You are on page 1of 452

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13 June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

PROCEEDINGS

Editor
Prof. dr Ivica Ristovic

Vrdnik
10 - 13. June 2015.

PROCEEDINGS
5th International Symposium MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Editor: prof. dr Ivica Ristovic, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade
Reviewers:
dr Michal Cehlar, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr Gabriel Fedorko, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr
Vieroslav Molnar, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr Daniela Marasova, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr
Milivoj Vulic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Zeljko Vukelic, Faculty of Natural
Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Goran Vizintin, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering,
Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Evgen Dervaric, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Milan
Medved, University of Maribor, Slovenia, dr Vladimir I. Galkin, MISIS Moscow, Russia, dr Evgenia. E Sheshko,
MISIS Moscow, Russia, dr Nikolaj M. Kachurin, TulGU, Tula, Russia, dr Oleg N. Rusak, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, dr
Zoran Panov, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia, dr Zoran Despodov, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia,
dr Dejan Mirakovski, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia, dr Viktor Kovalov, Donbas State Engineering
Academy, Ukraine, dr Valentin Nedeff, University of Bacau, Romania, dr Alexandru-Viorel Pele, University of
Oradea, Romania, dr Raycho Ilarionov, TU Gabrovo, Bulgaria, dr Malgorzata Malec, KOMAG, Gliwice, Poland, dr
Monika Hardygora, Wrocaw University of Technology, Poland, dr Horst Gondek, VB Ostrava, Czech Republic, dr
Jiri Fries, VB Ostrava, Czech Republic, dr Neven Duic, University of Zagreb, Croatia, dr Nediljka GaurinaMedjimurec, University of Zagreb, Croatia, dr Vlatko Marusic, University of Osijek, Croatia, dr Vladimir Malbasic,
University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina, dr Kemal Gutic, Faculty of Minig, Geology
and Civil Engineering,Bosnia and Hercegovina, dr Gordana Stefanovic, University of Nis, Serbia, dr Srdjan Jovic,
University of Pristina, Serbia, dr Blagoje Nedeljkovic, University of Pristina, Serbia, dr Gordana Vojkovic, University
of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Zoran Nikic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Ivan Obradovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
dr Nikola Lilic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Bozo Kolonja, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Dinko Knezevic,
University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Milos Grujic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Aleksandar Cvjetic, University of
Belgrade, Serbia, dr Ivica Ristovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Editorial Board: Aleksandar Ganic; Ivica Ristovic; Rade Tokalic; Milena Kostovi; Milos Tanasijevic;
Branko Lekovic; Branko Gluscevic; Milena Gojkovic.

Publisher: Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade

For publisher: Prof. dr Ivan Obradovic, Dean

Technical desing: SaTCIP, Vrnjacka Banja

Printed by: SaTCIP, Vrnjacka Banja

Copies: 150

ISBN 978-86-7352-287-6
The publication of this Proceedings approved by the Council of Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of
Belgrade
All Papers in Proceedings are reviewed
This Proceedings was published with the financial assistance of the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technological Development of Republic of Serbia

ORGANIZER
UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, FACULTY OF MINING AND GEOLOGY, Belgrade
CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, Mining Department
www.rgf.bg.ac.rs

COORGANIZERS
BERG FACULTY TU KOSICE, SLOVAKIA
www.fberg.tuke.sk
UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING, SLOVENIA
www.ntf.uni-lj.si
GOCE DELCEV UNIVERSITY IN STIP, MACEDONIA
www.ugd.edu.mk
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MISIS, MOSCOW, RUSSIA
www.en.misis.ru
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ECOLOGY AND PROTECTION MANEB,
SANKT-PETERBURG, RUSSIA

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
dr Michal Cehlar, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr Gabriel Fedorko, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr
Vieroslav Molnar, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr Daniela Marasova, BERG Faculty, TU Koice, Slovakia, dr
Milivoj Vulic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Zeljko Vukelic, Faculty of Natural
Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Goran Vizintin, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering,
Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Evgen Dervaric, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, dr Milan
Medved, University of Maribor, Slovenia, dr Vladimir I. Galkin, MISIS Moscow, Russia, dr Evgenia. E Sheshko,
MISIS Moscow, Russia, dr Nikolaj M. Kachurin, TulGU, Tula, Russia, dr Oleg N. Rusak, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, dr
Zoran Panov, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia, dr Zoran Despodov, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia,
dr Dejan Mirakovski, Goce Delcev University Stip, Macedonia, dr Viktor Kovalov, Donbas State Engineering
Academy, Ukraine, dr Valentin Nedeff, University of Bacau, Romania, dr Alexandru-Viorel Pele, University of
Oradea, Romania, dr Raycho Ilarionov, TU Gabrovo, Bulgaria, dr Malgorzata Malec, KOMAG, Gliwice, Poland, dr
Monika Hardygora, Wrocaw University of Technology, Poland, dr Horst Gondek, VB Ostrava, Czech Republic, dr
Jiri Fries, VB Ostrava, Czech Republic, dr Neven Duic, University of Zagreb, Croatia, dr Nediljka GaurinaMedjimurec, University of Zagreb, Croatia, dr Vlatko Marusic, University of Osijek, Croatia, dr Vladimir Malbasic,
University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina, dr Kemal Gutic, Faculty of Minig, Geology
and Civil Engineering,Bosnia and Hercegovina, dr Gordana Stefanovic, University of Nis, Serbia, dr Srdjan Jovic,
University of Pristina, Serbia, dr Blagoje Nedeljkovic, University of Pristina, Serbia, dr Gordana Vojkovic, University
of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Zoran Nikic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Ivan Obradovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
dr Nikola Lilic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Bozo Kolonja, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Dinko Knezevic,
University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Milos Grujic, University of Belgrade, Serbia, dr Aleksandar Cvjetic, University of
Belgrade, Serbia, dr Ivica Ristovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE:
dr. Ivica Ristovic, Belgrade, Serbia, president, dr. Gabriel Fedorko, Koice, Slovakia, vice president, dr. Milivoj
Vulic, Ljubljana, Slovenia, vice president, dr. Vasilii Zotov, Moscow, Russia, vice president, dr. Zoran Despodov,
tip, Republic of Macedonia, vice president, dr. Vjeroslav Molnar, Koice, Slovakia, dr. Olga O. Sheshko, Moscow,
Russia, dr. Jiri Fries, Ostrava, Czech Republic, dr. Dejan Mirakovski, tip, Republic of Macedonia, dr. Aleksandar
Cvjetic, Belgrade, Serbia, Miroslav Ivkovic, TE-KO Kostolac, Kostolac, Serbia, Danko Beatovic, TE-KO Kostolac,
Kostolac, Serbia, MSc Ivana Filipovic, Belgrade, Serbia, MSc Milena Lekic, Belgrade, Serbia, MSc Uros Pantelic,
Belgrade, Serbia, BSc Bojana Simic, Belgrade, Serbia, BSc Nadeda Petrovi, Lazarevac, Serbia

C O N T E N T S:

PLENARY SESSION

Ivica Ristovic:
Mining and Environmental Protection - Experiences and Challenges.........................................

Daniela Marasov, Michal Cehlr, Nikoleta Huskov, Slovakia:


Procedure of Creation and Design of Simulation Model of Calcined Ore Conveyance...........

Evgen Dervaric, Zeljko Vukelic, Slovenia:


Can Coal Survive......................................................................................................................

15

Aleksandar Cvjetic, Serbia:


Environmental Noise in Serbian Open Cast Lignite Mines......................................................

23

Predrag Dasic, Ivica Ristovic, Jovan Dasic, Serbia:


Analysis of bibliometric indicators for category Mining & Mineral
Processing for 2013 based on JCR and Scopus data.................................................................

30

WORKS SESSIONS
Gabriel Fedorko, Vieroslav Molnar, Nikoleta Husakova, Slovakia:
Analysis of Variable Pipe Conveyor Belt Motion by the Help of CAX Tools.........................

40

Gabriel Fedorko, Vieroslav Molnr, Dragan Medenica, Slovakia, Serbia:


Modelling of Stress-Deformation States for Conveyor Belts of Classic Belt Conveyors........

48

Gabriel Fedorko, Ivana Filipovic, Ivica Ristovic, Slovakia, Serbia:


Utilization of CAD and CAE Technologies by Research of Shifting of Pipe Conveyors........

55

Peter Michalik, Vieroslav Molnr, Slovakia:


Scripting Effective Tool for Acceleration of FEM Analysis in the Program Abaqus...........

64

Nikoleta Huskov, Slovakia:


Eco-logistics a Tool for Environmental Protection................................................................

73

Evgenia E. Sheshko, Russia:


Substantiation of Efficiency of Application of Sandwich Belt High Angle
Conveyors in the Schemes With Cyclic and Line Technology in Deep Open Pits..................

79

Vladimir I. Galkin, Russia:


Features of Designs of Belts for Pipe Belt Conveyors..............................................................

86

Olga E. Sheshko, Russia:


Tendences of Reducing Harmful Emissions Into Atmosphere in Deep Open Pits...................

91

Svjetlana Sredic, Nada Prerad, Slobodanka Malbasic, Vladimir Malbasic,


Igor Knjeginic, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina:
Possibility of Biomass Production from Fast-Growing Plantations at the
Degraded Areas of Iron Ore Mines Around Prijedor................................................................

97

Amor Husic, Rijad Sisic, Zvjezdan Karadzin, Bosnia and Hercegovina:


Possibilities of Utilizing Ventilation Air Methane from FBIH Coal Mines................................

106

Dragana Jelisavac Erdeljan, Serbia:


Mining Waste Management.........................................................................................................

112

Milos Grujic, Serbia:


Basic Principles of Quantifying the Criteria for Identifying Priorities
in Solving the Environmental Protection Problems in Mining....................................................

115

Bogoljub Vuckovic, Biljana Radovanovic, Nadezda Petrovic, Serbia:


Kolubara Lignites Combustible Sulphur Environmental Impact Naturall
and Artificial Selected Sources Comparison................................................................................

120

Zeljko Prastalo, Dragan Milosevic, Sasa Mitic, Milinko Radosavljevic,


Nenad Makar, Serbia:
Exploitation Measures Aimed in Preserving the Quality of Humus............................................

130

Nikolai M. Kachurin, Sergei A. Vorobev, Sergei M. Bogdanov, Russia:


Evaluating Polluting Atmosphere by Mining Enterprises and
Optimizing Prophylactic Measures Resources.............................................................................

135

Nikolai M. Kachurin, Sergei A. Vorobev, Dimitryi N. Shkuratckiy,


Sergei M. Bogdanov, Russia:
Environmental Danger of Worked and Liquidated Coal Mines Open Areas............................... 141
Edward M. Socolov, Tatiyna S. Sviridova, Russia:
Polluting Soils by Heavy Metals and Radionuclides...................................................................

150

Zorica Ivkovic, Dejan Dramlic, Vladica Dragosavljevic, Serbia:


Legislation to preserve and faciliate biological resources in underground coal exploitation......

154

Biljana Milutinovic, Gordana Stefanovic, Srdjan Jovic, Hivzo Skrijelj, Serbia:


Development of Mathematical Model for Estimation of Economic
Indicators of Waste Treatment.....................................................................................................

162

Dragana Savic, Jelena Majstorovic, Dejan Nikolic, Dejan Zivkovic, Serbia:


Geological Investigations of Conceptual Project of Regional Landfill on Kalenic.....................

171

Drago Potocnik, Janez Roser, Milivoj Vulic, Slovenia:


Analysis of Occupational Injuries in the Velenje Coal Mine Using
Modified Sigmoid Function.........................................................................................................

179

Gregor Novakovic, Simon Kovacic, Milivoj Vulic, Slovenia:


Applicability of 3D Laser Scanning Data in Underground Constructions................................... 184
Janja Vrzel, Nives Ogrinc, Goran Vizintin, Slovenia:
Development of the Conceptual Model Ljubljansko Polje Aquifer (Slovenia)........................

189

Zeljko Vukelic, Evgen Dervaric, Goran Vizintin, Slovenia:


Well Optimization in Velenje Coal Mine Using 3D
Finithe Elements Modeling..........................................................................................................

193

Cvjetko Stojanovic, Biljana Borovic, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina:


Exploitation of Natural Resources in Function of Sustainable Development..............................

199

Zoran Despodov, Dejan Mirakovski, Nikolinka Doneva,


Stojance Mijalkovski, Zoran Panov, Republic of Macedonia:
Regulation of Saska River with Aim for Environmetal Protection at
No.4 Flotation Tailing Damp Construction in the Sasa Mine....................................................... 203
Todor Serafimovski, Goran Tasev, Republic of Macedonia:
Soil Metal Pollution Related to Active Zletovo Pb-Zn Mine...........................................................

209

Dejan Mirakovski, Marija Hadzi-Nikolova, Zoran Despodov,


Nikolinka Doneva, Stojance Mijalkovski, Republic of Macedonia:
Guidelines for Preparation of Mine Waste Management Plan.....................................................

216

Marija Hadzi-Nikolova, Dejan Mirakovski, Zoran Despodov,


Nikolinka Doneva, Stojance Mijalkovski Republic of Macedonia:
Verification of the Environmental Noise Dispersion Model in Mining.......................................

226

Aleksandar Simic, Radoje Lausevic, Ana Popovic, Mirjana Bartula, Serbia:


Environmental Management and Information System for Surface Lignite Mining....................

232

Marija Zivkovic, Dejan Ivezic, Aleksandar Madzarevic, Serbia:


The Role of Ecological Indicators in Processes of Strategic
Planning-Case of The City of Nis................................................................................................

238

Vesna Karovic Maricic, Branko Lekovic, Dusan Danilovic,


Miroslav Crnogorac, Serbia:
Environmental Benefits of Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 Injection........................................

247

Dusan Danilovic, Vesna Karovic-Maricic, Branko Lekovic,


Miroslav Crnogorac, Serbia:
Preventing Harmful Emissions Into the Atmosphere Upon Manipulation Oil Derivatives.........

253

Snezana Savkovic, Jelena Majstorovic, Predrag Jovancic, Serbia:


Analysis attainable technical-technological results word open pit mines
Elecktrical industry - EPS of Serbia.............................................................................................

258

Jelena Malenovic Nikolic, Ana Vukadinovic, Vojin Cokorilo, Serbia:


Energy Management and Systems of Environmental Safety in Mining-Energy Complexes......

262

Jelena Malenovic Nikolic, Dejan Vasovic, Serbia:


Improving Systems of Environmental Safety in Mining-Energy Complexes:
Project Management.....................................................................................................................

267

Dejan Vasovic, Jelena Malenovic Nikolic, Stevan Musicki, Serbia:


Water Framework Directive, Industrial Emissions Directive, Seveso Directive:
A Triangle of Equal Sides............................................................................................................

272

Radule Tosovic, Serbia:


Expert Economic Evaluation of Mineral Resources in Environmental Protection......................

278

Tomislav Subaranovic, Vladimir Pavlovic, Ivan Jankovic, Serbia:


Planning and Options of Mine Closure........................................................................................

285

Milorad Stojanovic, Slavica Stojanovic, Serbia:


The Impact of the Construction of Phase II of the Coal Preparation Plant
(Crusher) Tamnava-East Field and Dump Fine Coal on the Environment..................................

289

Gordana Milentijevic, Blagoje Nedeljkovic, Milan Milojevic, Serbia:


Exploration of Pb-Zn ore on Surrounding Areas of the Crnac Mine...........................................

296

Gordana Milentijevic, Blagoje Nedeljkovic, Milan Milojevic, Serbia:


The Impact of Flotation Processing of the Pb-Zn ore one the Living Environment
of the MIF Kopaonik in Leposavic..............................................................................................

301

Snezana Aleksandrovic, Aleksandar Cvjetic, Serbia:


Analysis of Noise Sources in Power Transformers and Rotating Electrical Machine.................

307

Jovan Zdravkovic, Mladen Vojnic, Serbia:


Deep Well Dewatering on the Open Pit Drmno with Reference to Environmental Protection..........

313

Radisa Djuric, Dragan Stevic, Filip Todorovic, Serbia:


Impact of Modern Technology Application of New Machines of the Auxiliary
Mechanization for Reduction of Environmental Pollution at the Open-Pit Coal Mine Drmno...

318

Radisa Djuric, Dragan Milosevic, Zoran Maksimovic, Serbia:


Rational Maintenance of Machinery in the Open Pit Drmno Using
the New Concepts of Vehicles Used for the Collection and Distribution of New Oil.................

323

Miodrag Denic, Veselin Dragisic, Sasa Stojadinovic, Vladimir Zivanovic, Igor Svrkota,
Dragan Jokovic, Serbia:
Isolation of Old Works and the Possibility of a Durable Solution for the
Drainage of the Pit Mine Soko..................................................................................................... 331
Dusko Djukanovic, Igor Svrkota, Serbia:
Influence of Accidents in Underground Coal Mining to Environment........................................

338

Radoje Pantovic, Nenad Vusovic, Igor Svrkota, MarkoVukovic, Serbia:


Monitoring of Displacements in Support of Kriveljska Reka Collector......................................

341

Novica Momcilovic, Jadranka Vukasinovic, Serbia:


Construction and Exploitation of a Landfill for Ash and Slag Disposal from the
Heating Plant Vreoci for the Purpose of Environmental Protection............................................

349

Dinko Knezevic, Nikola Lilic, Dragana Nisic, Milos Stanic, Vladan Kuzmanovic, Serbia:
Using Previously Polluted Sites for Waste Storage, Prahovo Phosphogypsum
Storage Case Study....................................................................................................................... 356
Nikola Lilic, Vladimir Milisavljevic, Uros Pantelic, Ljiljana Kolonja,
Dragan Medenica, Serbia:
Dispersion Modeling of Particulate Matter in Surface Lead and Zinc Mine Suplja Stijena.....

366

Suzana Lutovac, Cedomir Beljic, Zoran Gligoric, Branko Gluscevic, Serbia:


Parameter Determination of Soil Oscillation Law Using Quotient of the Relative Growth
Increments of Oscillation Velocity and Reduced Distances at Kovilovaca Surface Mine.......... 376
Bozo Kolonja, Dejan Stevanovic, Milica Pesic Georgiadis, Mirjana Bankovic,
Ljiljana Kolonja, Serbia:
Uncertainty in Open Pit Optimization..........................................................................................

385

Ljiljana Kolonja, Ranka Stankovic, Ivan Obradovic, Olivera Kitanovic,


Uros Pantelic, Serbia:
Development of a Business Intelligence Tool For Accident Analysis in Mines.......................... 393
Ranka Stankovic, Nikola Vulovic, Nikola Lilic, Ivan Obradovic, Radule Tosovic,
Milica Pesic-Georgiadis:
Webgis Cadastre Of Abandoned Mines In Autonomous Province Of Vojvodina.......................
Sasa Ilic, Serbia:
Selective Mining and Dumping of Overburden on Opencast Coal Mining.................................

400

407

Aleksandar Cvjetic, Ljubica Figun, Vladimir Milisavljevic, Uros Pantelic,


Aleksandra Tomasevic, Serbia:
Noise Management at the Buvac Open Cast Mine....................................................................... 410
Milena Lekic, Ivana Filipovic, Zoran Nikic, Serbia:
Biological Planning Prospects of Municipal Waste Landfills in Serbia...........................................

420

POSTER SESSION
Vrhovnik Petra, Recnik Aleksander, Dolenec Matej, Daneu Nina,
Grom Nina, Slovenia:
Magnetite Ore Deposit Mala Kopa..............................................................................................

427

Vrhovnik Petra, Serafimovski Todor, Tasev Goran, Rogan Smuc Nastja,


Dolenec Matej, Slovenia, Republic of Macedonia:
Metal Contamination in Makedonska Kamenica Region:Relevance to Human Health..............

428

INDEX OF AUTHORS

PLENARY SESSION

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN SERBIA EXPERIENCES AND CHALLENGES


Ivica Ristovic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Serbia

Abstract: Mining is the largest polluter of the environment. The main aspect of damaging the environment by
mining activities represents a depletion of natural non-renewable resources. Apart from this aspect, endangering
the environment by mining activities is also reflected in two aspects: the destruction of the environment and
environmental pollution.
Mining degrade and pollute the soil, water and air, represents a significant impact on the change of micro and
macro climate, has detrimental effects on flora and fauna, exercise a great impact on the cultural heritage and
historical monuments, etc. All the above has significant impacts on human health.
This does not mean that you need to stop all mining activities. With the development of modern technologies of
exploitation, transport, preparation and processing of mineral raw materials, as well as respecting the legal
provisions by which are defined the numerously allowed limitary parameters, it is certainly possible that, at all
stages of mining activities, this activity and its activities to reduce to the lowest possible impact on the living
environment. This paper describes the so far experience in the protection of the environment in the field of the
mining industry in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the challenges that await us in this branch of the industry.
Keywords: Minig, Environment, Experiences, Challenges

1. INTRODUCTION
Mining as a very "dirty" branch of the industry and as the main element in the chain of energy production,
must be accompanied by the development of science and technology. Bearing in mind that the energy of
mineral raw materials (coal, oil, natural gas, ...) are the non-renewable mineral resources, so the
exploitation, transport and processing of these raw materials in the future should be conducted according
to the principles of sustainable development, taking account of all its constituent elements: economy,
ecology and social responsibility.
Here certainly should be mentioned and the modern technologies for the preparation and combustion of
fossil fuel resources in plants for production of electricity, which at today's level of technology
development, represent the substantially less pollutants than it was in standard conventional plants for
processing of energy. The combustion of coal in a fluidized bed, the clean technologies for coal
utilization (clean coal technologies), the use of modern technology filters on chimneys of thermal power
plants, etc. are just some of the ways to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and have the most negative
impact on the environment and global climate change 1.

2. MINING INDUSTRY IN SERBIA


In the Republic of Serbia is undergoing major mining activities both in surface and in underground
exploitation of mineral raw materials. The Mining of the Republic of Serbia, although in severe operating
conditions, it survives thanks to the needs of the Republic of Serbia for energy mineral raw materials, and
the needs for metallic and non metallic mineral raw materials.
Coal is the main energy mineral raw material in the Republic of Serbia. Coal in the Republic of Serbia is
obtained by surface, underground and underwater exploitation.
The surface exploitation of coal in Serbia takes place in open pits of Kolubara, Kostolac and Kosovo. All
these mines are integral parts of Electric Power Industry Of Serbia. Since the 1st of July, 1999 EPIS does
not manage with capacities in Kosovo and Metohia. Geological and exploitation reserves in Serbia are
listed in Table 1. [2]
Table 1. Geological coal reserves in the Republic of Serbia 000 t [2]
Serbia without
R of Kosovo and
Coal
autonomous regions
Metohija
Hard coal
Brown coal
Hardbrown coal
Lignite

8.215
111.294
536.678
3.989.333

15.746.000

AR of Vojvodina

Total Serbia

8.729

8.215
111.294
545.407

275.000

20.010.333

Production of coal in PD RB Kolubara is about 30 million tons per year, of which about 27 million tons
per year burn in thermal power plants: TPP Kolubara A (271 MW), TPP Nikola Tesla A (1502 MW),
TPP Nikola Tesla B (1160 MW) and TPP Morava (125 MW).
Today, in the Kostolac coal basin only one open pit is active: Drmno. Coal production in the open pit
Drmno is about 12 million tons per year, and the coal is burned in the TPP Kostolac and TPP Drmno.
Open pit mine Drmno and TPP Kostolac and Drmno are integrated into a single enterprise TPP-KO
Kostolac.
The exploitation of coal in Kosovo coal basin takes place in two open pits: Dobro Selo, whose installed
capacity is 8,6106 t/year and Belacevac which has an installed capacity of 8,2106 t/year. About 90% of
coal production is anticipated to be used for the supply of TPP Kosovo A and TPP Kosovo B, with a total
installed capacity of 1519 MW.
In Serbia, the exploitation of coal with the underground method is performed in Public Company for
underground exploitation of coal, Resavica. PC for UEC of Resavica consists of 8 mines with 11 pits.
Total manufacture in these mines is relatively small, ranging in scope from 500,000 tons per year to 1
million tons per year.
From promising energy mineral raw materials in Serbia should certainly be mentioned the considerable
resources of oil shale, whose research is still in progress and have not yet found application in the energy
mining industry of the Republic of Serbia. Total estimated reserves in explored basins of the Republic of
Serbia are about 4.8 billion t of shale, or about 400 million tons of kerogen. Only reserve of Aleksinac
basin are estimated at around 200 million tons [2].
In Figure 1. is presented the maining and energy complexes in the Republic of Serbia.

PD RB Kolubara

TE-KO Kostolac (http://www.ebranicevo.com/)

Underwater mining technology in Kovin

Kosovo Obilic (http://www.novosti.rs/)

Figure 1 Mining and energy complexes in the Republic of Serbia


The remaining balance reserves of crude oil in the Republic of Serbia at the end of 2010 amounted to about
10.14 million tons, or 4.23 billion m3 of natural gas. These reserves are of low quality exploitation [2].
Speaking of metallic mineral raw materials in Serbia, it is important to mention the mines of lead and
zinc, as well as the mines of copper.
Lead and zinc mines that are located in the territory of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija
(Koporic, Zuta Prlina, Crnac, Belo Brdo), are under the control of the Serbian administration in the
northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, and the mines which are located on the territory of the Republic of
Serbia (Blagodat, Rudnik, Lece i Veliki Majdan) are privatized.
As for the copper mines (Bor and Majdanpek), they are located in the eastern part of Serbia and are an
integral part of the company MSB Bor. Figure 2. shows deposits of the ore of lead, zinc and copper in
Serbia.

Mine Belo Brdo (http://www.kosovo-mining.org)

Copper mine RTB Bor

Figure 2 Deposits of lead, zinc and copper in Serbia


3

3. EXPERIENCE IN PROTECTION OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT IN MINING INDUSTRY


Environmental protection of is new and one of the main demands of the modern world. Application of
new technologies with a high level of environmental protection is an obligation for all companies engaged
in mining activities, both moral and legal obligations in almost all countries of the world.
The world experience in environmental protection in mining activities are mainly confined to restore
degraded area in the original (previous) state with the application of technical and biological recultivation
or, if not possible, then bringing purpose of degraded area. This mainly relates to the exploitation fields
and landfills overburden surface energy mines, metallic and non-metallic mineral raw materials.
The adoption of the Law on Environmental Protection and all accompanying regulations, which are
almost entirely according to the laws of the European Union, Serbia is serious approached to solving the
problems of environmental protection. However, progress in this field is closely linked with large
financial resources that are needed to make these activities performed. There are many objective, and just
as many subjective reasons due to which the environmental problems are solved very slowly.
As the mining industry in Serbia is a very old industrial branch and the Law on Environmental Protection
adopted ten years ago, that is, at least for now the solving of the problem of historical pollution from
mining activities, is one of the biggest problems today in the field of environmental protection in Serbia.
Open pits of energy raw materials, namely open pit mines of lignite make a great efforts and huge
financial resources, in order to, as much as the conditions allow to fulfill its goal - exploitation of mineral
raw materials in accordance with sustainable development.
Technical and biological recultivation in MB Kolubara conducted in 1974, when the restored
considerable areas affected by mining operations. Table 2 presents a summary recapitulation of surfaces
recultivated by agricultural and forest recultivation until 31.12.2014 [3].
Table 2 Summary recapitulation of recultivated areas until 31.12.2014.
AGRICULTURAL RECAPITULATION
Recultivated areas
Expropriated areas
Totally recultivated:
FOREST RECULTIVATION
Recultivated and ceded to other users
Recultivated and redegraded due to mining operations and landslodes
Total permanently recultivated
Total temporarily recultivated
Forest land that is tech. recultivated and is located within the framework of GJ "REIK
Kolubara"
Totally recultivated:
FOREST AND FOREST LAND
Total permanently recultivated
Total temporarily recultivated
Forest land that is tech. re-cult. and is located within the framework of GJ "REIK
Kolubara"
Totally recultivated:

110,80 ha
14,70 ha
125,50 ha
65,97ha
173,02ha
703,36ha
21,29ha
16,19ha
979,83ha
703,36ha
21,29ha
16,19ha
740,84ha

In Table 3 is provided an overview of re-cultivated surface at surface pits of Kostolac in 2013 and 2014.

ble 3 Recultivated areas at the surface pits Kostolac in 2013 and 2014
Surface pit
Klenovnik
irikovac
Drmno
TOTAL

Total expropriated
area
(ha)
472
1047
2312
3831

RECULTIVATED (ha)
Arable lands
Orchards
2013
2014
2013 2014
3
52,7
55,7
2
108,4
5

Forest
2013 2014
117
93,4
100,4
310,8

Nursery
2013
2014
3
3,5
6,5

As can be seen from the attached tables, it is a significant effort that is done to restore the degraded areas
of open pits of lignite to its original purpose or bringing any other purpose of degraded areas. Technical
and biological recultivation is an integral part of the overall activities for the protection and improvement
of the environment. We should not forget all the other activities carried out by open pit mines in Serbia,
which also require large financial resources and great efforts of employees in these activities. Among
other things, they include: preventive action to preserve environmental quality, measurement of
environmental noise, air quality monitoring, measuring emissions of air pollutants, measurement of
emissions of pollutants in water, management of waste and hazardous materials, etc.
The development of new, more modern and more advanced processing technologies of metallic mineral
raw materials, waste landfill from the processing of mineral raw materials, mainly in highly developed
countries, are treated as waste technogenic raw materials, and they have different treatment in terms of
utilization of useful mineral raw materials and rare metals that remained in the dumps after processing of
mineral raw materials and which were until recently considered landfills from processing. This historic
waste, from the time of outdated methods of processing of mineral raw materials, contain sufficient
concentrations of useful components of today's technologies can be reused for processing.
There is a large number of dumps and landfills from the processing of mineral raw materials in the
Republic of Serbia. They cover large areas, have large volumes of disposed materials and in addition to
constantly polluting the environment, pose a potential risk for major disasters and catastrophic accidents
that may arise and which result from different and unexpected situations.
The black dot in terms of environmental pollution due to mining and processing of mineral raw materials
in Serbia and in the wider region is the MSB Bor with its active mines and processing plants of copper
ore (Majdanpek, Veliki Krivelj, Cerovo, etc.).

Figure 3 Tailings and landfills of the MSB Bor


5

The amount of mining waste and metallurgical slag, more precisely, specifically surface mines tailings,
flotation tailings and metallurgical slag is shown in Table 4 4.
Table 4 The amount of surface pits, flotation tailings and metallurgical slag of the MSB Bor 4.
Mine waste
Surface pits tailings
Flotation tailings
Metallurgical slag
Total

Waste landfill
Bor
Veliki Krivelj
Cerovo
Bor
Veliki Krivelj
Bor

Quantities (Mt)
258
170
22
77
130
16,5
670,5

On the hand, the ore of lead and zinc are related to active and inactive mines of the Kopaonik area, ie.
The mines of the mining and metallurgical complex of Trepca (Stari Trg, Belo Brdo, Crnac, Ajvalija) as
well as active and passive flotation landfills (Gornje Polje, Zitkovac, Tvranski Do, Bostaniste, etc.).
On these dumps are not done serious researches on the composition of useful and toxic components, and
there is no exact information how many individual components or rare metals there are, both from an
economic point of view and from the aspect of environmental protection.

Landfill Zitkovac
Flotation landfill Bostaniste
Figure 4 Tailings of Metallurgical and Chemical Plant of Lead and Zinc of Trepca
The total amount of flotation tailings, which is deposited in 5 landfills in northern part of Kosovo and
Metohija is presented in Table 4 5.
ble 4 The quantity of deposited flotation tailings at landfills 5
Landfill
Upper and Lower field (1930-1965)
itkovac (1965 - 1975)
arkov Creek (1975.)
Tvrdjanski Do (1972 1975)
Bostanite (1976)
Total

Quantity (t)

Volume (m3)

26.344.212
7.594.932
9.961.113
1.442.812
5.641.612
50.984.681

8.498.133
2.449.979
3.123.262
480.937
1.880.537
16.522.848

Surveys conducted in order to determine the composition of landfills in Kosovo and Metohija were
mostly reduced to taking samples from surface parts of landfills. One such study was done by BRGM
company of France. The results of surface samples taken from the landfill at depths up to 50 cm show a
very interesting composition of useful components. The results of their research, although not entirely
representative, indicate that the technological process of processing of lead and zinc ore, in the remains of
processing contained in the landfill, there are very important components of Ag, Pb, Zn, Cu, Bi, Ge, Ga,
and, Au, etc. which may be valorized 6.
6

Protection of the environment in terms of valorization and utilization of useful components from active
and passive tailings from the processing of metallic mineral raw materials in Serbia means that with the
processing of the deposited mass of passive landfill as first would reduce the amount of waste, then would
be received large amounts of useful components and rare metals, and waste from the reprocessing of
waste dumps to put off the regulated sanitary landfills. The benefit would be really manifold.
On the other hand, is still not known, and there are no clear data on the number of old - inactive landfills
in Serbia, what is their chemical and mineralogical composition, the extent of the area, volume and the
like. For a start it is necessary to create a database of all dumps that potentially contain useful
components, then record and do cadastre of all potential polluters in Serbia, not only for possible
valorization of the useful components, but also for the development of the strategy to reduce
environmental pollution from the impact of mining activities.
The first step was taken in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, where the ongoing development of
Databases "The cadastre of abandoned mines on the territory of Vojvodina".
Analysis and interpretation of satellite imagery was based on morphological indicators of anthropogenic
influence on the territory of Vojvodina. For this purpose, with the remote detection were recorded
different types of surface changes in form of: widely affected degraded areas, the old abandoned mines,
landfills (industrial or municipal waste), space with industrial plants, mines and landfills of active
material. The precision of locating the boundaries of these entities is directly related to the resolution of
images and the time of their acquisition. Totally were digitalized 1,040 polygons, of which 700 are
classified as "abandoned mine". The total degraded area set aside the remote detection is of 227 km2 of
the total 21,506 km2 as there are in Vojvodina, which seems to be about 1% of the area potentially
degraded.
Still is ongoing the field data collection and verification of results of remote detection, which can be
referred to the numbers on the degree of degradation of the change. Figure 5 shows the "WebGIS cadastre
of abandoned mines in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina" 7.

Figure 5 The database of the "Cadastre of abondened mines on the territory of AR of Vojvodina

4. CONCLUSION
Considering the overall problems, either of the historical waste, or pollution resulting from the active
mining and energy complex, it is clear that the Republic of Serbia needs a necessary step in solving of
environmental problems.
This step is reflected in the optional preparation of necessary legislation in this field. In addition to the
drafting and adoption of the "Mine Closure Law" [8, 9, 10] that exists in all industrialized countries, it is
7

necessary in a few steps to collect all relevant data on polluters and potential polluters, active and passive, so
to deal with applying for funding from EU funds, with of course, continuous separation of investment and
own funds of the Republic of Serbia in solving the problem of pollution from mining activities.

Acknowledgement
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Research on possibility for AT (Advanced Technology) rockbolting
application in mines for the purpose of increasing work safety and production efficiency" (TR 33025) and as a part
of the project "Improvement of Lignite opencast Technology in Order to Increase Energy Efficiency and
Occupational Safety" (TR 33039) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia
within the framework of Programme of research in the field of technological development for the period 2011-2015.

REFERENCES
1 Ristovi, I.: Energy Mining and Sustainable Development. 3 rd International Symposium Energy
Mining, September 2010, pp. 1-6, Banja Junakovic, Apatin, Serbia
2 Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia to 2015 with projections to 2030. Ministry of
Mining and Energy, Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, 2014. Serbia.
3 Report on the state of the environment in MB "Kolubara" for the period January-December 2014. The
Department for the protection and improvement of the environment, January, 2015.
4 Bogdanovi, G., Trumi, M., Trumi, M., Anti, D.: Mining Waste Management Genesis and
Possibility of Processing. Recycling and Sustainable Development 4 (2011) 37-43.
5 Nedeljkovic at all.: Technogenic mineral deposits of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Study,
Kosovska Mitrovica, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 2011. pp.73.
6 French scientific cooperation 2007-2008 on the Trepa lead-zink-silver mine and the gold potential of
Novo Brdo/Artana tailings (Kosovo), Final Report, BRGM/RP-57204-FR, 2009.
7 WebGIS cadastre of abandoned mines in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Faculty of Mining and
Geology. 2015(in drafting).
8 Coppin, N.J.: An ecologist in mining-a retrospective of 40 years in mine closure and reclamation. pp.
295-310, Mine Closure 2013 M. Tibbett, A.B. Fourie and C. Digby (eds) 2013 Australian Centre
for Geomechanics, Perth.
9 Limpitlaw, D., Mitchell, P.: Mine closure - misplaced planning priorites. pp.1-14, Mine Closure 2013
M. Tibbett , A.B. Fourie and C. Digby (eds) 2013 Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth.
10 Frippiat, C.C., Stphenne, N., Veschkens, M.: Adaption of the European Union risk assessment
protocol for the pre-inventory of Wallon mining waste deposit. pp. 495-508, Mine Closure 2013 M.
Tibbett, A.B. Fourie and C. Digby (eds) 2013 Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth.

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

PROCEDURE OF CREATION AND DESIGN OF SIMULATION MODEL


OF CALCINED ORE CONVEYANCE
Daniela Marasov, Michal Cehlr, Nikoleta Huskov
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
Abstract: The paper presents an application of simulation of calcined ore conveyance in the mining enterprise. The
main contribution of the paper is a comparison of calcined ore conveying by classic and pipe conveyor by the help
of simulation models created in the program Extend with the detailed description of simulation model and program.
The model of pipe conveyor and classic belt conveyor is formed by various input blocks with the setting of main
technical parameters of the conveyor. The output of the model is graphic presentation of the course of simulation on
the part of total resistance of the conveyor belt.
Keywords: Conveyor, Pipe Conveyor, Calcined Ore, Conveying, Simulation

1. INTRODUCTION
Simulation is a very effective tool for presentation and examination of behaviour of various systems. One
of these systems is also conveying. It is possible to talk about three types of simulation discrete,
continuous or combined simulation. Discrete systems are systems of which state quantities are modified
discretely, i.e. in the certain time periods. During the interval between two modifications of the system
state, the state qualities are constant [1]. Typical examples of discrete dynamic systems where are
modelling and simulation used are digital equipments and logistics networks. By simulation of digital
equipments these hierarchical levels are known [2]:
1. Level of electronic elements physical simulation;
2. Level of logical members logical simulation;
3. Level of intra-blocks or intra-registers transmissions functional simulation;
4. Level of system system simulation.
Continuous systems are typical by continuous changes of state quantities, i.e. it is possible to change their
value in arbitrary moment of the interval in which is the system monitored. In general, the behaviour of
the continuous system is described by algebraic and differential equations. The ways of solution of
differential or algebraic equations are [2]:
1. Analytical;
2. Simulation by analogue computers;
3. Numeric simulation.
Algorithms present the continuous system by the computer is created by various numerical methods. The
most use algorithms for numerical simulation of continuous dynamic systems are [3]:

1. extrapolating methods;
2. interpolating methods;
3. integrating formulas of Runge-Kutt.
Combined systems are typical by the fact that the state quantities are changed in time to continual, and
some of them to discrete. The development of simulation languages for combined simulation is shorter
than development of other simulation languages.
By the type of the simulation model it is possible to talk about these types of models:
- Deterministic they are determined by the state in the moment t;
- Stochastic the results are determined with the specific probability.
The main elements of the simulation models are the components of the systems, system variables and
functional relations. Components are static (for example routes, stores), dynamic (for example means of
transport, employees. System variables are internal (production performance, number of needed tools),
external (number of offers, faults of machines) and parameters (number of devices, capacity of holders).
Functional relations, for example performance of device = F (supplies), continuous time (wait time,
capacity) [3].

