): 7% (2003=8.6%)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $16.83 billion; per capita $5,700. Real growth rate: 13.7%. Inflation: 6.6%. Unemployment: 7.1% (2007 est.). Arable land: 16.78%. Agriculture: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock. Labor force: 1.2 million; agriculture 46.2%, industry 15.6%, services 38.2% (2006 est). Industries: diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy. Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina. Exports: $1.157 billion f.o.b. (2007): diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy. Imports: $3.281 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.): natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds. Major trading partners: Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, Turkmenistan, Italy, Germany, Iran, Israel, U.S.%, Georgia (2006). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 594,400 (2005); mobile cellular: 318,000 (2005). Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006). Television broadcast stations: 48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006). Internet hosts: 8,270 (2007). Internet users: 172,800 (2006).
Transportation: Railways: total: 839 km (2006). Highways: total: 7,700 km; paved: 7,700 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2006). Waterways: n.a. Ports and harbors: none. Airports: 12 (2007). International disputes: Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrat.
Railways: Total: 845 km broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified) note: some lines are out of service (2004) Highways:
Total: 8,431 km paved: 8,161 km (includes 7,567 km of expressways) unpaved: 270 km (2002) Waterways: Pipelines: gas 1,871 km (2004) Merchant marine: Airports: 16 (2004 est.) Airports - with paved runways: Total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.) Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Industries: Diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forgingpressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewellery manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy.
US$ 8.67 mn (2004) mainly Indian exports of foodstuffs (essentially meat), electrical equipment, optical equipment, plastics, pharmaceuticals and other chemical goods. New items since 2003 include rice, sugar, cut and polished diamonds, and cars. Armenia exports metal scrap and raw rubber. Some Indian products come through Dubai/ Moscow. The future: To promote India-Armenia trade and investment, the Embassy, has a special programme called RAIP (Revive and Introduce Programme) which seeks to revive every year at least one Soviet era export and introduce at least one new product or service. In 2003, the Mission revived meat exports and introduced sugar. In 2004, it was cut and polished diamonds and motor vehicles. In 2005, the project is for pharma and stones (especially marble). The Embassy has adopted a nonexclusive “four plus one” policy. The four sectors in which Armenia seeks India’s assistance are small and medium industries, information technology, agriculture and light engineering, while the “plus one” is to encourage Indian companies to invest in export-oriented sectors in Armenia. Abstract: The Embassy of India has undertaken this survey to explore tea market in the Republic of Armenia (RA). The purpose of tea market survey is to assess the possibility of exporting tea from India to Armenia by analyzing the existing situation in the Armenian tea market. The objectives of the survey on tea in Armenia are as follows: • To find out the business opportunities for the export of Indian tea into the Armenian market.
• To examine the present local tea market and potentials, as well as its industry volumes and sources of import. • To give statistical information on Armenia’s tea market. • To identify the business environment and understand the tax regime, foreign trade regulations, and foreign investment regulations. Methodology: The method used for this market survey is content analysis of secondary sources based on the review of reports from National Statistical Service of RA, Ministry of Trade and Economic Development of RA, Customs State Committee of Armenia, information available through Internet, and news agencies. The survey is based on both primary and secondary sources. Primary research involves on-site examination of tea market, interviews with marketing departments.
Tea is one of the most popular beverages in Armenia. Armenia totally imports tea from different countries, and there is no local production within the country. Different sorts of tea are available in the Armenian market, which are sold in supermarkets, shops, specialized tea shops, etc. The following sorts of tea are available: black, green, herbal tea, fruit tea. Tea is mainly sold in packages. Tea demand in Armenia is very high; people drink tea on a daily basis, and, especially in cold days, Armenians drink tea several times a day. There is no barrier to entry into the tea market. Economic concentration is not high; many brands of tea are available in the Armenian market. Medical tea (phytotea) “Natural Treasury” is produced in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. 20 kinds of medical herbs are the source of raw material used in this tea. The raw material is supplied by people living in rural districts. Further processing of the material is carried out at the production sector. The production capacity of the enterprise is about 100 thousands of packages of medical tea. Tea can be a delight in Armenia, especially if it is herbal. In spring and summer, many Armenians spend their time by packing mountain herbs, drying them for tea. Many types of herbs are available in tea form in Armenia, though restaurants usually serve Indian or Armenian.
