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I would like to express my sincere regards and gratitude

BUSINESS),who has provided me an opportunity to do my
organizational “ON THE JOB TRAINING” in this esteemed
organization that has given me the sufficient corporate
exposure and has helped me build up my competence and also
given me a cutting edge.

My heart-felt regards go to Ms. ANIKA ANAND(INTERNATIONAL

BUSINESS EXECUTIVE), who continuously guided & helped me
with their valuable suggestions about the project work.

Last but not the least I would like to thank to DR. R.K.
UNIVERSITY who sincerely assisted me and cooperated with me
in the successful completion of the training especially and of
course all faculty members of M.B.A.(I.B.).


M.B.A. (I.B.)-IIIrd SEM.
I.M.S. University of
Lucknow, Lucknow

A project report can be defined as a detailed and

systematic analysis of a predefined objective so that the future

action could be formulated in order to achieve the objective or

the target of the organization. Project report explodes the new

dimensions and opportunities for the organization so that an

organization can grow by using its strength, wining its threat

and overcoming its weakness.

Before proceeding to the recreation expending the arms

of organization it is very necessary to reveal the high valued

opportunities which can only be searched through a reliable

project report so that:

“A path can be described on which an organization

can fly, In order to achieve the success which is greater
than sky.”



3.1 Introduction
3.2 Brief History
3.3 Foreign Policies
3.4 India-Armenia Relations
3.5 Economic Summary
3.6 Communications
3.7 Armenia Transportation
3.8 Industries
3.9 Armenia-India trade
3.10 The Future
3.11 Abstract
3.12 methodology


Tea is indigenous to India and is an area where the country can

take a lot of pride. This is mainly because of its pre-eminence
as a foreign exchange earner and its contributions to the
country's GNP.
In all aspects of tea production, consumption and export, India
has emerged to be the world leader, mainly because it accounts
for 31% of global production. It is perhaps the only industry
where India has retained its leadership over the last 150 years.
Tea production in India has a very interesting history to it.
The range of tea offered by India - from the original Orthodox
to CTC and Green Tea, from the aroma and flavour of
Darjeeling Tea to the strong Assam and Nilgiri Tea- remains
unparalleled in the world.
Here are some statistical facts about the Indian Tea Industry
• The total turnover of the tea industry is around Rs. 10,000

• Since independence tea production has grown over 250%,

while land area has just grown by 40%.

• There has been a considerable increase in export too

in the past few years. Total net foreign exchange
earned per annum is around Rs. 1847 crores.

• The labour intensive tea industry directly employs over 1.1

million workers and generates income for another 10
million people approximately. Women constitute 50% of
the workforce
Tea trading in the domestic market is done in two ways Auction
and Private Selling. Market Reports are received from the six
major auction centres in India, namely, Calcutta, Guwahati,
Siliguri, Cochin, Coonoor, Coimbatore and Bulk trading is done through the auctions
held in these centres.

In the present global scenario there are many evidences that
the chemical based herbicides, pesticides are extremely harmful
to our health and Environment. At present time conventional
agriculture practices relies heavily on chemical fertilizers,
pesticides, herbicides which effect human health & degenerate
environment, by entering into food chain , penetrate water
sources , harm the livestock, deplete the soil devastate natural
ecosystem & contaminate the food production .
Organically cultivated foods are the only way to ensure a good
health and product environment degeneration.
Certified Organic products are tested to guarantee that they are
free from all toxic agro chemicals. Certified Organic mean a
sure way to trust that the food we select or purchase are pure
safe and uncontaminated.
Due to many advantages of Organic food in each & every
country, day by day is promoting the use of organic eatable
goods. With all these views Organic India was formed to
promote Organic food. It is a global leader in promotion of
Organic food & health product. Organic India’s main products
are Herbal Tea collection. These are totally herbal made by
Tulsi, Ginger etc.

Bharat Mitra, Prashanti and few others soon expanded the
business to include trading various items from India to the
west. Papaji named the business, Indo Israel Trading
Corporation Private Limited, IITC and it was incorporated in
1997. There were several people who were inspired to invest in
IITC, which helped us to get off to a good start. Thus began the
humble beginnings of our company.

In September 1997, Papaji left his mortal form, and many

people left Lucknow as well. However Bharat Mitra, originally
from Israel, stayed in Lucknow with a small number of other
people from around the world, and continued to develop the
business. We began growing and collecting our own herbs for
our herbal formulations, not being satisfied with the quality of
herbs available on the market.