2. DESCRIPTION OF SIMULATION MODEL CREATION


The simulation model courses in several steps, namely [2]:
1. definition and formalization of the problem the base is formulation of the task and definition for
its purpose;
2. analysis of the problem it consists from these steps:
- definition of variables, parameters of the problem and definition of their relations;
- determination of economical rate of model effectiveness;
- definition of necessary activities which will be realized by the model;
- mathematical description of the parts which are needed for this description.
3. formalization of the model it consists from the part which is possible to describe by mathematical
tools and part for which is not possible to use mathematical description. For these parts will be
designed solutions in the form of algorithms, flow diagrams;
4. estimation of parameters and limitation of the model for application of models is needed to define
limitations, intervals in which is possible to change input data of the model external exogenous
and internal endogenous parameters and variables;
5. Construction of the algorithm, flow diagram- it is effected by simulation tools which are available.
By formation it is needed to make provision for the type of simulation language and selection of
the computer;
6. overwrite of algorithm to the program the created simulation algorithm is needed to overwrite to
the simulation language by availability of directions or block schemes of used simulation language;
7. realization of the simulation calculation a first it is needed to realize debugging of the created
diagram. Realization can be realized by classic or iterative way.
8. Verification and analysis of the results values, information obtained from realization of
simulation are compared. By comparison it is possible to obtain review about possibilities,
limitations of the model. From the obtained data are selected variants with the best results. From
these data it is possible to define parameters which will lead to the optimization of the model.

3. DESCRIPTION OF THE SIMULATION PROGRAM EXTEND


The program Extend is a computer simulation tool which is the first tool designed for users from
various sciences. The program is a product of the company Imagine That, Inc and it was created in
10

cooperation with NASA. By the help of this program it is possible to create dynamic models of real
processes in various fields. Creation of models from blocks allows search difficult processes, see their
mutual connection and find optimal solution by changing of parameters. By this program it is possible to
create simple and quick formations of difficult models of various systems, processes and devices [4].
Existence of libraries with the prepared blocks allows quickly formation of models ant creator of a model
can use these libraries by the model creation (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
Block for set of
constants

Block for set of


equations

Block Holding
Tank

Figure 1 Blocks of the program Extend

Figure 2 Example of simulation model created in the program Extend


Blocks are connected very simply, by interconnection of their inputs and outputs. The program Extend
offers [4]:
-

Graphical presentation of relation in the modelled system;


Animation for presentation;
Hierarchical levels in the simulation models;
Simple and quickly changes of parameters of the model;
Possibility of parameters changes also during the simulation;
Connection among programs Excel, Autocad;
Creation of new own libraries, blocks, or modification of existing blocks by the requirements of
user;
Possibility of consultation by creation of the model with the authors of the program or with other
experts dealing with mathematical simulation and mathematical modelling.

Procedure of the simulation model creation [4]:


1. definition of the algorithm and formulation of the problem;
2. analysis of the problems;
3. formalization of the model;
11

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

parameters estimate and limitations of the model;


construction of the algorithm and flow diagram;
description of the algorithm to the program;
realization of the simulation calculation;
verification and analysis of the results.

4. SIMULATION MODEL OF PIPE AND CLASSIC CONVEYOR IN THE PROGRAM


EXTEND
The pipe conveyor (PC) is described as a continuous model which is characterized by the continuous
changes of the state quantities. At the same time it allows simulation of various parts of pipe conveyor for
the purpose of optimization and improvement of properties of these parts of conveyor [5]. Simulation is
created on the basis of strength calculation of conveyors and these input really obtained values presented
by the Tab. 1. And at the same time the output data are presented by the Tab. 2.
Table 1 Input data of the conveyors
Type of the belt
Powder density
Length of conveyor
Height of conveyor
Conveying speed
Width of conveyor
Inclination angle
Weight of rollers of CC
Weight of rollers of PC
Spacing of idler rollers in the CC
Spacing of idler rollers in the PC
Weight of conveyor belt frame
Length of side direction
Width of hopper
Width of side direction of hopper
Inclination angle of side rollers
Length of the middle roller
Real weight of the transported material

Table 2 Output data for conveyors


Classic conveyor
Capacity of conveyor
50 t.h-1
Total kinematic resistance
8354,9 N
Drive of belt conveyor
8,48 kW

CC
EP 400/3-D
1,7 kg/dm3
55,3 m
16,05 m
0,525 m/s
800 mm
17
4,7 kg
12,5 kg
1100 mm
3500 mm
2
11 kg/m
3000 mm
650 mm
120 mm
30
300 mm
52 t.h-1

PC
EP 500/3 5+3
1,7 kg/dm3
55,3 m
16,05 m
0,525 m/s
800 mm
17
4,7 kg
12,5 kg
1100 mm
3500 mm
2
11 kg/m
3000 mm
650 mm
120 mm
30
300 mm
52 t.h-1

Pipe conveyor
105 t.h-1
8725,88 N
5,72 kW

Fig. 3 presents the course of resistance of conveyor belts for classic and pipe conveyor according to the
input and output data.

12

Figure 3 Course of resistances of conveyor belts for classic and pipe conveyor
The model of pipe and classic conveyor is created by different input blocks, for example Constant, in
which are set different data, for example length of conveyor, time, speed of conveyor, the other is the
block Input Random Number, in which was defined minimal and maximal amount of material and
blocks Holding Tank, in which are defined other data, as material acceptance, output of material, graph
presented the course of simulation and strength calculation of the conveyors. Fig. 4 presents the model of
pipe conveyor and classic conveyor created by the help of the program Extend and the Fig. 5 presents the
calculation of the main resistance of the conveyors.

Figure 4 Model of pipe and classic conveyor in the program Extend

13

Figure 5 Calculation of the main resistance of the conveyor


Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0184/12, VEGA 1/0922/12,
VEGA 1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169, University Science Park TECHNICOM for Innovation
Applications Supported by Knowledge Technology, ITMS: 26220220182, supported by the Research &
Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

4. CONCLUSION
Simulation is an experimental method in which it is possible to replace the real system by computer
model. The essence of this method is based on the fact that the researched dynamic systems is replaced by
the simulator and by it is realized experiments with the aim to obtain information about original systems.
It is an ideal tool for support of decision making in different levels in the enterprise. By the help of
simulation were compared two conveyors classis belt conveyor and pipe conveyor. The simulation was
realized by the help of simulation program Extend which is a suitable tool for evaluation of processes for
the condition of practice.

REFERENCES
[1] Malindk, D. et al., Modelling and simulation in logistics. Theory of modelling and simulation. 1st ed.
Koice. 2009. 182 p. ISBN 978-80-553-0265-2.
[2] Straka, M., Simulation of discrete systems and simulation languages. Koice. 2005. 101 p. ISBN 808073-289-2.
[3] Malindk, D. et al.,Application of modelling and simulation in enterprise logistics. Koice. 2009. 286
p. ISBN 978-80-553-0264-5.
[4] Straka, M., Rosov, A., Fedorko, G., Simulation system Extend. 1st ed. Koice. 2013. 72 p. ISBN 97880-553-1520-1.
[5] Fedorko, G. et al., Pipe conveyors. 1st ed. Koice. 2013. 309 p. ISBN 978-80-553-1190-6.

14

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

CAN COAL SURVIVE


Evgen Dervaric, Zeljko Vukelic
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Abstract: The future of coal in Europe is challenged by very ambitius climate policies. The EU Commission
proposes further 20% reduction (2,2% a year) in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions until 2020 and 40% until 2030
in comparison to the year 1990. The EU Commission climate and energy policy would be three times tougher than
current policy. Can coal survive? A more realistic policy can deliver considerable emission reductions at a lower
cost, allow economic growth and provide security of energy supply.
Keywords: Coal, Reserves, Energy Demand, Energy Supply, GHG Greenhouse Gas Emissions

1. INTRODUCTION
The increase of global hard coal production capacities driven by demand since the beginning of the new
millennium, and the expansion of existing mines and the opening up of new mines, have given rise to
todays excess capacities and therefore to an oversupply situation in the global hard coal market. As a
consequence, coal prices are dropping, particularly when compared to oil and gas, which will therefore
probably lead to only a very insignificant slow down in the demand for coal, and the mines with high
production costs are closing. The strong rise in the global demand for coal in recent years is expected to
continue and will be driven by the Asian countries.
Due to the fact that coal is reliable, save and ever cleaner source of energy and heat, it will continue to
play a significant role against the background of the continuing rise in global primary energy
consumption. The reserves and resources of coal are adequate to cover the foreseeable demand for many
decades from a geological point of view, with a share of around 54 % of reserves and 89 % of resources
among non renewable energy resources. Coal is the second most important source of energy used to
satisfy global primary energy consumption.
In these times of high energy prices and low economic growth, the European Commission proposes a
2030 climate and energy policy that would be three times tougher than current policy and insists on going
it alone, even if there is no new international climate agreement. Its proposed 40% GHG reduction target
would mean making the same emission reduction over a single decade (2020-2030) as has yet to be
achieved over three decades (1990-2020). The coal industry asks that any target for 2030 must be realistic
and only decided after the 2015 climate summit on November 2015 in Paris.
If the 2030 target is not part of a binding global agreement, it would result in higher energy prices and a
less competitive energy supply in the Europe. Without an international agreement the risk of carbon
leakage is high and the effects on global emissions are low. The significant effort required by European
industry under the Commissions proposal would reduce global emissions by just 0.25%.
15

2. WORLD ENERGY DEMAND IN SUPPLY


The publication World Energy Outlook 2010, published by the International Energy Agency in Paris, has
proposed three scenarios and projections to prepare detailed quantitative projections of long term energy
trends, namely the Current Policies Scenario (in the publication 2009 1 it was Reference Scenario), New
Policies Scenario (this is connected with the already achieved agreements on the reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions, although the emission reductions can be uncertain, as the obligation under the Kyoto
Protocol expired in 2013, new agreements in Copenhagen and Cancun was not achieved) and third 450
Scenario (this scenario takes into account the emission limits CO2 to 450 ppm CO2 - equivalent and
limiting the rise in average atmospheric temperature to 2 degrees Celsius 2). New Policies Scenario is
the central scenario for the global energy projections in World Energy Outlook 2014.
Economic activity is the principal driver of demand for each type of energy service. The projections in all
three scenarios described are sensitive to the assumptions about the rate of growth of gross domestic
product (GDP) in each region. Energy demand tends to grow in line with GDP, typically at a
lower rate in the most advanced economies (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Primary energy (demand side from 1971 to 2012) and GDP in selected countries3
According to the New Policies Scenario world primary energy demand is projected to increase on average
by 1.1% per year between 2012 and 2040, reaching almost 18 300 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe)
an increase of around 4 900 Mtoe, or 37% (Figure 2). Demand expands much more rapidly in the
Current Policies Scenario, rising at an average rate of 1.5% per year to a level in 2040 that is 50% higher
than in 2012. In 450 Scenario the global energy demand grows on average by only 0.6% per year; in
2040, demand is 17% up on 2012.

Figure 2 Demand for primary energy in the world, depending on the particular scenario - the New
Policies Scenario (NPS) is the most likely scenario is projected WEO 2014 3
16

The primary energy demand by fuel is shown from the table in figure 3. The price paths vary across the
three scenarios, in part due to differences in the strength of policies to address energy security and
environmental challenges and their respective impacts on supply and demand (see table in Figure 4).

Figure 3 Demand for primary energy (by fuel) in the world, depending on the individual scenario (in
Mtoe 1 tonne of oil equivalent = 42 GJ) 3

Figure 4 Import prices of fossil fuels in scenarios (estimated projected inflation rate in 2014 and until
2040 is 2.3%)3
Since 2000, the EU import bill for oil and gas totals 548 billion EUR (2012) or 4.2% of GDP4.

2.WORLD ENERGY RESOURCES AND RESERVES


Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) provides an assessment of the geological
inventory of fuels and information concerning the reserves, resources and availability of crude oil, natural
gas, coal, nuclear fuels, and deep geothermal energy5. The compiled data is based on the continuous
evaluation of information from journals, scientific publications, reports from industry, professional and
political organisations, internet sources, and BGRs own surveys. A comparison of global reserves,
resources, and consumed fuels shows large potentials in all regions of the world (Figure 5).
There are still extensive quantities of fossil energy resources, this wealth in fuels is primarily based on the
large coal deposits found on all continents. Unlike conventional crude oil and natural gas deposits, they
are not so much concentrated in certain regions.

17

Figure 5 Overall potential of fuels in 2013: regional distribution (excluding coal resources in the
Antarctic, resources from oil shale, aquifer gas, natural gas from gas hydrates, and thorium, as none of
these can be assigned to specific regions),(estimated cumulative production of coal since 1950) 5
The Middle East, which is so important for crude oil and natural gas, has a relatively minor total potential
of energy resources. Resources account for the largest share of global non renewables, exceeding the
reserves by a factor of 15. This applies to all fuels except conventional crude oil, highlighting its special
role. The energy content of all reserves totalled 37,646 exajoules (EJ) in 2013, almost 6 % less than the
previous year. While hydrocarbon reserves grew slightly, despite a rise in production, new evaluations put
the reserves of coal and nuclear fuel at lower levels than before. In terms of its recoverable energy
content, coal remains the major source of energy, particularly with regard to resources, but also to
reserves. Crude oil, on the other hand, still dominates in consumption and production, and ranks second
after coal in the reserves. From a geological perspective, the known inventories can provide a reliable
supply of natural gas, coal and nuclear fuels even in the long term. Crude oil is the only fuel with an
evident finiteness.

4. COAL RESERVES AND RESOURCES


From a geological perspective, hard coal and lignite reserves and resources are adequate to cover the
foreseeable demand for many decades to come. With a share of around 54 % of reserves and 89 % of
resources, coal has the largest potential of all non renewables. Coal will continue to play an important role, as
the rise in global primary energy consumption is expected to continue. Following several years of very high
growth in the production and consumption of coal, the rise was relatively minor in 2013.
Since 2009, the development in global, and therefore also European, coal prices has been largely determined
by the rise in coal imports to Asia and particularly China, which now account for 72 % of the global coal
trading volume. Supply still exceeds demand on the global hard coal market. With the commissioning of new
and highly productive coal mines and production growth in many coal export mines, this situation is unlikely
to change in the near future. In 2013, more mines with high production costs were closed down, most of them
in the United States, Australia and China. In what remains of the European coal mining industry (particularly
of hard coal), there are plans for major restructuring processes.
World market prices for coal have fallen again. Because of the oversupply, price increases for steam coal
and coking coal are unlikely in the near future, too. Among the fossil fuels, coal is the energy source with
by far the largest global reserves and resources. With a share of 30.1 % (28.4 % hard coal, 1.7 % lignite)
in global, coal was the second most important source of energy in 2013 after crude oil 6. With a share of
around 40 %, coal contributed more to power generation in 2012 than any other source of energy. Proven
global coal reserves at the end of 2013 totalled 968 Gt, of which around 688 Gt were hard coal and 280
Gt lignite. World coal production grew again slightly in 2013, to around 7,969 Mt 7. This is equivalent
to an increase of 0.2 % on the previous year. Hard coal accounted for 6,913 Mt (up 0.8 %) and lignite for
1,056 Mt (down 3.7%).

18

Figure 6 shows the regional distribution of hard coal reserves and resources, and estimated cumulative
production since 1950. Australasia has the largest remaining potential of hard coal, with 7,516 Gt,
followed by North America with 6,873 Gt, and the CIS with around 2,969 Gt. The three largest hard coal
producers in 2013 were China, with a share of 51.1 % (3,533 Mt), the United States (11.9 %) and India
(8.2 %). While China and India were able to increase production slightly, as in previous years by 0.8 %
(China) and 1.4 % (India), but production in the USA decreased (down 3.6 %).

Figure 6 Total hard coal potential in 2013 (18,373 Gt): regional distribution 5
North America has the largest remaining potential of lignite, with around 1,519 Gt, followed by
Australasia (1,373 Gt) and the CIS (1,372 Gt including sub bituminous) (Figure 7).

Figure 7 Total lignite potential in 2013 (4,684 Gt): regional distribution 5


Of the known global lignite reserves of 280 Gt in 2013, around a third or 90.7 Gt (including sub
bituminous) are found in Russia (32.4 % global share), followed by Australia (15.8 %), Germany (14.4
%), the USA (10.9 %), and Indonesia (3.2 %). The USA have the largest lignite resources, with around
1,368 Gt (31.1% global share), followed by Russia (28.9 % including sub-bituminous) and Australia (9.1
%). More than 82 % of global lignite production totalling 1,056 Mt came from only 11 of the 37
producing countries in 2013. Germany was the largest producer of lignite with a share of 17.3 % (183
Mt), followed by China (13.9 %) and Russia (6.9 % including sub bituminous).
The future role of coal will significant be for Europe, namely 88%8 of energy reserves in the EU
representing the reserves of coal, coal potential in the Europe is so pervasive as potential of gas and oil in
the Middle East.

5. GHG AND CO2 EMISSIONS


The EU proposes a very ambitious climate targets by 2030, and does not explain their importance in the
global context.
19

On top of the 20% greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reduction target for 2020, the European Commission
proposes a further 20% reduction (GHG) emissions during the 2020s, both compared with a 1990
baseline (Figure 8). The proposed reduction over a single decade from 2020 to 2030 is the same that has
yet to be achieved over the three decades from 1990 to 2020, three times faster in times of uncertainty,
high energy prices, low growth and with no international climate agreement.
The only times that such a steep reduction in emissions has been seen in the EU were during the
economic meltdown in Eastern Europe as the Iron Curtain disappeared and during the 2008 global
economic crisis. In normal economic times, emission reductions of 0.5% to 1.0% per year have been
achieved, depending on the rate of economic growth and improvements in efficiency. The Commission
proposes a 2.2% annual reduction which would carry an uncertain price.

Figure 8 Greenhouse gas emission reduction path in the EU: as much to do in one decade as in the
previous three decades5
The reasonable question could rise, what is the difference between a 33% and a 43% reduction in emissions
compared with the 2005 baseline of 2 266 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent? A 33% reduction requires CO2
emissions to be reduced from 1 789 million tonnes in 2020 to 1 518 million tonnes in 2030. In the case of a
43% reduction, emissions must fall from 1 789 million tonnes to 1 306 million tonnes of CO2.
Over the decade 2020-2030, the difference is around 1 000 million tonnes of CO2. Estimates show that
global emissions over the same decade will be around 400 billion tonnes. The one billion tonnes of CO2
saved by the EU ETS is thus equivalent to just 0.25% of predicted global emissions.

Figure 9 Availability of CO2 emission allowances under the EU emissions trading scheme5
A lower target, for example the -33% target, could be achieved by the modernisation and renewal of
existing industrial and power generation installations, making a positive contribution to productivity and
economic growth. The tougher -43% target proposed by the EU Commission would have little impact on
global GHG emissions, but would certainly result in much higher carbon prices, fuel switching to natural
gas and a less competitive energy supply in Europe.
20

The ETS is delivering its objective for 2020 to reduce its CO2 emissions by 21% compared with a 2005
baseline in a cost effective and economically efficient way. The scheme was a success. At a time of very
high energy prices and in the midst of an economic crisis, low CO2 prices were desirable and initiatives
to raise the CO2 price are neither necessary nor justified. The extent and effectiveness of strategic
measures to prevent climate changes remains a major factor that can not be predicted for the outlook of
development of the coal market in the future. Projections of the modernization of combustion plants and
CO2 reductions is shown in Figure 10. Under the current scenario, it is expected that CO2 emissions from
coal reach an annual growth of 1.5 % between 2007 and 2030 (1990 20.9 Gt, 2007 28.8 Gt, 2020
34.5 Gt, 2030 40. 2 Gt).

Figure 10 Technology development and modernization of combustion plants and process of CO2
reduction 9
The combined efforts in the fight against climate changes that we are currently witnessing around the
world, including the use of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage - capturing and storing carbon dioxide)
technology, could lead to lower CO2 emissions into the environment.

6. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLY


Underground coal gasification (UCG) could become an alternative with usage of deep lying coal as a
clean gasification of fuel in order to provide fuel for producing electricity. UCG for the production of gas
uses and requires two or three boreholes. With two boreholes, we impress the air, oxygen or steam in the
first one and as a result from the second production borehole we get gas (mainly hydrogen and carbon
monoxide), which must be cleaned with special procedures for its use. Both boreholes are connected with
the zone, which represents a coal block in which combustion and gasification occur, which of course is
monitored and controlled. Figure 11 shows the technological scheme of the underground coal gasification
using two boreholes.

Figure 11 Process of underground gasification with a usage of two boreholes 11


UCG was commercially used in the former Soviet Union and Uzbekistan in the early sixties. Recent
projects undertaken in China, Australia, Canada and South Africa have not led to commercial UCG
projects yet. Development in these countries is oriented at improving drilling techniques and computeraided modelling. Results of previous studies are rather sparse in order to protect intellectual property
21

rights. Some data has only been published on the temperature of the process, which should be higher than
1 000 C. A discussion was held on the impact of environmental temperature on the geological
formations. All the current pilot projects are estimated to be worked out in relatively small quantities of
coal (15 to 20 million tons of coal), but it is likely that countries with large coal reserves will facilitate
faster development of projects. UCG technology commercialization project will be extremely difficult, it
will be necessary to pool knowledge and resources of interested countries, which will certainly happen in
the future. This will occur fast, especially if the climate agreement is not favourable for coal.
One of the alternatives in the development of new clean coal technologies and the exploitation is gas from the
coal. Methane, which is captured in the seams of coal at a great depth and layers that with an implementation of
the conventional technology cannot be used, could be a potential energy resource for electricity production.

7. CONCLUSION
European Association for Coal and Lignite EURACOAL have prepared on March 16, 2015 in Poland
the declaration12 and therefore call on EU Member States, the European Commission, the European
Economic and Social Committee, and the Energy Community to promote an EU Energy and Climate
Policy for All. That means a realistic policy that reflects the tremendous contribution that coal will make
to EU energy supply over the coming years, a respectful policy that does not alienate a large group of
workers and their families who contribute massively to society by producing the coal and electrisity
needed by us all, and a responsible policy that recognises the role of indigenous coal in balanced fuel mix
and reflects the needs for investment in productive coal mines and high efficiency, low emission power
plants so that our future energy supply is secure, competitive and with low environmental impact. We
should remember that coal was very cornerstone of European integration and has not only a glourious
past, but can have a glorious future, namely 88% of energy reserves in the Europe representing the
reserves of coal, coal potential in the Europe is so pervasive as potential of gas and oil in the Middle East.
Balancing sustainable development, competitiveness and security of supply means for Europe to enter
into a new energy era. World economic regions in ensuring energy security and stable economic
conditions, and for ensuring effective action against climate change dependent on each other. Access to
energy is fundamental to the daily lives of every European. Today the energy market faced with an
extremely low stock market prices in the crisis are currently a number of coal companies. We believe,
however, that in the past we learned a lot (a similar situation has plagued the Europe in 2003,
remembering the electrical eclipses in Italy and elsewhere) and we will know in the future energy sector
to observe the long term. This fact is even more important because the energy import dependence in the
EU growing and will be by the year 2040 close to 80%.

REFERENCES
[1] World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, OECD/IAE (2009), Paris
[2] World Energy Outlook Special Report, Redrawing the Energy Climate Map, International Energy
Agency, OECD/IAE (2013), Paris
[3] World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, OECD/IAE (2014), Paris
[4] EURACOAL Coal Fuel for the 21th Century, 5th Edition, Brussels, 2013
[5] Energy Study 2014 Reserves, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources, BGR, Hannover 2014
[6] EURACOAL Coal Industry Across Europe, Brussels, 2/2014
[7] EURACOAL Market Report, Brussels, 2/2014
[8] EURACOAL An Action Plan for Coal in the 21th Century, Brussels, 2014
[9] EURACOAL Why Less Climate Ambition Would Deliver More for the EU, Brussels, 2014
[10]
EURACOAL Annual Report 2010, Brussels, 2010
[11]
Safer environment (2008). Underground coal gasification (UCG) Potential to increase coal
reserve worldwide in environment-friendly manner, http://www.google.si/search
[12]
EURACOAL Declaration: Realism, Respect & Responsibility, an Energy and Climate Policy for
All, Katowice 2014
22

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IN SERBIAN OPEN CAST LIGNITE MINES


Aleksandar Cvjetic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: Irreversible and permanent hearing damage can occur after prolonged exposure to high levels of noise.
The sole efficient preventive measure is to control noise exposure before hearing loss appears. In common with most
other heavy industries, mining activities can expose workers to high noise levels. But this is not limited to
employees. Exposed population is much larger in situations where mining facilities are in proximity of residential
areas. The issue of occupational noise becomes the problem of environmental noise with all the consequences. This
paper presents condition of environmental noise in vicinity of Kolubara and Kostolac mining basins, with
suggestions for noise management.
Keywords: Noise, Surface Mining

1. INTRODUCTION
Sound can be defined as a pressure change (in the air, water or similar elastic material) which can be
detected by human ear. By its nature, sound is a part of everyday life and human's environment. Sound
can be pleasant, but also very disturbing and unfavorable, which is the case when it is defined as noise.
Discomfort is commonly related to time of sound appearance (day or night). Therefore, it can be
concluded that difference between sound and noise is frequently of subjective nature and these two
phrases are used as synonymous.
Some negative impact to health is directly or indirectly related to exposure of permanent or high level of
noise [1]. Previous general opinion was that noise impact is limited to hearing, but evidence was found
that this impact is much more complex. Anxiety during the day and sleeping disorder during the night [2],
[3], [4] are general and mildest form of life quality violation.
Other doseeffect relationships are including disappointment, unhappiness, anxiety and even depression as
well as mental health impacts [5], [6], [7], [8]. A further area of concern is the link between noise exposure and
cardio-vascular disease [9], [10], while noise has a particularly negative impact on children [12], [13], [14]. In
1994 it was estimated that during day-time, approximately 22% of the total population of the EU were exposed
to noise levels from road traffic exceeding a daily equivalent sound pressure level of 55 decibels (dB(A)) [14].
Moreover, 49% of the population (77 million) was considered to live in grey areas of acoustical discomfort
to residents. During night-time, more than 30% were considered to be exposed to equivalent sound pressure
levels exceeding 55 dB(A) which is considered to be disturbing to sleep [1].
Regretfully, after 20 years situation hasn't improved. According to the report on noise situation in Europe
for 2014 [15], it can be seen that noise is grooving problem of the environment. Generated by various and
numerous sources, noise is present not just in urban areas but also in complete natural surroundings.
Some of the main highlights of report are: noise is main issue in the environment of Europe causing at
least premature 10,000 deaths each year: almost 20 million adults are impeded by some form of noise
23

every day; more than 900,000 cases of hypertension is diagnosed every yeas as a consequence of
exposure to noise; noise is the main cause to 43,000 hospitalizations in Europe every year. Dependence of
environmental noise and public health is probably the most significant reason why environmental noise
has emerged as a major issue in environmental legislation and policy in recent years [1], [16], [17].
However, such shape of disorder can be prevented completely. For the conditions of lignite surface
mining in Serbia, with residential objects in close proximity of the mines, solving the issue of
occupational noise to large extent contributes to solving the issue of environmental noise. This paper
provides brief situation review of noise at open cast mines at largest basins in Serbia, Kolubara and
Kostolac, as well as suggestion for noise management measures for the purpose of limiting its impact to
the environment.

2. LEGISLATION
Noise in Republic of Serbia is completely regulated with following documents and standards: Law on
protection from environmental noise (Official Gazette RoS, No. 36/2009, 88/2010); Decision on noise
indicators, limiting vlues, noise assessment methods, disturbance and harmful impact in the environment
(Official Gazette RoS, No. 75/10); Rules on methods for noise measurement, content and scope of reports
on noise measurement (Official Gazette RoS, No. 72/10); Rules on methodology for development of
action plans (Official Gazette RoS, No. 72/10); Rules on methodology for determination of acoustic
zones (Official Gazette RoS, No. 72/10); Rules on content and methods for development of strategic
noise maps and means for their publication (Official Gazette RoS, No. 80/10); Rules on specific
requirements for expert organization for noise measurement and on required documentation for
certification for noise measurement (Official Gazette RoS, No. 72/10); SRPS ISO 1996-1: Acoustic
Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise Part 1: Main units and assessment
procedures; SRPS ISO 1996-2: Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise Part
2: Determination of environmental noise level.
Noise indicators are used for the purpose of determination of noise condition, for assessment and prediction of
noise situation, development of strategic noise maps and planning of prevention measures. Measurement of
environmental noise is defined by applicable regulation and standards SRPS ISO 1996-1 and SRPS ISO 19962. The aim of the ISO 1996 series is to provide authorities with material for the description and assessment of
noise in community environments. Based on the principles described in this part of ISO 1996, national
standards, regulations and corresponding acceptable limits for noise can be developed.
According to the Law on protection from noise, it is obligation of the local community to perform measures
for population protection from environmental noise. Hence, local community determines acoustic zones in
residential area, as well as limiting values of noise indicators in these zones. Development of acoustic zones is
performed in relation to the spatial purpose of the area, according to defined methodology.
Action plans are developed for areas with values exceeding the limits. These plans are developed base on
map of strategic noise for the same area. Strategic annual map contains data on noise levels for specific
area in preceding calendar year, and details on: existing, previous and planned noise condition expressed
with noise indicators; exceeded data of noise limits; estimated number of apartments, schools, hospitals
and buildings with similar purpose which are exposed to some noise indicators; estimated population
exposed in specific area. Strategic noise map presents overall exposure to noise in specific area according
to strategic noise maps of different sources.

3. EXISTING SITUATION
One of the specifics of surface lignite mining in Serbia is high population density in immediate vicinity of
the open cast mines (figure 1). Lack of clear development strategies of mines in previous period resulted
24

in urbanization of their surroundings. Problem of occupational noise therefore became the problem of
environmental noise.

a)

b)
Figure 1 Populated places in vicinity of surface mines:
a) Kolubara basin; b) Kostolac basin

Noise measurement in vicinity of surface mines is performed occasionally, in accordance to applicable


regulation [18]. Presented data are based on publically available information, i.e. annual reports on
environment condition in Kolubara and Kostolac basins [19].
Data on noise levels in Kolubara basin, for period 2012-2014, is given in table 1. As mentioned in annual
reports [20], measurements are performed at two sites: at location of heating plant in Vreoci (MM1) and
at border of Field D open cast mine near the church, also at Vreoci village (MM2).
Table 1 Authorized noise levels at Field D, Kolubara
Year
2012

Location of measurement

MM1

MM2

Day, (dB(A))
Evening, (dB(A))
Night, (dB(A))
Day, (dB(A))
Evening, (dB(A))
Night, (dB(A))

First measurement
65
61
62
58
51
57

Second measurement
56
63
62
62
57
62

2013

2014

62
58
67
52
57
61

63
55
58
55
53
60

Since the area around locations for measurement is not zoned to acoustics, annual reports conditionally
accepted limits for noise indicators for open area in zone 5 (for day and evening 65 dB(A) and for night
55 dB(A)) [18]. According to these accepted limits, it can be seen that environmental noise levels are
within limits for day and evening, but not for night. However, acceptance of zone 5 is appropriate for
location MM1 since it is next to regional road, but it would be more appropriate to accept zone 3 for
location MM2, next to the church (exclusively residential areas, with limits of 55 dB(A) for day and
evening and 45 dB(A) for night). In this situation, noise measured at MM2 exceeds limits for open area
for almost all performed measurements, except one.
Noise measurement in vicinity of Drmno open cast mine, TE-KO Kostolac, for same period (2012-2014)
was also performed at two locations: Viewpoint (west of the mine) and road to Klievac (east of the
mine) [21]. Results of the measurements are given in table 2.
25

Table 2 Authorized noise levels at Drmno open cast mine, Kostolac


Location of measurement
Viewpoint
Road to Klievcu

2012
57-62
62
53-58
55

Day and evening, (dB(A))


Night, (dB(A))
Day and evening, (dB(A))
Night, (dB(A))

Year
2013
56-61
46-49
49-53
54-55

2014
56
55
42
41

Local communities of Kostolac and Poarevac municipalities did not performed acoustic mapping of the
area in accordance to regulations. Lack of clearly defined acoustic zones prevents exact assessment of
compliance to legislation, but preliminary comment is viable with acceptance of certain zones.
Considering character and position of measuring locations, Viewpoint location can be categorized into
zone 2, with limits of 50 dB(A) for day and evening and 45 dB(A) for night. Road to Klievac location
can be categorized into zone 5, with limits of 65 dB(A) for day and evening and 55 dB(A) for night.
Comparing authorized values with limits, it can be concluded that for the Viewpoint location limits are
exceeded for each year and for all periods of the day. Regarding second location, road to Klievac,
measured values are within the limits, for each year throughout the day.
This is clear indication of zoning importance, mainly for residential areas, mainly in order to avoid
various and arbitrary interpretations of the spatial purpose. Once the clear exceeding of legal limits takes
place, according to defined zones, local community is obliged to start development of action plans, which
is one of the measures of environmental noise management.

4. PROCEDURES AND MEASURES FOR REDUCING NOISE LEVELS


Noise generation at lignite surface mines is related to following activities: mining of coal and overburden,
stacking of overburden, transport of coal and overburden, transfer and reloading of coal, coal stocking,
crushing, loading and transport of coal (railway and trucks). According to nature of these activities and their
location and in relation to noise management, potential sources can be divided into outer and inner sources
[23]. Inner sources are part of the activity taking place within enclosed area (reloading towers, crushing
facility, belt conveyor bridges and similar). Since these are within the enclosed areas, their noise emission is
already significantly reduced. Level of noise reduction largely depends on quality of constructed object,
condition of the object and its maintenance. Regarding noise management, contribution of these sources to
overall emission of environmental noise is much lower than emission from outer sources. Therefore, further-on
but not limited to, only procedures and measures related to outer sources will be considered. Application of
mentioned procedures to inner sources would result in additional reduction of noise emissions from these
sources, thus contributing to lower imission to the environment.
Measures for noise reduction and measures for noise management are including: noise management at the source,
noise propagation management and noise management at the receptor. Measures for noise management at the
source and during noise propagation can be separated into active and passive measures (table 3) [22].
Table 3 Engineering measures for noise management
Noise management measures
Active
Primary
Engines with low source noise
Gears and geared mechanisms
with low source noise
Equipment with low noise
in idling speed
Proper maintenance

Passive

Secondary
Complete enclosure
Partial enclosure
Sound absorbers

26

Barriers noise management


panel walls
Dams dikes
for noise management
Green belt

Enclosure of noise source (figure 2) is a measure which can be successfully implemented for belt
conveyor transfer points, and even for bucket wheel excavators. Experience from Germany is indicating
that noise level can be reduced by 11 dB(A) with these measures [22].

Figure 2 Complete and partial enclosure of noise source [22]


Additional measure for noise reduction, which is cost effective and enables use of same components for
several times, is mobile panels mobile barriers (figure 3).

Figure 3 Barriers mobile panels [22]


From aesthetic point of view, more favorable solution is application of green belt (figure 4), if it is
feasible.

Figure 4 Green belt [22]


Noise management at the location of receptor includes following: noise monitoring at the location of
interested community (residential objects in vicinity, exposed to noise), rapid reaction to all problems in
relation to noise, generated by the open cast mines and auxiliary objects, redefining noise reduction
measures and operating procedures (if it is applicable), analysis of possibilities for noise reduction at the
site of receptor if it is proofed by monitoring results and if it is feasible. In cases when applied measures
do not result in sufficient noise reduction, it should be considered to create suitable agreement with the
owners of the exposed objects.
Described noise reduction measures, in specific situation, can generate significant cost. Therefore, best
practice includes modeling i.e. noise mapping. Noise mapping is a result of calculations based on
27

computerized model of subject area. Advatage of noise models is based on the fact that assessment of the
applied measures can be performed according to "what-if" system. This is of particular importance for
development of action plans, which can include "cost-benefit" analysis of various opotions, before
making final decision.

5. CONCLUSION
Exploitation of lignite in Kolubara and Kostolac basins is organized in conditions of extended
urbanization of immediate vicinity of the mines. In such conditions, problem with occupational noise is
easily transferred to the environment. Having in mind that allowed limits for occupational environment
are much higher than ones for environmental noise, management and suppression of noise presents one of
the priorities. Solving the issue of occupational noise largely solves the problem of environmental noise.
This paper presented the possible measures for reduction of noise levels, mainly engineering measures,
which are completely suitable to operating technologies on lignite open cast mines. These measures noise
level can be reduced by 11 dB, which corresponds to reduction of sound pressure at level of three folds.

Acknowledgement
Research described in this paper was performed during realization of the technical development project
"Improvement of surface mining technology of lignite for the purpose of increased energy efficiency and safety at
work" (TR33039). Development of this project is financed by Ministry of Science and Technological Development,
Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES
[1] Berglund B, Lindvall T, Schwela DH. Guidelines for community noise. Geneva: World Health
Organisation; 1999.
[2] Michaud DS, Keith SE, McMurchy D. Noise annoyance in Canada. Noise Health 2005;7:3947.
[3] Carter NL. Transportation noise, sleep, and possible after-effects. Environ Int 1996;22:10516.
[4] Ohrstrom E, Skanberg A. Sleep disturbances from road traffic and ventilation noise laboratory and
field experiments. J Sound Vibr 2004;271:27996.
[5] Fidell S, Barber DS, Schultz TJ. Updating dosage effect relationship for the prevalence of annoyance
due to general transportation noise. J Acoust SocAm 1991;89:221 33.
[6] Fields JM. Reactions to environmental noise in an ambient noise context in residential areas. J Acoust
Soc Am 1998;104:224560.
[7] Miedema ME. Relationship between exposure to single or multiple transportation noise sources and
noise annoyance. World Health Organisation and European Centre for Environment and Health
Report on the Technical meeting of exposureresponse relationships of noise on health.
Germany:Bonn; 2003.
[8] La Torre G, Moscato U, La Torre F, Ballini P, Marchi S, Ricciardi W. Environmental noise exposure
and population health: a cross-sectional study in the Province of Rome. J Public health 2007;
15:33944
[9] Babisch W, Ising H, Gallacher JEJ. Health status as a potential effect modifier of the relation between
noise annoyance and incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:73945.
[10] Babisch W, Beule B, Schust M, Kersten N, Ising H. Traffic noise and risk of myocardial infarction.
Epidemiology 2005;16:3340.
[11] Evans GW, Lercher P, Meis M, Ising H, Kolfer WW. Community noise exposure and stress in
children. J Acoust Soc Am 2001;109:10237.
[12] Evans GW, Lepore SJ. Nonauditory effects of noise on children. Children's Environ 1993;10:31 51.
[13] Evans GW, Maxwell L. Chronic noise exposure and reading deficits: the meditating effects of
language acquisition. Environ Behav 1997; 29:151423.
[14] Lambert J, Vallet M. Study related to the preparation of a communication on a future EC noise
policy. Institue National de Recherche sur les Transport et leur Scurit (INRETS), Report No.
9420. Bron, France; 1994.
28

[15] EEA, 2014, Noise in Europe 2014, EEA Report, No 10/2014.