Various brands of bag teas are available around the country. White tea: Young leaves (new growth buds) that have undergone no oxidation; the buds may be shielded from sunlight to prevent formation of chlorophyll. White tea is produced in lesser quantities than most other styles, and can be correspondingly more expensive than tea from the same plant processed by other methods. It is less well known in
countries outside of China, though this is changing with increased western interest in organic or premium teas. Green tea: The oxidation process is stopped after a minimal amount of oxidation by application of heat, either with steam, or by dry cooking in hot pans, the traditional Chinese method. Tea leaves may be left to dry as separate leaves or they may be rolled into small pellets to make Gunpowder tea. This process is time consuming and is typically done with pekoes of higher quality. The tea is processed within one to two days of harvesting. Oolong: Oxidation is stopped somewhere between the standards for green tea and black tea. The oxidation process takes two to three days. In Chinese, semi-oxidized teas are collectively grouped as blue tea (literally: blue-green tea), while the term "oolong" is used specifically as a name for certain semi-oxidized teas. Black tea/Red tea: The tea leaves are allowed to completely oxidize. Black tea is the most common form of tea in southern Asia (Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc.) and in the last century many African countries including Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The literal translation of the Chinese word is red tea, which is used by some tea lovers. The Chinese call it red tea because the actual tea liquid is red. Westerners call it black tea because the tea leaves used to brew it are usually black. However, red tea may also refer to rooibos, an increasingly popular South African tisane. The oxidation process will take between two weeks and one month. Black tea is further classified as either orthodox or as CTC (Crush, Tear, Curl, a production method developed about 1932). Unblended black teas are
also identified by the estate they come from, their year and the flush (first, second or autumn). Orthodox processed black teas are further graded according to the post-production leaf quality by the Orange Pekoe system, while CTC teas use a different grading system. Post-fermented tea: Teas that undergo a second oxidation, such as Pu-erh, Liu'an, and Liubao, are collectively referred to as secondary or post-fermentation teas in English. In Chinese they are categorized as Dark tea or black tea. This is not to be confused with the English term Black tea, known in Chinese as red tea. Pu-erh, also known as Polee in Cantonese is the most common type of post-fermetation tea in the market. Yellow tea: Either used as a name of special tea processed similarly to green tea, or high-quality tea served at the Imperial court. Kukicha: Also called winter tea, kukicha is made from twigs and old leaves pruned from the tea plant during its dormant season and dry-roasted over a fire. It is popular as a health food in Japan and in macrobiotic diets. Black tea: The water for black teas should be added at the boiling point (100°C or 212°F), except for more delicate teas, where lower temperatures are recommended. This will have as large an effect on the final flavour as the type of tea used. The most common fault when making black tea is to use water at too low a temperature. Since boiling point drops with increasing altitude, this makes it difficult
to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. It is also recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing tea, easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water to the pot, swirling briefly, before discarding. Black tea should not be allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes (a process known as brewing or [dialectally] mashing in the UK, Specifically in Yorkshire.). Longer steeping times make the tea bitter (at this point it is referred to as being stewed in the UK). When the tea has brewed long enough to suit the tastes of the drinker, it should be strained while serving. Green tea: Water for green tea, according to most accounts, should be around 80°C to 85°C (176°F to 185°F); the higher the quality of the leaves, the lower the temperature. Hotter water will burn green-tea leaves, producing a bitter taste. Preferably, the container in which the tea is steeped, the mug, or teapot should also be warmed beforehand so that the tea does not immediately cool down.
Tea leaf processing methods Oolong tea:
Oolong teas should be brewed around 90°C to 100°C
(194°F to 212°F), and again the brewing vessel should be warmed before pouring in the water. Yixing purple clay teapots are the ideal brewing vessel for oolong tea. For best results use spring water, as the minerals in spring water tend to bring out more flavour in the tea.
Premium or delicate tea: Some teas, especially green teas and delicate Oolong or Darjeeling teas, are steeped for shorter periods, sometimes less than 30 seconds. Using a tea strainer separates the leaves from the water at the end of the brewing time if a tea bag is not being used. Elevation and time of harvest offer varying taste profiles, proper storage and water quality also plays a large impact on taste. Puer tea: Puer teas require boiling water for infusion. Some prefer to quickly rinse puer for several seconds with boiling water to remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging process. Infuse puer at the boiling point (100°C or 212°F), and allow to steep for 30 seconds or up to five minutes.