In 1998 Dr. Narendra Singh whose extensive research on

Tulsi led him to write the book "Tulsi, the Mother Medicine
of Nature", in collaboration with Dr. Yamuna Hoette from
Germany, and Dr. Ralph Miller from Canada. Dr. N. Singh
has dedicated his life to studying and researching the medicinal
value and application of thousands of Ayurvedic herbs. His
research and clinical studies led him to develop a
comprehensive range of herbal medicines for the care of
chronic and acute illnesses. Our successful collaboration with
Dr. Narendra Singh led us to develop our delicious and health
promoting Tulsi Tea Collection and our successful line of Herbal
Supplements, all based on his research and clinical studies. Dr.
N. Singh has successfully treated tens of thousands of patients
with these formulations over a period of more than forty years.

Organic India’s first large cultivation of Tulsi by contracting

farmers in the area around Dr. N. Singh's ancestral home near
Azamgarh, UP. Our determination to have the highest quality
Tulsi and Herbal Supplements led us to an unwavering
commitment to grow and use only Organic Tulsi and Organic
Herbs. Our entrance into the agricultural world of India
revealed the horrors of chemical agriculture and the
devastation left by the failure of the 'green revolution'.

Farmland was devastated, water supplies were contaminated,

livestock was unhealthy, wildlife was disappearing, and the
health and well-being of all the people, young and old, was
depleted by the permeation of toxic agro chemicals and the
resultant extreme poverty. Thousands of farmers committed
suicide in desperation. In additional to which genetically
engineered crops were (and are) being introduced into India as
elsewhere, which require a huge amount of toxic pesticides and
cause numerous other environmental crises. This has all led to
a growing demand all over the world for organically grown food.

Company made a strategic business decision to concentrate

exclusively on developing a complete range of organic products
in order to both support sustainable agricultural life in India and
to offer safe and healthful products to people all over the world.
In 1999 we changed the name of our company to IITC ORGANIC
INDIA Private Limited which was again renamed in the year 2006
as ORGANIC INDIA Private Limited to reflect our vision and our

During the 1990's thousands of people from all over the world
came to Lucknow, India to meet Sri H.W.L. Poonja, lovingly
known as Papaji. Drawn to India in search of Truth and Self
Realization, people came flooding to Lucknow upon hearing of
the simple teaching of Papaji: "Keep Quiet. The Eternal
Truth exists within you. Do not entertain a single thought
and the Truth will reveal itself to itself."

A number of people settled in Lucknow at that time, living and

working independently. A few people, including Prashanti de
Jaeger, an Ayurvedic Practitioner and Bharat Mitra (Yoav
Lev), Chairman and President of IITC ORGANIC INDIA
Pvt. Ltd, began a small business of developing Ayurvedic
herbal formulations for the health and well being of the many
people coming to Lucknow. IITC ORGANIC INDIA Private
Limited was renamed in the year 2006 as ORGANIC
INDIA Private Limited. At the heart of ORGANIC INDIA is our
commitment to promote holistic sustainable development for all
beings through organic agriculture. We are committed to
service, sanctity and integrity, and to operating an ethical and
sustainable business that harms none and benefits all.
ORGANIC INDIA is a global leader in promoting organic
products and in supporting sustainable farming, wild crafting
and village/tribal agricultural communities in India. We
cultivate, collect, process, manufacture and market Certified
Organic Tulsi Teas, Herbal Supplements, Psyllium, Castor
Oil, Ayurvedic and Medicinal Herbs, and many other organic
foods and organic spices. Our products are of the highest
quality and marketed all over the world. We are continually
developing and expanding our range of organic foods and
health products.

All ORGANIC INDIA facilities and processing centers have been

awarded SQF, HACCP, GMP, ISO-9001 and Kosher
certifications, and are EU, Skal, ECO-Cert and USDA certified
for organic production. We have designed and developed our
unique processing methods and advanced dehydration
technologies to ensure maximum retention of potency and
nutritional values, so that we can remain true to our
commitment to offer the highest quality organic products
available today.

To be a vehicle of consciousness in the global market by
creating a holistic sustainable business modality, which
inspires, promotes and supports well-being and respect
for all beings and for Mother Nature.

To be a trustworthy and innovative global leader in
providing genuine organic products and solutions for
conscious, healthy living.


• To provide our customers worldwide with

exceptional quality organic foods and health products.

• To introduce a unique and successful business

modality that is committed to service, sanctity and
integrity and therefore harms no one and benefits all.

• To support natural sustainable Organic Agriculture

practices that serve, honor and protect Mother Nature.