[16] European Commission. Green Paper on Future Noise Policy. COM (96) 540. Brussels; 1996.
[17] Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise. Official
Journal of the European Communities; 2002. No. L 189
[18] Zakon o zatiti od buke u ivotnoj sredini ("Sl. glasnik RS", br. 36/2009), Uredba o indikatorima
buke, graninim vrednostima, metodama za ocenjivanje indikatora buke, uznemiravanja i tetnih
efekata buke u ivotnoj sredini ("Sl. glasnik RS", br. 75/2010), Pravilnik o metodama merenja
buke, sadrini i obimu izvetaja o merenju buke ("Sl. glasnik RS", br. 72/2010), Pravilnik o
metodologiji za izradu akcionih planova ("Sl. glasnik RS", br. 72/2010), Pravilnik o metodologiji
za odreivanje akustikih zona ("Sl. glasnik RS", br. 72/2010), Pravilnik o sadrini i metodama
izrade stratekih karata buke i nainu njihovog prikazivanja javnosti (Sl. glasnik RS br. 80/10),
SRPS ISO 1996-1: Akustika Opisivanje, merenje i ocenjivanje buke u ivotnoj sredini Deo 1:
Osnovne veliine i procedure ocenjivanja; SRPS ISO 1996-2: Akustika Opisivanje, merenje i
ocenjivanje buke u ivotnoj sredini Deo 2: Odreivanje nivoa buke u ivotnoj sredini;
[19] Zvanine internet prezentacije kompanija RB Kolubara, http://www.rbkolubara.rs/, i TEKO
Kostolac, http://www.te-ko.rs/
[20] Godinji izvetaji o stanju ivotne sredine za period januar-decembar, za 2012, 2013 i 2014.
godinu, PD RB Kolubara d.o.o., Sektor za zatitu i unapreenje ivotne sredine.
[21] Godinji izvetaji o stanju ivotne sredine u TEKO Kostolac, za 2012, 2013 i 2014. godinu, TEKO
Kostolac.
[22] Schwarzenberg T., EPS Kolubara Mininig Project Energi Efficiency by Ecological Coal Quality
Management and Lrm und Staub.
[23] Lilic N., Cvjeti A., Panteli U., 2014., Plan upravljanja zatitom od buke Projekta upravljanja
kvalitetom uglja u rudarskom basenu Kolubara, JP EPS, PD RB Kolubara

29

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

Analysis of bibliometric indicators for category "Mining & Mineral


Processing" for 2013 based on JCR and Scopus data
Predrag Dai1, Ivica Ristovi2, Jovan Dai1
SaTCIP Publisher Ltd., 36210 Vrnjaka Banja, SERBIA, E-mail: dasicp58@gmail.com
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, 7 Djusina Street, 11000 Belgrade, SERBIA,
E-mail: ivica.ristovic@rgf.bg.ac.rs
3
SaTCIP Publisher Ltd., 36210 Vrnjaka Banja, SERBIA, E-mail: dasic_jovan@yahoo.com
1

Summary: SCI and SCI-E is one of the major citation databases (CDB) in the world in the field of natural and
applied scientific disciplines, with indexed 8539 scientific journals for 2013, divided into 176 categories. Category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" contains 21 scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for 2013,which represents
only 0.25 % from the total number of juornals indexed in these citation databases (CDB). It is ranked as a category,
according to number of journals (NoJ), on 154 place, from total 176 categories for 2013. In this paper is given the
statistical analysis of the citation and bibliometric indicators (TC, tcpa, JIF, 5Y-IF, II, CHL, EF, AI, %NC, SNIP,
IPP, SJR, %IC and h) for 21 scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E citation databases (CDB) within category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013, based on JCR and Scopus data.
Keywords: Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Report (JCR), Scopus,
"Mining & Mineral Processing".

1. Introduction
Category "Mining & Mineral Processing" was founded in 1994 year by separating the category
"Metallurgy & Mining" into two categories "Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering" and "Mining &
Mineral Processing". Originally it was consisted from 17 scientific journals, which increased to 21
scientific journals in 2013 (or for 4 journals or for 23.53 %).
Relevant topics in category "Mining & Mineral Processing" include: Mining science and technology,
Minerals engineering, Minerals processing, Analytical and experimental techniques, technologies,
methods and tools for mining and mineral processing, Mineral resources and Mineral resources
management, Environmental aspects of mining and mineral processing, Exploration and mining geology,
Rock mechanics, Geophysics and etc. [33, 50, 53].

2. Data sources and methods


Data for analysis of 21 scientific journals in category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 was
obtained from Web of Science (WoS) or Journal Citation Report (JCR) [53]; Eigenfactor portal [52];
Scopus [56]; Journal Metrics portal [54] and SJR; SCImago Journal & Country Rank portal [55] and
Publishers.
Assessment and evaluation of scientific journals within the SCI, SCI-E and SSCI citation databases is
ermined based on the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) or shorter impact factor (IF), proposed by Eugene
Garfield, in 1955 [54]. In the papers [13-15, 17-22, 26, 28-30, 31, 34, 49, 58, 59] an analysis of JIF is
provided, and in papers are [23-25, 36-38] top-cited articles in various scientific fields.
30

Later on were defined several dozen different variants of bibliographic indicators for measuring
performance of journals, articles, scientific and educational institutions and authors.
WoS or JCR for assessment and evaluation of scientific journals koriste, sem Journal Impact Factor (JIF)
and following bibliometric indicators: Five-Year Impact Factor (5Y-IF) [40], Immediacy Index (II) [59],
Cited Half-Life (CHL) [12], Eigen-Factor Score (EF) [2, 3, 11, 19, 39, 41, 51, 57], Article Influence
Score (AI) and Hirsch Index (h or h-index) [14, 32, 35, 42, 47, 48, 60].
Eigenfactor portal for assessment and evaluation of scientific journals uses following bibliometric
indicators: Eigen-Factor Score (EF) [2, 3, 11, 19, 39, 41, 51, 57] and Article Influence Score (AI).
Scopus for assessment and evaluation of scientific journals uses following bibliometric indicators:
Percentage of Not-Cited (%NC), Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) [43-45], SCImago Journal
Rank (SJR) [16], Impact per Publication (IPP) and Hirsch Index (h or h-index) [14, 32, 35, 42, 47, 48,
60].
Journal Metrics portal for assessment and evaluation of scientific journals uses bibliometric indicators:
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) [43-45], SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) [16] and Impact per
Publication (IPP) which is also used by Scopus.
SCImago Journal & Country Rank portal for assessment and evaluation of scientific journals uses
following bibliometric indicators: SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) [16], Percentage of International
Collaboration (%IC) and Hirsch Index (h or h-index) [14, 32, 35, 42, 47, 48, 60].
For analysis and graphical presentation of the results, the standard methods of statistical analysis were
used presented in papers [4-10, 50].

3. Results and discussion


3.1. Analysis of number of journals (NoJ) indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category "Mining &
Mineral Processing" for the period 1994-2013
Table 1 presents the total number of scientific journals indexed by SCI and SCI-E citation databases
(CDB) for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for the period 1994-2013, as well as their annual
growth, chain index in [%] and cumulative growth index [%]and in Figure 2 this is graphically presented.
Table 1: Total number of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for the period 1994-2013
Year
Number of
Annual
Chain index
Cumulative
journals (NoJ)
growth
[%]
growth index [%]
1994
17
100.00
1995
19
2
111.76
111.76
1996
20
1
105.26
117.65
1997
20
0
100.00
117.65
1998
19
-1
95.00
111.76
1999
19
0
100.00
111.76
2000
18
-1
94.74
105.88
2001
19
1
105.56
111.76
2002
21
2
110.53
123.53
2003
20
-1
95.24
117.65
2004
17
-3
85.00
100.00
2005
16
-1
94.12
94.12
2006
15
-1
93.75
88.24
2007
16
1
106.67
94.12
2008
16
0
100.00
94.12
2009
24
8
150.00
141.18
2010
23
-1
95.83
135.29
2011
23
0
100.00
135.29
2012
20
-3
86.96
117.65
2013
21
1
105.00
123.53
31

60
50.00
24

25

19

20

20

20

21
19

19

17

18

19

50
23

23

20

20
17

21

30
16

15

16

16

15

20
11.76

10.53
6.67

5.56

10

10

0.00

0.00 -5.00

5.00

0.00

5.26
5

40

Annual growth in [%]

Number of journals

30

0.00
-5.26

-4.76

-5.88 -6.25

-4.17

-10
-13.04

-15.00

-20

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year
Number of journals

Annual growth in [%]

Figure 1: Graphical presentation of total number of journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E and annual
growth in [%] for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for the period 1994-2013

From Table 1 and Figure 1 for category: "Mining & Mineral Processing" it can be noted:
that for a period of 20 years the number of journals has increased only by 4 (from 17 in 1994 to 21 in
2013),
the number of journals in the period from 1994-2012 had certain fluctuations: it increased until 2002,
to 21 journal, then decreased until 2008th year to the minimum of 16 journals, had the largest increase
in 2009 from 16 to 24 (annual growth of 8 journals or 50%) and finally reduced to the total of 21
journals in 2013,
the highest annual growth of the journals in this category was in 2009 from 16 to 24 journals (annual
growth of 8 journals or 50%) and the largest annual reduction was in 2004 from 20 to 17 journals
(annual reduction of 3 journals or 15%) and 2012 from 23 to 20 journals (annual reduction of 3
journals or by 13.04%).
Further, generally it can be noticed that according to the total number of reference journals indexed in
SCI and SCI-E citation databases (CDB) for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" is in scientific
areas with the lowest number of journals. Thus, for instance, category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for
the year 2013 have a total of 21 journals, while only category "Chemistry, Multidisciplinary" has 148
journals, the category "Engineering, Chemical" has 133 journals, category "Engineering, Mechanical" has
128 journals, category "Environmental Sciences" has 216 journals, category "Materials Science,
Multidisciplinary" has 251 journals, category "Mathematics" has 302 journals, category "Mechanics" has
139 journals and so on.

3.2. A comprehensive review and analysis of science journals indexed in SSCI for category "Mining
& Mineral Processing" for 2013
Tabular overview of all 21 scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category "Mining & Mineral
Processing" for 2013 is shown in Table 2 (Title of journals, ISSN number, Categories, Country,
Publisher, Lanced of the first issue, Inclusion and calculation JIF in JCR Sciences Edition and Frequency
of publication in year or Publication frequency in year) and in Table 3 (ISSN number, A, TC, tcpa, JIF,
RiC, QiC, 5Y-IF, II and CHL based on JCR data, EF and AI based on EF metrics and D, TC, %NC,
SNIP, IPP, SJR, %IC and h based on Scopus, Journal Metrics portal and SCImago Journal & Country
Rank data).

32

Table 2: Journals summary list indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013

Notes: Lanc. - Lanced of the first issue; Fr. Frequency of publication in year (or Publication frequency in year);
Inc. in JCR - Inclusion and calculation JIF in JCR Sciences Edition.
Abbreviations for categories: ChemPhys - Chemistry, Physical; ECiv - Engineering, Civil; E&F - Energy & Fuels;
EGeo - Engineering, Geological; EOcean - Engineering, Ocean; Geo - Geology; GChem&GPhys - Geochemistry &
Geophysics; GeoMult - Geosciences, Multidisciplinary; MSMult - Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Met&MetE
- Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering; Min&MinP - Mining & Mineral Processing; NS&T - Nuclear Science &
Technology; Ocean - Oceanography.

33

Table 3: Values of bibliometric indicators for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013

Notes: A - Articles; D - Documents; TC - Total Cites; JIF Journal Impact Factor; RiC - Rank in Category; QiC Quartile in Category; 5Y-IF - 5-Year Impact Factor; II - Immediacy Index; CHL - Cited Half-Life; EF - EigenFactor Score; AI - Article Influence Score; %NC Percentage of not cited; SNIP - Source Normalized Impact per
Paper; SJR - SCImago Journal Rank; IPP - Impact per Publication; %IC - Percentage of International Collaboration;
h or h-index - Hirsch Index.

Division of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for
2013 in quartiles from Q1 to Q4 (Q1 means highest values and Q4 lowest values), their number and
interval of Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Division of scientific journals for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013
in quartiles from Q1 to Q4
Quartile Interval of NoJ Interval of JIF
Q1
1-5
1.424-3.383
Q2
6-10
0.690-1.401
Q3
11-15
0.545-0.667
Q4
16-21
0.053-0.531

3.3. Analysis of science journals indexed in SSCI for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" by
countries and continents for 2013
Division of number of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category "Mining & Mineral
Processing" for 2013 by countries is shown in Table 4.
For category "Mining & Mineral Processing" the greatest number of journals (NoJ) in 2013 have: USA
with 5 journals (or 23.81 %), Netherlands with 4 journals (or 19.05 %), England and Poland with 3
journals (or 14.29 %) while Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Russia, Slovakia and South Africa have only
1 journal respectively (or 4.76 %) (Table 4 and Figure 2).
From Figure 2 it can be seen that by far the greatest number of journals for category "Mining & Mineral
Processing" for 2013 have USA, Netherlands, England and Poland is 15 journals (or 71.44 %), while all
other states have only by one journal. Similar results were also obtained in the analysis of SCI, SCI-E and
SSCI citation databases given in the papers [7, 8, 50].

34

No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Table 4: Number of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 by contries
Contry
Number of journals (NoJ)
MIF
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4 Total Percentage Rank
Brazil
1
1
4.76
4
0.103
China
1
1
4.76
4
0.573
Czech
1
1
4.76
4
0.667
Republic
England
2
1
3
14.29
3
1.223
Netherlands
3
1
4
19.05
2
2.040
Russia
1
1
4.76
4
0.404
Poland
1
2
3
14.29
3
0.701
Slovakia
1
1
4.76
4
0.053
South Africa
1
1
4.76
4
0.176
USA
3
1
1
5
23.81
1
0.749
Total: 5
5
5
5
21
100.00
0.936
South Africa 1 (4.76 %)
Slovakia 1 (4.76 %)
USA 5 (23.81 %)
Russia 1 (4.76 %)
Czech Republic 1
(4.76%)
China 1 (4.76 %)

Brazil 1 (4.76 %)

Netherlands 4 (19.05 %)
Poland 3 (14.29 %)

England 3 (14.29 %)

Figure 2: Graphical presentation of the number of journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 by countries
Division of number of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category "Mining & Mineral
Processing" for 2013 by continents is shown in Table 5.
For category "Mining & Mineral Processing" the greatest number of journals (NoJ) in 2013 have: Europe
with 13 journals (or 61.90 %), North America with 5 journals (or 23.81 %) while Africa, Asia and South
America have only 1 journal respectively (or 4.76 %) (table 5 and figure 3).
Table 5: Number of scientific journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 by continents
No.
Continents
Number of journals (NoJ)
MIF
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4 Total Percentage Rank
1. Africa
1
1
4.76
3
0.176
2. Asia
1
1
4.76
3
0.573
3. Australia
0
0.00
4. Europe
5
2
3
3
13
61.90
1
1.158
5. North America
3
1
1
5
23.81
2
0.749
6. South America
1
1
4.76
3
0.103
Total:
5
5
5
6
21
100.00
0.936
35

South America
1 (4.76 %)
Asia 1 (4.76 %)
Africa 1 (4.76 %)

North America
5 (23.81 %)
Europe 13 (61.90 %)

Figure 3: Graphical presentation of the number of journals indexed in SCI and SCI-E for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 by continents

3.4. Descriptive statistics of bibliometric indicators for category "Mining & Mineral Processing"
for 2013
Summary list of the basic measures of descriptive statistics for values of bibliometric indicators for the
assessment and evaluation of the journals and for the assessment and evaluation of the category itself for
category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 is shown in Table 6.
Table 6: Descriptive statistics for values of bibliometric indicators for category
"Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013

4. Conclusion
"Mining & Mineral Processing" in which the Cumulative growth index has a value of only 123.53% for
period 1994-2013 (number of journals increased by only 4 journals, from 17 journals in 1994 to 21
journals in 2013) and is one of the lowest in frame of SCI and SCI-E citation databases (CDB).
Highest numbers of journals for category Mining & Mineral Processing for 2013 have USA,
Netherlands, England and Poland which are 15 journals from total of 21 (or 71.44%).
Highest numbers of journals for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 have continents
Europe with 13 journals (or 61.90 %), then North America with 5 journals (or 23.81%).
Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for 21 scientific journals for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for
2013 moves in interval from 0.053 (for journal: Acta Montanistica Slovaca) to 3.383 (for journal: Ore
Geology Reviews).
For 21 scientific journals for category "Mining & Mineral Processing" for 2013 median is 0.667 and
mean Impact Factor is 0.936.
36

Acknowledgements
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Research on possibility for AT (Advanced Technology)
rockbolting application in mines for the purpose of increasing work safety and production efficiency" (TR
33025) and "Improvement of Lignite opencast Technology in Order to Increase Energy Efficiency and
Occupational Safety" (TR 33039) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of
Serbia within the framework of Programme of research in the field of technological development for the
period 2011-2015.

References
[1] Asai, I: Adjusted age distribution and its application to impact factor and immediacy index. Journal
of the American Society for Information Science, Vol. 32, Issue 3 (May 1981), pp. 172-174. ISSN
0002-8231.
[2] Bergstrom C.T.: Eigenfactor: Measuring the value and prestige of scholarly journals. College &
Research Libraries News, Vol. 68, No. 5 (May 2007), pp. 314-316. ISSN 0099-0086.
[3] Bergstrom, C.T.; West, J.D. and Wiseman, M.A.: The Eigenfactor metrics. The Journal of
Neuroscience, Vol. 28, No. 45 (November 2008), pp. 11433-11434. ISSN 0270-6474.
[4] Dai, P.: Analiza naunih asopisa indeksiranih u SCI, SCI-E i SSCI za Balkanske zemlje za 20092013. Plenarno predavanje i rad po pozivu. U: Zborniku radova 2. nacionalne konferencije sa
meunarodnim ueem "Menadment, sport i turizam" (MASTA-2014); Banja Luka, Republika
Srpska, Bosna i Hercegovina; 12-13 decembar 2014. Banja Luka (Republika Srpska Bosna i
Hercegovina): Udruenje graana "Sport za sve", 2014, str. 1-11. ISBN 978-99955-795-1-7.
[5] Dai, P.: Application of polynomial regression models for approximation of time series. Journal of
Economic and Management Based on New Technologies, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (June 2012), pp. 81-160.
[6] Dai, P.: Approximation of cutting tool wear function using polynomial regression equation.
Journal of Research and Development in Mechanical Industry, Vol. 3, Issue 3 (September 2011), pp.
171-180. ISSN 1821-3103.
[7] Dai, P.: State of the art of reference journals indexed by SCI and SCI-E for 2008-2012. Journal of
Research and Development in Mechanical Industry, Vol. 5, Issue 3 (September 2013), pp. 181-260.
ISSN 1821-3103.
[8] Dai, P.: State of the art of reference journals indexed by SSCI for 2008-2012. Journal of Economic
and Management Based on New Technologies, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (September 2013), pp. 121-200.
[9] Dai, P.; Moldovan, L. and Grama, L.: Status and analysis of scientific journals indexed in SCI,
SCI-E and SSCI citation databases from Romania and Serbia. Procedia Technology, Vol. 19 (2015),
pp. 1075-1082. ISSN 2212-0173.
[10] Dai, P.; Stojanovi, V. & Trnavac D.: Analiza ekonomskih pokazatelja spoljne trgovine Republike
Srpske za period 2001-2012. Plenarno predavanje i rad po pozivu. U: zborniku radova 1. nacionalne
konferencije sa meunarodnim ueem "Menadment, sport i turizam" (MASTA-2013); Banja Luka,
Bosna i Hercegovina; 20-21 decembar 2013. Banja Luka (Bosna i Hercegovina): Udruenje graana
Sport za sve, 2013, str. 11-30. ISBN 978-99955-795-0-0.
[11] Davis, P.M.: Eigenfactor: Does the principle of repeated improvement result in better estimates than
raw citation counts? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol.
59, Issue 13 (November 2008), pp. 2186-2188. ISSN 1532-2882.
[12] Della, S.S. and Crawford, J.R.: A double dissociation between impact factor and cited half life.
Cortex, Vol. 43, Issue 2 (February 2007), pp. 174-175. ISSN 0010-9452.
[13] Egghe, L.: Mathematical relations between impact factors and average number of citations.
Information Processing & Management, Vol. 24, Issue 5 (1988), pp. 567576. ISSN 0306-4573.
[14] Egghe, L.; Liang, L. and Rousseau, R.: A relation between h-index and impact factor in the powerlaw model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 60, Issue
11 (November 2009), pp. 23622365. ISSN 1532-2882.
[15] Esposito, M.: H-index: An index to quantifiy the impact of scientific research. European Journal of
Oral Implantology, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 2010), pp. 3-4. ISSN 1756-2406.
[16] Falagas, M.E.; Kouranos, V.D.; Arencibia-Jorge, R. and Karageorgopoulos, D.E.: Comparison of
SCImago journal rank indicator with journal impact factor. The FASEB Journal, Vol. 22, No. 8
(August 2008), pp. 2623-2628. ISSN 0892-6638.
37

[17] Fang, H.: Self-citation rates of scientific and technical journals in SCI from China, Japan, India and
Korea. Learned Publishing, Vol. 26, No. 1 (January 2013), pp. 45-49. ISSN 0953-1513.
[18] Ferreiro, L. and Ugena, S.: Citation mechanics in journals covered by the Journal Citation Reports.
Scientometrics, Vol. 24, Issue 1 (May 1992), pp. 149-162. ISSN 0138-9130.
[19] Fersht, A.: The most influential journals: Impact Factor and Eigenfactor. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Vol. 106, No. 17 (April 2009), 68836884. ISSN 0027-8424.
[20] Finardi, U.: Correlation between Journal Impact Factor and Citation Performance: An experimental
study. Journal of Informetrics, Vol. 7, Issue 2 (April 2013), pp. 357-370. ISSN 1751-1577.
[21] Franceschet, M.: A comparison of bibliometric indicators for computer science scholars and journals
on Web of Science and Google Scholar. Scientometrics, Vol. 83, Issue 1 (April 2010), pp. 243-258.
ISSN 0138-9130.
[22] Franceschini, F. and Maisano, D.: Bibliometric positioning of scientific manufacturing journals: A
comparative analysis. Scientometrics, Vol. 86, Issue 2 (February 2011), pp. 463-485. ISSN 01389130.
[23] Fu, H.-Z. and Ho, Y.-S.: Comparison of independent research of China's top universities using
bibliometric indicators. Scientometrics, Vol. 96, Issue 1 (July 2013), pp. 259-276. ISSN 0138-9130.
[24] Fu, H.-Z. and Ho, Y.-S.: Independent research of China in Science Citation Index Expanded during
1980-2011. Journal of Informetrics, Vol. 7, Issue 1 (January 2013), pp. 210-222. ISSN 1751-1577.
[25] Fu, H.-Z.; Long, X. and Ho, Y.-S.: China's research in chemical engineering journals in Science
Citation Index Expanded: A bibliometric analysis. Scientometrics, Vol. 98, Issue 1 (January 2014),
pp. 119-136. ISSN 0138-9130.
[26] Garfield, E.: Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation: Journals can be ranked by frequency
and impact of citations for science policy studies. Science, Vol. 178, No. 4060 (November 1972), pp.
471-479. ISSN 0036-8075.
[27] Garfield, E.: Citation indexes to science: A new dimension in documentation through association of
ideas. Science, Vol. 122, No. 3159 (July 1955), pp. 108-111. ISSN 0036-8075.
[28] Garfield, E.: Citation indexing for studying science. Nature, Vol. 227, No. 5259 (August 1970), pp.
669-671. ISSN 0028-0836.
[29] Garfield, E.: The history and meaning of the journal impact factor. Journal of the American Medical
Association (JAMA), Vol. 295, No. 1 (January 2006), pp. 90-93. ISSN 0098-7484.
[30] Garfield, E. and Sher, I.H.: New factors in evaluation of scientific literature through citation
indexing. American Documentation, Vol. 14, Issue 3 (July 1963), pp. 195-201. ISSN 0096-946X.
[31] Garg, K.C. and Kumar, S.: An analysis of the citation pattern of Indian science journals indexed by
SCIE. Annals of Library and Information Studies (ALIS), Vol. 57, No. 4 (December 2010), pp. 365372. ISSN 0972-5423.
[32] Glnzel, W.: On the h-index A mathematical approach to a new measure of publication activity
and citation impact. Scientometrics, Vol. 67, Issue 2 (May 2006), pp. 315-321. ISSN 0138-9130.
[33] Gruji, M.; Ristovi, I. and Gruji, M.: Research of technologies for coal transport from the mine
through the natural and urban environment. Belgrade: University of Belgrade, 2010.
[34] Guz, A.N. and Rushchitsky, J.J.: Analysis of various bibliometric indicators for the evaluation of
scientific journals and scientists. International Applied Mechanics, Vol. 49, Issue 3 (May 2013), pp.
266-292. ISSN 1063-7095.
[35] Hirsch, J.E.: Does the h index have predictive power? Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Vol. 104, No. 49 (December 2007), pp. 19193
19198. ISSN 0027-8424.
[36] Ho, Y.-S.: A bibliometric analysis of highly cited articles in materials science. Current Science, Vol.
107, Issue 9 (November 2014), pp. 1565-1572. ISSN 0011-3891.
[37] Ho, Y.-S.: Top-cited articles in chemical engineering in Science Citation Index Expanded: A
bibliometric analysis. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 20, Issue 3 (June 2012), pp.
478-488. ISSN 1004-9541.
[38] Ho, Y.-S.: The top-cited research works in the Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientometrics,
Vol. 94, Issue 3 (March 2013), pp. 1297-1312. ISSN 0138-9130.
[39] Jacs, P.: Eigenfactor and article influence scores in the Journal Citation Reports. Online
Information Review, Vol. 34, Issue 2 (2010), pp. 339-348. ISSN 1468-4527.
[40] Jacs, P.: Five-year impact factor data in the Journal Citation Reports. Online Information Review,
Vol. 33, Issue 3 (2009), pp. 603-614. ISSN 1468-4527.
38

[41] Jacs, P.: The problems with the subject categories schema in the EigenFactor database from the
perspective of ranking journals by their prestige and impact. Online Information Review, Vol. 36,
Issue 5 (2012), pp. 758-766. ISSN 1468-4527.
[42] Joki, M.: H-index as a new scientometric indicator. Biochemia Medica, Vol. 19, Issue 1 (2009), pp.
5-9. ISSN 1330-0962.
[43] Leydesdorff, L. and Opthof, T.: Scopus's Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a
Journal Impact Factor based on fractional counting of citations. Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology, Vol. 61, Issue 11 (November 2010), pp. 2365-2369. ISSN
1532-2882.
[44] Moed, H.F.: Citation analysis in research evaluation. Dordrecht (Nederland): Springer, 2005. 346
pp. ISBN 978-1-4020-3713-9.
[45] Moed, H.F.: The source normalized impact per paper is a valid and sophisticated indicator of journal
citation impact. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 62
Issue 1 (January 2011), pp. 211-213. ISSN 1532-2882.
[46] Moed, H.F.; De Bruin, R.E. and Van Leeuwen, Th.N.: New bibliometric tools for the assessment of
national research performance: Database description, overview of indicators and first applications.
Scientometrics, Vol. 33, Issue 3 (July-August 1995), pp. 381-422. ISSN 0138-9130.
[47] Nair, G.M. and Turlach, B.A.: The stochastic h-index. Journal of Informetrics, Vol. 6, Issue 1
(January 2012), pp. 8087. ISSN 1751-1577.
[48] Norris, M. and Oppenheim, C.: The h-index: A broad review of a new bibliometric indicator.
Journal of Documentation, Vol. 66, Issue 5 (2010), pp. 681705. ISSN 0022-0418.
[49] Piro, F.N.; Aksnes, D.W. and Rrstad, K.: A macro analysis of productivity differences across fields:
Challenges in the measurement of scientific publishing. Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology, Vol. 64, Issue 2 (February 2013), pp. 307320. ISSN 15322882.
[50] Ristovi, I.; Dai, P. and Dai, J.: Analysis of the SCI, SCI-E and SSCI journals in the fields of
mining transport, haulage and hoisting. Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 683 (2014), pp. 7885. ISSN 1660-9336 and ISBN 978-3-03835-316-4.
[51] Sillet, A.; Katsahian, S.; Rang, H.; Czernichow, S. and Bouchard, P.: The Eigenfactor score in
highly specific medical fields: The dental model. Journal of Dental Research (JDR), Vol. 91, No. 4
(April 2012), pp. 329-333. ISSN 0022-0345.
[52] Web site of Eigenfactor: http://www.eigenfactor.org/.
[53] Web site of Journal Citation Reports (JCR): http://thomsonreuters.com/en/productsservices/scholarly-scientific-research/research-management-and-evaluation/journal-citationreports.html.
[54] Web site of Journal Metrics: http://www.journalmetrics.com/.
[55] Web site of SCImago Journal & Country Rank: http://www.scimagojr.com/.
[56] Web site of Scopus: http://www.scopus.com/.
[57] West, J.D.: Eigenfactor: Pulling the stories out of the data. Research Trends, Issue 8 (November
2008), pp. 8. ISSN 2213-4441.
[58] Yu, G., Guo, R. and Yu, D.-R.: The influence of the publication delay on journal rankings according
to the impact factor. Scientometrics, Vol. 67, Issue 2 (May 2006), pp. 201211. ISSN 0138-9130.
[59] Yue, W.; Wilson, C.S. and Rousseau, R.: The immediacy index and the journal impact factor: Two
highly correlated derived measures. The Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, Vol.
28, No. 1 (2004), pp. 33-48. ISSN 1195-096X.
[60] Zhang, C.-T.: Relationship of the h-index, g-index and e-index. Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology, Vol. 61, Issue 3 (March 2010), pp. 625628. ISSN 1532-2882.

39

WORKS SESSIONS

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ANALYSIS OF VARIABLE PIPE CONVEYOR BELT MOTION BY THE


HELP OF CAX TOOLS
Gabriel Fedorko, Vieroslav Molnr, Nikoleta Huskov
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
Abstract: Variable pipe conveyors present extension of possibility of continuous conveying systems utilization. Their
great advantage is high variability and possibility of the place of material shifting modification. By their
development is possible to use effectively CAX tools which provide information about their movement and behavior
of conveyor belt. The paper deals with the possibility of CAX methods use by analysis of the selected parameters of
pipe conveyors.
Keywords: CAX, Variable Pipe Conveyor, Movement, Analysis, Conveying

1. INTRODUCTION
Conveying of bulk materials is one of the most important activities of processing processes, mainly in the
field of mining industry and processing of raw materials, building industry, power industry. By bulk
materials conveying are applied belt conveyors as a single purpose continuous devices. Belt conveyors
present continuously working devices which ensure continuous flow of material among the place of
loading and unloading. Their main characteristics is a combined hauling and supporting element in the
form of conveyor belt moving on the idler rollers with conveying rollers. A conventional belt conveyor in
the cross section has a though shape with a flat bottom and oblique sides with the slope 20or 30. The
advantage of this solution is relatively high conveying capacity and also relatively undemanding
production, installation and maintenance.

2. PIPE CONVEYOR INTERESTING MODIFICATION OF CLASSIC CONVEYOR


Pipe conveyor is similar to the classic belt conveyor. The difference is only in the construction of the
supporting structure and shape of idler roller because by the pipe conveyor the cylinder idler roller forms
the conveyor belt to the shape of pipe. Flat conveyor belt is coiled to the pipe shape. Classic conveyor belt
is unsuitable by conveying of dusty or toxic material and with this fact is related the necessity to enclose
belt conveyors to the covered bridges.
The principle of working of pipe conveyor is similar to the traditional conveyors (Fig. 1) but with the
difference that by pipe conveyors the conveyor belt is not in the though shape by the whole conveying
route but only at the place of loading and unloading of the conveyor belt. After these places the belt is
closed by 6 or 8 adjustable rollers to the pipe shape. Three are on the front side of the supporting structure
and three are on the back of the structure [1]. The advantage of pipe conveyor results from its closed
profile. Within the frame of pipe conveyor there are several other special constructive solutions which
emphasize their advantages. One of these constructive solutions is a variable pipe conveyor.
40

Figure 1 Comparison of principle of classic and pipe conveyor [2]

3. VARIABLE PIPE CONVEYOR


Variable pipe conveyor is a system for continuous conveying of materials. Its construction is derived
from the classic pipe conveyor, and it allows to modify according to the requirements of the user the place
of shifting (Fig. 2), the place of loading and the place of the route of conveyor. This is suitable for
movement of the separated material from arbitrary loaded unit. This variant of conveyor can reduce
operational costs in regard of trucks or ordinary conveyor belt. It allows convey material in vertical and
horizontal curves, it is suitable for formation of the shape of the place of unloading. The material can be
conveyed by curved route. The return belt is also in the pipe shape but it is located under the feeder
pipeline or beside it. These two belts are separated by driving and reversing drum by the both sides of the
conveyor.

Figure 2 Unloading station of the variable pipe conveyor


41

Figure 3 Example of a route of variable pipe conveyor


3.1 Analysis of variable pipe conveyor movement
Within the frame of analysis it was simulated the movement of variable pipe conveyor which allows
various places of material unloading. The unloading station of the conveyor with belt gear is due to pull
conveyor on the surface of the terrain and it allows various places of unloading. The basic geometric
model was created by the program Autodesk Inventor and by the program Abaqus and by the program for
kinematic analysis it was modelled the movement and the selected contact problems in the idler roller.

Figure 4 Geometric model for the need of analysis and simulation


Analysis of variable pipe conveyor movement was realized by reason of the fact that the main criterion by
conveyor design is the ability to adequately replicate the terrain. The material is conveyed by pipe
conveyor at the horizontal and vertical direction. Therefore by selection of suitable structural elements it
must be take into account required strength of the parts and also fixed connection among them (Fig. 5).
The other reason for realization of movement analysis is the fact that by pulling of conveyor belt coiled to
the pipe shape are created stresses at all directions.

42

Figure 5 Detail to the idler rollers of variable pipe conveyor


3.2 Modelling of movement
By modelling of movement the most important fact was a definition of connection among idler rollers at
the places where they are connected moveable (Fig. 6). Each connection was defined individually by the
exact coordinates.

Figure 6 Defined connections among idler rollers


Because of the exact definition of connection it was possible to analyse in detail the behaviour of the
whole configuration of the variable pipe conveyor in the real operational conditions (Fig. 7).

43

Figure 7 Simulation of bending of variable pipe conveyor to the required shape


Then it was by the simulation examined the required strength of distance chains which determine the
movement and displacement of idler rollers. For determination of the maximal bending was analyzed
distance long-link chain calibrated by the STN 023201 (quality 30). The long-link chain was within the
frame of simulation experiment replaced by suitable type of connection.

Figure 8 Monitoring of tensions of distance chains


By simulation experiments was determined that from the start of conveyor movement simulation the
distance rope marked by red colour began to tension in the time 0,08 s. The maximal tension was in the
time 1 s, and it was 40 000 N. The distance rope marked by blue colour started to tension later, in the time
0,44 s. The highest tension 40 000 N was in the time 1 s (Fig. 8 and Fig. 9).

44

Figure 9 Monitoring of tensions of distance rope (red)

4. ANALYSIS OF CONVEYOR BELT OF VARIABLE PIPE CONVEYOR


In the course of the research of variable pipe conveyor was realized analysis of conveyor belt by FEM.
The created computing model presents closed conveyor belt which is located among two idler rollers, the
conveyor belt is loaded by the tension force Fnap, of which direction of actuation is at the axial direction
and by the gravitation force G which acts at the normal direction. The conveyor belt is located on the
forming rollers but at the beginning the material is not situated in this part. The contact forces are formed
in the point of contact of the conveyor belt and forming rollers. The whole process of calculation is
divided into 5 steps.
In the first step by the help of boundary conditions and additional torsion moments is simulated formation
of the conveyor belt to the pipe shape. The additional torsion moment serves for rolling of the conveyor
belt for the next insertion among forming rollers in the idler roller. Rollers presenting idler roller have
obtained all degrees of freedom in the course of the whole calculation. Their material model was defined
as for the steel. The conveyor belt has in the first step of calculation in its centre obtained all degrees of
freedom, but on its edge effecting additional torsion moments. The first step of calculation is controlled
by time curves. In the second step of calculation the boundary conditions are changed by the conveyor
belt. The conveyor belt, which has in the first step of calculation in its centre obtained all degrees of
freedom, has in this step specified shifting at the axial direction by the way that it gets to the required
point in the idler roller. The additional torsion moments which are applied on its edges effect also in this
step and they obstruct against early unrolling of the conveyor belt. The third step of calculation is
characterized by sequential reduction of load by auxiliary torsion moments. This step is typical by
sequential contact of the conveyor belt with forming rollers.
By the fourth step the gravity load is implemented to the computing model and by the final fifth step the
computing model is loaded by conveyed material. For realization of the calculation was used the program
Abaqus and the explicit method (it is directly implemented to the program Abaqus). It is a method which
is determined for special solution of simulation of fast dynamic actions and great modifications, including
destructive damages. For solution are used explicit dynamic models. This is suitable for simulation of
short transient dynamic actions [3].

45

Course of calculation after the 1st step

Course of calculation after the 2nd step

Course of calculation after the 3rd step

Course of calculation of the 4th step

Course of calculation after the 5th step


Figure 10 Course of calculation

5. CONCLUSION
It is possible to analyze the obtained results by the help of several analytical methods with the goal to find
general dependency and define generally applicable postulates. The other important reason for the
knowledge of movement characteristics of pipe conveyors is the fact that these effect the lifetime of
conveyor belts in marked measure. Extension of conveyor belt lifetime is by this way related to the high
economic savings because the price of new conveyor belt is quite stiff and it presents unplanned costs and
exchange of conveyor belt is mostly related with other economic losses in consequence for example
layoff of technological devices. The results of simulation experiments obtained by the program Abaqus
present tension in the conveyor belt. By the help of the presented model it is also possible to search
critical and the most stressed points of the rollers and also the variable pipe conveyor. Tensions on the
conveying rollers after effect of material are significantly greater than without the effect of material (Fig.
11 and Fig. 12).