Tea Bags Tea bags: In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan began distributing samples of his tea in small silk bags with a drawstring. Consumers noticed that they could simply leave the tea in the bag, and better still re-use it with fresh tea. However, the potential of this distribution/packaging method would not be fully realized until later on. During World War II, tea was rationed. In 1953 (after rationing in the UK ended), Tetley launched the tea bag to the UK and it was an immediate success. The convenience of the tea bag revolutionized how the British drink their tea: the traditional tea pot has given way to making tea in a cup with a tea bag. Tea leaves are packed into a small (usually paper) tea bag. It is easy and convenient, making tea bags popular for many people today. However, the tea used in tea bags has an industry name - it is called "fannings" or "dust" and is the waste product produced from the sorting of higher quality loose leaf tea. It is commonly held among tea aficionados that this method provides an inferior taste and experience. The paper used for the bag can also be tasted by many, which can detract from the tea's flavor. Because fannings and dust are a lower quality of the tea to begin with, the tea found in tea bags is less finicky when it comes to brewing time and temperature. Additional reasons why bag tea is considered less well-flavored include: Dried tea loses its flavour quickly on exposure to air. Most bag teas (although not all) contain leaves broken into small pieces;
the great surface area to volume ratio of the leaves in tea bags exposes them to more air, and therefore causes them to go stale faster. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces, or to be entirely intact. Breaking up the leaves for bags extracts flavoured oils. The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and steep properly. Pyramid tea bags:
Pyramid tea bag The "pyramid tea bag" has an unusual design that addresses two of connoisseurs' arguments against paper tea bags. Its three-dimensional, pyramidal shape allows more room for tea leaves to expand while steeping, and because the bags are made of nylon mesh, they do not leave flavours (such as paper) in the tea. These characteristics let the delicate flavors of gourmet selections (such as white teas) shine through; however, the bags have been criticized as being environmentally unfriendly, since the synthetic material does not break down in landfills as loose tea leaves and paper tea bags do. Loose tea:
Loose-leaf tea The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister or other container. Rolled gunpowder tea leaves, which resist crumbling,
are commonly vacuum packed for freshness in aluminized packaging for storage and retail. The portions must be individually measured by the consumer for use in a cup, mug, or teapot. This allows greater flexibility, letting the consumer brew weaker or stronger tea as desired, but convenience is sacrificed. Strainers, "tea presses", filtered teapots, and infusion bags are available commercially to avoid having to drink the floating loose leaves and to prevent over-brewing. A more traditional, yet perhaps more effective way around this problem is to use a three-piece lidded teacup, called a gaiwan. The lid of the gaiwan can be tilted to decant the leaves while pouring the tea into a different cup for consumption. Compressed tea: A lot of tea such as Pu-erh tea is still compressed for transport, storage, and aging convenience. The tea is prepared and steeped by first loosening leaves off the compressed cake using a small knife. Compressed teas can usually be stored for longer periods of time without "spoilage" when compared with loose leaf tea. Instant tea: In recent times, "instant teas" are becoming popular, similar to freeze dried instant coffee. Instant tea was developed in the 1930s, but not commercialized until the late 1950s, and is only more recently becoming popular. These products often come with added flavours, such as vanilla, honey or fruit, and may also contain powdered milk. Similar products also exist for instant iced tea, due to the convenience of not requiring boiling water. Tea connoisseurs tend to criticize these products for sacrificing the delicacies of tea flavor in exchange for convenience. Canned tea: This latest method of marketing tea was first launched in 1981 in Japan.