• To support the livelihood and well-being of

farmers and tribal wild crafters in rural India.


• Service to All
• Total Integrity
• Absolute Commitment to Quality
• Respect and Devotion to Mother Nature
• No Compromise on Being Who We Are
• Cultivate
• Collection
• Processing
• Manufacturing
• Marketing

ORGANIC INDIA offers a large variety of Certified Organic
commodities and ingredients including grains, cereals, pulses,
spices, herbs, honey, dehydrated fruits and vegetables.

• Barley

• Indian Millet

• Indian Millet

• Wheat, Whole

• Black Lentils, Whole

• Cowpea

• Garbanzo Beans or Chikpeas

• Moong Beans, Whole

• Red Lentils, Whole

• Peas

• Pigeon Pea

• Soy Beans

• Castor Beans

• Chicory Cubes

• Flax Seed
• Groundnut

• Mustard, Black

• Mustard, Yellow

• Peanuts

• Psyllium husk

• Senna Pods

• Senna Leaf

• Sesame Black

• Sesame Seeds

• Sesame Natural

A wide variety of full flavored, delicious and nutritive Certified
Organic spices and condiments. Many spices are not only
delicious but have significant nutritive properties as well.

• Aniseed

• Bay Leaf

• Black Pepper

• Cardamom

• Cinnamon

• Clove

• Coriander
• Cumin

• Fennel

• Fenugreek

• Fresh Onion, Red

• Fresh Onion, White

• Ginger Powder

• Ginger Slices

• Ginger Whole

• Green Pepper

• Mace

• Nutmeg

• Powdered Turmeric

• Red Chili

• White Pepper

• Whole Turmeric

ORGANIC INDIA offers many common and exotic herbs in our
rich collection of organically grown and Certified Organic herbs,
including traditional Ayurvedic, medicinal and nutritional herbs.
• Amla

• Arjun Bark

• Ashwagandha

• Calamus sweet flag

• Bacopa

• Bai Chandi

• Vidanga

• Heart leaf sida

• Bael

• Beuta/Palash

• Eclipta

• Phyllanthus

• Bougainbellia

• Gotu Kola

• Chamomile

• Jangli Haldi

• Crepe ginger

• Mulethi

• Neem products

• Water Lily
• Shatavari

• Mint Leaf/Mentha

• Long Pepper

• Turmeric


Tulsi Available in India
• Original Tulsi Tea

• Green Tulsi Tea

• Tulsi Chai Masala

• Tulsi Ginger

Tulsi Available In U.S.A.

• Sweet Rose Tulsi Tea

• Green Tulsi Tea

• Original Tulsi Tea

• Lemon Ginger Tulsi Tea

• The Tulsi Suite

• Sweet Lemon Tulsi Tea

• India Breakfast Tulsi Tea

• Red Chai Tulsi Tea

• Pomegranate Green Tulsi Tea

• Red Mango Tulsi Tea

• Peppermint Tulsi Tea

• Vanilla Cream Tulsi tea

• Jasmine Tulsi Tea

• Raspberry peach Tulsi tea

• Orange Mint Tulsi Tea

• Passion fruit Tulsi Tea

• Licorice Spice Tulsi Tea

• Honey Chamomile Tulsi

• Chai Masala Tulsi Tea


• Organic Teeccino Maya Caffè

• Organic Teeccino Maya Mocha

• Organic Teeccino Maya Chai

• Organic Teeccino Maya set

Azamgarh Chennai

Delhi Dehradun

Indore Jaipur
Lucknow Satna

Surendra Nagar

U.S.A. U.K.

Czech Republic Germany

Israel Australia


India U.S.A.


All products are 100%certified organic by strict international
certification agencies who work to monitor the farmer, the
forests, te processing and every stage of production. The
facilities and processing centers have been awarded SQF, ISO
9001:2000, HSCCP and GMP certification.


Map of Armenia
Official Name: Republic of Armenia, Hayastani Hanrapetutyun

Capital -Yerevan,

Pop. - 1.25 million

900 – 2000 mt. above sea level

Largest city (2003 est.): Yerevan,

1,462,700 (metro. area),

1,267,600 (city proper)

Other large cities: Vanadzor,

Gyumri (Leninakan), Abovian.