46

Figure 11 Closed conveyor belt of variable pipe conveyor without the conveyed material

Figure 12 Closed conveyor belt of variable pipe conveyor with the conveyed material
The next research of the variable pipe conveyors will continue with experimental measurements on the
special test device and in the real operational conditions. The obtained results will be used for verification
and they will present the direction of the further research with the active application of CAX tools.

Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0184/12, VEGA 1/0922/12, VEGA
1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169, University Science Park TECHNICOM for Innovation Applications
Supported by Knowledge Technology, ITMS: 26220220182, supported by the Research & Development Operational
Programme funded by the ERDF.

REFERENCES
[1] Marasov D.; Fedorko G.; Molnr V.: Hadicov dopravnk a vpoet jeho zkladnch parametrov,
Acta Montanistica Slovaca, Ronk 7, 2002
[2] http://www.bridgestone.com/products/diversified/conveyorbelt/products/images/img_pipe01.jpg
[3] ABAQUS Version 6.5 Documentation, United States of America, 2004
[4] Rozbroj, J., Zegzulka, J. Neas, J., Use of DEM in the Determination of Friction Parameters on a
Physical Comparative Model of a Vertical Screw Conveyor, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 29 (2015) 25
34. doi:10.15255/CABEQ.2014.2142.
[5] Strohmandl, J.,Use of simulation to reduction of faulty products, UPB Sci. Bull. Ser. D Mech. Eng. 76
(2014) 223230.
[6] Michalik, P., Zajac, J., Using of computer integrated system for static tests of pipe conveyer belts, in:
13th Int. Carpathian Control Conf. (ICCC), 2012, IEEE, High Tatras, 2012: pp. 480485.
doi:10.1109/CarpathianCC.2012.6228691.
[7] Petrikova, I., Marvalova, B., Tuan, H.S., Bocko, P., Experimental evaluation of mechanical properties
of belt conveyor with textile reinforcement and numerical simulation of its behaviour, in: Const.
Model. Rubber VIII - Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Const. Model. Rubbers, ECCMR 2013, 2013: pp. 641644.
47

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

MODELING OF STRESS-DEFORMATION STATES FOR CONVEYOR


BELTS OF CLASSIC BELT CONVEYORS
Gabriel Fedorko1, Vieroslav Molnr1, Dragan Medenica2
1
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
2
Volmont, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: Stress-deformation states in conveyor belts significantly effecting operation of belt conveyors. They effect
the size of dynamic resistance, lifetime of the conveyor belt. For their more detailed analysis and research is
possible except for experimental measurements to use also executable simulation tools on the basis of FEM.
Keywords: FEM, Belt, Conveyor, Modeling, Conveyance

1. INTRODUCTION
Belt conveyors belong to the most used conveying systems in various technological processes (Fig. 1).
They allow to convey material for different distances. They are used above all for conveying of bulk
materials. On the part of construction, the belt conveyor is created by wide scale of components which by
their properties significantly are conducive to its effective operation.
The knowledge of the effect of material characteristics and technological parameters of conveyor belts on
the size of contact forces and kinematic resistances of pipe conveyors has important importance by their
design and operation [1].
In the process of belt conveyor design these information have determining part by the design of conveyor
drum and selection of conveyor belt with suitable construction. This fact affects operational costs, and
also has impact on the lifetime of conveyor belt. During the operation of conveyor belt the knowledge
about the effect of material characteristics and technological parameters of conveyor belts can exercise an
influence on the economic costs of their operation, on their level and way of their maintenance and by
selection of suitable conveyor belt in the case of its necessary replacement. From this fact it is evident that
the right knowledge of kinetic resistances and contact forces bring significant savings for operators of this
types of continuous system of raw materials conveying.

Figure 1 Implementation of belt conveyor in the mining industry


48

Conveyor belts are on the part of conveyor operation the most important part. It is a closed element
rotating around edge drums which by its rotation satisfies function of material, loads or persons carrying
on the conveying length and at the same time it satisfies the function of the hoisting element and it
transmits all resistance formed by its movement. The conveyor belt (Fig. 2) presents supporting and
hoisting element of the belt conveyor. Its basic structural elements are the frame and cover layers.
The frame of the conveyor belt is instrumental to the transfer of tensile forces form the driving drum to
the conveyor belt, it assures the required strength and counter-impulse resistance. The top cover layer
with the side protects the frame against its mechanical damage by conveyed material, effect of humidity
and also against chemical and thermal effects affecting on the conveyor belt. The bottom cover layer
comes in contact with the drums and rollers of the conveyor and it protects the frame against negative
effects. Important is adhesion of the cover layer with the frame, because it assures the transmission of
driving moment of the drum to the whole conveyor belt [2].
Top cover layer

Side cover layer

Textile parts
Bottom cover layer

Figure 2 Example of the conveyor belt construction [3]

2. CREATION OF THE COMPUTING MODEL


For the need of computing analysis it was designed and created the computing model which presents the
part on the discharge part of the belt conveyor. Within the frame of this part it is started the gradual
transformation of the conveyor belt from the trough shape to the flat shape. Geometry of the computing
model was created by the pre-processor of the program Abaqus. The created computing model consists of
the part of angle pulley and idler rollers, and each idler roller has three support rollers.
The presented task was solved by the modulus ABAQUS/Standard. This is a classic FEM processor which
allows solution of static tasks and problems.
2.1 Geometry of the computing model
The support roller within the frame of the computing model was created by extraction with the radius of
the base 66,5 mm and with the length 465 mm. Subsequently the roller was longitudinal divided into
bottom and top part. The bottom part of the roller was removed for simplification of the calculation. By
49

pulling /extrusion/ it was also created a conveyor belt. The width of the belt within the frame of the model
is 1200 mm and the thickness is 6,8 mm. The belt was divided into pseudo-surfaces which meet with
rollers and this fact simplified the calculation on the part of contact conditions.
In the module Assembly it was by the functions linear pattern, translate instance and rotate
instance created the part of the conveyor (Fig. 3), which consists of the conveyor belt and three idler
rollers. The distance among rollers were defined 10 mm of the width and 1220 mm for the length. At the
end of the belt it is located the part of angle pulley with the radius 200 mm.

Figure 3 Design of geometric model of the conveyor


2.2 Material characteristics
Material properties of the conveyor belt were within the frame of calculation modelled as elastic, lamina
with the density 1.099E-009 t.mm-3, Poisson number 0,499 and modulus of elasticity in shear is 2,9 MPa.
The Young`s modulus of elasticity at the cross direction was defined as 397 MPa and at the longitudinal
direction as 5,4 MPa. In the belt was defined orientation of the material characteristics by local coordinate
system. From the mathematical point of view the rollers were modelled as elastic, isotropic with the
properties of steel with the density 7.85E-009 t.mm-3. The Young`s modulus of elasticity is 204000 MPa
and the Poisson`s number was determined as 0,25.
2.3 Definition of contacts
The conveyor belt is divided into sections which come into the contact with the rollers and this simplifies
the calculation for Abaqus. From the same reason, the rollers are also divided at the horizontal direction.
These sections are defined in assembly as surfaces. For these parts of belt is associated a correspondent
part of roller. For defined contacts was associated stabilisation of the contact by contact controls. As
master surface it was defined surfaces of rollers and pulleys which define the direction and the size of
movement. For slave surface it was associated the parts of conveyor belt which come in contact with
the corresponding surface of the roller. The surfaces associated for slave surface are due to adapt to the
movement of surfaces defined as master surface.

50

Figure 4 Contacts among rollers and corresponding part of the conveyor belt
2.4 Boundary conditions
The central rollers as well as drum have obtained all degrees of freedom. The side rollers are fixed against
the movement in the axis X and rotation in the axis Y and Z. These rollers also have the other boundary
condition which defines their rotation to the required angle.
2.5 Gravitation and tension of the belt
Gravitation is defined in the section Load for the complex model at the direction of the axis Y with the
value g = - 9810 mm.s-2. The conveyor belt may be by the requests at the beginning of the calculation, or
during it loaded by tension force.
2.6 Networking
For creation of the network of finite elements were used elements of the Shell type. The networking of rollers
is defined by finite elements with the size 15 mm, but the belt has networking formed from finite elements
with the size 20 mm. Smaller size of the finite elements within the frame of networking can increase the
accuracy of the calculation, but it must be realized regarding to the possibility of the applied hardware.
3. UTILIZATION OF THE COMPUTING MODEL
The computing model allows analyze the process of transformation of the conveyor belt from the trough
shape to the flat shape (Fig. 5). This is an important factor which significantly affects the size of
kinematic resistances and by that also the claim for the drive of belt conveyor. The model allows identify
the places of their formation. The next important data which the presented computing model provides are
information about the localization of the conveyor belt in the idler rollers. This fact gives information
about the suitability of the conveyor belt for the constructive solution of the belt conveyor. It is above all
the fact, if the material characteristics of the conveyor belt allow its right localization in the rollers (Fig. 6
and Fig. 7). Also interesting information which the presented computing model provides is analysis of
interaction of the contact pair conveyor belt roller. The computing model by this way enables to
determine and analyse the size of the contact pressure effects which are the results of rollers effect on the
rubber-textile conveyor belt (Fig. 8, 9, 10, 11).

Figure 5 Displacement of the belt at the direction of the axis Y by transformation


51

Figure 6 Unpressed part of the belt by transformation

Figure 7 Illustration of the belt position on the idler rollers by transformation

Figure 8 Pressure affecting on the first idler roller by transformation

Figure 9 Pressure affecting on the second idler roller by transformation from Sempertrans
52

Figure 10 Pressure affecting on the third idler roller by transformation

Figure 11 Pressure affecting on the belt by transformation

4. CONCLUSION
The described computing model allows search and analyze in detail the regularity of formation and
existence of kinematic resistances and contact forces in the conveyor belt of the belt conveyor. It is
created by the main intention to allow research of conditions which affecting the size of kinematic
resistances and contact forces by operation of belt conveyors. The obtained results are possible after
thorough analysis to use for determination of the basic postulates for determination of the size of
operating resistances and contact forces. The knowledge of contact forces and kinematic resistances of
belt conveyors is the fact which is necessary to know because these have marked impact on the lifetime of
conveyor belts. Extension of lifetime of the conveyor belt is by this way related to the high economic
saving, above all by reason of expensiveness of new conveyor belts and it presents also unplanned costs
and replacement of conveyor belt is related to the next economic loss in consequence of layoff of
technological devices.

Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0184/12, VEGA 1/0922/12, VEGA
1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169, University Science Park TECHNICOM for Innovation Applications
Supported by Knowledge Technology, ITMS: 26220220182, supported by the Research & Development Operational
Programme funded by the ERDF.

53

REFERENCES
[1] Gruji, M., Ristovi, I.: To What Extent The Number Of Conveyors Affects The Operating Efficiency
Of Haulage Systems In Coal Mines. MPES 2004, A. A. BALKEMA, ISBN 04-1535-937-6, P.P. 553556, Wroclaw, Poland.
[2] Marasov, D., Taraba, V., Gruji, M., Fedorko, G., Bindzr, P., Huskov, N.: Psov doprava.
Fakulta BERG, Technick univerzita v Koiciach, Koice 2006, ISBN 80-8073-628-6.
[3] Demjan, J.: Nvrh vpotovho modelu pre dopravn psy hadicovch dopravnkov pomocou metdy
MKP. Diplomov prca. TU Koice F BERG 2009, 132.s.
[4] Fabian, M. - Spik, E.: Navrhovn a vroba s pomoc CA.. technologi. 1. vyd. Brno: CCB, 2009.
398 p. ISBN 978-80-85825-65-7.
[5] Stanov, E.: Mathematical Expression of the Wire Axis in Trihedral Strand of Steel Rope. In:
TRANSPORT & LOGISTICS, No.14 (2008), Koice, pp. 40 46, ISSN 1451-107X.
[6] Tittel, V. - Zelenay, M.: A comparison of die geometry in the drawing process. In: Research papers
Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology in Trnava. - ISSN
1336-1589. - . 26 (2009), s. 81-86.
[7] Michalik, P., Zajac, J., Using of computer integrated system for static tests of pipe conveyer belts, in:
13th Int. Carpathian Control Conf. (ICCC), 2012, IEEE, High Tatras, 2012: pp. 480485.
doi:10.1109/CarpathianCC.2012.6228691.
[8] Strohmandl, J.,Use of simulation to reduction of faulty products, UPB Sci. Bull. Ser. D Mech. Eng. 76
(2014) 223230.
[9] Petrikova, I., Marvalova, B., Tuan, H.S., Bocko, P., Experimental evaluation of mechanical properties
of belt conveyor with textile reinforcement and numerical simulation of its behaviour, in: Const.
Model. Rubber VIII - Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Const. Model. Rubbers, ECCMR 2013, 2013: pp. 641644.
http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.084878610594&partnerID=40&md5=63ddccea12e5b64325e59e4d97c006d6.
[10] Rozbroj, J., Zegzulka, J. Neas, J., Use of DEM in the Determination of Friction Parameters on a
Physical Comparative Model of a Vertical Screw Conveyor, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 29 (2015) 25
34. doi:10.15255/CABEQ.2014.2142.

54

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

UTILIZATION OF CAD AND CAE TECHNOLOGIES BY RESEARCH OF


SHIFTING OF PIPE CONVEYORS
Gabriel Fedorko1, Ivana Filipovic2, Ivica Ristovic2
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
1

Abstract: Shifting within the frame of continuous conveying of bulk materials presents important places in
conveying devices which significantly effecting the whole conveying system. In the place of shifting it comes
primarily to the passing of transported bulk substrate from one conveyor to the other. From these facts it is evident,
that the research of shifting in the field of belt conveying is very important and it provides the possibilities for the
next increase of effectiveness of conveying processes.
Keywords: CAE, Conveyor, CAD, Belt, Transport

1. INTRODUCTION
Shifting within the frame of continuous conveying of bulk materials presents important places in conveying
devices which significantly effecting the whole conveying system. In the place of shifting it comes primarily to
the passing of transported bulk substrate from one conveyor to the other (Fig. 1). This process is linked with
several factors affecting the lifetime of conveyor belts, lifetime of the construction of conveying device and
shifting. The shifting with its properties significantly effects the total consumption of energy of driver, etc.
From these facts it is evident, that the research of shifting in the field of belt conveying is very important and it
provides the possibilities for the next increase of effectiveness of conveying processes. Within the frame of
research and analysis of shifting of belt conveyors is used a wide scale of methods based on the theoretical and
experimental knowledge. CAD and CAE systems provide for the needs of analysis of pipe conveyors shifting
the possibility of obtaining of wide scale of information which are impossible to record by ordinary
conventional methods, or it is possible to register them only by bounded measure.

Figure 1 Example of belt conveyor shifting


55

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD (DEM)


The DEM method utilizes monitoring of particles motion by movement of group transported material.
The method DEM belongs to the group of numeric methods which are used for examination of movement
of a great number of particles with small sizes. At the present, DEM is a wide accepted effective method
of technical problems solution which are nearly linked with for example granular and discontinuous
materials, especially with regard to monitoring of flows of granules, analysis of powder mechanics and
mechanics of rocks.
Application of the method is relatively demanding for calculation, and this fact has an effect on the
number of monitored particles or on the simulation time. From this reason several users of DEM codes
use by solution of task advantages of parallel calculations, and it is applied shared or distributed systems.
By this way it is possible to increase the number of particles or the time of simulation. DEM is possible
for application for solution of problems related with the research of liquid mechanics.
In the engineering practice are used several program tools based on the DEM. The most famous are for
example PASSAGE/DEM Software, Newton ACTek, Helix Chute Design, EDEM, Rocky 3D etc.
(Fig. 2).

Figure 2 Example of DEM utilization [1-2]


2.1 Program Helix Chute Design
Helix Chute Design, is a program tool from Australian company Helix Technologies which combines
simple CAD program and 3D simulation program to the one complex analytical tool of which main goal
is modelling and analysis of transported material particle motion by Discrete element method. The
software also allows to import the created model of conveyor from other CAD program and then it is
sufficient to set all needed parameter for calculation in the simple dialog windows.
The Helix Chute Design allows for constructers to estimate the way of material flow, for example by
material filling on the conveyor belt. It helps to design optimal solutions of conveying systems for
specific operational conditions.
2.2 Program Rocky 3D
A program Rocky 3D presents efficient tool for analysis and simulation of material flow within the
frame of belt conveying from the American company Conveyor Dynamics, Inc., which develops also
other famous programs for belt conveying, for example BeltFlex and BeltStat.
56

The software Rocky 3D belongs to the category of programs simulating particles by DEM. Besides this
fact, the simulation program cooperates with CAD software.
2.3 Program Chute Analyst
Simulation program Chute Analyst from American company Overland Conveyor Company, was
developed specially for the need of simulation and calculations within the frame of the problem of belt
conveying. Within the frame of works in the program are applied several steps. The first step is creation
of the project. The second step is about the creation of components of the belt conveyor or it is possible to
import them from the program AutoCAD. The third step is setting of parameters and creation of
simulation. The final step of the program is graphic presentation of the results of calculations.
2.4 Program EDEM Simulator
EDEM Simulator is on the present foremost simulation program based on the DEM. It is a simulation
program for simulation, analysis and optimization of particles motion. EDEM allows simulate more
than one million particles within the frame of one model. The company, which develops the program,
close cooperates with experts from NASA in Kennedy cosmic centre.
The great advantages of the program EDEM is the possibility of connection with other programs, for
example on the base of FEM /for example Ansys Fluent/ (Fig. 3) and by this way the possibilities of
calculations and analysis are markedly expanded.

Figure 3 Example of the result of calculation of material shifting by mutual combination of the programs
EDEM and ANSYS FLUENT [3]

3. SIMULATION OF PIPE CONVEYOR SHIFTING


One of the main advantages of the program Helix Chute Design, as it was said, is the cooperation with
CAD programs and the possibility of importing of the drawing right into the simulation. The drawing,
which was used within the frame of computing example was obtained as a freely available on Internet.

57

The model example was realized by free available demo version of the program Helix Chute
Design/validity 30 days/. Within the frame of the example was created simulation of transported material
shifting by belt conveyor (Fig. 4).

Figure 4 Imported drawing by the program AutoCAD


After importing of the prepared geometry of the model in the external CAD program was the next step by
creation of the example of simulation model setting of the basic input parameters of simulated conveying
systems. Their implementation was realized by dialog windows which position is in the folder DEM
Inputs. Within the frame of this folder were defined these parameters: critical time step, calc.
recording frames per second, particle co-eff. of restitution, particle stiffness co-eff., face stiffness
co-eff, particle penetration, particle cohesion.

Figure 5 Dialog window of the program Helix Chute Design with the basic input parameters needed
for realization of calculation and setting of visualization of transported material particles
The program Helix Chute Design allows by simulation of the systems of belt conveyors to add random
number of pulleys, through which it comes to material shifting. Within the frame of model example
formation it was added to the model one angle pulley which was characterized by these parameters:
pulley diameter, number of segments, pulley face stiffness, co-eff restition, surface coeff
friction, belt speed. After set of these parameters it was needed to assure the right position of the
pulley in the model (Fig. 6). And in the end it was for better clarity colour highlighted.
58

Figure 6 Dialog window of the program Helix Chute Design with the basic parameters of the angle
pulley of the pipe conveyor within the frame of calculation
Formulation of characteristics of the hopper which is responsible for transported material input to the
conveyor belt was realized in the next step of simulation model creation. At the first it was necessary to
define the position of the hopper by coordinate system. The hopper within the frame of the model task
was consisting of two parts and parameters which were for it defined are: particle density, particle
size max, particle size min, feed capacity, rotation percentage.
In the final step was defined the coloured scale for the possibility of detection of speed for material
particles within the frame of simulation model movement. By click on the Max Velocity Colour was
determined the colour of maximal speed and by click on the ZeroVelocity Colour was determined the
colour of minimal, so the zero speed (Fig. 5 and 7).

4. SIMULATION OF PIPE CONVEYOR SHIFTING IN THE PROGRAM ABAQUS


The second type of the simulation model which was created for the need of pipe conveyor shifting
analysis, describes the motion of only one particle of the transported material. This simulation model was
created in the program Abaqus. Its main goal was monitor and describe the motion of material particle on
the moving conveyor belt, its separation from the conveyor belt and interaction with the baffle plate
which insures the direction of transported material particles.
The created model allows to research kinematic and dynamic effects formed by transported material
particle impact on the baffle plate, the model allows to monitor and describe the trajectory of throw curve
of the particle after its leave of the conveyor belt.

Figure 7 Demonstration of presentation of simulation experiment results in Helix Chute Design


59

Formation of geometry of computing model was realized by pre-processor of the program Abaqus. It is
formed by four party presenting conveyor belts, angle pulley, baffle plate and transported material
particle (Fig. 8).
Baffle plate

Material particle
Conveyor belt

Angle pulley
Figure 8 Geometry of simulation model of pipe conveyor shifting in the program Abaqus
The philosophy of the model is based on the fact that the conveyor belt revolves around the angle pulley,
material particle is freely supported on the moving conveyor belt. By its conveying to the angle pulley it
is consequently launched and it crash on the fixed baffle plate, then it is reflected and by free fall it directs
to the other conveyor. The side conditions are defined by the way that the angle pulley rotates around its
own axis, the conveyor belts gets one degree of freedom in the axial direction and at the same time it is
directed by the angle pulley. Material particle has all degrees of freedom and it is freely located on the
conveyor belt. The baffle plate has obtained all degrees of freedom.
Within the frame of simulation model are defined three contact pairs, especially the material particle
conveyor belt, conveyor belt angle pulley and the final pair are baffle plate material particle. The
simulation model was solved by the method Abaqus Explicit. Fig. 9 presents the result of bulk material
conveying simulation. In the initial phases it is conveying of material by expected assumptions. After
material coming to the place of shifting it comes to its release from the conveyor belt and shot in the
direction of the second conveying system which is located in the space under the firs conveyor. The right
direction of transported material flow is realized by the baffle plate. In the result of setting of its wrong
inclination the material is reverse reflected to the place of shifting. After the second contact with the
conveyor belt, the material is again shot to the baffle plate, it is reflected from it and it directs by free fall
in the direction of the second conveyor. The simulation model by this way showed improper
configuration of the conveying system.

60

Particle of transported material


comes to the place of shifting

Particle of transported material


migrates on the conveyor belt

Particle of transported material


leaves conveyor belt

Particle of transported material is shot


and it directs to baffle plate

Particle of transported material hits


against the baffle plate

Particle of transported material is reflected


back to the place of shifting

Particle of transported material hits


against the baffle plate

Particle of transported material is shot


again and it directs to baffle plate

Particle of transported material is


again reflected from the battle
plate

Particle of transported material falls to


the second conveying system

Figure 9 Demonstration of presentation of the simulation experiment results in the program Abaqus
/improper inclination of the baffle plate/
61

5. CONCLUSION
CAD and CAE tools present very effective tool for analysis of material conveying by belt conveyors
(Fig.10). The obtained information about behaviour of transported material, at the key points of conveying
systems, helps for their optimal setting and operation. The result is for example marked decrease of
operational costs for energy. The other possible positive property is extension of conveyor belts lifetime.
The presented simulation models were designed for realization of more detailed research of pipe
conveyor. The goal of the research is to design the suitable construction of places within the frame of
which it comes to sagging of material among conveyors and monitoring of material flow in the closed
conveyor belt.

Figure 10. Presentation of the results material shifting simulation by utilization of belt conveyor [8]

Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0922/12, VEGA
1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169.
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Research on possibility for AT (Advanced Technology) rockbolting
application in mines for the purpose of increasing work safety and production efficiency"
(TR 33025) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of
Programme of research in the field of technological development for the period 2011-2015.

REFERENCES
[1] http://www.scientific-computing.com/features/images/SCWDec06PhysicsDEM.jpg
[2] http://www.dem-solutions.com/content/themes/dem/img/rightcolumn/EDEM23PR_Mining_Benetech_small.jpg
[3] http://leap.ecommetrix.com/newsletter.asp?n=E46418BD25BCF461&s=1DC6FAACFEC2E736
[4] Fabian, M. - Spik, E.: Navrhovn a vroba s pomoc CA.. technologi. 1. vyd. Brno: CCB, 2009.
398 p. ISBN 978-80-85825-65-7.
[5] Tittel, V., Zelenay, M., A comparison of die geometry in the drawing process. In: Vedeck prce
MtF STU v Bratislave so sdlom v Trnave. Research papers Faculty of Materials Science and
Technology Slovak University of Technology in Trnava. - ISSN 1336-1589. - . 26 (2009), s. 81-86
[6] Spik, E., Fabian, M., Strojrske technolgie s CAx podporou, 1. vyd. - Koice : elfa -2010. - 379 s.
- ISBN 978-80-8086-136-0
[7] Fabianov, J., Janekov, J., Implementcia PLM systmov jej prnosy a rizik, In: Transfer inovci.
9/2006. - Koice: TU-SjF, 2006 S. 80-82. - ISBN 8080737010
[8] http://web678.public1.linz.at/media/DEM/wear/wear_transferchute.png
62

[9] Huskov, N., Marasov, D., Taraba, V., Procesy reverznej logistiky a dopravn psy / - 2008. In:
Doprava a logistika. Mimoriadne . 5 (2008), s. 262-265. - ISSN 1451-107X
[10] Molnr, V., Michalik, P., Design experiences of pipe - 2011. - 1 elektronick optick disk (CDROM). In: Doprava a logistika. - Koice, TU, 2011 Mimoriadne slo 9 (2011), s. 542-546. - ISSN
1451-107X
[11] Rozbroj, J., Zegzulka, J. Neas, J., Use of DEM in the Determination of Friction Parameters on a
Physical Comparative Model of a Vertical Screw Conveyor, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 29 (2015) 25
34. doi:10.15255/CABEQ.2014.2142.
[12] Strohmandl, J.,Use of simulation to reduction of faulty products, UPB Sci. Bull. Ser. D Mech. Eng.
76 (2014) 223230.
[13] Michalik, P., Zajac, J., Using of computer integrated system for static tests of pipe conveyer belts, in:
13th Int. Carpathian Control Conf. (ICCC), 2012, IEEE, High Tatras, 2012: pp. 480485.
doi:10.1109/CarpathianCC.2012.6228691.
[14] Petrikova, I., Marvalova, B., Tuan, H.S., Bocko, P., Experimental evaluation of mechanical
properties of belt conveyor with textile reinforcement and numerical simulation of its behaviour, in:
Const. Model. Rubber VIII - Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Const. Model. Rubbers, ECCMR 2013, 2013: pp.
641644.

63

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

SCRIPTING EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ACCELERATION OF FEM


ANALYSIS IN THE PROGRAM ABAQUS
Peter Michalik, Vieroslav Molnr
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
Abstract: The paper describes the possibility of automatization of computing models creation for the research of
pipe conveyors. As a simulation tool was used the program Abaqus.
Keywords: Script, FEM, Conveyor, Belt, Transport

1. INTRODUCTION
Analysis by the help of finite element methods (FEM) is used by solution of a wide spectrum of problems
in various disciplines. Necessary assumption for obtaining of relevant results with good relevant value is
a formation of quality geometric model, definition of the boundary conditions and material
characteristics. This preliminary phase within the frame of analysis by FEM is on the part of time lengthy
and it can be realized by pre-processor /if the FEM program disposes with it/ or by the help of selected
CAD program /Catia, SolidWorks, CreoElements, Inventor, etc./. In practice, the problem is formed by
the requirement of calculation realization within the frame of which it comes to the change of selected
parameters, for example size of the geometric model, change of material characteristics, change of the
network of finite elements, boundary conditions, etc. For increase of effectiveness and acceleration of the
preliminary phase of FEM analysis, several FEM programs provide the possibility of creation and
application of scripts by the help of scripting languages.

2. SCRIPTING LANGUAGE
The term scripting language indicates a computer programming language which was originally designed
for simplification of operations of the computer. At the beginning it was called as a batch language. It
serves above all for creation of a useful script which was subsequently applied within the frame of other
programs and activities of PC. At the present time, there are many languages which are sophisticated and
in many cases they run over the boundary of operations automatization. The scripting language is possible
to find in all levels of computer system. They are used for example in computer games, text editors,
network applications and also in FEM programs [1].

3. APPLICATION OF SCRIPTS IN THE PROGRAM ABAQUS


The software Abaqus disposes with a wide scale of tools of which main purpose is simplification of the
work with this program. One of them which is directly connected with creation of scripts are Abaqus PDE
and RSG Dialog Builder. Abaqus PDE /Python development environment/ is a tool designed for creation,
64

editing, testing and harmonizing of scripts in the scripting language Python. Abaqus PDE is designed for
the work with the files with the extension .guiLog. The files with the extension .guiLog contain the record of
all operations which was realized in the program Abaqus, in the scripting language Python. By the help of
this it is possible to modify the obtained record by PDE. For example, if we want to create and modify the
time of the computing model which has similar or moderate varied parameters, it is sufficient to copy,
modify and set the data to PDE. PDE has a great use especially in a large number of repetitive operations.
RSG (Really Simple GUI)is a plug-in which allows to create dialog windows and their connecting with the
correspondent statements. Within the frame of the dialog window it is possible to create tabs, menu, various
buttons and at the same time it allows to create a connection with the files of the program MS Excel.
3.1 Scripting language Python
Python is a multi-paradigm language. This means that it allows using of different styles. Python supports
object-oriented, structured and functional programming. It is dynamic typed language, using a large number
of high-level data types and for memory administration it uses a garbage collection (it sets automatically
which part of memory is unused and prepares it for the next use). Although the Python is often referred to as
scripting language, it is used for development of large software projects, for example application server
Zope and systems for sharing of files Mnet and BitTorrent. Users of Phyton prefer to mark it as a high-level
dynamic programming language, because the term scripting language is associated with the languages
which are used only for simple shell scripts or with languages of JavaScript type [2]. Python can be
extended very simply. New built-in modules can be easily written in C or C++. Python can be used as a
extension language for existing modules and application which need programming interface [2].
3.2 Parameterization of the computing model of pipe conveyor
Within the frame of the research of conveyor belts of pipe conveyors was for the need of FEM analysis
verified the possibility of parameterization of the selected characteristics and properties of the computing
model of the pipe conveyor. Creation of the design of parametric computing model of the pipe conveyor
consists from three steps:
1.
2.
3.

Creation of the initial computing model;


Use of pre-program Abaqus PDE for modification of rpy files;
Use of RSG Dialog Builder for creation of the dialog window.

3.3 Creation of the initial computing model


The initial model which is presented by the Fig. 1 was created by the pre-processor (Abaqus/CAE) which
is the part of the program.

Figure 1 Computing model of pipe conveyor


65

Within the frame of the initial model were defined material characteristics for forming rollers and
conveyor belt. The network of finite elements was also created.
3.4 Modification of the file abaqus.rpy by pre-program Abaqus PDE
The next phase of the creation of parameterization of the computing model of pipe conveyor in the
program Abaqus used the pre-program Abaqus PDE and by this program was created the file abaqus.rpy.
This file is very important for pre-process of parameterization because it includes the previous procedure
of creation of the initial computing model of the pipe conveor which is recorded in the programming
language Python.
As the first, it was realized removal of the text typified by blue colour in the first up to the tenth line. The
following step was deleting of the text Session among abaqusConstants import * and caeModules
import*and deleting of the clause executeOnCaeStartup()
session.viewports['Viewport:1'].partDisplay.geometryOptions.setValues(
referenceRepresentation=ON)
To the fifth line, below the line from driverUtils import executeOnCaeStartup it was scripted this
statement:
def createPlate( radius, partName1, partName2, height1, height2,
plateMaterial1,
plateMaterial2, number, size1, size2, totalAngle, width, spacing, spacing1, number1,).
The remaining text under this statement was marked and we clicked on the Edit on the Indet Region or we
used key abbreviation Crtl + I. In the next step was rewritten the numerical value of the names of values
which were defined in the statement def createPlate.
In the ninth line in the statement s.Line, these statements were rewritten point2=(0.0, 20.0)) to
point2=(0.0, height1)), and by this way it was created a condition for the setting the size of parameter
height 1 in the dialog window. The modification was progressing by finding the name of part which
presents the forming roller and its name was scripted by Ctrl + C, and next we clicked on the Edit /
Replace. The copied name of part was set to the Search For: and to the Replace With it was written
partName1, all these functions were confirmed by the Replace All. By this way all original names of part
were rewritten to partName1.
In the 19th line was rewritten the statement point1=(0.0, 10.0) to the point1=(0.0, radius)), and it helps
to set the size of variables. It was found the name of the other part in the text, which presents the
conveyor belt and its name was copied by Ctrl + C and next we clicked on the Edit / Replace.
In the window Search For was located the copied name of the part which presents conveyor belt and to
the Replace With was written the text partName2, all was confirmed by the Replace All. By this way all
names of part present the conveyor belt were rewritten to the partName2.
Under the line from material import createMaterialFromDataString it was set the statement
if plateMaterial1 == 'Guma'.
Above the statement from material import createMaterialFromDataString was set the statement
elif plateMaterial1 == 'Steel':
Under the text under this statement was again marked to the statement:
p.SectionAssignment(region=region, sectionName = 'Steel', ofset = 0.0, offsetType =
MIDDLE_SURFACE, offsetField ='', thicknessAssignment = FROM_SECTION), namely by click in the
menu Edit by the Indet Region in the menu or by the Crtl + I. By this procedure it was assigned the
statement if to materials in the part Valec. This procedure was repeated also by the next script about
assignment of material for the part Pas.
Under the first group of materials were other statements s.Line(point1=(-1.25, 0.0), point2=(-1.25, 50.0))
where point2=(-1.25, 50.0)) was rewrite to the point2=(-1.25, height2) and the next statement
s1.Line(point1=(0.0, 0.0), point2=(100.0, 0.0)) was rewritten to the s1.Line(point1=(0.0, 0.0),
point2=(width, 0.0)).
66

The first statement p.seedPart(size=2.8, deviationFactor=0.1) in the file abaqus.rpy means the density of
the network Mesh for the part Valec. The statement size=2.8 was rewritten to the size=size1.The next
statement was in the part Pas, it was rewritten to the size=size2.
In the program Abaqus /CAE the roller was shifted to the centre of the conveyor belt during the creation
of geometric model. It was written in the file abaqus.rpy by this way
s.Line(point1=(0.0, 0.0), point2=(0.0, 50.0))
a.translate(instanceList=('Valec-1', ), vector=(-20.0, 35.0, -10.0)).
In the field vector are coordinates where it the roller. These vectors were re-written to:
vector=(-2.25 - (radius) , ((height1/2) + (height2/2)), -3 - (radius))).
By this way it was solved that after the change of roller or conveyor belt size, the roller stays in the centre
of the conveyor belt.
Creation of the idler valec by the tool Radial Pattern was realized in the abaqus.rpy file following:
a1 = mdb.models['Model-1'].rootAssembly
a1.RadialInstancePattern(instanceList=('valec-1', ), point=(-1.25, 75.0, 10.0),
axis=(1.0, 0.0, 0.0), number=6, totalAngle=360.0).
Number=6 was rewritten to the number=number and totalAngle=360 to
totalAngle=totalAngle.

the

The statement Linear Patern was in the abaqus.rpy written as:


a1.LinearInstancePattern(instanceList=('valec-1', ' valec -1-row-2', ' valec -1- row -3', ' valec -1row -4', ' valec -1- row -5', ' valec -1- row -6'), direction1=(-1.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction2=(0.0, 1.0, 0.0),
number1=3, number2=1, spacing1=20.0, spacing2=52.7654).
This statement was modified by the way that ('valec-1', 'valec-1- row -2', 'valec-1- row -3', 'valec1- row -4', 'valec-1- row -5', 'valec-1- row -6') was replaced by the word valec_list and by rewritten of the
values number1 and spacing1. The statement was:
a.LinearInstancePattern(instanceList=valec_list, direction1=(-1.0, 0.0, 0.0), direction2=(0.0,
1.0, 0.0), number1=number1, number2=1, spacing1=spacing1, spacing2=54.0711)
Before this statement it was set the statement if number==1: and under the line valec_list =
('valec-1'), which was marked and consequently it was clicked to the Indet Region in the menu Edit or it
was used the Crtl + I. This statement means that if the value number will be equal 1, so it means that
the valec_list = ('valec-1'). Under this statement it was set:
elif number==2:
valec_list = (' valec -1', ' valec -1-rad-2')
elif number==3:
valec_list = (' valec -1', ' valec -1- rad -2', ' valec-1- rad -3') etc., to the elif number==10:.
Again it was marked every line valec_list and it was clicked to the Indet Region in the menu Edit or it was
used the Crtl + I. The statement elif number==2 means if the number is equal 2, the valec_list will equal
('valec-1', 'valec-1-rad-2').
By this stem it was finished the creation of the script and the final script was named as PVMHD.py and it
was set to the working folder.
3.5 Creation of the dialog window by RSG Dialog Builder
Application RSG Dialog Builder is situated in the menu, Plug-ins / Abaqus / RSG Dialog Builder. In the
folder Kernel it was selected the Load, it was load the file PVMHD.py which was created in the previous
step and was in the working folder. After opening, it was selected the function createPlate. After click on
the tab GUI it was started the creation of the dialog window.
Creation of the dialog window was started by the set of Tab Book, with nested three Tab Item-s which
was named Valec, Dop. pas a Zostavenie.

67

To the Tab Item Valec (Fig. 2) it was set Group Box, where in the window Title was the name Valec. To
this it was set Icon. In the window File Name it was set the way to the figure, which was used as a icon of
the statement. Consequently it was set Vertical Aligner, which is for vertical alignment of windows and
next it was set Group Box which was named as Material. To the Vertical Aligner were set four blocks
Text Field which were set by the way which is presented by the Tab. 1.
Table 1 Set of Text Field
The 1st Text Field:
The 2nd Text Field:
Text: Name:
Text: r:
Columns: 16
Columns: 12
Type: String
Type: Float
Keyword: partName1
Keyword: radius

The 3rd Text Field:


Text: a:
Columns: 12
Type: Float
Keyword: height1

The 4th Text Field:


Text: Mesh:
Columns: 12
Type: Float
Keyword: size1

To the Group Box Material was set Combo Box and automatically were also set three List Items. But if
were needed only two, one from them was removed. Therefore we clicked to the final List Item by the
right button of the mouse and by the click on the possibility delete.Combo Box. Its List Item was set by
the Tab. 2:
Table 2 Set of List Item
Combo box:

Type: Standard
Text: Material:
Keyword: plateMaterial1

Figure 2 Tab Item Valec


The first List Item was named in the window Text: Guma and the second Steel. By application of these
steps was finished the first Tab List valec.
To the second Tab Item which is named Dop.pas (Fig. 3) the same blocks were set as it was in the first
case, specifically it is a Group Box, where in the window Title were written Dop.pas. To this was again
applied Icon in the window File Name, it was set the way to the figure which presents the icon of the
conveyor belt. Then it was progressing by setting of Vertical Aligner. The next statement, which was
again used, was Group Box, which was named as Material, to the Vertical Aligner were set four blocks
Text Field, which were set by the way as it is presented by the Tab. 3.