Storage: Tea has a shelf-life that varies with storage conditions and type of tea. Black tea has a longer shelf-life than green tea. Some teas such as flower teas may go bad in a month or so. An exception, Pu-erh tea improves with age. Tea stays freshest when stored in a dry, cool, dark place in an air-tight container. Black tea stored in a bag inside a sealed opaque canister may keep for two years. Green tea loses its freshness more quickly, usually in less than a year. Gunpowder tea, its leaves being tightly rolled, keeps longer than the more open-leafed Chun Mee tea. Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant packets or oxygen absorbing packets, and by vacuum sealing. When storing green tea, discreet use of refrigeration or freezing is recommended. In particular, drinkers need to take precautions against temperature variation. Improperly stored tea may lose flavor, acquire disagreeable flavors or odors from other foods, or become moldy. See also:
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Barry's Tea Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford Assam tea Bubble tea Capputeano Ceylon tea (disambiguation) Chinese tea culture Darjeeling tea Earl Grey, a blend of tea made with bergamot orange. English Breakfast tea Flowering tea, a type of tea that opens up when steeped Frederick John Horniman Gunpowder tea The health benefits of tea Iced tea Irish Breakfast tea
ISO 3103, a method of brewing tea according to the ISO. Japanese tea ceremony
Kaempferol a flavanoid found in green and black teas and associated with reduced
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Khayaban Tea Korean tea ceremony Lapsang souchong Lipton List of tea companies Masala chai Mate Orange Pekoe Peppermint tea Prince of Wales tea blend Rabea Tea Ringtons Tea Rooibos Tasseography, a method of divination by reading tea leaves. Tazo Tea Classics Thai tea Turkish tea
BRANDS & PRICING OF TEA IN ARMENIA
Brand Name AHMAD AKBAR DILMAH LIPTON MARYAM SHERE Sorts of Tea Black Leaf tea Black Leaf tea Black Leaf tea Black Leaf tea Black Leaf tea Black Leaf tea Weight in gm. Average Price in AMD 100 100 100 50 100 100 350 350 330 330 300 350
EXPORT Volume(ton)thous.US $
IMPORT volume (ton) thous.US $ 196.6, (617.0)
Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia Out of whole imported tea, 4 tons were green tea and 193 tons were black tea, according to data provided by the State Customs Committee of the Government of Armenia. The average annual republican price for one kilogram of tea for 1999-2003 is shown bellow (AMD) Year -1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 Price- 3347, 3189, 3135, 3070, 3052 (Respectively) (Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia.)
Taxation: Tea is one of the products in Armenia, which requires labeling by registered trademark (Armenia. Customs Guide 2003, p. 8). A certificate of conformity to safety is required for the import of tea. Imported consumer goods are subject to customs tariffs in an amount of 10%. According to the Law of the Republic of Armenia “On Value Added Tax”, dated May 14, 1997 (and addition to it December 14, 2001), 0% rate of VAT and 20% rate of VAT are imposed on goods and services. VAT is uniformly charged at the rate of 20% on imported goods, except for cases provided by the legislation. Taxes for import of tea into the Republic of Armenia are as follows: • Customs duty for tea import is 10%. • Value Added Tax (VAT) for tea import is 20%. Payments for the custom duty should be made in Armenian drams.
The Government of Armenia considers the investment policy as one of the key aspects of its economic development course. Stable economic growth is achieved in the last 4-5 years. The average growth rate was 6% which is reflected in steady growth in GDP (2000 - 6.0%, 2001 - 9.6%, 2002- 12.9%, 2003 1st - half 14.5%) and in drastic quantitative and qualitative increase in export volumes (2000-28.4%, 2001-14.1%, 200248.5%, 2003 1st half 47.5%) (http://www.minted.am/en/invetsment.html#1). Armenia has declared an "Open Door" investment policy. This liberal approach was incorporated into the legislation by adoption of "Foreign Investment Law" in 1994 and in other provisions of economic laws relevant to investment. According to the Ministry of Trade and Economic Development, Armenia has recognized the importance of protecting investments and investors and developed such a legal framework that makes Armenia attractive for foreign investments.
Here I have seen that there is high demand for tea in Armenia, it would be attractive to Indian Businessmen to import Indian tea to Armenian. Moreover, there is a demand for high quality tea as the Armenian market is full of low quality Georgian tea. Armenians consider it as one of the best teas in the world. Armenia is cold country, in Jan. season temperature of Armenia is found to be near about -6.80 C, so there are more chances to demand of tea in Armenia. Due to awareness in Armenia they prefer to take black or herbal tea. India can be the main supplier of tea to Armenia, because, as it has already been said, demand for the Indian tea is high.
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