Prime Minister: Serzh Sarkisyan (2007)

Currency Armenian Dram (AMD),

1 USD = 450 AMD April 2005)

Location South West of Asia; 48°N, 45°E;landlocked with
Georgia in North (164 km);Iran (35 km) and Nakhichevan
Exclave of Azerbaijan in South (211 km);Azerbaijan in East
(566 km) and Turkey in West (268 km)Area 29,743 sq. km
(Forest 12.7 %, Water areas 5.6 %, Agricultural Lands 46.8
%,other lands 34.9 %)

Administrative &Territorial Division:

(Total 11 Marzes or Regions) Yerevan, Aragatsotn, Ararat,
Armaviv, Gegharkunik, Lory, Kotayk, Shirak, Syunik, Vajots
Dzor, Tavush.

Temperature Average temperature:

January -6.80 C

July +20.80 C

Population (2008 est.): 2,968,586

(growth rate: –0.1%);

Birth rate: 12.5/1000;

Infant mortality rate: 20.9/1000;

Life expectancy: 72.4;

3.2 million, density 128 per square km;

Urban 66.7%,

Rural 33.3%,

Male 48 %, Female 52 %

(3 adult males for every 4 females

Religion Predominantly Armenian Orthodox Apostolic Church
(99%) based in Echmiadzin, headed by the Catholicos of All
Armenians Armenian Apostolic 95%, other Christian 4%, and
Yezidi 1%.

Languages: Armenian 98%, Yezidi, Russian

Ethnicity/race: Armenian 97.9%, Russian 0.5%, Kurds 1.3%,

other 0.3% (2001)
Literacy: Literacy rate- 99.4% (2001 est.)

Average Life Expectancy-73.5 years; Male (70), Female (76.1)

Independence Day -September 21, 1991

Brief History:
The process of evolution of Armenian civilisation dates back to
the second millennium B.C. The Kingdom of Urartu (9th–7th c.
B.C.) was the first major state formation. The Armenian
plateau, located where Persia, Russia and Turkey have butted
heads for centuries, has been invaded by Romans, Greeks,
Turks, Persians, etc. By the 15th century, Armenia was part of
the Ottoman Empire.
Independent Republic of Armenia was proclaimed in August
1920, but in December 1920 became part of the Trans-
Caucasian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991, Armenia declared independence and adopted its
present Constitution in 1995.

Foreign Policy:
Oriented towards Europe with strategic alliance with Russia.
Seeks to maintain balance with USA. Blockade by Azerbaijan
and Turkey over conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. The Organisation
of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) -
Minsk Group - active in finding solution. Member of the UN,
CIS, Council of Europe, Black Sea Economic Co-operation and
WTO. Seeks greater integration into the world economy. Has
‘Observer’ status in NAM. Foreign policy guided by reciprocal


Historically warm and friendly. Huge goodwill for India. Dr S

Radhakrishnan visited in September 1964 and Prime Minister
Indira Gandhi in June 1976. After Armenia’s independence,
former President Levon Ter-Petrossyan visited India in
December 1995. Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation and
several other agreements and protocols. Institutionalized India-
Armenia Inter-Governmental Commission and Foreign Office
Consultations. Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian visited India in
December 2000. MOS (EA) visited Yerevan in July 2003 (first
ever visit by Indian Minister). About 400 Indian students,
mainly studying medicine. President Robert Kocharian visited in
October 2003.

Real GDP Growth (2006): 10.1% (2003= 13.9%)

GDP (2006): US$ 3.8 bn

GDP per capita (2006): US$ 1,100 (app)

GDP (Per Capita PPP): US$ 3,500 (app)

GDP by main activity: Industry 28%, Agriculture 27%, Services


Labour force by sector Industry 25%, agriculture 45%.

Services 30%

External Debt (net): US$ 988.8 mn (2006) 95% soft loans

Exports (FOB) 2006: US$ 715 mn cut and polished diamonds,

mineral products, foodstuffs, energy (Belgium 18.2%, UK
16.8%, Israel 15.7%, Russia 12.1%, Iran 7.9%, US 6.3%,
Germany 5%)

Imports (CIF) 2006: US$ 1,351 mn natural gas, petroleum,

tobacco products, foodstuffs, raw diamonds (Belgium 11.6%,
Russia 11.6%, Israel 11.3%, US 9.5%, Iran 8.8%, Germany
6.7%, UAE 5.4%, Italy 4.7%, Ukraine 4.6%)

Unemployment: 9.3% officially (actually closer to 40%)

Foreign trade Jan 2005: US$ 161 mn (Exp: US$ 45 mn, Imp:
US$ 116 mn)
Inflation (2006): 7% (2003=8.6%)

Economic summary:

GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $16.83 billion; per capita $5,700. Real

growth rate: 13.7%. Inflation: 6.6%. Unemployment: 7.1%
(2007 est.). Arable land: 16.78%. Agriculture: fruit (especially
grapes), vegetables; livestock. Labor force: 1.2 million;
agriculture 46.2%, industry 15.6%, services 38.2% (2006 est).
Industries: diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools,
forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear,
hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments,
microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development,
food processing, brandy. Natural resources: small deposits of
gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina. Exports: $1.157
billion f.o.b. (2007): diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs,
energy. Imports: $3.281 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.): natural gas,
petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds. Major
trading partners: Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, Turkmenistan, Italy,
Germany, Iran, Israel, U.S.%, Georgia (2006).