68

Table 3 Set of Text Field


Prv Text Field:
Druh Text Field:
Text: Name:
Text: b:
Columns: 16
Columns: 12
Type: String
Type: Float
Keyword: partName2
Keyword: width

Tret Text Field:


Text: a:
Columns: 12
Type: Float
Keyword: height2

tvrt Text Field:


Text: Mesh:
Columns: 12
Type: Float
Keyword: size2

To the Group Box Material it was set Combo Box which is set by the way which is presented by the Tab.
4.
Table 4 Set of Group Box Material
Combo box:
Type: Standard
Text: Material:
Keyword: plateMaterial2
The first list Item was named in the window Text: Guma and the second Steel. The second Tab List
Dop.pas was after these steps ready (Fig. 3).

Figure 3 Tab Item Dop.pas


To the final Tab Item Zostavenie it was again insert blocks Group Box, where in the window Title it was
written Zostavenie, Icon in the window File Name it was set the way to the figure which presents the
image documentation in the dialog window. Then it was set the command Slider of which advantage is
the possibility of definition of maximal and minimal possible value and by smooth motion of the runner it
is possible to change the range of set.
Then it was set Vertical Aligner and Icon, where in the window File Name was set the way to the
representative figure and again was set Vertical Aligner. To the both Vertical Aligner were set two Text
Fields. In the first Vertical Aligner we set the Text Fields as it is presented by the Tab. 5.
Table 5 Set of Text Field
The 1st Vertical Aligner
st
The 1 Text Field:
The 2nd Text Field:
Text: Angle:
Text: Rozostup:
Columns: 16
Columns: 12
Type: String
Type: Float
Keyword: totalAngle
Keyword: rozostup

The 2nd Vertical Aligner


The 3 Text Field:
The 4th Text Field:
Text: Spacing:
Text: Number:
Columns: 12
Columns: 12
Type: Float
Type: Float
Keyword: spacing1
Keyword: number1
rd

69

Figure 4 Tab Item Zostavenie


The whole procedure was saved by the click on the icon Save Your Dialog Box As Plug- in at the end. It
was clicked the possibility Save as RSG Plug-in in the window and then the windows were described as:
Directory Name: PVMHD
Menu Button Name: PVMHD
Finally, it was confirmed by OK. It was displayed a window which informs about the files which were
created and about the way to them. The parametric model of the pipe conveyor was created by this way
(Fig. 5).

Figure 5 Created dialog window by RSG Dialog Builder


3.6 Application of the created script
The created script allows formation of various variations of computing models (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). It
brings very fast time reduction by creation of the computing model. But it is needed to emphasize that the
process of calculation within the frame of the pre-processor does not affect the described script because it
is affected by other factors, for example the boundary conditions, the network of finite elements, etc.

70

Figure 6 Result of calculation by three-roller geometric model

Figure 7 Result of calculation by two-roller geometric model

4. CONCLUSION
The presented paper describes in detail the procedure of scripts creation in the program Abaqus. On the
basis of the described model example of pipe conveyor it is possible to create other scripts for the need of
computer analysis by the help of this program. Scripting is a factor which brings significantly shortening
of time fastidiousness of model creation. By the work with created scripts are required minimal skills with
pre-processor Abaqus.

71

Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0184/12, VEGA 1/0922/12, VEGA
1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169, University Science Park TECHNICOM for Innovation Applications
Supported by Knowledge Technology, ITMS: 26220220182, supported by the Research & Development Operational
Programme funded by the ERDF.

REFERENCES
[1] http://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skriptovac_jazyk
[2] http://www.kiwiki.info/mediawiki/index.php/Multiplatformn_simulan_program_vozidla_v_3D,_s_
podporou_jazyka_vyej rovne#Charakteristika_jazyka_Python
[3] Fabian, M., Spik, E., Navrhovn a vroba s pomoc CA.. technologi. 1. vyd. Brno: CCB, 2009. 398
p. ISBN 978-80-85825-65-7.
[4] Fedorko, G., Model dopravnka. Journal of Transport and Logistics. (2003), ISSN 1451-107X, s. 367370.
[5] Stanov, E., Mathematical Expression of the Wire Axis in Trihedral Strand of Steel Rope. Journal of
Transport and Logistics, No.14 (2008), Koice, pp. 40 46, ISSN 1451-107X.
[6] Tittel, V.,- Zelenay, M., A comparison of die geometry in the drawing process. In: Research papers
Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology in Trnava. - ISSN
1336-1589. - . 26 (2009), s. 81-86
[7] Fedorko, G., Huskov, N., epej, T., Variable pipe conveyor. Proceedings of 3rd International
Symposium Energy Mining, Banja Junakovi, Apatin, 08-11 September 2010. Edited by Ivica
Ristovic. Faculty of Mining and Geology, 2010., pp. 425-430. - ISBN 978-86-7352-215-9
[8] Boroka, J., Molnr, V., Stanov E., Bocko, P., Simulation of the axial loading for a rope by using
FEM analysis. Zeszyty Naukowo-Techniczne. No. 41 (2007), pp. 5-10. - ISSN 1640-4351
[9] Fedorko, G., Kubn, K., Ivano, V., Fabin, M.: FEM a napov analza dopravnch ps
hadicovch dopravnk. In: IT CAD. Vol. 17, no. 5 (2007), pp. 44-47. - ISSN 1802-0011

72

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ECO-LOGISTICS A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


Nikoleta Huskov
BERG Faculty Technical University of Koice, Koice, Slovakia
Abstract: Logistics is by the present knowledge divided into several application fields, for example enterprise
logistics, distribution logistics, logistics of storage, etc. Logistics and its application fields put the accent on the
such way of activities control, that the impact on the environment was at the minimum level and in the result of this
fact, it is formed a new application field of logistics so called eco-logistics. The paper deals with presentation of
the new application field of logistics, its basic elements and tools which are needed for its application in practice.
Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Eco-Logistics

1. INTRODUCTION
For environment protection and care are used many tools and activities. One of the interesting tool for
environment protection and care is presented by logistics, especially by the new application field of logistics,
namely by eco-logistics, which brings new understanding of the connection between logistics and environment.

2. APPLICATION FIELD OF LOGISTICS ECO-LOGISTICS


There is not a specific definition of eco-logistics in the current publication in the field of logistics or
environmental problems. Due to this fact by the approach to eco-logistics it was started from the
knowledge of logistics and also from the knowledge about environment. For the present state of
environment it is important to orientate managing of logistics activities at the direction of environmental
care. Environmental care consists of two basic terms, namely protection and creation of the environment.
What does protection of environment mean? For the answer on this questions it is needed the definition of
the environment and consequently the definitions of the terms protection and creation of the environment.
The environment is defined as everything what creates basic, natural conditions for life and at the same
time it is a base for its further development [1]. Protection of environment brings activities for
conservation of the existing values (for example wasting energy sources) for the present times and future
of the human, but at the same time it emphasizes also the rational intervention to the environment and its
parts in accordance with ecological balance (homeostasis) with minimal negative impacts on the
environment [1]. Creation of environment is systematic, intentional transformation of the environment, its
parts and substances by the present acceptation of the conditions of environment protection [2]. As it was
said, these two terms present the complex of activities included in the environmental care. Environmental
care is possible to generalize to the continuous realization of measures in the sense of disposal of negative
consequences in the result of anthropogenic activities on the environment and preventative measures
aimed at the negative aspects and effects of anthropogenic activities on the environment which create the
base of eco-logistics. For the need of ecological understanding of logistics is important to explain
ecological approaches or standpoints of logistics. Ecological approaches/standpoints of logistics is
possible to select do three basic fields [3]:
73

1. Selection of adequate locality for realization of logistics activities in regard to environment


protection;
2. Acceptance of legislative in regard to disaster areas and parts of environment (raw materials
management, air, water pollution, waste management);
3. Additive environmental value (at the direction of own regulation measures within the frame of
logistics activities in the sense of reactive strategy of organization in the nature and
environment protection).
On the base of these facts by eco-logistics will be applied this procedure: Eco-logistics is an application
field of logistics of which main subject interest is control, assurance and realization of logistics activities
with the main criterion protection and creation of environment = environmental care. The basic measures
of eco-logistics within the meaning of aforesaid knowledge are possible to classify as follows [4]:
1. Environmental impact assessment;
2. Integrated prevention, control of pollution;
3. Control of raw material, energy produced by the production process;
4. Determination of conditions for realization of activities in the operational conditions;
5. Realization of monitoring for all potential and existing (known) sources of emissions;
6. Determination of the best available technique;
7. Realization of control activities in operations, measurement of pollutants leakage;
8. Effective information system for collection, processing, evaluation of data;
9. Effective and active system for waste management;
10. Advertising of information about the impacts on the environment.
At the same time, it is possible to characterize eco-logistics as a sustainable development ecological
orientation and it is important to base upon the principles of sustainable development [5]. What is the
sustainable development and what are the principles of sustainable development in relation to eco-logistics?
The answer on this question is by the modification the current valid definition of the sustainable
development. The sustainable development is determined in the condition of SR by the Law No. 17/1992.
law about the environment. In the paragraph 6 is the sustainable development defined in the context of the
development which allows for the present and for the future to observe possibilities for satisfaction of life
requirements by non-modification of functionality, balance of the nature [6]. If it is started from the general
definition of sustainable development, it is possible to modify eco-logistics with acceptance of principles
and rules of logistics to the form of aimed, long-term, continuous, complex process with synergetic effect
which effects all levels of control, and the direction of activities is in creation of functional model of society
satisfying basic needs and interests and at the same time it eliminates and significantly limits various forms
of damages, endangering of environment. At the same time it is useful for the need of detailed analysis of
eco-logistics modify basic principles (16 principle of sustainable development) and criterion of SD (40
criterion of sustainable development) to the form presented by the Tab. 1.
Table 1 Modified basic principles and criterion of SD for eco-logistics
No. of the principle Characteristics of the principle
1st principle
Support of human resources development
2nd principle
Ecological conditions
rd
3 principle
Autoregulation and self-support of development
4th principle
Effectiveness
th
5 principle
Reasonable sufficiency
6th principle
Preventive measure
th
7 principle
Acceptance of needs, rights of the present and future generation
th
8 principle
Cultural and social integrity
9th principle
Acceptability of faults
th
10 principle
Optimization
Management of logistics activities on the part of social, ethical and
th
11 principle
environmental
74

3. BASIC ELEMENTS OF ECO-LOGISTICS


Despite the fact that the main aim of the paper is presentation of eco-logistics, it is needed to make a
mention of two basic parts of eco-logistics, namely reverse logistics and green logistics, respectively
about formed definitions of these parts of eco-logistics by the help of previous case studies of the authors
of this paper.
By the study of literary sources it is possible to state that eco-logistics is formed by two basic elements,
namely by green logistics and reverse logistics. On the base of the obtained knowledge, information about
reverse logistics regarding to various authors (for example Fleischmann (2001), Georgiadis, Vlachos
(2003), Dekker (2004), Fernandez (2004), kapa (2005), Dejax (2013), Brezina (2007), Guo (2010),
Gek (2012), Divahar, Sudhar (2012)) in the field of logistics it will be applied this understanding of
reverse logistics Reverse logistics as a part of eco-logistics deals with control, assurance and realization
of backward flows of raw materials, materials in collective and feeder networks from the customers to the
point of processing [7]. Reverse logistics consists of elements and processes. Elements and processes of
reverse logistics were determined on the base of obtained results from the analysis of the definitions of
reverse logistics. In the case of elements of reverse logistics is possible to talk about these categories [7]:
1st category = production losses (faulty pieces from production);
2nd category = wastes;
3rd category = unsold goods;
4th category = products from customers (including products from complaints).
Processes of reverse logistics are formed by three basic activities, namely by collection, sorting and
processing and these activities can be modified by the categories of elements of reverse logistics and the
possibility of reverse material flow realization. By these facts, it is possible to state these facts about
reverse logistics [8]:
1. Reverse logistics put the accent on the backward material flow at the direction from the customer
to the producer of the original product or specialized enterprise aimed at collection/processing of
the elements of reverse logistics;
2. For assurance of reverse material flows is very important the existence of additional operations
(transport, storage, etc.);
3. Emphasis on wastes and waste management with needed processes aimed at reduction of wastes.
In the case of green logistics it is possible to apply this approach:Green logistics as a part of eco-logistics
deals with elimination and complete elimination of effects of logistics and its activities on the
environment which is expressed by negative invasions in the environment, for example emissions of
pollutants, pollution of water sources, creation of wastes, etc.
Green logistics is focused on the supply chain of strategies and procedures control which eliminate
pollutant energy footprint of distribution on the environment with the focus of conveying, packaging,
waste management and manipulation with material. By green logistics it is possible to apply three
approaches [10]:
1. reactive approach enterprise belong to one supply chain realize financially undemanding
measures, for example information for customers about recycling of products by labelling,
application of end of pipe technologies which reduce consequences of some technological
procedures in the production;
2. pro-active approach enterprises design green products on one`s own initiative and they realize
recycling because they prevent of reach of new stricter laws about environment protection;
3. Active approach it supposes that enterprise consider reduction of environmental impact for their
strategic aim.
By this way it is possible to state that green logistics studies and minimizes impacts of logistics on the
environment.
75

4. TOOLS OF ECO-LOGISTICS
For effective application of eco-logistics are very important its basic tools, namely environmental
management system, environmental politics, integrated pollution prevention and control, environmental
impact assessment and environmental audit. Environmental Management System (EMS) allows to
increase economic reach of an enterprise, obtain new potential of profit and environmental profile. By the
help of environmentally oriented management in the enterprise is important to realize activities which
help to conquer conflicts among society, market and environment. EMS is a part of total management
system which includes planning of activities, procedures, structures, processes and tools for preparation,
realization, achievement and sustainment of environmental politics [11]. EMS is specifically intended for
the help of the enterprise in these fields:
-

Identification and control of environmental aspects, influences and risks;


Achievement of strategies, goals and tasks in environment protection;
Specification of the basic principles to the environmentally responsible future;
Assurance of balance between costs and profit of the enterprise, determination of short-term,
medium-term and long-term goals of environment protection realization [11].

The concept of EMS is created by dynamic, periodic and repeated process of which basic phases are [11]:
1st phase initial view of the state of environment protection in the enterprise, strategy for
environment protection, environmental action plan;
2nd phase responsibility for environment protection, procedure of environment protection,
communication in the enterprise, communication with surroundings;
3rd phase audit of the system, certification of the system;
4th phase integration of EMS with the system of quality, safety,
Environmental politics is an expression of the enterprise about its purpose and principles relating to the
summary environmental profile which provides the field for determination and examination of
environmental goals. [12] The main tasks of environmental politics include air and land protection,
minimization of wastes creation. They are identified with short-term goals of the enterprise. The goal of
environmental politics is to minimize negative impacts on the environment and creation of measures for
achievement of created negative impact on the environment [13].
Integrated pollution prevention and control of is a set of measures which are focused on the prevention of
pollution, reduction of wastes, reduction of emission to the air, land and water, and wastes disposal. The
process of integrated pollution prevention and control is based on four phases [14]:
1st phase it is realized before the beginning of the activity of integrated permission:
Consultation;
Processing of the application form;
Preliminary booking of the application form;
2nd phase proceeding of the integrated permission:
Beginning of proceeding (delivery of application form);
Oral proceeding;
Determination of basis for decision;
Issue of the integrated permission.
3rd phase announcement about permission;
4th phase control of pollution.
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) the main goal of EIA is assurance of high level of environment
protection, integration of environmental aspects to the preparation of approval of strategic documents
with the emphasis on the support of sustainable development. [15] It is one of the basic tools of
international environmental politics for sustainable development. The intent of assessment is above all

76

assurance of high level of environment protection [16]. The key idea of the assessment is insertion of
environmental factors to the decision making process with effort to socio-economic development. It allows:
- Preventing of realization of activities with the major negative effect on the environment;
- Selecting of version with minimal negative impacts on the environment;
- Participating of citizens on the decision making activities [12].
Environmental audit presents an important part of the process of implementation of environmental
management system. The main goal of the audit is to find out, if the EMS is in accordance with requirements
of ISO 14001. The general principles of environmental audit are formed by these principles [11]:
- Information for auditors, suitable cooperation of the controlled enterprise;
- Definition of the goal and intention of the audit;
- Objectivity of the auditor;
- Knowledge of criteria necessary for the audit;
- Information about the results of the audit.

5. CONCLUSION
It is important to say that the presented understanding of eco-logistics, reverse logistics and green
logistics presents difficult systems of activities for which are important coordination, harmonization and
interconnection of activities which must direct to environment care. For these reason it was created an
information tool about basic facts related with eco-logistics and for the practical use of principles and
elements of eco-logistics it was realized information tool based on MS Excel which includes decision
making methods, for example forced decision making method, analytical hierarchical process, which can
help for enterprise to find the best solution for environmental protection and decrease of negative impacts
of the enterprise on the environment.

Acknowledgement
The paper is a part of solution of the grant project VEGA 1/0036/12, VEGA 1/0184/12, VEGA 1/0922/12, VEGA
1/0258/14 and APVV SK-CZ-2013-0169, University Science Park TECHNICOM for Innovation Applications
Supported by Knowledge Technology, ITMS: 26220220182, supported by the Research & Development Operational
Programme funded by the ERDF.

REFERENCES
[1] Law about the environment (Law No. 17/1992 of Slovak republick) 9 Protection of environment.
Available on: <http://.zakonypreludi.sk/zk/199217>
[2] Environment care. Enviroportal. Information portal of the resort of Ministry of environment of SR.
Available on: <www.enviroportal.sk/environmentlnetemy/starostlivostozp>
[3] Chomov, K. Green logistics. Available on: <of.euba.sk/zbornik2011/ZBORNIK VEDECKYCH
STATI2011_PDF/KMR/CHOMOV_K_KMR.pdf>
[4] Drdo, J. Michaeli, E. Hrniarov, T. Geoecology and environment. 2nd part. 1st ed. 2005. 128 p.
Available on: <www.fhpr.unipo.sk/PU/FHPV/pdf/geoekoenviro.pdf>
[5] Green logistics. Available on: <http://www.enviweb.cz/clanej/doprava/89692/zelenalogistika>
[6] National strategy of sustainable development in SR. Available on:
<www.minzp.sk/.../narodnastrategiatrvaloudrzatelnehorozvojaslovenskejrepublikycast1.rtf
[7] Huskov, N., Reverse logistics of worn-down tires in the conditions of SR. PhD. Thesis. TU
Koice, 2008. 136 p.
[8] Huskov, N., Reverse logistics theoretical approaches. In: Logistick monitor. October (2012), p.
1-9. ISSN 1336-5851 Available on:
<http://www.logistickymonitor.sk/images/prispevky/husakova2 okt 2012.pdf.>
77

[9] Brezina, I., Model aspects of reverse logistics. In: Proforum 2007, esk Budjovice. p. 48 53.
ISBN 9788073940164 Available on:
<http://ocs.ef.jcu.cz/index.php/inproforum/INP2007/paper/viewFile/270/259>
[10] Kremeov, I., Lalinsk, J., Green logistics. 2011. Available on:
<http://logi.upce.cz/proceedings/2011/30lalinska-kremenova.pdf>
[11] Virkov, E., Palfy, P., Environmental management theory and methodology. 2nd ed. Koice,
2008. ISBN 978-80-89282-20-3
[12] Virkov, E., Palfy, P., Environmental management theory and methodology. 1st ed. Koice, 2001.
ISBN 978-80-89282-20-3
[13] Matiskov, D.,Advantages of environmental management systems implementation in the production
enterprises. 2013. Available on: <http://www.posterus.sk/?p=15794>
[14] Integrated pollution prevention and control. Available on: <http://ipkz.enviroportal.sk/>
[15] Strategy, rules and priorities of the state environmental politics. Available on:
<http://www.minzp.sk/dokumenty/strategicke-dokumenty/strategia-zasady-priority-statnejenvironmentalnej-politiky.html>
[16] Environmental impact assessment. Available on:: <http://www.minzp.sk/postupyziadosti/posudzovanie-vplyvov-zivotne-prostredie-eia/>

78

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

SUBSTANTIATION OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF


SANDWICH BELT HIGH ANGLE COBVEYORS IN THE SCHEMES
WITH CICLIC FND LINE TECHNOLOGY IN DEEP OPEN PITS
Evgenia E. Sheshko
National University of Science and Technology "MISIS, Mining institute, Moscow, Russia
Abstract: The efficiency of work of traditional types of open pit transport, belt conveyors and special types of
conveyors, and also cyclic and line technology at open pits of large depth is considered in the offered article. It is
shown that application of cyclic and line technology with sandwich belt high angle conveyor in a depth of open pit
more than 200-300 m improves an economic and ecological situation of the enterprise. Modern types of belts allow
to solve a lot of problems of sandwich belt high angle conveyors.
Keywords: Open Pit, Locomotive, Dump Truck, Diesel Electric Truck, Cyclic and Line Technology, Belt Conveyor,
Belt, Sandwich Belt High Angle Conveyor.

1. INTRODUCTION
At the present time 73% of total amount of output in the world makes share of an open way of
production: in the USA 83%, in the CIS countries about 70%. So In Russia 91% of iron ores, more
than 70% of ores of non-ferrous metals and 60% of coal are extracted by an open way [1].
At the present stage development of an open way of production is characterized by increase in
concentration of production and depth of pits, and also distances and complexity of transportation. And
the tendency of increase in depth of open way of production will be preserved in foreseeable prospect.
Thus economic and environmental problems, first of all transport which prevail in costs of production of
minerals and pollution of a working zone of an open pit sharply become aggravated.

2. AREA OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF SANDWICH BELT HIGH ANGLE


CONVEYORS IN SCHEMES OF CYCLIC AND LINE TECHNOLOGY
2.1 Area of effective utilization of the railway and automobile transport
The standard, conservative decisions based on increase in capacities of serially produced mining
equipment lead certainly topositive results, but only temporary.
It is known that adhesive weights and capacities of locomotives were significantly increased that had
increased hook-on mass of the train and an indicator of use of energy at railway transport. But increase of
volumes of mining works when increasing depth of an open pit and complication of the route as
practice showed, sharply reduce efficiency of railway transport at a depth more 200m.
79

The constructive schemes of dump trucks are improved by fast rates owing to increase of efficiency of
traction system of dump trucks, and also change of a material consumption of open pit cars and reduction
of expenses at expensive, scarce tires; reliability indicators, coefficient of technical readiness, durability,
and also ecological characteristics of cars were increased.
Intensive development of mining industry, and also the high prices at diesel fuel, led to elaboration and
creation of more economic and ecological means of transport for mining enterprises -the combined dump
trucks extracting (diesel electric trucks).
When applying diesel electric trucks working in the low zone of an open pit at diesel fuel, and further at
the electric power from a contact wire (generally on the rise and at the surface), costs at transportation
are decreased and the condition of the air environment of an open pit is improved. Now, more than 120
units of the diesel electric trucks work at the world mining enterprises.
A number of diesel electric trucks with a loading capacity of 136, 170, 220 or 320 t were elaborated on
the basis of dump trucks with electromechanical transmission at JSC Belarusian Automobile Plant. Thus,
costs at re-equipment of one dump truck in the diesel electric truck made about 10-15% of dump truck
cost, but infrastructure cost of diesel electric truck is great enough. [1].
At the same time on the long rises at deep open pits (long time of the movement in the load mode), basic
knots and bearing metal constructions are influenced by intensive wear and tear
that promotes
appearance of their failures and disrepair.

Figure 1 Advantages of conveyor transport before automobile and railway in dependence on the annual
productivity of an open pit and its depth
Improvement of a design of traditional transport machines, obviously, softens a situation when increasing
the depth of an open pit, but the fact of sharp decrease in efficiency of traditional transport machines isnt
changed. Company Alteko Action Trade also provides data concerning inexpediency of traditional means
of transport at the freight traffics exceeding 4 million t a year and depths exceeding 180-200 m, fig. 1.
The limited angle of elevation and length of installations at open pits, difficulties of the route restrain a
wide spreading of belt conveyors. At the same time, rather low cost of production and simplicity of a
design, and also possibility of ensuring considerable productivity by conveyor systems lead to the fact
that they began in many cases to replace not only the railway, but also quickly innovating automobile
transport. It stipulates considerable metal consumption of the equipment of the railway and automobile
transport, a huge material consumption especially of the last type of transport, costs at construction and
the maintenance of roads, complexity and high cost of infrastructure.
80

2.2 Area of effective application of schemes of cyclic and line technology


In the process of decrease of mining works and increase of depth of open pits, there is a transition to the
combined means of transport in the whole world (automobile transport is as assembly, and conveyor as
main, performing the main work of raising of mining material), so called in-pit crushing and conveying
system (PCCS) received wide spreading for exploitation of ore open pits.
Use of conveyor transport reduces significantly a number of dump trucks. On operational expenses during
conveyor transport, in most cases, to transport tons of ore consumed about two times less than in the
trucks. Total capital costs are repaid, usually less than 4 years.
At the same time, in spite of the fact that there is a significant amount of deep open pits in Russia, the inpit crushing and conveying system received application only for 10% of the enterprises. Moreover, the
first years of exploitation of the combined transport at open pits showed that the project indicators of
PCCS cant be always reached.
It is explained by several reasons:

firstly, mining works at open pits before input of PCCS are conducted without taking into
account of application of the combined transport in the future that detains input of a complex into
exploitation
secondly, there are difficulties when deploying conveyor systems at the created slopes of boards,
fig. 2;
thirdly, the existing transport scheme of an open pit demands technological and organizational
reconstruction.

Figure 2 Example of Installation of belt lifting conveyors


Besides, various parameters of reliability of elements of mining and transport system have a negative
impact on the productivity of a mining complex.
The calculations which are carried out for a conditional open pit (up to the depth of 500 m), showed, fig.
3, that specific costs at transportation by PCCS with belt conveyor as a line link are more at a depth up to
150 m than by automobile transport. With increasing depth of open pit costs for PCCS first become
comparable to the cost of automobile transport, and then much smaller. And during the work of PCCS
they are not only less, but also rate of their growth is decreased with depth.
81

Figure 3 Dependence of specific costs at transportation on open pit depth at automobile and conveyor
transport
Specific expenses grow when applying PCCS as more and more strong and expensive belts, drives,
equipment of points of reloading etc. are required.
In recent years numerous scientific, experimental and semi-industrial workings of special types of
conveyors stopped being single, having proved the high economic efficiency and reliability practically
from first years of existence. These are sandwich belt high angle conveyors, pipe conveyors, curving belt
conveyors, conveyors with intermediate drives, etc.
2.4. Area of effective application of schemes of in-pit crushing and conveying system with sandwich
belt high angle conveyor
Efficiency of work of both traditional and special types of belt conveyors in many respects is defined by
properties of belts. When choosing conveyer belts for many types of conveyors, there are difficulties
connected with necessity of taking into account of a configuration of the route of the conveyor and other
technological parameters.
We will consider, for an example, conveyor installations under big angles of inclination sandwich belt
high angle conveyors (HAC). Such conveyors are widely known in the world by their small ( height of
raising accounts for some dozens meters, the largest 90 m, Maydanpek open pit, Serbia), but
successfully working installations of the firm Continental Conveyor & Equipment Company and Dos
Santos International.
The largest in the world sandwich belt high angle conveyor(with height of raising of 270 m, productivity
2000m3/h (3500 t/h), belt width of 2000 mm and the speed of movement of 3,15 m/s) is put into
exploitation in 2011 at open pit "Muruntau" (Uzbekistan).

82

a)
b)
Figure 4 Sandwich belt high angle conveyor in open pit Muruntau, Uzbekistan:
a) conveyor located on board of open pit;
b) fragment of installation of linear sections of the conveyor and their bearings.
The integrated analysis of combined automobile - conveyor transport with application of sandwich belt
high angle conveyor at open pit Muruntau" shows that the volumes of investment at introduction of
complex HAC-270 are lower at 1.5 million dollars of USA. Thus operational costs are less at 2.7 million
dollars USA/year than at development of automobile transport that is connected with decrease of a
number of dump trucks, drivers and the service personnel.
Thus, HAC-270 complex is economically effective even in the short term perspective that improves the
efficiency of an open way of production. [1]
Positive results of exploitation of sandwich belt high angle conveyor confirmed the possibility of its
application at deep open pits.
At the same time it is proved that power consumption of transportation by sandwich belt high angle
conveyors at one and the same height of raising is less than by standard belt conveyors, the total
durability of belts of two contours (carrying and cover) is also 15% less than durability of a belt necessary
for the belt conveyor.
Despite numerous constructive distinctions of the created sandwich belt high angle conveyors their
principle scheme is almost invariable, fig. 5.

Figure 5 The scheme of sandwich belt high angle conveyor


Sandwich belt high angle conveyor consists of carrying I and cover contours, each of which can have
independent drives - III, IV, and also belt take up - V, VI. Cover contour is equipped with pressure
83

devices VII by means of which the necessary effort for keeping of material is created during the work of
HAC. Figures 1-16 show edges of characteristic sites of carrying and cover contours.
During work of the conveyor there is a difficult strain deformed state of conveyer belts depending, in
particular, on properties of the last, loadings at a belt and the considered conveyor contour site.
We will consider requirements to belts of sandwich belt high angle conveyors at some characteristic sites,
based on modeling of strain deformed state of conveyer belts.
It is established by researches [4] that the deformed condition of loading and clamping conveyer belts of
sandwich belt high angle conveyors at linear part of the conveyor (site 9-10) to a great degree depends on
a ratio of longitudinal and cross modules of their elasticity. Deformation of a belt is reduced with increase
of rigidity of the last, but thus tension of edges of a belt which can pass into a zone of the squeezing
tension is sharply increased. Taking into consideration that restrictions of tension of a belt are, as a rule,
limiting in all parameters of linear part of the conveyor, the longitudinal module of elasticity of a belt has
to make no more (3-4) 108 N/m2.
At different longitudinal deformations of carrying and cover belts relative slipping along material is
possible that has an adverse effect at keeping of material at a belt by friction forces and increases wear
and tear of a belt. This process may be avoided or, at least, be reduced, owing to choice of specific
rigidities of carrying and cover belts with their resistances to the movement that also supposes need in big
variety of modules of elasticity of belts [2,3].
One of difficult knots of sandwich belt high angle conveyor is transitional site of conveyor (p.8-9),
parameters of which substantially determine volumes mining and capital works at open pits. Conveyer
belt is bent not only in longitudinal, but also in the cross direction In working order at this site and
represents an ortotropny cover, and there can be various cross modules of elasticity at belts of the same
durability, and with one and the same longitudinal module of elasticity.
Tensions at internal (edges and a middle part of a belt) and external sides (fig. 4 b) of this site of the
conveyer belt can be not only below minimum admissible tensions, but have strongly pronounced zones
of pressure.
To avoid tensions below admissible, it is possible to increase a tension at a transitional site that leads to
increase in a tension of the whole belt (such way is expedient if the belt has necessary safety margin).
Besides, it is possible to increase the radius of a transitional curve that will lead to increase of its length.
Also it is possible the combination of these two ways.
The analysis of a number of models of strain state of conveyer belts for conveyors with a productivity of
2000 - 7500 t/h (with longitudinal modules of elasticity of Ex = (25) 108 and cross modules Ey =
(0.20.6) Ex, Pa) a conclusion allowed to draw a conclusion that the radius of a transitional site depends
on elastic properties of a belt and on a tension of one millimeter of width of one ply of a belt at this site.
It gave us the chance to establish us dependences of radius of a transitional site on a tension of millimeter
of width of one ply of a belt at this site.
Thus, varying values of longitudinal and cross modules of elasticity of conveyer belts and their
longitudinal tension, it is possible to provide radius of transitional site of conveyor, with use of modern
types of belts, within 25-70 m, to reduce deformations at linear part of the conveyor, and also to reduce
their mutual slipping.
For example, PXOENIX company (Germany produces multiple ply conveyer belts (EP). Range of
strength properties and designs of these belts are rather wide, since both one ply, and multiple ply
conveyer belts (accordingly belts "PHOENIX" - EP 1600/5 and "UNIFLEX PVC" or "UNIFLEX PGV")
are produced. Their durability reaches values of 1600 - 3150 N/mm of width of a belt.
Diagrams of dependence of the longitudinal module of elasticity of multiple belts of PXOENIX firm on
number of plies and explosive effort of a belt, p , N/mm of width of a belt, fig. 6 are received In work
[4], for belts (EP).
84

Figure 6 Dependences of the longitudinal module of elasticity E for multiple ply belts with plies from EP
fabric on a number of plies in the core and explosive effort, p, N/mm, of belt width
Dependences of longitudinal modules of elasticity of multiple ply belts on explosive effort given at fig. 6
show that belts with different breaking load can have one and the same value of module of elasticity.
Such variety of elastic properties of belts allows to select belts (carrying and cover), providing their
insignificant slipping at exploitation, and also for a choice of other parameters of the sandwich belt high
angle conveyor (radiuses of transitional sites, distances between carrying idlers of carrying branch, length
of the movement of take up, the modes of start-up and braking of the conveyor).
Cable belts of various producers (PXOENIX and ContiTech firms, Germany and others) have a
similar variety of elastic properties of belts of considerably more breaking load. They give wide range for
a choice of carrying and cover belts of highly productive sandwich belt high angle conveyors capable to
transport materials on considerable height.

3. CONCLUSION
Application of cyclic and line technology at deep open pits is effective both from ecological, and from the
economic point of view. Belt conveyor as lifting is enough expedient at a depth of open pit up to 200-250
m, however sandwich belt high angle conveyor becomes more rational as with increase of depth, since the
difference in expenses is rather sharply increased.
During the work of sandwich belt high angle conveyor there is a difficult strain deformed state of
conveyer belts depending, in particular, on properties of the last, a ratio of longitudinal and cross modules
of their elasticity. At the present time a wide choice of elastic properties of produced belts allows to
choose rational operational parameters of sandwich belt high angle conveyors.

REFERENCES
[1] Shemetov P. A., Sanakulov K.S.: Development of cyclic and line technology on a basis of sandwich belt
high angle conveyors in deep open pits, Mining journal; No 8/11(2011), pp.43-52. ISSN 0017-2278.
[2] Sheshko E.E., Kasatkin A.A. Influence of the strain deformed state of belts of sandwich belt high angle
conveyor on its working capacity. Mining journal; No 1/09; (2009), pp. 79 82.ISSN 0017-2278
[3] Kasatkin A.A. Modeling of belts of sandwich belt high angle conveyor for substantiation of their
deformations, Mining information and analytical bulletin; No. 2/09 (2009), pp. 260 265. ISSN
0236-1493.
[4] Galkin V. I., Sheshko E. E., Sazankova E. S. "Modern conveyer belts for mining industry"//. J.
Mining equipment and electromecanics. No. 3 M., publishing house "New technologies", 2013. P. 9
14. ISSN 1816-4528.
85

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

FEATURES OF DESIGHNS OF BELTS FOR PIPE BELT


CONVEYORS
Vladimir I. Galkin
National University of Science and Technology "MISIS, Mining institute, Moscow, Russia
Abstract: Design features of conveyer belts for pipe conveyors are considered in the article. The main types of the
conveyer belts used in pipe belt conveyors are presented on the basis of workings of the Swedish firm "Metso
Minerals". Recommendations about a choice of design parameters of pipe belt conveyors are given depending on
strength properties of belts, and also on type of their carcass (multiple-ply, steel-cable, aramid).
Keywords: Belt Pipe Conveyor, Diameter of a Pipe Belt, Carcass of a Belt, Belt Side, Conveyor Belts, Longitudinal
Durability, Cross Durability, Curve Radius, Transitional Site, Cross Flexibility, Elasticity

1. INTRODUCTION
Wide application of traditional belt conveyors in the industry is restrained by the following factors: an
insignificant angle of lifting of installations, difficulties of route with turns and bends, and also need of
transportation of raising dust, sticky and pastelike materials.
Therefore, at the present time, traditional belt conveyors can't provide completely the requirements of the
industry, therefore need in special types of belt conveyors keeping their advantages and solving partially
missing problems is increased. For example, one of such conveyors is ecologically safe pipe belt
conveyors which are capable to be bent in two planes simultaneously, to transport material at two
branches simultaneously and under angles of inclination to 35 .

2. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF PIPE BELT CONVEYORS


Efficiency of work of both traditional and special types of belt conveyors is defined in many respects by
properties of belts and also necessity of taking into account of a configuration of the route of the conveyor
and other technological parameters. In recent years [1], in various branches of industries including in
mining, the belt pipe conveyors (BPC), are more and more widely used fig. 1
Principle of work of the belt pipe conveyor is the same, as classical belt conveyor. The main distinctive
feature is the belt rolled up into a pipe. For rolling up of a belt in a pipe, there are two special sites on a
loading branch: one is just disposed after a site of loading of material at which the belt has a usual
(classical) form, and the second - in front of an unloading drum where the belt is turned and takes the
form, usual for the belt conveyor. Length of such transitional sites depends on type and width of a belt
and can reach dozens meters.
In comparison with the ordinary belt conveyors BPC have more difficult design, but for all this have
incontestable advantages which consist in the following:
86

opportunity to transport material under angle 35 to the horizon;


opportunity, if necessary, of transportation of material simultaneously at the top (loading) and
low branches of a belt of the conveyor;
opportunity to transport material at the spatial curvilinear route;
reduction of overall dimensions of linear section of the conveyor that is especially important in
the straitened conditions of exploitation.

Figure 1. Belt pipe conveyor of the German firm "FLSmidth"


It is necessary to carry the following factors to the main disadvantages of belt pipe conveyors:

high cost of the conveyor;


more difficult assembling and preparation before setting in motion;
more expensive belt in comparison with the classical conveyor;
bigger quantity of carrying idlers that leads to increase in operational expenses;
the area of section of the material located on a belt like pipe makes 75% of the area of section of
material on a belt of the ordinary conveyor having the same width of a belt.