Telephones: main lines in use: 594,400 (2005); mobile cellular:

318,000 (2005). Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 16,
shortwave 1 (2006). Television broadcast stations: 48 (private
television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian
channels widely available) (2006). Internet hosts: 8,270
(2007). Internet users: 172,800 (2006).
Transportation: Railways: total: 839 km (2006). Highways:
total: 7,700 km; paved: 7,700 km (includes 1,561 km of
expressways) (2006). Waterways: n.a. Ports and harbors:
none. Airports: 12 (2007).

International disputes: Armenia supports ethnic Armenian

secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s,
has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to
mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were
driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000
ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan
into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia
to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains
closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups
in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy;
Armenians continue to emigrat.



Total: 845 km broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km

electrified) note: some lines are out of service (2004)

Total: 8,431 km paved: 8,161 km (includes 7,567 km of
expressways) unpaved: 270 km (2002)

Pipelines: gas 1,871 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
Airports: 16 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:

Total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m:

5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

Total: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2004

Diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-

pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery,
shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments,
microelectronics, jewellery manufacturing, software
development, food processing, brandy.

US$ 8.67 mn (2004) mainly Indian exports of foodstuffs

(essentially meat), electrical equipment, optical equipment,
plastics, pharmaceuticals and other chemical goods. New items
since 2003 include rice, sugar, cut and polished diamonds, and
cars. Armenia exports metal scrap and raw rubber. Some
Indian products come through Dubai/ Moscow.

The future:

To promote India-Armenia trade and investment, the Embassy,

has a special programme called RAIP (Revive and Introduce
Programme) which seeks to revive every year at least one
Soviet era export and introduce at least one new product or
service. In 2003, the Mission revived meat exports and
introduced sugar. In 2004, it was cut and polished diamonds
and motor vehicles. In 2005, the project is for pharma and
stones (especially marble). The Embassy has adopted a non-
exclusive “four plus one” policy. The four sectors in which
Armenia seeks India’s assistance are small and medium
industries, information technology, agriculture and light
engineering, while the “plus one” is to encourage Indian
companies to invest in export-oriented sectors in Armenia.


The Embassy of India has undertaken this survey to explore tea

market in the Republic of Armenia (RA). The purpose of tea
market survey is to assess the possibility of exporting tea from
India to Armenia by analyzing the existing situation in the
Armenian tea market. The objectives of the survey on tea in
Armenia are as follows:

• To find out the business opportunities for the export of Indian

tea into the Armenian market.
• To examine the present local tea market and potentials, as
well as its industry volumes and sources of import.

• To give statistical information on Armenia’s tea market.

• To identify the business environment and understand the tax

regime, foreign trade regulations, and foreign investment


The method used for this market survey is content analysis of

secondary sources based on the review of reports from National
Statistical Service of RA, Ministry of Trade and Economic
Development of RA, Customs State Committee of Armenia,
information available through Internet, and news agencies. The
survey is based on both primary and secondary sources.
Primary research involves on-site examination of tea market,
interviews with marketing departments.

Tea is one of the most popular beverages in Armenia. Armenia

totally imports tea from different countries, and there is no
local production within the country. Different sorts of tea are
available in the Armenian market, which are sold in
supermarkets, shops, specialized tea shops, etc. The following
sorts of tea are available: black, green, herbal tea, fruit tea.
Tea is mainly sold in packages. Tea demand in Armenia is very
high; people drink tea on a daily basis, and, especially in cold
days, Armenians drink tea several times a day. There is no
barrier to entry into the tea market. Economic concentration is
not high; many brands of tea are available in the Armenian
market. Medical tea (phytotea) “Natural Treasury” is produced
in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. 20 kinds of medical herbs
are the source of raw material used in this tea. The raw
material is supplied by people living in rural districts. Further
processing of the material is carried out at the production
sector. The production capacity of the enterprise is about 100
thousands of packages of medical tea. Tea can be a delight in
Armenia, especially if it is herbal. In spring and summer, many
Armenians spend their time by packing mountain herbs, drying
them for tea. Many types of herbs are available in tea form in
Armenia, though restaurants usually serve Indian or Armenian.