The conveyer belt used in belt pipe conveyors is basic when choosing its operational and design
parameters.
External diameter of a pipe belt
which depends on its width is one of the main indicators influencing
many design parameters of BPC. Such design parameters as dimension of the transported piece, lengths
of transitional sites, radiuses of curvilinear sites of conveyors in the plan, and profile, geometrical
parameters of linear sections, diameters of linear carrying idlers depend on magnitude. .
So, for example, especially for belt pipe conveyors the Swedish firm "Metso Minerals" [2] produces three
types of conveyer belts: steel-cable (St); multiple-ply (EP), (P) and aramide (D or DP). Firm designations
of these belts are given below.
Trellex Flexopipe Steelcord steel-cable belts, (St), for belt pipe conveyors having the special cross
synthetic cables in their design increasing cross rigidity of the conveyer belt, fig. 2,a,b. The unique design
of these belts is patented in Great Britain, the USA and other countries.
Trellex Flexopipe - multiple-ply belts which are produced by three types, in dependence on material
of carcass. They have various elasticity, and also cross rigidity and longitudinal durability. If the cord of a
belt is made of polyamide fabric it has designation - P.
When increasing the length of the conveyor it is recommended to choose belts with a cord from polyester,
designation - EP, at the same time for the small diameter of a pipe belt.
87

Belts are applied with a cord from aramid fabric which are designated - D or DP for the conveyors having
high productivity and big diameter of a pipe belt.

a)
b)
Figure 2. Design of steel-cable belt for belt pipe conveyor:
a )- belt section; b) belt rolled up into a pipe
The German firm "PXOENIX" produces multiple-ply belts of type " POLYFLEX MULTIPLY BELT WITH
PHOENOTEC " with strengthened cross rigidity, fig. 3, and also an aramide belt of type "PHOENAMID " carcass of which is made of the aramide cables strengthened by cross cords, fig. 3,b, [3,4].

a)
b)
Figure 3. Types of the conveyor belts of the German firm "PXOENIX" having the increased cross
rigidity: a) multiple-ply belt; b) a belt from aramid fabri
The design of the multiple-ply conveyor belt for BPC is presented in fig. 4 from which it is visible that
edges of a belt have features, fig. 4a allowing to carry out the set zone of their overlapping for
maintenance of tightness of a form of a belt like pipe on all length of the route of the conveyor.

a)
b)
Figure 4. Multiple-ply conveyor belt for the belt pipe conveyor:
a - design features of boards of a belt; b - belt rolled up into a pipe.
Recommendations concerning choice of width of a belt and its durability are given in table 1 in
dependence on type of the applied carcass.
Belts for BPC are delivered for each concrete conveyor taking into account of a place of installation,
conditions of exploitation and the physic - mechanical properties of the transported material. Besides, all
belts for BPC are made in accordance with special technology of "resistance to aging". It provides reliable
88

protection of a belt against "weather erosion", when quality of rubber of a belt is worsened from influence
of ozone and ultra-violet radiation. All belts are made in accordance with the standard providing the set
cross flexibility of a belt when a belt is rolled into a pipe [5].
The majority of belts for belt pipe conveyors have preliminary insignificant curvature in the cross
direction for facilitation of rolling up of a belt into a pipe. In tab. 2, as an example, parameters of
curvilinear and transitional sites of belt pipe conveyors are given in dependence on type of a belt, its
width, turning angle and radius of curvature of the route of the conveyor. It should be noted that the
provided data correspond to belts of the Swedish firm "Metso Minerals". Taking into account the data
provided in this table it is possible approximately to determine parameters of various sites of belt pipe
conveyors in dependence on type of the applied belt.
The German firm "Continental" produces both multiple-ply and steel-cable belts having designation
"ContiPipe" for belt pipe conveyors. Spheres of application of these belts are presented in the tab. 3 [6], and
the design of the steel-cable belt having special ply, for obtaining the set cross rigidity, is presented in fig. 5.

Figure 5. Design of steel-cable belt "ContiPipe" for pipe conveyor:


1- cables of of carcass of a belt; 2 special ply

Table 1 Types of belts for pipe belt conveyors firm Metso Minerals
Nominal pipe
diameter,
mm

Belt
width,
mm

Fabric types

Belt strength fabric types:

St, H/ mm
120
150
200
250
300
350
400
500
530

500
600
780
1000
1100
1300
1600
1900
2000

EP;P
EP;P
EP;P
D;DP;P;P;St
D;DP;P;P;St
D;DP;P;P;St
D;DP;P;P;St
D;DP;P;P;St
D;DP;P;P;St

EP/ P, H/
mm
250 - 315
250 - 400
250 - 500
250 - 630
400 - 1000
630 - 1250
1000 - 2500
1000 - 3150
1000 - 3150

630 - 1600
1000 - 2800
1000 - 4000
1000 - 4000
1000 - 4500
1000 - 4500

89

D/
DP,
H/mm
630 - 1600
630 - 2000
630 - 2500
630 - 3150
630 - 3150
630 - 3150

The minimum cover


thickness, for fabric
types:
St; D; DP; EP and P
Top, mm Bottom, mm
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
5

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3

Table 2. Parameters and curved transition portions of the pipe belt conveyor according to the type of
tape, its width, the angle of rotation and the radius of curvature of the conveyor track
Fabric
types

Nominal pipe
diameter (D),
mm

Minimum curve radii, mm


Deflection of curve
250
250-500
500-750

750-1000

120 - 300
350 - 530

300D
400D

400D
500D

500D
600D

120 - 300
350 - 530

400D
500D

500D
600D

D,DP

250 - 300
350 - 530

500D
600D

St

250 - 300
350 - 530

700D
800D

Transition
length, mm.

Take-up length,
% of conveyor
length

600D
700D

25 D

3-4

600D
700D

700D
800D

30 D

23

600D
700D

700D
800D

800D
900D

35 D

0,6 -1,0

800D
900D

900D
1000D

1000D
1100D

45 D

0,3 0,6

Table 3. Applications belts depending on the pipe diameter and the belt width
Pipe diameter, mm
150,0
200,0
250,0
300,0
350,0
400,0
500,0
600,0

Belt width, mm

Type belt
Fabric

Steel

600,0
780,0
1000,0
1100,0
1300,0
1600,0
1900,0
2250,0

3. CONCLUSION
1. The special conveyer belt, both in a design, and with use of modern technologies is required for
normal work of belt pipe conveyors.
2. For possibility of rolling up of a belt into a pipe, it is necessary to have a special design of its
edges, and also to provide the set calculated cross rigidity, for a possibility of passing of a belt
between carrying idlers, and also for transportation of material at spatial curvilinear sites.
3. The main design parameter of the belt pipe conveyor diameter of a pipe belt which determines
the following design parameters of the conveyor - length of transitional sites, radiuses of
curvilinear sites of conveyors in the plan, and a profile, geometrical parameters of linear sections,
diameters of linear carrying idlers

REFERENCES
[1] Galkin V. I., Ton V.V., Sheshko E.E., Papoyan R. L. Machines and equipment of an environmental
engineering and environment protection (mining). Manual. M. MSMU, 2013. pp. 239 255.
[2] Brochure No. 1805-05-04-WPC/Trelleborg - English, 2004. Metso Minerals.
[3] http://www.phoenix-conveyorbelts.com/pages/products/products_en.html
[4] Galkin V. I., Sheshko E. E, Sazankova E. S., Modern conveyor belts for mining industry J. Mining
equipment and electromecanics, N 3(13); (2013)., pp. 9 14.ISSN 1816-4528.
[5] DIN EN ISO 703 03.08 Conveyor belts - Transverse flexibility (troughability) - Test method (ISO
703:2007); German version EN ISO 703:2007 (8) /FABERG co-author.
[6] ontinental the Futur in Motion, 2015. Heavyweight Conveyor Belt Catalog.

90

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

TENDENCIES OF REDUCING HARMFUL EMISSIONS INTJ


ATMOSPHERE IN DEEP OPEN PITS
Olga E. Sheshko
National University of Science and Technology "MISIS Institute of conomics and Management of
Industrial Enterprises, Moscow, Russia
Abstract: The article deals with the main directions of decrease of harmful emissions in deep open pits. The number
of deep open pits is rather great as in our country, and abroad, and this situation will remain in the near future. A
main type of transport of deep open pits is the automobile transport which is also the main pollutant of environment.
Data about magnitudes of harmful emissions in the atmosphere of dump trucks of various loading capacity, the
diesel electric trucks, electric trucks, the equipment of cyclic and line technology depending on open pit depth are
provided in the article too. Technical and economic indicators of application of automobile, diesel electric trucks
in a settlement open pit, and also at operation of cyclic line technology with installation of belt conveyor when
raising ore from an open pit are given in the article.
Keywords: Dump Trucks, Diesel - Electric Trucks, Electric Trucks, Sandwich Belt High Angle Conveyors,
Ecological and Economic Efficiency of Cars, Depth of an Open Pit, Sphere of Application.

1. INTRODUCTION
At the present time 73% of total amounts of output in the world makes share of an open way of
production, in the USA 83%, in the CIS countries about 70%.. So In Russia 91% of iron ores, more
than 70% of ores of non-ferrous metals and 60% of coal [1] are extracted by an open way. Orientation at
open way of output of minerals is a stable tendency as it provides the best economic indicators.
At the present stage development of an open way of output is characterized by increase of concentration
of production, depth, distances and complexity of transportation. Thus economic and ecological indicators
of the enterprises become worse. The share of spending at open pit transport achieves 5575% in the cost
of output of mineral; the share of harmful emissions in the atmosphere exceeds 50%.
The main volume of output and excavation of mining mass in iron ore branch will be carried out by
development of the deep horizons in the next decades. Similar tendencies take place in other branches of
the mining industry. Such large open pits as Kedrovsky, Mezhdurechensk, named after 50 anniversary of
October have already exceeded the depth 200 m. Projects provided development of Bazhenovsky fields of
asbestos up to the depth more than 600 m, kimberlite open pits of JSC ALROSA 600 and more meters.
Abroad deep open pits are presented in general by the enterprises developing fields of ores of non-ferrous
metals Bingham, Thwin Byyuts, Berkeley, Mishon, Siyerrita (USA), Chukikamata (Chile), Endako
(Canada). Antique (Sweden), etc.
At the same time productivity of the automobile transport decreases at 2539%, railway at 8.52% when
lowering mining works at 100 m.
91

2. TYPES OF MACHINES WICH TRANSPORT MINING MASS


2.1 Automobile transport
Now main type of technological transport when producing minerals by the open way is automobile which is
used for transportation about 80% of all mining mass in the world, including in Russia and the CIS countries
the specific weight of open pit automobile transport came nearer to 75%, in the USA and Canada 85%, in
South America 85%, in Australia nearly 100%, in South Africa more than 90 [2, 4].
In this regard the transport problem was and remains one of the most important problems of development
of deep open pits.
The automobile transport is to a great degree influenced by mining and technical conditions of
development becoming complicated with depth. And the main restriction of use of the automobile
transport at deep open pits is high cost of transportation of mining mass. At the same time open pit
automobile transport the main source of negative impact on environment at open mining works [3]. For
increase of its efficiency and improvement of ecological indicators searches of new ways of its
development and improvement do not end.
2.2 Dump trucks of increased loading capacity
One of the variants of improvement of an ecological situation at open pit is application of dump trucks of
the increased loading capacity. Emissions of harmful substances (COx, NOx) for a conditional ore open
pit with freight turnover 40 million t. and depth of 500 m during the work of dump trucks with a
loading capacity of 130 t (the working number of cars makes 65 units), 180 t (60 units) and 220 t (57
units) as calculations showed are decreased when using cars of bigger loading capacity.

Figure 1 Dependence of concentration of harmful substances on the loading capacity of dump trucks
As it is possible to see on fig. 1, the magnitude of emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere of a
working zone of an open pit when using cars of big loading capacity is decreased slightly. So during the
work of dump trucks BelAZ-7513 (loading capacity of 130 t) the relation of the sum of concentration of
harmful substances to their maximum permissible value
accounts for 0,637, that is the
ecological situation at open pit is close to critical, if to consider that 60% of all emissions of harmful
substances makes the share of transport. When replacing dump trucks BelAZ 7513 on the BelAZ 7530,
with the loading capacity of 220 t the given ratio will make 0,454. As period of exploitation of dump
trucks makes 7-8 years, replacement shouldn't lead to big expenses.
Now, works concerning creation of caterpillar dump trucks are conducted, but still by limited loading
capacity of 20-40 t that makes them effective only in the low zone of deep open pits. Application of such
dump trucks will allow to increase considerably slopes of roads (to 120 and more).
92

2.3 Diesel electric trucks


One of the main directions is considered electrification of open pit automobile transport. The most
perspective variant of replacement of a dump truck is considered application of the diesel electric trucks.
According to domestic and foreign data at exploitation of the diesel electric trucks the speed of the
movement on a slope (70-80 ) is increased (in comparison with dump trucks) from 10 - 12 to 22 24km/h, productivity of cars -at 23-25%, period of exploitation of the motor wheels and diesel engines- at
16% and 20% respectively, coefficient of technical readiness- to 90%. At the same time fuel
consumption (on sites of rising of the route) is reduced at 87% [2].
Tests of the first experimental model of the diesel electric truck BelAZ -7524-E792 with a loading
capacity of 65 tons were carried out at Kurshnkulsky open pit of Sokolovsko-Sarbaysky mining and
preparation enterprise. Distance of transportation of mining made about 3 km, in the electric mode - 1650
m (450 m on a site with a slope of 8-10%, 1200 m on a horizontal site). Thus the consumption of
diesel fuel on transportation of mining mass was reduced at 80% on a site of raising and at 55% on a
horizontal site (the general economy of fuel made 35% from consumption in the diesel mode).
JSC Belarusian Automobile Plant supposes creation of the diesel electric trucks with a loading capacity
of 130-136, 170, 220 or 320 t on the basis of dump trucks with electromechanical transmission.
In this regard consideration of efficiency of application the diesel electric trucks is of interest from the
ecological and economic points of view.
2.4. Comparison of diesel electric trucks with dump trucks from ecological point of view
The ore open pit of 500 m in depth and with a productivity of 20 million tons of ore was accepted for an
example. Length of face ways makes ~ 0.5 km, raising ways - ~ 7 km (at the magnitude of a slope 80), and surface ways -1.1 km. As a dump truck it is used widely applied in these conditions BelAZ7513. At the present time this model is supposed to produce as diesel electric truck.
Calculations showed that 50 dump trucks with productivity 900 t/shift and time of cycle80 min are
required for given conditions. Calculated values of average daily concentration of harmful substances in
the atmosphere for these conditions are made according to generally accepted methods and are given in
the table No. 1 [5].
Table 1 Calculated concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere (with due regard for environmental
measures) during the work of automobile transport, diesel electric trucks and electric
trucks(correspondingly 1,2 and 3 meanings) and their maximum permissible concentration (MPC

Calculated average daily


concentration (with due
regard for environmental
measures );Ci, mg/m3

Harmful substances

MPC, mg/m3, average


daily

COx

2,75;1,25;0,86

20

NOx

2,5;1,05;0,72

50

CnHm

1,2;0,4;0,275

49

0,25;0,01;0,006

Dust

10,33;10,33;10,33

100

It is known that at the content of several harmful substances of the unidirectional action in atmosphere the
condition has to be the following [3]:
(1)
93

Where:
, ,, - the actual average daily concentration of various harmful substances in the atmosphere
(with due regard for environmental measures );
number of the harmful substances allocated in the atmosphere which are taken into account;
A share of harmful emissions corresponding to transport machines in open pit.
The share of harmful emissions corresponding to transport machines in the open pit depends on many
factors and in particular on open pit depth, achieving in deep open pits 50-60%. In this case there is the
magnitude exceeding 0.6 which shows that the ecological situation at the open pit is close to the critical.
Calculations showed that when replacing dump trucks at the diesel electric trucks by similar loading
capacity, the number of cars will be reduced at more than 20%, that is will make 39 units.
As for concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere, that their magnitude, as calculations
showed, will be sharply decreased and only the content of dust will not be changed, table 1.
It is explained by the fact that diesel electric trucks work in idling more than 90% of cycle time, and
emissions of harmful substances in these conditions are minimum.
Calculated magnitude
during the work of diesel electric truck made ~ 0.23.
Thus, ecological expediency of application of the diesel electric trucks is looked through rather
accurately.
2.5. Comparison of diesel electric trucks with dump trucks from economic point of view
We will compare economic indicators at automobile and diesel electric trucks transport. Cost of the diesel
electric truck are higher at 5-10%, than of a dump truck, according to the Belarusian automobile plant
works, and at ~ 10% according to foreign data (data were provided when replacing dump truck for
diesel electric truck).
If to accept increase in cost of the diesel electric truck for 8%, we can see economy on a rolling stock
equal to expenses at 8 dump trucks, that is ~ 5.6 millions of dollars of the USA. Thus spending at
creation of infrastructure of an open pit (substations, trolley lines and others) exceed this magnitude. If to
recount spending at 1 km of the route, the cost of infrastructure of an open pit makes more than 1,136
millions of dollars of the USA , and on 8 km of the route more than 9 millions of dollars of the
USA [2]. Thus, the economy at cars doesn't cover costs at creation of infrastructure.
As for operational expenses, here it is possible to expect large economy concerning spending at fuel and
electric power.
It was taken into account that in the diesel mode diesel electric truck moves only 10% of time (at face
routes), the diesel works in idling the rest of time (for normal functioning of hydraulic systems of the
dump truck).
Even leaving all other articles of operational calculations identical (decrease in number of drivers is
compensated by increase in the personnel at service of infrastructure), annual economic effect will be
considerable, tab. 2.
2.6 Electric trucks and cyclic-line technology
The variant of electrification of the automobile transport creation of electric trucks is also considered.
Thus it is supposed that autonomous feeding is made due to storage batteries or storage devices of energy of
various types. Thus due to the lack of the diesel engine (in the electric truck design) the total quantity of
pollutants of the atmosphere of an open pit is decreased. In this case only dust pollutes the air. (table N 1).
The calculated magnitude

made ~ 0.19 during the work of electric trucks.


94

Calculated magnitudes of the sum of concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere of open pits
of various depth to their maximum-permissible values of concentration in the atmosphere of open pits of
various depth at exploitation of automobile, diesel electric trucks, electric trucks and conveyor transport
are given in fig. 2.

Figure 2. .The sum of concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere of open pits of various
depth to their maximum-permissible values at exploitation of automobile, diesel electric trucks, electric
trucks and conveyor transport
If to compare (according to integrated indicators) the obtained data with expenses at cyclic - line
technology (the combined automobile conveyor transport), than it is necessary to take into account that
conveyor length at height 400m makes only-1500 m. At calculations spending were taken into account
not only at the conveyor line, but also at the equipment necessary for crushing complex vibration
feeders, crushers, etc. All calculated data are provided in tab. 2.
Thus, in spite of increase in spending at creation of diesel electric trucks and their infrastructure,
economic effect from their application exceeds 14 6 millions of dollars of the USA due to partial
replacement of thermal energy to the electric.
Table 2 Technical and economic indicators at exploitation of automobile transport, diesel electric trucks
and cyclic-line technology
Meanings of indicators
Indicators

Units
Dump trucks

Diesel electric
trucks

Cyclic-line
technology

Capital spending

millions of dollars of the USA

35

29,485

32,109

Wages

millions of dollars of the USA

2,093

2,093

1,088

Spending at electrical
energy

millions of dollars of the USA

17

16,5

Spending at fuel

millions of dollars of the USA

42,3

6,92

4,1

Amortization spending

millions of dollars of the USA

5,25

4,42

3,8

Annual economic effect

millions of dollars of the USA

14,16

19,39

Prevented economic damage from pollution of environment is also considerable.

95

Spending at electric truck transport was not calculated because of the lack of data at capital expenditure.
But, lack of spending at fuel and improvement sanitary and hygienic situation providing the significant
prevented damage allows to suppose receiving economic effect slightly above, than during work of diesel
electric truck transport.

3. CONCLUSION
Thus, decrease of harmful emissions in deep open pits has insignificant and temporal effect due to
increase of loading capacity of machines. Application of diesel electric trucks leads to improvement of
quality of air environment and receiving considerable economic effect.
When replacing the automobile transport to cyclic- line technology economic effect exceeds 19 6 millions
of dollars of the USA. The prevented economic damage from environmental pollution will be more
considerable than in the first case.

REFERENCES
[1] Yakovlev V. L., Tarasov P. I., Zhuravlev A. G. New specialized means of transport for mining works.
Monograph. Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural office, Institute of mining, 2011.- pp.374.
[2] Stepuk O. G., Zuyonok A. S. Diesel electric truck transport BELAZ: perspectives and executions in
mining production. Mining Journal; 1/11(20110), pp. 52-55, ISSN 0017-2278.
[3] GridinV. G., Kalinin A.R,. Kobyakov A.A and others: Economics, organization, management of
natural and technogenic resources: Edited by prof. Kobyakov A. A and prof. Kharchenko V.A.
Textbook. M.: Publishing house "Mining book, 2012.-pp.752.ISBN 978-5-98672-256-6.
[4] Lel U. I., Musikhina O.V. Energy of open pit transport. Journal Transport innovation; No. 1/11,
(2011), pp. 34-39. 83330.
[5] The methods for estimation of harmful emissions (discharges) for complex of equipment of open
mining works (based on specific indicators).National research center of mining industry. Institute of
mining named after A.A. Skochinsky, Lyubertsy, 1999. -p.68

96

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

POSSIBILITY FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS FROM FAST-GROWING


PLANTATION ON DEGRADED SURFACES OF IRON ORE MINES IN
THE PRIJEDOR AREA
Svjetlana Sredic1, Nada Prerad2, Slobodanka Malibasic2, Vladimir Malibasic1, Igor Knjeginic3
1
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mining Prijedor, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia & Hercegovina
2
Mining Institute Prijedor, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia & Hercegovina
3
PC Forests of the Republic of Srpska LC Prijedor, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia & Hercegovina
Abstract: The work aim is to define the degraded areas within the exploitation fields of iron ore mines in the
Prijedor area with estimation of possibilities of their use in the cultivation of fast-growing species for the biomass
production. Large areas of degraded lands are the result of decades of industrial iron ore exploitation in the region.
Analysis was performed on the surface condition of the localities ''Central mines of Ljubija'' and ''Omarska'' and
found that there are surfaces, where exploitation is completed and landfills that can no longer be used for this
purpose, as well as other available lands suitable for this purpose. In this paper, considering the morphology of the
terrain and soil quality, we have defined the areas where are possibilities for organizing the production of fast
growing plants or plantation production.
Keywords: Biomass, Iron ore Mine, Degraded Areas

1. INTRODUCTION
Defining the possibilities for using degraded surfaces of mines in biomass production is related to two
important questions that are in focus of attention when it comes to environmental protection. One is the
recultivation and remediation of devastated surfaces which are the consequences of mineral raw materials
exploitation and which are only partially recultivated according to a plan and mostly are left to
spontaneous recultivation. The second important question is the slowdown in the rate of using previous
fossil energy sources, i.e. increase in the share of using renewable energy sources, among which biomass
occupies important place. One of the most important biomass sources are fast-growing plant species. Both
questions are closely related with mitigation of negative impacts on living environment of previous, as
well as future anthropogenic activities. At the same time, additional activities are opened for domestic
economy and employment, as well as necessary adaptation to the sustainable development practice.
Energetics development strategy of the Republic of Srpska up to the year of 2030 promotes selective use of
renewable energy sources. Locally available and renewable energy sources, such as biomass, become more and
more attractive in the central (remote) heating system because biomass power plants have more stable
production. Of the total theoretic potentials of biomass in the Republic of Srpska, the largest part (59%) is the
biomass suitable for combustion (refuse from wood industry, firewood, forest waste, refuse from pruning
perennial plantations). With 39%, it is followed by biomass suitable for the production of biogas from communal
waste, animal husbandry and energetic crops. Further increase of the wood biomass usage for energy needs
requires the increase in the efficiency of furnances and boilers that use wood and/or transfer to more efficient
forms of modern biomass (e.g. pellets). Pellets production in RS is encouraged by legal obligation on storage and
disposal of wood waste. A wider usage of pellets for heating is not expected before 2020.
97

Feasibility study of the project for introduction of a plant that would use solid biomass for obtaining
heating energy into the remote heating system of the city of Prijedor has proved the feasibility of such an
investment. Priority investment program solves main global issues by suggesting the transfer from the
expensive oil fuel to local renewable biomass in order to reduce the heating production costs. In
addition, it would be very useful to plant the forest species for bioenergy production in existing surfaces
that are permanently unfavorable for agricultural production. It would bring a lot of benefits for the
climate, water, erosion protection and economy. The city of Prijedor is located in the central area of
Metallogenic area of Ljubija, where industrial exploitation of iron ore dates back from 1916 and
through all those years, and today as well, it is the centre of economic and social development of this
region. However, the consequence of multi-decade exploitation of iron ore in this area are big surfaces of
open cut minings and landfills of tailings where mining activities are ended and which are today partially
recultivated by the plan, and partially there was a spontaneous recultivation and some parts are entirely
abandoned and stripped. For that reason, there was a need for general systematization of data regarding
the size and state of these surfaces, as well as the analysis of the possibilities for their usage for the
purpose of cultivating fast-growing species for biomass production. This systematization includes all
surfaces of iron ore mine in Prijedor area and this paper presents analysis of the state on localities
Central mines and Omarska.

2. ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF SURFACES IN THE LOCALITY CENTRAL


MINES AND THEIR POTENTIALS FOR BIOMASS CULTIVATION
2.1. Available surfaces
According to Regulation plan of Central mines, the surfaces of open cut minings where exploitation is
ended, landfills for tailings that will no longer be used for this purpose, as well as free surfaces that are in
expropriation zone are predicted for cultivation of fast-growing species. As biomass source, we can use
forest land in expropriation zone and forest vegetation resulting from spontaneous recultivation on
degraded surfaces. An important criteria for the selection of potential locations is that access to individual
locations is provided for both public and industrial roads. Total surface predicted for using in order to
obtain biomass is 640,5 ha and it includes:

Surfaces for biomass production 287,2 ha,


Forest land in expropriation zone, which can be used as biomass source 303,6 ha,
Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone 49,7 ha.

Locations of predicted surfaces are graphically presented in Figure 1, and in Table 1 we can see their
overview:

Figure 1 Chart of spatial distribution of surfaces Central mines


98

Table 1 Location, types and sizes of surfaces in Central mines which can potentially be used for
biomass production
Locations
A

Sludge landfill une and ikii


Tailings landfill ''Adamua Litica
OCM ''Donja Litica''
OCM ''Gornja Litica''
OCM ''Gornja Litica ''
OCM ''Gornja Litica''
OCM ''Redak I C''
OCM ''Redak I D''
OCM Redak II
Tailings landfill Redak
OCM Bregovi
Surface around the polygon for explosives
testing Tomex

OCM ''Brievo '',


OCM ''Brievo B''

OCM ''Atlijina kosa'',


OCM ''Jerkovaa'',
OCM ''Jakarina kosa'',
OCM ''Paina kosa''

OCM ''Nova litica Trenjica''

Tailings landfill Ciganua

OCM ''Dima Brdo''

Type
Surfaces for biomass production
Forest land in expropriation zone
Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone

Surfaces
64,4 ha
76,2 ha
3,7 ha

Surfaces for biomass production

69,6 ha

Forest land in expropriation zone

6,1 ha

Surfaces for biomass production

62,8 ha

Forest land in expropriation zone

70,7 ha

Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone

1 ha

Surfaces for biomass production


Forest land in expropriation zone
Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone
Surfaces for biomass production
Forest land in expropriation zone

36,2 ha
8,6 ha
1,1 ha
9 ha
30,6 ha

Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone

29,8 ha

Surfaces for biomass production

23,4 ha

Surfaces for biomass production


Forest land in expropriation zone
Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone
Surfaces for biomass production
Forest land in expropriation zone
Abandoned arable land in expropriation zone

13,8 ha
65,1 ha
12,6 ha
8 ha
46,3 ha
1,5 ha

2.2. Land characteristics


In municipality of Prijedor, automorphic and hydromorphic soils were developed under the impact of
various pedogenetic factors. District cambisol is dominant and it covers the graetest part of hilly area of
the municipality, which also incudes this area. Luvisol is present in a significant surface and it is usually
the extension of district cambisols in the parts where hilly part of municipality borders the lowland part.
These two types of soil are most frequently forest soils, acidic and low in nutritients. As a special type of
soil, there are deposols that are formed through anthropogenic activites. In the territory of this area, the
most significant cause for the formation of deposols are mining activities that take place during
exploitation of iron ore. As a consequence of mining activities in the area of Central mines, significant
surfaces have been degraded. Seminal field was turned into entirely different relief form by exploitation
and disposal of tailings. Many rough surfaces with depressions and raised cones were formed (Figure 2,
b). During the stripping and disposal of overburden, it came to mixing and replacement of vertical
positions of materials that make a working environment in geological aspect. By the schedule of
excavation, mostly from higher to lower levels, rock masses from higher levels in open pit mining are
disposed to lower levels on the landfill and vice versa. In this manner, geological pillar of disposed
masses is formed, and it has a reverse order in relation to natural order of lithological members in deposit,
with sterile materials on surfaces of landfills and finishing contours of open cut minings, which are
characterized by the lack of nutritional matters for plants. Substrates formed during mining works do not
show the same characteristics as the original samples. According to the composition, this disposed
substrate represents a conglomerate of lithological layers of overburden, differently combined by their
composition and quantity.
99

Central mines area is the space with vast barren surfaces and artificial dents whose dept is 50-100 m.
Vegetation cover on those surfaces is slowly and hardly renewed because of the lack of humus layer and
under the impact of strong erosion. Tailings landfills and final slopes on open cut minings are made of
different materials, such as dunes, siltstones, argillaceous rocks, clay materials, carbon materials
(limestone, dolomite, siderite, etc.).

Figure 2 Degraded surfaces in the Central mines area


There are only some old data regarding pedological characteristics of land. Having in mind the time when
these analyses were performed, as well as the fact that they were done on one landfill only and that they
include only a relatively small surface in relation to the total surface predicted for this purpose, they are
not presented in this analysis. It is necessary to perform physical-chemical analyses of soil in each newlyformed parcel for planting biomass (separate parts or sections) in order to determine the type of fastgrowing trees that would best adapt to the existing conditions, as well as conditions for preparation and
planting of them.
2.3. Selection of species and soil preparation
With the insight on the field, it was determined that on surfaces of the location Central mines meant for
biomass cultivation it is not possible to form plantations of fast-growing species. Terrain morphology and
soil quality is not suitable for plantations and mechanical cutting (harvesting), which is a general condition
of energetic foresting. For that reason, in further considerations we can take into consideration fast-growing
species that are manually planted and cut and that are suitable for cultivation on landfills, pits where
exploitation is ended, as well as free surfaces in location Central mines. In such cases, when soil quality is
not suitable and does not provide intensive production, it is required to extend the analysis and adjust the
selection of tree types. Often in more poor habitats it can be acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) or some other
deciduous species such as birch (Betula pendula), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), grey alder (Alnus incana),
maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), osier willows (Salix viminalis), white willows (Salix alba), black poplar
(Populus nigra), aspen (Populus tremula), ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior), as well as other species.
As an example we can mention that after the exploitation in 1972 was ended on the location of central
mines in Ljubija (open cut minings Nova Litica i Javorik), there was performed the recultivation of
degraded land where acacia was planted without the humus application. Acacia has adapted very well to
the existing inert substrate. These surfaces became green again, the leaves created the humus layer, and
acacia forest, which is exploited and naturally renewed, was formed. Having learned from this
experience, in the first phase of planting fast-growing species, we can now suggest the planting of acacia
(Robinia pseudoacacia), whose seedlings are mainly adjusting to each type of soil and during the first
year they reach the height of one meter. Acacia seedlings are rapidly and well rooted and the plant itself
reaches the thickness up to 10cm in the period from 3-5years. Acacia is thermophilic but it also sustains
low temperatures in winter without major problems, although young plants can be destroyed by early
winter or late spring frosts. It does not take well a big amount of lime in soil and it can be destroyed by
limestone chlorosis. It grows in neutral, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline soils and it avoids extremely
acidic and alkaline soils, it is resistant to diseases and pests. It is characterized by high calorific value,
good combustibility, small requirements in the aspect of soil and resistance to the draught. Freshly
harvested, it contains only 35% of moisture and it grows well even on dry, sandy and warm locations.
100

In later phases and after additional analysis of the soil from particular locations, and upon obtaining the
first results from test surfaces, it is possible to plant other types of above mentioned deciduous species.
2.4. Proposal for further activities
For the purpose of obtaining a better species range and good yield, it is necessary to carry out research
work by setting test surfaces with species that are not present in our environment. Test fields where you
could plant both autochthonous and alien species and observe their growth and development, annual
accrual, sensitivity to soil quality, high or low temperatures, diseases etc, could provide the realistic data
for selection of species that best adjusted to the conditions given.
Surfaces predicted for the use for the purpose of obtaining biomass need to be divided into smaller work
fields, i.e. sectors (10-30 ha) and sections (1-3 ha). Division of space enables better organization of
natural forests and plantations management and, for that reason, it is one of the most important tasks in
landscaping according to the purpose defined. In the aspect of modern space division, all needs and
requirements are taken into consideration and the starting point is the ecological basis. Economic division
of space refers to grouping of the surfaces into units (bigger units) of higher range. Technical division of
space is done according to technical criteria, where functional space division is respected. Technical
space division implies division into the units of lower order: economic units, gravitation area, basins and
sections. In relation to the total surface of Central mines, meant for biomass production (640,5 ha),
economic division has no significance and we can speak of technical division of Central mines for
biomass production.
Economic unit represents smaller complexes or isolated parts of forests and forest land (surface that is
planted) and thus we could define the total surface of Central mines meant for biomass production as
the economic unit Central mines-Ljubija. Gravitation field in a broader sense includes parts of
economic unit in hilly-mountaneous areas that, according to the direction of attracting forest wood
assortments gravitate to the same places for consumption or processing of wood. In a broader sense,
gravitation unit corresponds to economic unit. In a narrower sense, gravitation unit is a part of economic
unit for which the network of forest communication is being built. Sector is the lowest permanent unit of
internal division of forests and forest land. Division into sectors is primarily of technical nature, i.e.
conditioned by the need to divide bigger area into smaller work fields and thus provide easier and more
proper management. Size of sectors depends on the management intensity, terrain configuration, network
of permanent export roads, stands and site conditions, cultivation type and size of forest complex. Size of
sector is within a range from 10- 30 ha. By separation of sectors, the following is facilitated:

a detailed survey and determination of other details important for biomass production,
stands separation,
orientation and transparency within economic unit,
execution of works on recultivation, as well as care and protection of plantations,
marking and cutting of the trees,
recording of the works executed.

Section is the lowest management unit that includes one stand or a part of the stand. Minimum surface of
the section is up to 1ha for intensive management, i.e. 3ha for extensive management. Stand is a part of
the forest, minimum in size and of sufficient internal homogeneity that distinguishes from other parts of
the forest by its characteristics, which requires a special economic procedure. In stands separation, it is
necessary to have in mind the following criteria: management system, forest purpose or main type of
usage, forest type or creditworthiness of stands, trees type, mixture, origin, age of even-aged forests or
development phase, set (overgrow), structural form, preservation, quality, health condition.

101

3. ANALYSIS OF SITUATION OF THE SURFACES IN LOCATION OMARSKA


AND ITS POTENTIALS FOR BIOMASS CULTIVATION
3.1. Available surfaces
Out of the total surface of iron ore mine Omarska in expropriation zone of about 1000ha, for the
cultivation of fast-growing species, we can use the landfills for tailings (present and newly-projected), as
well as free surfaces that are not used in the active exploitation of the ore and can be found in
expropriation zone (meadows, pastures, fields). Surface that could be used for the purpose of obtaining
biomass is about 310ha and, according to its purpose, it can be divided into:

surfaces meant for recultivation (plateau and floors) biomass production 293 ha
agricultural land in expropriation zone biomass production about 17 ha.

Access to individual locations is provided via public and industrial roads. Locations of surfaces that could
be used for cultivation of biomass are presented in Figure 3, and here is their overview:
) Dam ''djedja''
Surfaces that could be used for biomass production around the lake of the dam Medjedja, which is used as
sludge landfill, are the following:

Surfaces along the big lake from the west side, surface 15,2 ha
Land around the small lake, surface 34,4 ha
Surfaces located on the east from the big lake, surface 15,3 ha

Total available surface for this purpose is about 65 ha.


) Landfill for tailings Luke
In the period from 2012-2014, recultivation was performed on the surface of 67ha, of which 52ha is on
the part of landfill with so-called full recultivation and 15ha in the part of landfill with so-called partial
recultivation. In other surfaces of about 6ha, there came to the spontaneous recultivation. Total surface of
landfill is 73ha.

Figure 3 Chart with spatial distribution of surfaces Omarska


102

) Landfill for tailings Mamuze

Landfill for tailings Mamuze is located on the south part of active open pit Buvac and
disposal of tailings is ended on it so it is possible to start with recultivation. Surface that is
occupied by the landfill Mamuze is about 48ha. Due to the manner of landfill formation, for the
purpose of forming the plantations of fast-growing species, it is possible to use the surface of
about 35ha.

) Arable land along the road GMS-SPR

The land along the road GMS-SPR that is in expropriation zone and which is not used for mining
purposes occupies the surface of about 17ha.

) ast and west landfill newly-projected landfills

After the completion of exploitation on OP Buvac as a potential surface for biomass


production, it is possible to sue the surfaces of future landfills, so-called east and west landfill
total surface about 160ha, of which we can use about 120ha for the needs of forming the
plantations of fast-growing species.

3.2. Soil characteristics


Studied location is extremely lowland and little river Gomjenica flows through it. Anthropogenic impact
is strongly expressed and as a consequence of this impact there appears a special type of soil deposols.
The most significant reason for the creation of deposols are mining activities that take place in
exploitation of iron ore. As a consequence of mining activities in the area that includes the deposit of iron
ore Omarska, significant surfaces are degraded. Seminal terrain was turned into entirely different relief
form by exploitation and disposal of tailings. New surfaces with depressions and raised cones are formed
(Figure 4a,b).

Figure 4 Terrain outlook


We can talk about pedological characteristics of soil after exploitation only on the basis of analysis of
samples taken in the landfill Luke area. During perennial exploitation of iron ore from the Omarska
mine, the landfill Luke was formed and it represents a mosaic, without order, of disposed layers of land
and sediments from different depths of basic profile above the layer of iron ore. For the needs of landfill
Luke recultivation during March 2012, substrate samples for the analysis of physical and chemical
features were taken. There were 18 profiles opened in different bases. In each profile, depth up to 50cm,
samples were taken for laboratory analysis from two depths: 0-20 cm and 20-50 cm.
Substrate that makes up the surface layer of landfill is macroscopically distinguished by the color. There
are red, yellow and yellow-grey clay and grey-bluish siltstone. In some surface parts in surface layer,
there are traces of coal. The largest part of the surface of deposited material is characterized by layers of
relatively favorable texture composition. Layers of deposited materials of landfills with red, yellow and
103

grey clays, according to texture, belong to the classes of sand-powder clays, loams and clays with traces
of sand. The most present are the loam layers. Red clays from old recultivated surface are characterized
by texture classes of clay mixed with traces of sand. Only in one, very small part of the old recultivated
surface, the texture is sand-clay, i.e. sand-clay-loam. The layers of grey-bluish siltstones, according to
texture, belong to loam and sandy loam. Even with relatively favorable texture composition, water-air
characteristics are not favorable, having in mind that there was no formation of structural aggregates.