Various brands of bag teas are available around the country.

White tea:
Young leaves (new growth buds) that have undergone no
oxidation; the buds may be shielded from sunlight to
prevent formation of chlorophyll. White tea is produced in
lesser quantities than most other styles, and can be
correspondingly more expensive than tea from the same
plant processed by other methods. It is less well known in
countries outside of China, though this is changing with
increased western interest in organic or premium teas.

Green tea:

The oxidation process is stopped after a minimal amount

of oxidation by application of heat, either with steam, or by
dry cooking in hot pans, the traditional Chinese method.
Tea leaves may be left to dry as separate leaves or they
may be rolled into small pellets to make Gunpowder tea.
This process is time consuming and is typically done with
pekoes of higher quality. The tea is processed within one
to two days of harvesting.


Oxidation is stopped somewhere between the standards

for green tea and black tea. The oxidation process takes
two to three days. In Chinese, semi-oxidized teas are
collectively grouped as blue tea (literally: blue-green tea),
while the term "oolong" is used specifically as a name for
certain semi-oxidized teas.

Black tea/Red tea:

The tea leaves are allowed to completely oxidize. Black tea

is the most common form of tea in southern Asia (Sri
Lanka, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc.) and in the last
century many African countries including Kenya, Burundi,
Rwanda, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The literal translation of
the Chinese word is red tea, which is used by some tea
lovers. The Chinese call it red tea because the actual tea
liquid is red. Westerners call it black tea because the tea
leaves used to brew it are usually black. However, red tea
may also refer to rooibos, an increasingly popular South
African tisane. The oxidation process will take between two
weeks and one month. Black tea is further classified as
either orthodox or as CTC (Crush, Tear, Curl, a production
method developed about 1932). Unblended black teas are
also identified by the estate they come from, their year
and the flush (first, second or autumn). Orthodox
processed black teas are further graded according to the
post-production leaf quality by the Orange Pekoe system,
while CTC teas use a different grading system.

Post-fermented tea:

Teas that undergo a second oxidation, such as Pu-erh,

Liu'an, and Liubao, are collectively referred to as secondary
or post-fermentation teas in English. In Chinese they are
categorized as Dark tea or black tea. This is not to be
confused with the English term Black tea, known in
Chinese as red tea. Pu-erh, also known as Polee in
Cantonese is the most common type of post-fermetation
tea in the market.

Yellow tea:

Either used as a name of special tea processed similarly to

green tea, or high-quality tea served at the Imperial


Also called winter tea, kukicha is made from twigs and old
leaves pruned from the tea plant during its dormant
season and dry-roasted over a fire. It is popular as a
health food in Japan and in macrobiotic diets.

Black tea:

The water for black teas should be added at the boiling

point (100°C or 212°F), except for more delicate teas,
where lower temperatures are recommended. This will
have as large an effect on the final flavour as the type of
tea used. The most common fault when making black tea
is to use water at too low a temperature. Since boiling
point drops with increasing altitude, this makes it difficult
to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. It is also
recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing
tea, easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water
to the pot, swirling briefly, before discarding. Black tea
should not be allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or
more than about five minutes (a process known as
brewing or [dialectally] mashing in the UK, Specifically in
Yorkshire.). Longer steeping times make the tea bitter (at
this point it is referred to as being stewed in the UK).
When the tea has brewed long enough to suit the tastes of
the drinker, it should be strained while serving.

Green tea:
Water for green tea, according to most accounts, should
be around 80°C to 85°C (176°F to 185°F); the higher the
quality of the leaves, the lower the temperature. Hotter
water will burn green-tea leaves, producing a bitter taste.
Preferably, the container in which the tea is steeped, the
mug, or teapot should also be warmed beforehand so that
the tea does not immediately cool down.

Tea leaf processing methods

Oolong tea:
Oolong teas should be brewed around 90°C to 100°C
(194°F to 212°F), and again the brewing vessel should be
warmed before pouring in the water. Yixing purple clay
teapots are the ideal brewing vessel for oolong tea. For
best results use spring water, as the minerals in spring
water tend to bring out more flavour in the tea.
Premium or delicate tea:
Some teas, especially green teas and delicate Oolong or
Darjeeling teas, are steeped for shorter periods,
sometimes less than 30 seconds. Using a tea strainer
separates the leaves from the water at the end of the
brewing time if a tea bag is not being used. Elevation and
time of harvest offer varying taste profiles, proper storage
and water quality also plays a large impact on taste.

Puer tea:
Puer teas require boiling water for infusion. Some prefer to
quickly rinse puer for several seconds with boiling water to
remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging
process. Infuse puer at the boiling point (100°C or 212°F),
and allow to steep for 30 seconds or up to five minutes.

Tea Bags

Tea bags:
In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan began
distributing samples of his tea in small silk bags with a
drawstring. Consumers noticed that they could simply leave the
tea in the bag, and better still re-use it with fresh tea. However,
the potential of this distribution/packaging method would not
be fully realized until later on. During World War II, tea was
rationed. In 1953 (after rationing in the UK ended), Tetley
launched the tea bag to the UK and it was an immediate
success. The convenience of the tea bag revolutionized how the
British drink their tea: the traditional tea pot has given way to
making tea in a cup with a tea bag.
Tea leaves are packed into a small (usually paper) tea bag. It is
easy and convenient, making tea bags popular for many people
today. However, the tea used in tea bags has an industry name
- it is called "fannings" or "dust" and is the waste product
produced from the sorting of higher quality loose leaf tea. It is
commonly held among tea aficionados that this method
provides an inferior taste and experience. The paper used for
the bag can also be tasted by many, which can detract from the
tea's flavor. Because fannings and dust are a lower quality of
the tea to begin with, the tea found in tea bags is less finicky
when it comes to brewing time and temperature.
Additional reasons why bag tea is considered less well-flavored

Dried tea loses its flavour quickly on exposure to air. Most bag
teas (although not all) contain leaves broken into small pieces;
the great surface area to volume ratio of the leaves in tea bags
exposes them to more air, and therefore causes them to go
stale faster. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces, or
to be entirely intact.
Breaking up the leaves for bags extracts flavoured oils.
The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and
steep properly.

Pyramid tea bags:

Pyramid tea bag

The "pyramid tea bag" has an unusual design that addresses
two of connoisseurs' arguments against paper tea bags. Its
three-dimensional, pyramidal shape allows more room for tea
leaves to expand while steeping, and because the bags are
made of nylon mesh, they do not leave flavours (such as paper)
in the tea. These characteristics let the delicate flavors of
gourmet selections (such as white teas) shine through;
however, the bags have been criticized as being
environmentally unfriendly, since the synthetic material does
not break down in landfills as loose tea leaves and paper tea
bags do.

Loose tea:

Loose-leaf tea
The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister or other
container. Rolled gunpowder tea leaves, which resist crumbling,
are commonly vacuum packed for freshness in aluminized
packaging for storage and retail. The portions must be
individually measured by the consumer for use in a cup, mug,
or teapot. This allows greater flexibility, letting the consumer
brew weaker or stronger tea as desired, but convenience is
sacrificed. Strainers, "tea presses", filtered teapots, and
infusion bags are available commercially to avoid having to
drink the floating loose leaves and to prevent over-brewing. A
more traditional, yet perhaps more effective way around this
problem is to use a three-piece lidded teacup, called a gaiwan.
The lid of the gaiwan can be tilted to decant the leaves while
pouring the tea into a different cup for consumption.

Compressed tea:
A lot of tea such as Pu-erh tea is still compressed for transport,
storage, and aging convenience. The tea is prepared and
steeped by first loosening leaves off the compressed cake using
a small knife. Compressed teas can usually be stored for longer
periods of time without "spoilage" when compared with loose
leaf tea.

Instant tea:
In recent times, "instant teas" are becoming popular, similar to
freeze dried instant coffee. Instant tea was developed in the
1930s, but not commercialized until the late 1950s, and is only
more recently becoming popular. These products often come
with added flavours, such as vanilla, honey or fruit, and may
also contain powdered milk. Similar products also exist for
instant iced tea, due to the convenience of not requiring boiling
water. Tea connoisseurs tend to criticize these products for
sacrificing the delicacies of tea flavor in exchange for

Canned tea:
This latest method of marketing tea was first launched in 1981
in Japan.
Tea has a shelf-life that varies with storage conditions and type
of tea. Black tea has a longer shelf-life than green tea. Some
teas such as flower teas may go bad in a month or so. An
exception, Pu-erh tea improves with age. Tea stays freshest
when stored in a dry, cool, dark place in an air-tight container.
Black tea stored in a bag inside a sealed opaque canister may
keep for two years. Green tea loses its freshness more quickly,
usually in less than a year. Gunpowder tea, its leaves being
tightly rolled, keeps longer than the more open-leafed Chun Mee
tea. Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant
packets or oxygen absorbing packets, and by vacuum sealing.