Chemical reaction of deposited materials layers is mostly neutral to weakly alkaline. Smaller part
of the surface of upper flattened part is characterized by extremely acidic reaction. Those are the
layers of grey-bluish siltstone and yellow-grey clay. The percentage of humus is very low. In
samples that contain more than 1% of humus, there is coal present that represents inert organic
matter.

Substrates have a low level of basic macroelements of plants mineral nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium). Nitrogen content in big number of samples is below the detection level. All the samples, by their
content of physiologically active forms of phosphorus and potassium, belong to the weak supply classes.
3.3. Selection of species and soil preparation
In cases where land quality is not suitable and does not provide intensive production, it is necessary to
extend the treatment and adjust the selection of trees types. Often in more poor habitats it can be acacia
(Robinia pseudoacacia) or some other deciduous species such as birch (Betula pendula), black alder
(Alnus glutinosa), grey alder (Alnus incana), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), osier willows (Salix
viminalis), white willows (Salix alba), black poplar (Populus nigra), aspen (Populus tremula), ash tree
(Fraxinus excelsior), as well as other species.
On the slopes of landfills for formation of plantations of fast-growing species, we can suggest the planting
of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), whose seedlings are mostly adjusted to each type of soil.
On surfaces around the lake, we can suggest formation of plantations that seek more moist soils and are
suitable for biomass production, such as willows and poplars. In later phases and after the analysis of soil
from particular locations, some other deciduous species can also be planted.
In part of surfaces where mechanical processing of soil is possible and where soil quality is satisfying, we
can suggest plantation of fast-growing species such as miscanthus (Miskantus giganteus, )Paulovnija and
energetic willow (Salix viminalis, Salix alba).
3.4. Proposal for further activities
Usage of this space requires certain activities that need to be performed prior to plantation and it implies:

Division of surfaces into work fields, which enables better organization and represents one of the
most important tasks of landscaping according to the purpose defined.
Drafting of the Project for works execution of fast-growing species cultivation, which would
include the selection of micro-location, pedological analysis of the location given, species
selection, soil preparation, planting technique, measures for plantation maintenance, etc.
Execution of research work by setting test fields with species that are not present in our
environment, for the purpose of getting a better species selection and good yield (test fields of
Paulovnia and Miskantus)

4. CONCLUSION
Possibility for using the terrains devastated by mining activities for biomass production is a subject for
research that must be carried out for each individual case. The analysis presented in this paper has shown
the following: in two locations in Prijedor area there are big surfaces where iron ore exploitation is ended,
104

but differences are obvious and they significantly affect the potentials of each of those spaces for biomass
production, and they reflect themselves in different terrain morphology and different level of surface
recultivation performed. What they have in common is that in both cases it is about weak soil quality,
which is a disadvantage, but on the other hand, the existence of good road infrastructure (public and
industrial roads) is an advantage for usage of these surfaces for the purpose of providing biomass. Based
on systematization performed, as well as analysis of advantages and disadvantages of available surfaces
in both locations, we can conclude the following:
-

surfaces of the location ''Central mines'' can be used for cultivation of fast-growing species
suitable for energetic forestry that are manually planted and cut, while planting is not
possible because of terrain morphology and soil quality;
surfaces of the location Omarska can be used for the cultivation of fast-growing species
suitable for energetic forestry that are manually planted and cut, as well as for cultivation
of fast-growing species in plantations with mechanical processing;
in both cases, usage of degraded surfaces for the purpose of biomass cultivation implies the
execution of research work by setting test fields;
in both locations, there are surfaces under forests, which are not regulated and they are mostly
been created by spontaneous recultivation, whose usage for these purposes, with plans for new
plantations, would contribute to their cultivation.

REFERENCES:
[1] Studija o mogunosti uzgoja brzorastuih kultura za proizvodnju biomase za potrebe Toplane na
podruju Centralnih rudita RR Ljubija a.d. Prijedor, Rudarski institut Prijedor, februar
2015.god.
[2] Studija o mogunosti uzgoja brzorastuih kultura za proizvodnju biomase za potrebe Toplane na
podruju Rudnika Omarska Prijedor, Rudarski institut Prijedor, mart 2015.god.
[3] Regulacioni plan Rudnika eljezne rude Omarska za period od 2008.-2018. godine, JP Zavod za
izgradnju grada, Prijedor
[4] Nacrt Regulacionog plana RR Ljubija ''Centralna rudita'' za period od 2015.-2025., JP Zavod za
izgradnju grada, Prijedor
[5] Stanivukovi, Z., Kneevi, M., Kapovi, M.: Rekultivacija odlagalita ''Luke'', - zavrni izvjetaj za
prvu i drugu fazu radova- Banja Luka, avgust 2012.god.
[6] Finalni izvjetaj: Bosna i Hercegovina: Toplana Prijedor-Studija izvodljivosti, Grontmij AB, maj
2014. god.
[7] Vuji, S., Cveji, J., Miljanovi, I., Drai, D.: Projektovanje rekultivacije i ureenja predela
povrinskih kopova, RGF Beograd-Akademija inenjerskih nauka Srbije, 2009.god.
[8] ljivac, D.: Obnovljivi izvori energije Energija biomase, Osijek 2008.god.
[9] Predstudija raspoloivosti i trokovi biomase za potrebe sistema daljinskog grejanja na podruju
optina Vrbasa i Kule, Tehnoloko-mainski biro ''Eko produkt'', Novi Sad, 2012.god.
[10] Paiko, R., Kajba, D., Domac, J.: Konkurentnost umske biomase u Hrvatskoj u uvjetima trita
CO2 emisija, umarski list br. 7-8, CXXXIII (2009), 425-438
[11] Babovi, N.V., Drai, G.D., orevi, A. M.: Mogunost korienja biomase poreklom od
brzorastue trske Miscanthus x giganteus, Fakultet za primenjenu ekologiju ''Futura'' Univerzitet
Singidunum, Beograd, Srbija, Hem. Ind. 66 (2) 223233 (2012)
[12] onlagi, M.: Studija o obnovljivim izvorima energije u BiH, Tuzla, maj, 2010.god.

105

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

POSSIBILITIES OF UTILIZING VENTILATION AIR METHANE FROM


FBIH COAL MINES
Amor Husic1, Rijad Sisic2, Zvjezdan Karadzin2
1
RMU Banovici, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
2
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Civil Engineering, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Abstract: The common practice in underground coal mines of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( FBiH) have
been primarily to provide sufficient quantity of air to mine openings, but at the same time to dilute concentration of
methane (CH4) to acceptable levels, and to ensure favorable climate conditions. Therefore, the methane energy
utilization has been understated and ignored, which, once emitted into the atmosphere, has got the greenhouse effect.
This paper deals with different alternatives of utilizing ventilation air methane, primarily as an energy source.
Analysis conducted concerning the amount of methane emitted from underground mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
brought to conclusion that the application of modern technologies in the utilization of methane as an energy
resource is feasible in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well. This statement particularly applies to Central Bosnia, where
mines emissions are quite high, up to 9 m3 CH4/min (Zenica underground mine).
Keywords: Ventilation, Methane, Underground mines, VAM

1. INTRODUCTION
Safety of workings is not the only concern when it comes to efficient management of mine gasses.
Methane release into atmosphere , especially through a ventilation system implies a permanent loss of an
energy source. Final result of methane emission into atmosphere presents a contribution to global
warming. However, society is in a permanent search and expectation of safer working conditions and
better environmental management in coal industry.
Efficient methane risk management in coal mines contributes to reduction or minimization of green house
gasses emission. Coal mines present a significant source of methane emission, a green house gas with 20
time higher global warming potential then carbon dioxide. 14 percent of total global emission of fugitive
green house gasses stands for methane, while coal mines release 6 % of methane, i.e. approx. 400 million
tones of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) on annual basis.
Largest quantities of methane are released through ventilation air, Figure 1. In other words, out of total emission
of methane from mines worldwide, 58 % stands for emission of methane from ventilation air (VAM).
Since recently, through advance and development of technologies, new methods were introduced for
prevention of release of VAM into atmosphere. These technologies were demonstrated and their
efficiency and viability proved in practice.
Giving the fact that there are several methane coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina it is important to
find a way how to prevent methane release into atmosphere.
106

Figure 1 Sources of methane emission from mines


(Source: U.S. Emissions Inventory, 1990 2011; available December, 2013)

2. VAM ANALYSIS COAL MINES OF FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND


HERZEGOVINA (FBiH)
Future of coal, and methane as an side product of coal industry, is still prosperous, and based on analysts
that follow the development trends the role of coal as a prime energy source is anticipated with an upward
trend of 80 to 85 % until the year 2030. However the energy value of coal are partly diminished by
resulting environmental problems.
Coal sector is an important constituent of energy sector and economic structure of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Out of total energy potentials 90 % stands for coal. Current economic trend puts advantage
on surface mining but due to limited reserves, in order to secure regular coal supply to thermal power
plants for a longer time period (until 2030 and further) it is necessary to conduct underground mining, and
to employ hydro power plants potentials. It primarily concern brown coal mines: Banovii, Djurdjevik,
Kakanj and Breza, Bila, as well as Kreka lignite mines.
Methane from underground mines in emitted as a part of used ventilation air. Fresh atmospheric air flows
into mine and its chemical and physical properties are subjected to changes while flowing through
underground openings. Eventually, the mixture of atmospheric air and various gasses, released into mine
openings from seams or as a product of various physic-chemical processes that occur in mines (oxidation
processes, SUS engine operation, blasting operations, etc.) is released into atmosphere without previous
treatment. Methane content is expressed as absolute (m3CH4/min) or relative (m3CH4/t) methane content.
Giving the shown emitted quantities of VAM, its known economic value, and related environmental impacts,
it is necessary to analyze possibility of its utilization and removal from used ventilation air stream of FBiH
underground coal mines. Emitted quantities of VAM from FBiH mines are shown in Table 1. Summarized
quantities of emitted methane are shown in figure below.

Figure 2 Graphical review of absolute methane content of individual FBiH coal mines
107

Table 1 Absolute methane content in FBiH underground coal mines


Absolute methane content

MINE

Operation

RMU* Banovii

Omazii

0,398

RMU Kakanj

Haljinii

2,8241

Stara jama

2,275

Raspotoje

5,52

Stranjani

9,34

Kamenice

0,797

Sretno

3,43

RMU Zenica

RMU Breza

(m3/min)

RMU urevik

urevik

RMU Abid Loli - Bila

Grahovii

0,3861
5,11
30,0802

RMU* Brown Coal Mine

3. VAM (VENTILATION AIR METHANE) TECHNOLOGIES


A technology for elimination of low ventilation methane concentrations using thermal oxidation was
invented recently. Primary purpose of this technology is reduction of green house gasses. Some of these
technologies can be used combined with heat system for usage in mines or system of central heating, i.e.
for starting steam turbines for electricity generation. Two technologies of oxidation are available at the
market: Thermal Flow reversal Reactors (TFRR) and Catalytic Flow Reversal reactors (CFRR). Both
technologies utilize process of reverse flow for maintenance of temperature of reactor core and differ
only in usage of catalysts in oxidation process. Before being used for VAM purposes, these two
technologies had a broad usage in pollution control in commercial and production operations, especially
oxidation of organic volatiles, odors and other air pollutants.
Commercial version of VAM TFRR is installed in mines of Australia, China and United States, and
proved well possibilities for minimization of methane concentrations emitted into atmosphere. VAM
electricity generation was successfully demonstrated in Australia, using VAM for combustion in IC
engines, and using TFRR for conversion of obtained heat into electric energy. VAM CFRR application
was successfully demonstrated in full capacity.
Main reactor unit with reversal flow is composed of two parts, as shown in figure 3: section 1 and section
3. They are connected with tube at the top. Part of hot gas can be drawn from this pipe on heat exchanger.
Both sections are packed into ceramic monolith blocks with a large number of flat and parallel pipes ( 3 x
3 mm), which results in low pressure decrease. Methane concentration varies between 0.1 and 1 %
through mixing on natural gas with air. Electric heaters, used for preheating of monolith to enable normal
start up, are mounted on the top of TFRR. For methane concentrations between 0.22 and 1.06 % the
operation is self-heating, and heat production is possible only above methane concentration of 0.4 %.
Basic principles of TFRR operation are very simple. Each oxidation unit is wrapped with heat conducting
material , with a preheating system. Gas (VAM in this case) is conveyed through pipe to the oxidation
core. Thermo-conducting materials include large surface ceramic tiles. Oxidation units have a valve
system and suspension springs that streamline VAM across the thermo plates. For start up, pre-heaters
raise the temperature of thermo plates to 1000 C, and then the pre-heaters shut down once the flow of
VAM is initiated. Methane oxidizes (combusts) when it comes to preheated combustion unit, and emits
the energy of combustion. That heat is then transferred to combustion unit, thus maintaining temperature
on or above temperature required for auto-thermal process. This is to stress that oxidation process is
108

conducted without flame, and that upon initial preheating it is not necessary to have additional fuel as
long as the flow of methane is active (so-called regenerative)

Figure 3 Technological solution for energy generation from VAM


Advantages of such a system:

proven technology,
longer period of process,
lower oxidation temperature,
lower burden of self-consumption,
large number of suppliers,

Disadvantages:

relatively bulky unit.

3.1 Possibilities of using VAM technology in FBiH coal mines


There is a notable need for introducing contemporary environmental friendly and self-sustainable
technologies in BiH mining industry. Application of analyzed VAM utilization technologies in BiH
would present a significant investment, but on a long-term side would secure conditions for cleaner
production as far the air pollution is concerned. In certain cases, at coal mines with methane concentration
in used ventilation stream of above 2 % the project would be self-sustainable.
Current VAM technologies are not suitable to process the methane concentration lower than 0.2 %,
without using additional fuels, but ongoing research are focused in that direction, since the concentration
of VAM at many mines throughout the world is below 0.2 %. Operations and mines that use VAM for
energy generation can have a need for optimizing and increasing concentration of VAM up to oxidation
unit. One of the methods used includes enrichment of gas with methane from other sources such as old
workings (gobs) or drained methane.
Taking into account the volume flow of air through analyzed mines, concentrations of methane in used
ventilation stream are shown in table 2.
Mines: Haljinii (RMU Kakanj), Grahovii (RMU Bila), Stranjani (RMU Zenica) i
Sretno (RMU Breza), meet preconditions for introducing VAM utilization technologies. Table
above shows current values, that vary depending on air quantity, openness of a seam, etc. Variations in
methane concentration, and possible requirements to increase concentrations for the purpose of more
109

efficient utilization, can be supported with methane from other sources, especially those from sanitary
landfills. Thus a double aim would be accomplished, and more efficient utilization of both methane
source met. There are several international related initiatives (Methane to Markets Partnership, Coal bed
Methane Outreach Program, Global methane, etc.) conducted by many mining and energy companies
worldwide, along with required experience, technology and interest to solve mine methane problems in
an environmentally and economically acceptable manner.
Table 2 Ventilation air methane concentrations in FBiH mines
VAM

MINE

Operation

RMU* Banovii

Omazii

0,10

RMU Kakanj

Haljinii

0,20

Stara jama

0,09

Raspotoje

0,16

Stranjani

0,63

Kamenice

0,05

Sretno

0,20

RMU urevik

urevik

0,03

RMU Abid Loli - Bila

Grahovii

0,51

RMU Zenica

RMU Breza

(%)

RMU* - Brown Coal Mine

This is to stress that most of the FBiH coal mines are facing with various problems, when it comes to
capital investments, low level of deposits explorations, obsolete equipment, outmanned mines, injuries,
etc. Investment in VAM technologies, that will bring no tangible improvement concerning the labor
issues or mine management, has no priority. However, adoption of norms and obligations on the way to
EU will actualize this issue.

4. CONCLUSIONS
Prime objective of this paper is not to offer concrete technical solutions nor to promote technologies, but
to analyze possibilities and potentials for introduction of VAM utilization technologies in FBiH coal
mines. It is based on determined methane content in certain individual coal mines, and current volume of
air flow through them. Coal mines: Zenica, Kakanj, Travnik, and Breza emit sufficient methane quantity
for introduction of VAM technologies. Other coal mines could use method of additional enrichment of
VAM from other sources, such as old workings (gobs) and waste landfills
There are numerous advantages of capturing and utilizing coal mine methane, and the most important are
as follows:

reduction of greenhouse gasses emission,


preservation of local energy sources,
improved safety in coal mines,
additional income source for coal mines.

Apart from the above listed advantages some others include reduction of operational costs and new work
positions.

110

REFERENCES
[1] Husi, A.: Mogunost kaptiranja metana iz izlazne zrane struje rudnika uglja u BiH, Magistarski rad,
Rudarsko-geoloko-graevinski
fakultet
Tuzla,
Tuzla,
BiH,
April
2014.,
UDK:
622.324.5:622.012](497.6)(043.2)
[2] Best Practice Guidance for Effective Methane Drainage and Use in Coal Mines, Economic
commission for Europe Methane to markets partnership, ece energy series no.31, UNITED
NATIONS, New York and Geneva, 2010.
[3] Dren, T; Sarkisov, L, Yaghi Omar M.; Snurr Randall Q: 3. Design of New Materials for Methane
Storage Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208,
and Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Langmuir, March
2, 2004, 20 (7), pp 26832689
[4] Studija energetskog sektora u BiH, Modul 8 Rudnici uglja, Federacija BiH, Ministarstvo vanjske
trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa Bosne i Hercegovine, Novembar 2008.
[5] EPA, Coalbed Methane Outreach Program Technical Options Series, Air and Radiation 6202,
November 1998
[6] Devals, C.; Fuxman, A.; Bertrand, F.; Forbes, J.F. ; Hayes, R.E. Combustion of Lean Methane in a
Catalytic Flow Reversal Reactor, cole Polytechnique de Montral, University of Alberta, Excerpt
from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Users Conference 2006 Boston, 10.1002/cjce.20194
[7] Somers, J. M.; Schultz, H. L. Thermal oxidation of coal mine ventilation air methane, 12th U.S./North
American Mine Ventilation Symposium 2008 Wallace (ed) ISBN 978-0-615-20009-5.

111

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

MINING WASTE MANAGEMENT


Dragana Jelisavac Erdeljan
Ministry of Mining and Energy of Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: The Law on Mining and Geological Explorations regulates the domain of mining and preparation of
mineral raw materials, and all accompanying activities, including excavation, transport and disposal of tailings.
Tailings arising from the process of mining and preparation of mineral raw materials represent mining waste in
accordance with the European Union Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries (Directive
2006/21/EC). The Directive is partly transposed to the national regulations, and a complete implementation will be
achieved through a by-law that is expected to be enacted by the end of the current year.
Keywords: EU Directive, Management, Mining Waste.

1. INTRODUCTION
The technology of excavation, transport and disposal of tailings arising from the process of mining and
preparation of mineral raw materials and the construction and management of tailing dumps is regulated
by the Law on Mining and Geological Explorations (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 88/11) and
the accompanying by-laws. The production of tailings composed of overburden, that is, mine tailings
from the process of surface and underground mining of mineral raw materials is over 100 million m3 per
year, and the production of tailings from the process of preparation of mineral raw materials is about 10
million m3 on annual basis. Flotation tailings are potentially a hazardous mining waste in respect of the
content of dangerous matters and physical stability.

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES
Mining waste, as defined in the Directive, include all tailings necessarily resulting from the process of
prospecting, mining and prossesing of mineral raw materials, whether they are tailings located directly in
the overburden, which should be removed to access an ore (typical for stratified deposits), or they are
barren layers in the seam of a mineral resource, i.e. ore body. Also, this waste includes tailings arising
from the process of ore preparation and flotation. A waste resulting from the processes of smelting and
burning of mineral resources, or waste from metallurgical processes, is not classified as mining waste.
Mining waste shall not mean the waste generated in the course of prospecting, mining and preparation of
mineral raw materials that is not directly linked to the mentioned activities (waste oils, food waste, endof-life vehicles and run-down batteries and vehicle batteries), which are subject to other directives
(75/442/EEZ and 1999/31/EZ) or the waste arising from extractive industries, which may be radioactive
and which is regulated by the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), so
therefore, it is not subject to the Directive 2006/21/EZ.

112

Mining waste is specific by its properties such as the quantities ranging from several hundred to many
millions m3 annually, inert and non-hazardous in most cases, which is the reason that it was excluded
from the industrial waste. Also, the specificity of this waste is reflected in the possibility of reusing it
when the content of useful components is such that, applying modern technical and technological
processes, a mineral raw material can be extracted by reprocessing the waste.
A special attention was paid to mining waste representing a danger to the environment, waste containing
harmful substances in quantities above permitted (Directives 91/689/EEZ, 67/548/EEZ or 1999/45/EZ) or
when a dump containing such waste may be physically instable. If there are indicators that, on some
basis, mining waste may have one of hazardous properties, such waste dump will be classified under
category A. The Annex II of the Directive clarifies the method of waste characterisation. By sampling and
by analysing the samples, the waste is characterised in respect of the content of harmful matters and the
defining of physical and mechanical properties of tailings material. If the analysis proves that there are
harmful matters above the permitted limit or if there is a potential risk of physical instability the waste
dump is classified under the category A. The management of an A category waste facility is defined in the
Annex III of the Directive.

3. INNOVATIONS ENVISAGED BY THE DIRECTIVE


The implementation of the Directive will not significantly change the method of mining, transport and
waste disposal, while the special emphasis has been placed on waste management. One of the major
changes is the possibility that an operator of mining waste and a waste holder (waste producer) do not
need to be one legal entity, i.e. waste holder may outsource the management of the waste dump to another
legal entity. The Operator, whether it is only the operator or both - waste producer and operator, will in
any case have to perform the waste management in accordance with the Waste Management Plan, for
which the appropriate approvals will be obtained from the competent institutions, bodies and authorities.
The Waste Management Plan should envisage a high-quality waste management in the design stage, the
placing of the waste back into the extraction voids formed after mining of raw materials, the preservation
and restoration of the upper, fertile, layer of the soil after mineral extraction or its usage elsewhere, the
encouragement to re-use the waste if possible, etc. Also, the Plan needs to envisage the safe disposal and
a minimum of required activities related to monitoring, control and management even after the closure of
a waste facility.
If there is a possibility that a Category A waste facility is likely to have adverse effects on human health
and the environment in another (neighbouring) country, the country in whose territory the application for
a permit was submitted shall provide all the information to the other country, while making the same
information available to its own citizens, with a view to including the public of both countries in the
making of the final decision. In the event of accidents, all pieces of information shall be forwarded to the
other country in order to reduce the environmental damage and minimise adverse effects.
Prior to the commencement of deposit operations, the operator may be required to provide a financial
guarantee ensuring that all the obligations flowing from the permit will be fulfilled, as well as a guarantee
that there are funds available, at any time, for the rehabilitation of the land affected by the waste dump, as
described in the Waste Management Plan. The deposited financial funds are periodically adjusted, in
accordance with the changes in the waste facility.
The Directive also envisaged the obligation of creating a Cadastre of mining waste facility of
abandoned and inactive. The obligations associated with the creation of Cadastre of mining waste will be
realised through the approved IPA project (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). The funds donated
by the EU through this kind of assistance will enable creating the cadastre of all kinds of mining waste
facility on the territory of Serbia.

113

4. CONCLUSION
The implementation of the Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries will allow
the harmonisation of national legislation with the EU legislation. More importantly, the management of
mining waste, which may be found on a number of sites, in considerable quantities and of various
properties, will be carried out sustainably and efficiently, in full compliance with the mining waste
management adopted within the European Union.

REFERENCES
[1] DIRECTIVE 2006/21/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL of 15 March
2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC)

114

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF QUANTIFYING THE CRITERIA FOR


IDENTIFYING PRIORITIES IN SOLVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN MINING
Milos Grujic
International Academy of Ecology and Life Protection Sciences IAELPS, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: It is necessary to identify priorities in order to identify priorities of any set of activities. Previously, some
criteria need to be defined, based on which a ranking list of these activities would be created. The impartial and
objective defining of priorities is best achieved by applying the multi-criteria decision-making. This paper discusses
the basic principles of quantifying the criteria with a view to solving the issue of the environmental protection in
mining companies.
Keywords: Priorities, Quantifying, Criteria, Environmental Protection, Mining

1. INTRODUCTION
Accumulated problems related to the environmental protection in mining companies have imposed the need
for an intensive work on solving such problems. This especially applies to large mining and power-generating
basins, where the coal, as the main power fuel in Serbia, is obtained by open-cast mining. The long-time
neglecting of these problems (for objective and subjective reasons) requires an urgent identification of
priorities according to which negative effects of mining would be remedied and eliminated.
For identifying priorities in the domain of the environmental protection the best results give the multicriteria decision-making methods. The most important prerequisite for their application is a proper choice
of criteria, their quantification and assigning weight coefficients to each of them. It is also important that
the criteria in the preparation phase are processed in such a way that they can be adjusted to the method of
selecting priorities.
The objective of this paper is to propose criteria by which the priorities will be selected, as well as the
method of their quantification, with defining of weighting coefficients. The Paper will also present a part
of the experience of applying this methodology for determining the priorities for solving the
environmental protection problems in the Mining Basin Kolubara.

2. BASIC CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRIORITIES


For selecting priorities it is possible to consider a number of criteria, with different degrees of impact
(weighting coefficients). Practice has shown that an excessive (or insufficient) number of criteria do not
give good results, and that an optimal number of criteria should be in the range from 4 to 6.

115

For studying priorities in solving the environmental protection problems in open-cast coal mining, we
propose to introduce 5 sets of criteria: legislation criteria, technical and technological criteria,
environmental protection criteria, economic criteria, and criteria related to potential accidents. In some
exceptional cases, additional specific criteria can be included, with clearly stated specificities.
Criteria related to the legislation (k1). The legislation is one of the criteria that should not be the cause
of any dilemma. However, the imperfection of positive legal regulations, absence of regulation in certain
cases, imprecision in certain cases or insufficiently defined possible sanctions, impose the need that these
criteria are classified in several groups and are adequately assessed.
Technical and technological parameters that define a problem and possibilities of harmful effects
elimination (criterion - k2). In order to eliminate harmful effects it is necessary to examine the technical
possibilities, circumstances under which it has to be carried out, the degree of complexity and the scope
of the envisaged works, level of training of own technical departments, the existence of specialised
organisations and companies for the elimination of some kinds of harmful effects, etc.
Criteria related to the environmental protection (k3). Basic criterion with the highest importance in
identifying priorities for solving environmental protection problems is related to the degree of the
endangerment of the environment due to the operation of plants and facilities of a mining company. As in
the previous case, this criterion can also be divided in several groups of harmful effects, which may have
different environmental impact, and be quantified accordingly.
Economic criteria (k4). Economic criteria are especially sensitive because they depend on many factors,
mostly on a public company envisaged budget for the environmental protection. In addition, even assets
not envisaged for the environmental protection can be used for certain investments, such as funds
envisaged for infrastructure, local governments and the like. The amount of the budget is defined for the
observed period, based on planning documents, economic power of the company, realised assets in the
previous period, etc.
Criteria related to potential accidents (k5). Accidents may occur in mining and power-generating
companies. Such accidents often have severe consequences, because, for most participants, they occur
suddenly and cause, as a rule, serious damages, even outside of the delimited area of a plant (facility).
Potential accident hazards are included in accordance with prevention measures, which are taken in order
to avoid such hazards; they are assessed based on the knowledge of the similar situations in a public
company, conditions under which they occur, and following the experience of other similar systems in the
country and abroad.
Other specific criteria. Specific criteria are, generally, related to the specificity of the location of a plant
or a facility, the proximity to other specific surroundings, and the like. These criteria may be used only if
they apply to all actions (variants) considered in a block. In practice, they are used as additional criteria,
in cases where we obtain, as a final result, completely equalized solutions.

3. QUANTIFICATION OF CRITERIA FOR DAMAGE ASSESMENT


An expert evaluation of each factor, used for the environmental impact assessment, is made based on the
identified criteria. The expert evaluation is useful for, primarily, a decision-maker to have sufficient
number of elements in order to obtain, based on an independent professional opinion, sufficient
information, which would allow him/her to make the best possible decision. In this case, an expert
evaluation is made in order to identify priorities, using the multi-criteria analysis for solving
environmental protection problems in Mining Basin Kolubara [1],[4].
All ratings range from 1 to 10. Assessing is made according to the following rules (the ordinal number
represents the numeric value of a rating):

116

Criterion K1: The legislation is rated by the positive trend (the best rating is given to the activities where
the technical possibilities are the most favourable), as follows:
1. Elimination of harmful effects is not envisaged, as mandatory, by laws or internal
regulations, nor it is practiced in similar systems,
2. Elimination of harmful effects is not envisaged, as mandatory, by laws or internal by-laws,
3. Elimination of harmful effects is not regulated by laws, but it is occasionally regulated by
authorities,
4. Elimination of harmful effects is not regulated by laws but it is envisaged by internal
regulations,
5. Elimination of harmful effects is envisaged by laws, without defined sanctions,
6. Elimination of harmful effects is envisaged by laws and internal regulations, without
defined sanctions,
7. Elimination of harmful effects is imperatively envisaged by legal decrees, with threat of
punishment,
8. Elimination of harmful effects is imperatively envisaged by a number of legal decrees, with
threat of punishment,
9. There is an inspection order to eliminate harmful effects in the prescribed period
10. There is an inspection order for urgent elimination of harmful effects in a short period of
time.
Criterion K2: Technical possibilities for elimination of harmful effects are rated with a positive trend:
1. There are no technical possibilities for elimination of harmful effects
2. There are no technical possibilities for elimination of harmful effects unless there is a
drastic modification to the environment
3. Complicated elimination of harmful effects, with the employment of external workers
4. Complicated elimination of harmful effects, with the employment of external workers and
with minor engagement of workers within a mine
5. Complex elimination of harmful effects with the employment of workers from other
companies within the group
6. Complex elimination of harmful effects with a combined engagement of workers within the
mine and the group (EPS, JP PEU and the like)
7. Less complex elimination of harmful effects with a combined engagement
8. Less complex elimination of harmful effects with the engagement of workers from the mine
9. Easier elimination of harmful effects with the engagement of workers from the mine
10. Easier in-house elimination of harmful effects, i.e. from the part of the mine where a
damage has been identified.
Criterion K3: Environmental impact is assessed with a negative trend, i.e. the most unfavourable
condition obtains the worst rating and vice versa:
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Does not cause any modifications to the environment,


Causes modifications that improve the condition of the environment,
Causes negative small-scale modifications to a part of the observed area,
Causes negative small-scale modifications to the whole observed area,
Causes negative small-scale modifications, with a minor expansion of the endangered area up to 10%
Causes negative small-scale modifications, with a minor expansion of the endangered area up to 20%
Causes negative small-scale modifications, with a minor expansion of the endangered area up to 10%
Causes major negative modifications, with minor expansion of the endangered area up to 10%,
Causes major negative modifications, with minor expansion of the endangered area up to 20%,
Causes major negative modifications, with major expansion of the endangered area up to 100 %,
Causes major negative modifications, with major expansion of the endangered area over 100%.

117

Criterion K4: Economic criteria have also a negative trend in the expert evaluation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Costs of elimination of harmful effects amount to the whole envisaged budget (100 %)
Elimination of harmful effects incurs costs from 0.80 to 1 B
Elimination of harmful effects incurs costs from 0.60 to 0.80 B
Elimination of harmful effects incurs costs from 0.40 to 0.40 B
Costs of elimination of harmful effects range from 0.30 to 0.40 B
Costs of elimination of harmful effects range from 0.10 to 0.20 B
Elimination of harmful effects incurs costs from 0.05 to 0.10 B
Elimination of harmful effects incurs costs from 0.025 to 0.05 B
Costs of elimination of harmful effects range from 0.01 to 0.025 B
For elimination of harmful effects it is necessary to allocate less than 0.001 B.

B means the envisaged budget for one year allocated to the environmental protection.
Criterion K5: Rating of potential accident hazards is made in accordance with the prevention measures
taken in order to avoid such hazards:
1. There is no potential risk of accidents (all prevention measures are taken, there is no
probability that a harmful effect will occur and the like),
2. There is no potential risk of accidents (there are no recorded cases of accidents if the
similar prevention measures are taken),
3. Low probability of accidents (the most important prevention measures are taken),
4. Low probability of accidents (the technology is at such level that the probability of
accidents is reduced),
5. There is a real risk of small-scale accidents (due to the age of the facility, insufficient
prevention measures and the like),
6. Real risk of accidents in a smaller area (because of incomplete prevention measures,
localised impact zones),
7. Medium degree of probability that there is a real risk of accidents (inadequately performed
works on a facility, failure to take the appropriate prevention measures)
8. Medium degree of probability that there is a real risk of accidents (age of the facility, many
years of failure to take the appropriate prevention measures),
9. High probability of large-scale accidents (no adequate control over the processes that may
cause an accident, or accelerate the danger),
10. High probability of recurrence of large-scale accidents (the causes of a previous accident
are not eliminated, remedied)
Weighting coefficients are determined on the basis of real indicators and their values are approx. 90% of the
universal value, and the remaining 10% are the specificities of the company and the surroundings. In applying
the multi-criteria decision-making method, the following values of weighting coefficients are applied:

Criteria related to the legislation


Technical and technological parameters
Environmental impact
Economic criteria
Potential accidents

0.15
0.10
0.55
0.15
0.05

The vector of the criteria weighting coefficients is: T = 0.15 0.10 0.55 0.15 0.05]
In recent years, the multi-criteria methods of selecting priorities for solving environmental protection
problems in the domain of Mining and Energy have been increasingly applied. [2],[3]. The Simple
Additive Weighting, PROMETHEE and ELECTRE methods have been applied the most frequently.

118

The Study of defining priorities for solving environmental protection problems in the period from 2011 to
2021 is made for the needs of Mining Basin Kolubara, with the action plan in MB Kolubara, using the
above methodology. The ELECTRE method was used and the control was made using the Simple
Additive Weighting method.
In this way, 50 actions (problems) recorded in MB Kolubara were placed in the ranking list of priorities.
Based on the priority list, an action plan of solving problems until 2021 was made, by years, which
involves 208 activities. This plan includes the defined activity, the part of the company in charge of the
realisation and the amount of investments in this activity. Based on the priority list and list of actions and
activities, a Gantt Chart of all activities has been made, with the defined beginning, duration and
termination. Also, economic indicators of each activity were determined.

4. CONCLUSION
The application of multi-criteria decision-making methods, in determining priorities of solving
environmental protection problems in mining companies, requires a precise quantification of
environmental impacts of certain activities. In mining, particularly in open-cast coal mining, it is
necessary to define criteria, to assign them the adequate weights and then to quantify them. The results of
the quantification, on a scale from 1 to 10, have a high level of reliability and for that reason they are
recommended, with the proposed weight coefficients (weights) for the observed criteria.

REFERENCES
[1] upi, M., Suknovi, M.: Multi-criteria decision-making: Methods and examples. (in Serbian). BK
University, Belgrade, 1994.
[2] Grujic, M., Jovanovic, Z., Grujic, Miodrag: Zastosowanie metod wielokryterialnego podejmowania
decyzj w rozwiazywaniu problemow srodowiska w przedsiebiorstwacl energetycznych i kopalniach
wegla kamiennego (poglavlje u monografiji: Innowacyjne i Przyjazne dla Srodowiska Techniki i
Technologie Przerobki Surowcow Mineralnych), Instytut Techniki Gorniczej, Gliwice, Polska, 2013.
[3] Gruji, M., Milankovi, M., Jovanovi, .: Identifying the priorities in resolving environmental
protection problems in Elektromrea Srbije.(in Serbian). Energy, Power Engineering, Zlatibor,
2010.
[4] Study of defining priorities in resolving environmental protection problemsin the period 2011-2021
with the Action Plan in RB Kolubara. (in Serbian). Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Study
manager M. Gruji, Belgrade, 2011.

119

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

KOLUBARA LIGNITES COMBUSTIBLE SULPHUR ENVIRONMENTAL


IMPACT NATURALL AND ARTIFICIAL SELECTED SOURCES
COMPARISON
Bogoljub Vuckovic, Biljana Radovanovic, Nadezda Petrovic
PD RB Kolubara, Branch ProjektLazarevac, Serbia
Abstract: Sulphur dioxide is a constituente part of natural geochemical exchange of substances cycle in earthwater-air system since the planet Earth exist. Industrial activities, especially in last decades, the SO 2 emission in
atmosphere increase. One of the way of industral pollution is combusting processes in thermoenergetic plant bolires
in TENT A and B facilities which combust the Kolubara Coal Mines (KCM) lignite. Does KCM lignite with its
sulphur content truly pollute environment in that significiant scale or it is only a well learned lession which is
spoken at last few years? Is somwhere there some natural SO 2 emission sourceses and in what scale does it exist?
Who or what in all of that mess generate more pollution? This paper is trying to point out on that and gave
comparative review on few selected natural and artificial SO2 emission sources.

Keywords: Sulphur Dioxide, Kolubara Coal Mines, Environment

1. INTRODUCTION
In the last 60 (and a little more) years in the Kolubara coal basin realized the extensive geological research,
with research in the field of ILMS and economic geology was dominant. The research was carried Geological
Survey of Kolubara, according to the special needs participate in geological research and taking the RGF in
Belgrade, Geozavod, Geoinstitut etc ... in the final, collective work, there are up to 3 billion tons of coal in a
number of exploration-mining fields, with additional useful and usable non-metallic mineral resources. In the
previous period two reservoirs have been excavated, the field'' A'' in the early '60s and'' Tamnava East Field'' in
the early 2000s. Other deposits (rather ore fields) are distributed throughout the Kolubara sedimentary and
coal basin and have varying degrees of geological exploration, so we have a deposits that are in the early
stages of geological exploration, to those explored in detail where and Miner's production takes place. The
latter practically define enterprise economy. Results of geological studies may be presented in different ways
according to the needs in the form of physical indicators or derived synthetic.