When storing green tea, discreet use of refrigeration or freezing

is recommended. In particular, drinkers need to take
precautions against temperature variation.

Improperly stored tea may lose flavor, acquire disagreeable

flavors or odors from other foods, or become moldy.

See also:

• Barry's Tea
• Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford
• Assam tea
• Bubble tea
• Capputeano
• Ceylon tea (disambiguation)
• Chinese tea culture
• Darjeeling tea
• Earl Grey, a blend of tea made with bergamot orange.
• English Breakfast tea
• Flowering tea, a type of tea that opens up when steeped
• Frederick John Horniman
• Gunpowder tea
• The health benefits of tea
• Iced tea
• Irish Breakfast tea
• ISO 3103, a method of brewing tea according to the ISO.
• Japanese tea ceremony

Kaempferol a flavanoid found in green and black teas and

associated with reduced

• Khayaban Tea
• Korean tea ceremony
• Lapsang souchong
• Lipton
• List of tea companies
• Masala chai
• Mate
• Orange Pekoe
• Peppermint tea
• Prince of Wales tea blend
• Rabea Tea
• Ringtons Tea
• Rooibos
• Tasseography, a method of divination by reading tea
• Tazo
• Tea Classics
• Thai tea
• Turkish tea

Brand Name Sorts of Tea Weight in gm. Average Price in AMD

AHMAD Black Leaf tea 100 350

AKBAR Black Leaf tea 100 350

DILMAH Black Leaf tea 100 330

LIPTON Black Leaf tea 50 330

MARYAM Black Leaf tea 100 300

SHERE Black Leaf tea 100 350


Volume(ton)thous.US $ volume (ton) thous.US $

Tea 1.0, (36.4) 196.6, (617.0)

Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia

Out of whole imported tea, 4 tons were green tea and 193 tons
were black tea, according to data provided by the State
Customs Committee of the Government of Armenia.
The average annual republican price for one kilogram of tea for
1999-2003 is shown bellow

Year -1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003

Price- 3347, 3189, 3135, 3070, 3052 (Respectively)

(Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia.)

Tea is one of the products in Armenia, which requires labeling
by registered
trademark (Armenia. Customs Guide 2003, p. 8). A certificate
of conformity to safety is required for the import of tea.
Imported consumer goods are subject to customs tariffs in an
amount of 10%.
According to the Law of the Republic of Armenia “On Value
Added Tax”, dated May 14, 1997 (and addition to it December
14, 2001), 0% rate of VAT and 20% rate of VAT are imposed
on goods and services. VAT is uniformly charged at the rate of
20% on imported goods, except for cases provided by the
Taxes for import of tea into the Republic of Armenia are as

• Customs duty for tea import is 10%.

• Value Added Tax (VAT) for tea import is 20%.

Payments for the custom duty should be made in Armenian


The Government of Armenia considers the investment policy as

one of the key aspects of its economic development course.
Stable economic growth is achieved in the last 4-5 years. The
average growth rate was 6% which is reflected in steady
growth in GDP (2000 - 6.0%, 2001 - 9.6%, 2002- 12.9%, 2003
1st - half 14.5%) and in drastic quantitative and qualitative
increase in export volumes (2000-28.4%, 2001-14.1%, 2002-
48.5%, 2003 1st - half 47.5%)
( Armenia has
declared an "Open Door" investment policy. This liberal
approach was incorporated into the legislation by adoption of
"Foreign Investment Law" in 1994 and in other provisions of
economic laws relevant to investment. According to the Ministry
of Trade and Economic Development, Armenia has recognized
the importance of protecting investments and investors and
developed such a legal framework that makes Armenia
attractive for foreign investments.

Here I have seen that there is high demand for tea in Armenia,
it would be attractive to Indian Businessmen to import Indian
tea to Armenian.
Moreover, there is a demand for high quality tea as the
Armenian market is full of low quality Georgian tea. Armenians
consider it as one of the best teas in the world.

Armenia is cold country, in Jan. season temperature of Armenia

is found to be near about -6.80 C, so there are more chances to
demand of tea in Armenia. Due to awareness in Armenia they
prefer to take black or herbal tea. India can be the main
supplier of tea to Armenia, because, as it has already been
said, demand for the Indian tea is high.