2. NATURAL INDICATORS OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Represent the number of drill holes (more than 2,850), the total volume of exploration drilling (more than
285,000 m), numerous laboratory analysis, the quantities of ore, ore reserves categories, the quality of the
ore, etc. ... above will be displayed during the next few considerations, diagrams and tables. First and
most important are the quantities of ore reserves and the phase of research in are currently in, or
categorization of ore reserves [1-15]. On this occasion category of reserves by Serbian standards are
compared with the Anglo-American and EU nomenclature of mineral reserves (at least one of its many
variants) in table 1 and charts 1 to 3.
120

Table 1 Ore Reserves of selected reservoirs and their status within the mining basin Kolubara[1-15]
DEPOSIT
(ORE FIELD)

EX-YU; SERBIAN
NOMENCLATURE

ANGLO AMERICAN/EU 27
NOMENCLATURE

CURENT DEPOSIT STATUS IN KCM

ORE RESERVE CATEGORIES

B+C

A+B

Proven & probable


(Reserves)

A+B

Proven & probable


(Reserves)

Veliki Crljeni

A+C1

Proven & possible


(Reserve in open pit area +
resources in ex underground area)

Sopic-Lazarevac

C1

Possible
(Resources)

Proven
(Reserves)

Zvizdar

B+C1

B+C1

Radljevo

Tamnava-West
Field

Possible & probable


(Reserve + resources mainly
related with underground works
and deposit peripheral zones)
Proven & possible
(Reserves seat at eastern parts +
resources in central and western
parts of deposit)

B+C1+C2

Possible, probable & indicated


(Reserves seat at northern parts +
resources in central and southern
parts of deposit)

A+B+C1

Proven, possible & probable


(Reserves seat at central parts +
resources in southern parts of
deposit)

B+C1

Possible & probable


(Reserves seat at north parts +
resources in central and south
parts of deposit)

Open pit under running since early 1950s,


detailed geological exploration performed
just ahead of mining works. It seems as a
preliminary opening phase for next more
attractive E deposit. Should run for next 15
years.
In phase of detailed geological explorations
and final stage of mining designing and
investing for opening. Significant future
open pit with relatively small amounts of
coal, but with high economic performance.
Open pit under running since 2008, detailed
geological exploration performed just ahead
of mining works. For open pit mining
operation interest is on western zone. In
eastern parts ex-underground mining area
(reach its dead-end at mid 1960s). Gave
what posses, at the moment in closing phase.
In early stage of geological explorations.
Maybe of mining interest in next decades.
Open pit under running since early 1960s;
most important coal open pit in Serbia, gave
>850M t of lignite. Living his last years.
Geological and mining designing. In central
parts ex-underground mining area (reach its
dead-end at mid 1960s). In company scope
in next decades.
In detailed geological exploration phase and
final stage of mining designing. Aimed to be
open pit D worthy substitute. For a long
term of digging.
In phase of detailed geological explorations
and final stage of mining designing and
investing for opening. Significant future
open pit with relatively high amounts of coal
with high economic performance.
Open pit under running since mid 1990s,
detailed geological exploration performed
just ahead of mining works. At the moment
most important open pit in KCM, annually
coal production >12M t. Should run for next
15 years.
In phase of geological explorations and early
stage of mining designing. Significant future
open pit with high amounts of coal with high
weak economic performance. For a long
term of digging. In company scope in next
decades.

Explanation guide :
Serbian (ex-YU) ore reserve clasification show how detailed were performed geological exploration e.g. type and
density of drilling net, sampling, hydrogeology and geotechinical works etc.
A mainly means reserve; B could be reserve (mostly) or resources; C1, C2, D1,2 always are resources

For the above-mentioned deposits, there is an extensive project and technical documentation presented
with numerous geological research projects, studies of mineral reserves, studies, etc ... Nevertheless,
several ongoing projects of geological exploration drilling has further defined by at least 75,000 meters
that need to be implemented in several next year. Ore reserves in individual fields are given in Figure 1
Number of technical analysis of coal (more than 13,600) and their relationship to t explored coal reserves
is shown in the following diagrams 2 and 3.
121

Q/ metric tones
700,000,000
600,000,000
500,000,000
400,000,000
Q/ metric tones
300,000,000
200,000,000
100,000,000

TWF

Radljevo

Zvizdar

SopicLazarevac

Veliki Crljeni

B+C

Diagram 1 Coal reserves in selected reservoirs in KCM [1-15]


No.

6700

Technical analyse

8000
7000
6000
5000

TWF

1387
Radljevo

498
Zvizdar

860

654
D

505

148
Veliki Crljeni

SopicLazarevac

185
G

1000

421

2000

B+C

3000

2262

4000

Technical
analyse No.

Diagram 2 Number of technical analysis of coal, the chosen deposits in KCM [1-15]
t/1 analyse

Coal t/1 technical analyse

800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
F

TWF

Radljevo

Zvizdar

SopicLazarevac

Veliki
Crljeni

B+C

Coal t/1 technical


analyse t/1
analyse

Diagram 3 Relationships: The explored reserves of coal (t) VS 1 technical analysis of coal, in selected
reservoirs of KCM [1-15]

3. SULFUR IN KOLUBARA COAL MINE LIGNITES, INDICATOR OF GEOENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH


Based on more than 2300 complete laboratory analysis of coal and 1500 of ash analysis come to
conclusions about the content and character of the distribution of the total, combustible and inert (bound
in the ash) of sulfur in 11 exploration and exploitation of the fields of the Kolubara coal basin[1-15]. With a
total mass of about 3B t lignite and mean content of total (0.53%) and combustible (0.28%) S, we
conclude that in the Kolubara coal basin reservoirs deposited approximately 15.5 million tons of the total,
or about 8.1 million tons combustible sulfur. Of total, combustible and inert sulfur (ashes) are shown in
the following diagrams 4, 5 and 6.
122

0.80

S% - total

Suk %

0.73

0.70

Suk %

0.70

0.62

0.60
0.60

0.52

0.53

0.52

0.52

0.50

0.44

0.47
0.42

0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
F

TEF

TWF

Radljevo

Zvizdar

SopicLazarevac

Veliki Crljeni

B+C

0.00

Savg. = 0,53%

1,387,000

2,756,000
Radljevo

2,500,000

2,730,000

2,464,000

3,000,000

Stotal - tons
3,500,000

3,010,000

Diagram 4 Amounts of total S (%) of lignite, in selected reservoirs in KCM [1-15]

620,000
G

402,000

598,000

500,000

SopicLazarevac

139,317

1,000,000

572,000

1,500,000

874,500

2,000,000

B+C

Zvizdar

St

TWF

TEF

Veliki
Crljeni

Total = 15,5 Mt
Diagram 5 the amounts of total S (t) in lignite, in selected reservoirs in KCM [1-15]
Ssag %

S% - flamable

0.50

0.45

0.45
0.40

Ssag %

0.37

0.35

0.40
0.34
0.28

0.30

0.24

0.22

0.25

0.22

0.22

0.22
0.18

0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05

TEF

TWF

Radljevo

Zvizdar

SopicLazarevac

Veliki
Crljeni

B+C

0.00

Savg. = 0,28%

Diagram 6 Amounts of combustible S (%) of lignite; selected reservoirs in KCM [1-15]


The given (diagrams 4, 5 and 6) shows a low content of total and combustible sulfur in lignite Kolubara
coal basin, and these low sulfur content can not be a technological or environmental problem in coal
combustion in power plants or in the process of depositing ash after combustion.

123

Number of values 41
Minimum 0.31
Maximum1.25
Mean
0.5366
Coefficient of variation

0.29942

1.3

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.5

0.3

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Figure 1 Content of total S in lignite deposits'' D'' field, the state works 2010th year. [12]
Looking at the character of the horizontal distribution of sulfur in the open pit D (Fig. 1) be registered
with a low content of sulfur (average 0.53%) of the remaining coal exploitation in the next few years.
With the amount of 870K tons of total sulfur in the remaining part of the deposit and excavated with the
projected capacity of about 10M tons of coal per year, field D may generate about 50K tons total , or
about 24K tons of combustible sulfur annually. Looking at the character of the horizontal distribution of
sulfur in the open pit B + C (Fig. 2) also registered a low content of sulfur ( average 0.60 % ) of the
remaining coal exploitation in the next few years. With the amount of 400K tons of total sulfur in the
remaining part of the deposit and excavated with the projected capacity of 3m t of coal per year , the field
B + C may make about 18K tons total , or about 10K tons of combustible sulfur annually. In both cases,
this low sulphurous coal is environmentally friendly and technologically acceptable as mineral fuel in
thermal power capacity Serbia and the region of Southeast Europe.

500

1000

1500

2000

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

Number of values 27
Minimum 0.49
Maximum1.51
Mean
0.78
Coefficient of variation

0.29455

Figure 2 Content of total S in lignite deposits field B + C, the state works 2010th year[15]

4. SELECTED ARTIFICIAL SOURCES OF SO2 EMISSIONS


The industrial activities, in each case influences the level of SO2 emission to the atmosphere. Some
industries are larger, and some other minor sources of sulfur. Related to this and the applied level of
desulfurization, some countries major industrial manufacturers emit less SO2 than expected (Fig. 3, 4, 5).
124

677,145

800,000
700,000

893,276

SOx

900,000

785,700

1,000,000

281,697

260,625

218,000

Spain

Poland

GB

Greece

Italy

Germany

Portugal

TENT A+B

56,849

226,210

51,100

Slovakia

225,000

51,022

Slovenia

Hungary

44,579

Finland

158,546

29,640

Ireland

132,588

16,958

Belgium

122,638

13,545

Denmark

Czech Republic

12,483

Netherlands

84,260

9,689

Lithuania

79,000

4,707

Sweden

Estonia

3,827

Latvia

100,000

Austria

200,000

FBiH

300,000

France

400,000

RS

500,000

358,710

600,000

Figure 3 SO2 emissions in EU-25 since 2003 year, with BiH and TENT added as 2012[17]
(modified Vuckovic at all 2014)

Figure 4 SO2 emissions in USA for 1980-2007 period, from thermoenergetic blocks[19

Figure 5 Sectorial trend in global, China and Indian SO2 emissions since 1990, Tg SO2. Note different
sclase: i.e. India about 1/3 of China and the latter 1/3 of the world emissions (2013)[16]
In Serbia, based on numerous tests of the Agency for the Environment, was published (2010) list of cities
in which registered the highest air pollution (Figure 6).

125

Figure 6 Serbian most air polluted cities[18]


In the world there is also a serious problem of anthropogenic emissions of SO 2. Thus, for example.
Mexico City daily anthropogenically emitted 6.65 Kt SO2, which is about 2,427 Kt SO2 per year; it should
be added that the Tula industrial complex 60 miles north of Mexico City further transmitted 158K t SO2
per year (deFoy at all 2003).

3,000

2,427

SO2 Kt

2,500
Mexico city antropogenic

1,500

Tula industrial complex

1,000

TENT A+B

158

218

2,000

500

TENT A+B

Tula
industrial
complex

Mexico city
antropogenic

Diagram 7 Comparison of SO2 emission from few selected artificial emitters and thermo energetic
plants TENT[21]
The latter can cause serious health problems in the population.

126

That said in some regions of the world (eg, parts of the U.S. and India) due to intensive agricultural
activities registered the occurrence of desulfurization ground, or the appearance of reduction of sulphate
content in soil (Figures 7, 8), which has a negative impact on yields in agriculture.

Figure 7 U.S. sulfur deposition, shown in orange in


the 1985 map, has been drastically reduced due in
part to acid rain cleanup. Hay growers should now
tissue test for sulfur, soil fertility experts say. Maps:
National Atmospheric Deposition Program[20]

Figure 8 India soil sulfur deposition show


drastically reduction in 240 districts[21]

Evaluation of international experts that natural emissions from the estimated S 243Tg (or 243 million t) is
greater than the total anthropogenic which is about 100TG (ie 100,000,000 t) (Fig. 9).

Figure 9 Natural and artificial S and N emiters, annual estimation in world scale[21]
Based on the table above, we conclude that natural sources of SO2 in the atmosphere of 2.5 X contribute
more to air pollution, and anthropogenic factors affecting about 29% of the total amount of pollution.

5. NATURAL RESOURCES OF SO2 EMISSIONS (SOME OF THEM)


In addition to artificial pollutants, such as thermal power plants, there are many natural sources of
volcanic SO2 emissions. In this paper we give a short overview of some selected natural sources of
hazardous environment (diagram 8).

127

SO2 K t

20000

20000

90 Years X TENT Serbia


10000
Ggrimsvoetn, Iceland (2011)

TENT, 2012

45 Years X TENT Serbia

218

900
Nyamuragira (2002)

TENT, Serbia (2011)

900
Nyamuragira (2001)

500
Nyamuragira (1997)

300

800
Nyamuragira (1994)

Nyamuragira (2000)

800
Nyamuragira (1989)

1100

800
Nyamuragira (1986)

Nyamuragira (1999)

800
Nyamuragira (1984)

1000
Mt St Helens, USA (1980)

730

1095
Eyjafjallajoekull, Iceland (2011)

Nyamuragira, Zaire (1982)

Pinatubo, Philippines (1991)

Kilauea, Hawai (1998-2002)

1500

5000

Mauna Loa, Hawai (1984)

5000

10000

10000

El Chichon, Mexico (1982)

15000

Diagram 8 Comparison of SO2 emission from few selected natural emitters (volcanoes) and thermo
energetic power plants TENT Obrenovac[8]

6. CONCLUSSION
Conclusions are actually spelled out in the preceding pages. Values of low total (from min. 0.42 to max
0.73%) and combustible (from min. 0.18 to max 0.45%) S in lignite of Kolubara coal basin should not
represent a technological problem in the combustion process boilers in thermal power plant in Obrenovac
or the Veliki Crljeni. Certainly, such a low value of the S ecological aspects are of concern, and this coal
can find their purpose and use in the future work of the Electric Power Industry of Serbia

REFERENCES
[1] Andjelkovic N, Sabov D, at all 2010. Coal Deposit G Ore Reserve Elaborate, at the end of
31.12.2008. Year 148 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Open Pit Mines, Geology
Dept., Barosevac;
[2] Babic M, Vuckovic B, at all 2008. Coal Deposit E Ore Reserve Elaborate, at the end of
31.12.2006. Year 236 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Mining Dept.,
Lazarevac;
[3] Babic M, at all 2010. Geological Exploration Elaborate, Ore Field Zvizdar - 348 pages, Mining
Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Open Pits, Geology Dept., Barosevac;
[4] Vuckovic B, Bogdanovic V, Radovanovic B, at all 2006. Ore Field E Geological Exploration
Project 259 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Geology Dept., Lazarevac;
[5] Vuckovic B, Bukvic B, Beljic N, Radovanovic B, at all 2010. Coal Deposit Veliki Crljeni Ore
Reserve Elaborate, at the end of 31.12.2008. Year 259 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara,
Kolubara-Project, Geology Dept., Lazarevac;
[6] Vuckovic B, Nesic D, Krstic V, Vuckovic M, Radovanovic B, 2012. Chemical Elements in
Kolubara Coal Mines Coal as Environmental Pollutants With Special Review of Sulfur, 28 th
International Symposia ENERGETICA 2012, Zlatibor, Serbia, p. 261-266;
128

[7] Vuckovic B, Nesic D, Andjelkovic N, Radovanovic B, Rankovic A, 2012. Geological Exploration


Stages Analyze in Kolubara Coal Mines, Serbia, 3rd Symposia with International Participation
MINING 2012, Zlatibor, Serbia, p. 99-107;
[8] Vuckovic B, Nesic D, 2013. Sulfur in lignites of Kolubara Coal Mines (KCM) environmental
friendly? SGEM 13th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference, 16-22 June, Albena,
Bulgaria, p. 743-748;
[9] Ilic Z, Sabov D, Vuckovic B, at all 2007. Case Study of Limitation and Opening Phase of Coal
Open Pit South Field in Kolubara Coal Basin 348 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, KolubaraProject, Mining Dept., Lazarevac;
[10] Jevtic B, Vuckovic B, at all 2005. Case Study of Limitation and Opening Phase of Coal Open Pit
E for the 12Mt Annually Capacities in Kolubara Coal Basin 375 pages, Mining Basin
Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Mining Dept., Lazarevac;
[11] Nesic D, Radovanovic B, Vuckovic B, at all 2006. Main Mining Project of Veliki Crljeni Open
Pit, 648 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Geology Dept., Lazarevac;
[12] Radovanovic B, at all 2012. Coal Deposit D Ore Reserve Elaborate, at the end of 31.12.2009.
Year 148 pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, branch Project, Geology Dept., Lazarevac;
[13] Sabov D, Vuckovic B, at all 2010. Idea Program of Ore Field G Open Pit, 417 pages, Mining
Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Geology Dept., Lazarevac;
[14] Sabov D, Vuckovic B, at all 2013. Mining Project of Ore Field Tamnava-West Field, 400
pages, Mining Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Mining Dept., Lazarevac;
[15] Simic Z, Vuckovic B, at all 2013. Main Mining Project of Ore Field C, 355 pages, Mining
Basin Kolubara, Kolubara-Project, Mining Dept., Lazarevac;
[16] Climont Z., Smith S J., Cofala J., (2013) : The Last Decade of Global Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide:
2000-2011 emissions, (open access), IOPCIENCE Environmental Research Letters, Volume 8,
Number 1, January 2013;
[17] Source: ExternE-Pol project, final report 2006, Historycal emissions European Environmental
Agency European Topic Centre on Air and Climate change, http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea report
2006 8/en/factsheets/EN 35 EU-25 external costs.pdf;
[18] Blic Online, 26.11.2010. Najzagaeniji vazduh udiu Borani i Uiani, 2010;
[19] USA SO2 thermoenergetic production 1980-2007;
[20] Hollin F., (May 2011) : Alfalfa In Need of Nutriens, Sulfur and potassium deficiencies could lower
alfalfa yields, Hay&Forage Grover, 2011;
[21] WIKIPEDIA Free Encyclopedia;
[22] Other technical and fund documentation of KCM and Kolubara-Project.

129

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

EXPLOITATION MEASURES AIMED IN PRESERVING THE QUALITY


OF HUMUS
Zeljko Prastalo, Dragan Milosevic, Sasa Mitic, Milinko Radosavljevic, Nenad Makar
Mining Institute l.t.d., Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: Preserving the quality of humus layer is an essential prerequisite for future qualitative and successful
biological recultivation, and later a better integration of existing industrial buildings for other purposes and needs.
In addition to applications in the mining industry, both in surface and in underground mining of mineral resources,
the problem of fast and quality recultivation in environment protection can be applied in the rehabilitation of
municipal landfills, coal ash from thermal plants, landfills formed by removing sludge from man-made and natural
waterways , waste etc. The fastest and certainly the most economical recultivation is done with the storage of humus
with the original (autochthonous) characteristics, since with such material the degraded space fastest will be
brought to the state with the same characteristics that existed before exploitation.
Keywords: Humus Layer, Recultivation, Remediation, Deposition of Waste

1. INTRODUCTION
At the present time when the preservation of the environment and the faster and better recultivation of
degraded areas is emerging as one of the most important chapters in the development of mining projects,
it is necessary to establish the technical solutions for exploitation in a way that begins as soon as the
exercise of recultivation parts of mining fields where the mining operations were completed.
The biggest problem with today's disposal of waste is that the surface layer is destroyed in a way that it
first is deposited, and through it is going to be deposited the rest of the waste. Even if, as is the practice
today, the humus layer is treated in a way that first is removed the surface layer thickness of 1.5 - 2 m, or
less if the layer is shallow, and is disposed in a designed place for the disposal of humus, it appears that
due to the long standing of such material (several years) stored incorrectly leads to a loss of quality of
humus layer and it practically becomes unusable. Since the quality of humus layer is essential for
subsequent high-quality and successful biological re-cultivation, that is the theme of this paper to review
the possible solutions that enable the preservation of the quality of the humus layer at the highest possible
level in order to be used in further work on the recultivation. In addition to applications in the mining
industry the mentioned problem occurs in rehabilitation of municipal landfills, coal ash from thermal
plants, landfills formed by removing sludge from man-made and natural waterways, waste, etc.

130

1 - Humus, organic soil layer, composed


mainly of leaves and humus litter
(decomposed organic matter).
2 - The top layer of soil, the seed of
germinates and the roots of plants grow
in this layer. Its consisted of humus
mixed with the mineral particles.
3 Filtering layer of soil. Its consisted
mainly of sand and sludge, poor in
minerals.
4 The deep layer of soil. It contains
clay and minerals (iron, aluminum oxide
and calcium carbonate).
5 Transitional layer of soil. Plants
roots can not penetrate into this layer, a
negligible amount of organic matter.
6 The foot wal rocks. Basic layer.
Figure 1. Types of soil layers [1]

2. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS OF EXPLOITATION AND DEPOSITION OF HUMUS


In the world and in our country, especially in recent times, are very interesting topics dealing with the
problems of storage of the humus layer of soil (topsoil) in a quality manner. The most important thing is
to find the optimum height of disposed layers as the soil substrate survive for a longer period. According
to literary data layer of humus is necessary to be disposed in embankments including the height of 1 to
1.5 m in [8], in such a way that the sun and the elements to preserve microorganisms, roots and seeds in
disposed masses, which actually contributes to faster regeneration of degraded areas. Thus formed mound
(heap) can be stored up to 12 months. It certainly does not mean that the humus layer will have quality as
before mining, but will have the ability to regenerate faster and the process of adaptation of degraded land
in the existing situation.
In the following figure (Figure 2) is shown the way of layered removal of of the humus layer. The humus
layer is transported by truck to the position prepared for storage. In addition to this way it is possible to
dig up the humus layer by means of bulldozer and pushing it to transport to the place of storage, this
technological process is possible to be applied in the event that the storage place is near the location of
excavation. This method of humus is applied in small pits, excavation of humus layers in large open pits
is done by mining machinery in which are the large capacities of excavation and where there is a
possibility of direct filling of excavated layer at the position where the exploitation of mineral resources
completed and begins the process of continual re-cultivation space.

Figure 2. Way of excavation of the humus layers


131

If necessary, it is possible to mark landfill fencing to prevent the possibility of deferred mass devastation,
jumping or by another method, as shown in the figure below (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Labelling the landfill of humus [2]


The essence are the PVC foils or fences of solid materials that are labeling the heap. In the existing figure
is seen only the enclosure of landfill, but it is possible to overlay the existing heaps if needed protection
eg., excessive rainfall.
Storage and labeling of deferred humus layer may be in the dumps of circular or rectangular shapes, as
seen in the following figures (Figures 4 and 5).

Deponija humusa

Zatitna ograda od
plastine folije

PLAN ZATITE DEPONIJE


Zatitna ograda od
plastine folije

Figure 4. The circular shape of the landfill [3]

Figure 5. The rectangular shape of the landfill with the elements of protection [3]
132

This design solution provides a simple and practical conservation of the recultivation layers quality in
order the biological recultivation to be of the highest quality and quickly to view the final results of
recultivation. This is very important in areas where in the vicinity there is a housing development such as
is the case here with the settlement of Stari Kostolac. This way of storing the humus layer in addition to
faster performance of recultivation works, we get substantial savings because there are not used different
materials to improve soil quality or in the extreme case, avoids the transportation of humus material from
another location.
In the figure below (Figure 6) with the light green color is marked the contour of the humus material
landfill.
Cassette

Figure 6. The contour of the area which will be used as landfill of humus materials [4]

3. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF FORMING THE HUMUS LANDFILL


The commencement of operations on the excavation of material on the selected borrow pits begins with
the clearing of trees and wild plants that grew in the concerned area. It is necessary to clean up the field of
borrow pits and surface on which will be deposited the humus material (Figure 7).

Figure 7. The method of storage of humus layer on location


Similar as in the concerned field
Trees and shrubs from the aforementioned locations to be pulled up with bulldozer and transported from a
given position in order the operations on the excavation and deposition of humus to run smoothly.
Digging with the help of bulldozers is mainly performed by lowering the bucket from 20 to 25 cm into the
133

soil, depending on its characteristics, and by making a flap. During the excavation, is made the prism of
excavated material in front of the bucket, and when the height of prism reaches the height of the buckle
pushing is stopped by drawing the buckets from soil. From this moment, the bulldozer serves as a means
of transport, and deliveries the excavated material to the location where is deposited the humus material.

Figure 8. Scheme of bulldozers working on the excavation, transport and filling of the humus layer
The terrain at the location at which the material is deposited is necessary to be leveled up in order storage
run continuously in terms of that the bulldozer has less work on the planning of storage locations and to
carry out the quality layering of the delivered material. It is also important to note that piles of stored
topsoil should not be higher than 1.5 - 2 meters, and it is certainly advisable to 1 m. In this case is formed
a landfill including the height of 0.8 m. A very important thing is to prevent the possibilities through the
stored material to go the transport routes of mechanization, all in order to prevent any kind of treading
materials. It is best to fence the stored material to its re-fencing. The storage materials should not last
longer than 12 months. In this project is respected and these important recommendations, since restoring
of humus material begins to certain parts of the borrow pits after only 10 months of operation.

4. CONCLUSION
As a conclusion is imposed the notion that the mentioned issue is something that would need to be
applied in a wide range of occupations that are related to the design of recultivation and remediation of
degraded areas. As can be seen that with this way of re-cultivation planning, it is possible to save
considerable resources, quickly arrange the space and bring it to its ultimate intentions. Primarily it is
possible arrangement of small mining and utility facilities, and large mines to arrange in this way if in
designing the entire space is rationally used.

REFERENCES
[1] TOPSOIL, SECTION I sectioneditor: Laurel E. Vicklund
[2] Urban Drainage and Flood Control, District Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual Volume 3 November
2010
[3] Simeun Marijanac, dr Jasminka Cveji, Glavni projekat sanacije, zatvaranja i rekultivacije deponije pepela i
ljake Srednje kostolako ostrvo,Knjiga 2 Glavni projekat rekultivacije deponije, RI Beograd 2012.
[4] Prof. dr Slobodan Vuji, Selektivno otkopavanje i odlaganje otkrivke u funkciji rekultivacije povrinskih
kopova uglja
[5] http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02205593#page-1
[6] Dragan Miloevi, mr Milinko Radosavljevi i mr Obren Koprivica, Idejni Projekat nadgradnje deponije
pepela i ljake Srednje kostolako ostrvo novom Tehnologijom, Knjiga 1. - IDEJNI PROJEKAT - Sveska
5. Rekultivacija deponije pepela i ljake Srednje kostolako ostrvo, RI Beograd 2011.
[7] http://www.mackay.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/122163/A4-00327A.pdf
[8] . ISBN 978-86-6075-001-5.

134

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

EVALUATING POLLUTING ATMOSPHERE BY MINING


ENTERPRISES AND OPTIMIZING PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES
RESOURCES
Nikolai M. Kachurin1, Sergei A. Vorobev2, Sergei M. Bogdanov1
1
Tula State University, Tula, Russia,
2
Belgorod National Researching University, Belgorod, Russia
Abstract: Global environmental problems of the present are connected just with anthropogenic polluting
atmosphere. Protection of atmospheric air is key problem of environmental sanitation, because air has special rule
among others components of biosphere. Atmospheric air realizes different protective ecological functions too.
Sphere of influence upon atmosphere and increasing negative changing environment becomes wider with
development of social production. Polluting by detrimental to health substances and disturbing dynamical balance
of natural systems take place by different enterprises. It is especially typical of mining-industrial region territories.
Solving problem of environmentally optimal distributing resources for industrial enterprises of mining-industrial
region will allow getting maximal profit by the each enterprise on the assumption of reducing anthropogenic
influencing upon environment until maximum permissible value, which specifying by normative documents.
Regularities of forming consequences of influencing mining enterprises upon atmosphere were improved with using
experimental and theoretical researches for optimizing distribution of resources for prevention arrangements, which
providing atmospheric safety of the mining-industrial region.
Keywords: Pollutant, Atmosphere, Optimal Distributing, Natural System, Aerological Safety, Mining Enterprises,
Optimizing, Mathematical Models.

1. INTRODUCTION
Global environmental problems of the present are connected just with anthropogenic polluting
atmosphere. Protection of atmospheric air is key problem of environmental sanitation, because air has
special rule among others components of biosphere. Atmospheric air realizes different protective
ecological functions too. Sphere of influence upon atmosphere and increasing negative changing
environment becomes wider with development of social production. It is especially typical of miningindustrial region territories. One of modern society most topical problem is improvement of management
and industrial efficiency rise. Industrial rise and material welfare already arent considered without taking
into account environmental influencing these processes [1]. Important conception environmentaleconomical system appeared. It is combination of interconnected economical, technical, social and natural
factors in visual environment.
Increasing scale of environmental influencing imparts special topicality for problem of creating adequate
environmental-economical mathematical models. Increasing scale of anthropogenic influence upon
natural environment and its negative consequences and else possibilities of optimizing this influencing
require in-depth study. The search of scientific substantiated forms and scale of industrial human activity
providing rational using natural resources and getting necessity useful productions without pernicious
influence upon natural environment acquires specific significance [2]. Provisional evaluations show that
135

long-range planning without taking into account environmental effects is impossible. On the other hand
available environmental models have specific character and are impossible to reflect complex
interconnections but can show consequences of anthropogenic influences. For example, Kuznetsk Basin
coal industry influences upon environment essentially. Retrospective analyzing and statistical evaluating
show that intensity of anthropogenic influencing Company Prokopievskugol enterprises upon
atmosphere is equal to 6 7 kg of dust-gas emission per 1 ton of produced coal [3].

2. BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE RESEARCHING


Forecast estimates show that by increasing coal mining this influencing upon atmosphere index on
Company Prokopievskugol enterprises will rise almost in five times in 2025 year. Forecast indexes of
anthropogenic influencing will rise very much in comparison with crisis time of highly considerably.
Polluting substance mass emitting into atmospheric air will rise on 55%.
Analytical solutions of diffusion equation for different initial and boundary conditions were gotten during
theoretical researching admixtures transport in atmosphere. The results allow explicit function for
description of admixture concentration in operating polluting sources zone on territory of existing mine
mining lease. Very simple situation is diffusion of detrimental impurity from single point source for
constant orthogonal component of wind velocity and coefficients of turbulent diffusion. In this case we
can get analytical solution of the diffusion equation. If we have several emission sources then admixture
concentration is equal to sum of single sources (figure 1). Comparing calculation experiments results and
field observation data show adequacy of proposed mathematical models for forecasting moving pollutants
in atmosphere.

c, g/m3

y, m

x, m

Figure 1 Diagram of admixture concentration from 3 single point sources in surface layer of atmosphere
It is necessary to simplify this problem with using physically based assumptions for solving practical
problems of evaluating maximum permissible emission (MPE). Specifically, vertical component of the
wind can be accepted vanishing. It is standard practice, which stipulating physical situation where vertical
component is less than horizontal component almost in hundred times. If we place coordinate system in
order that 0x axis is coinciding with wind direction than v 0 . Solving stationary diffusion admixture in
air equation with subject to the assumptions was gotten in follow view:

x, y,z 7,962 102 I0 D x D y D z

b1 exp 0,5u Dx

0,5

x D

0,5
x

0,5

exp 0,5u D x

b ,

0,5

x D

0,5
x

(1)

136

a x 2 Dx

y2 Dy

b x 2 Dx

y2 Dy

0,5

z H D z

z H D z

(2)

0,5

(3)

where c x, y, z is concentration of considered admixture, which depending from spatial coordinates x,


y, z; u is longitudinal component of wind velocity vector; D x , D y , D z

are average values of

components of turbulent diffusing admixture in air coefficient tensor; I0 is mass of a pollutant, which
escaping in unit of time in point with coordinates (0, 0, ); H is height of locating point source above
ground level.
Consequently, the problem is at identifying the largest value of I 0 , when c x, y, z doesnt exceed value
of the MPE in surface air ( z 1 m). Thus the concentration function c is the function of two variables (x
and y). We have to find of the point in which the function of x, y,1 has largest value. Let us put follow
designations: A cx2 x 0 , y0 , B cxy x 0 , y0 , C cy2 x 0 , y0 , D AC B2 . Consequently, if D 0
than the function c x, y has an extremum in the point of M0 x 0 , y0 and if A 0 it is maximum, if
A 0 it is minimum and if D 0 than there isnt the function c x, y extremum in the point of
M0 x 0 , y0 . Thus, it is necessity to solve follow equations system: / x 0, / y 0 . We used a

method of optimizing for solving the equations system. Optimized function c x, y is given as analytical
dependence, it is continuous and differentiable what is why we can calculate gradient of the function.
Parameters of A and B are calculated by follow formulas:

exp
5
2
a

1,99 102 I0

A
D x

D x

1b 5 exp
2

D y D z

u
D x

D x

u 2a 3

D x

D y D z

Dx u 2a 2 x 6uxa

b 3 exp
2

6uxb

D y

u
D x

x
D x

D y

52 exp
2
a

u
D x

Dx

D x

u
D x

x
D x

Dx 2ua 2 D x 12x D x

b u 2 b3

1,99 102 I0
D x

(4)

5
a exp
2

Dx 2ub2 Dx 12x Dx

D x

b ,

1,99 102 yI0

D x u 2 b 2 x

(5)

Dy Dz
x
D x


a 52 exp
a
2

137

u
D x

x
D x

b ,

(6)

where:
1 u 2a 4 Dx 2u 2 xa 3

Dx 4ua 2 x Dx u 2a 2 x 2

6ux 2a

32

Dx 2ua 3 Dx

4a 2 Dx

12x 2 Dx

1 u 2 b4 Dx 2u 2 xb3

Dx 4ub2 x Dx u 2b2 x 2

6ux 2 b

32

Dx 2ub3 Dx

4b2 Dx

2 u 2 y2a 2 +6uay2

Dx 2ua 3 Dy

2 u 2 y2 b2 +6uby2

Dx 2ub3 Dy

12x 2 Dx

Dx 4a 2 Dx Dy 12y2 Dy ;
Dx 4b2 Dx Dy 12y2 Dy .

The technology of effective atmospheric monitoring mining-industrial region is information technology


basing at the mathematical models of dust-gas admixtures diffusion and simulation modeling pollutants
sources strength of emission into atmosphere. Its demonstrably illustrated by follow example. Let us
evaluate the MPE of carbon oxide for emission from chimney flue with height of 15 m and compare this
value with real emission, which is equal to 100 g/s. Average values of turbulent diffusion coefficients are
equal to follow:

D x 4 m s 2 , D y 2, 5 m s 2 , D z 15 m s 2 . The value of component wind

velocity along x axis is equal to follow: u = 5 m/s. The MPE of carbon oxide in surface layer is equal to
20 mg/m3 in compliance with Russian standard. Concentration function has got only one point global
maximum. Thus, using gradient-search method is quite justified. Results of calculating experiment show
3

that admixture concentration has maximum value 49.28 mg m in point with coordinates x = 19.16 m,
y = 0 m. Therefore, at this case carbon oxide emission into atmosphere exceeds pollution standard. The
enterprise must decrease the emission until 40.6 g/s.
Enterprises of other industrial brunches operate with jointly mining enterprises in territory of miningindustrial region. Necessity of optimal distributing resources between these industrial groups by
preventive measures of polluting environment arises at this case. The problem of optimal distributing
resources for preventive measures of polluting atmosphere is most difficult. Let industrial groups of
enterprises A and B are independent subjects and each of them has own resource, which they can use by
their own discretion. There arent hierarchical relationships between them but they can have relationships,
which conditioning by environmental factors. Each enterprise has own profit, which stipulating external
activity. However, the enterprises productivity depends from quality of atmospheric air. This
circumstance must be taken into account by distributing financial resources between further developing
production and environmental condition of the territory [1].
The enterprises can realize environmental measures as separate or jointly at this case. Joint solving this
problem is more efficiency for the enterprises if using optimal system assignment into cleaning
atmospheric air. Follow problem are arising: assignment into cleaning air system must be very profitable
for each enterprise and there isnt requirement of digressing from adopted contractual relationships. Such
problem was gotten name of the problem creating environmental compromise.
There are a lot of different methods of calculating economical detriment. These methods are subdivided
into methods of calculating detriment from environmental consequences and aggregative evaluating
economical detriment from polluting environment. In practice evaluating economical detriment from
polluting environment divide follow basic stages:

The first and second stages are defining the level of polluting environment and calculating
territories of spreading pollutants.
The third stage is getting data, which characterizing influencing dirty environment upon
environmental condition of the territory.
138

The fourth stage is evaluating influencing dirty environment upon the enterprises with using
market prices and defining economical detriment from environmental polluting. Economical
calculating environmental pollution combined method of solving this problem is most
convenient.

This method was proposed in Russia as typical method defining economical detriment from environmental
polluting and evaluating efficiency of environmental measures. The economical detriment from polluting
environment depends from annual pollutant emission mass by linear law in compliance with method.
Economical evaluating atmospheric polluting detriment from single source is defined by follow formula:
N

D f Ai mi ,

(7)

i 1

where D is atmospheric polluting detriment; is standard index of specify detriment from conditional ton
of annual atmospheric pollutant emission reduced mass (numerical value is equal to 2.4
rouble/conditional ton); is the index of atmospheric polluting relative danger for different types
territories; f is adjustment for diffusion admixture into atmosphere; mi is annual emission mass of
admixture with the index i into atmosphere, ton/year; Ai is index of relative aggression of admixture with
the index i, conditional ton/ton; N is general number of emitting into atmosphere admixtures.
Dependence of air quality from investment from its cleaning can submit at follow view:
W x A x B D , where x A , x B are resources for preventive measures of polluting atmosphere by A
mining enterprises group and B other enterprises group in considered territory. Its necessary taking into
account that W function is defining different indexes. First of all, the more part of the resource investing
into basic production the more producing goods and more polluting emission and so much the worse for
air. In the second place the more part of the resource investing into basic production then the less resource
is left for cleaning air. It is obvious then quality of air is in proportion to investment into its cleaning.
Annul atmospheric polluting detriment is the value of linearly dependent from annual emission mass of
admixtures into atmosphere. Let all investment for each group of the enterprises is equal to QA and QB .
The assumption is true about annual emission pollutants into atmosphere from an enterprise is directly
proportional of volume of production and investment into industrial development. Consequently, we can
affirm that M A QA x A B QB x B AQA BQB A x A B x B .
Then

W x A x B f A QA BQB A x A B x B A x A B x B ,

where A 1 fA , B 1 fB , f A QA BQB .
The function of atmosphere quality has got linear dependence from enterprises investment into
atmosphere protection measures. Dependences profit from investment ( and ) into production
development for enterprises group A and B have follow view:
FA (y A ) FAmax 1 exp A y A ,

FB (y B ) FBmax 1 exp B y B ,

(8)

where FA and FB are profits of enterprises groups A and B; FAmax and FBmax are maximal profits by
constant technological conditions of enterprises groups A and B; A and B are empirical coefficients .
Then initial problem can be formulated in follow view:

A x A B x B A FA max 1 exp
A QA x A ,

A x A B x B B FBmax 1 exp
Q

B
B
B

139

(9)

where A and B are directive coefficients, which assigning by regional government.


Thus, proposed problem has moved into category of solving nonlinear algebraic equations system
problems. Analyzing results of equations system (9) numerical solutions has shown that exponents can be
expanded into series. We can use only two the first terms of the series with satisfactory accuracy for
practice. The nonlinear equations system move into linear equations system. The solving the linear
equations system allows to get optimal distribution of environmental prophylactic measures resources
between enterprises groups A and B:
x opt
A

A FA max A QA 'B
,
'A 'B A FA maxA

(10)

opt
x opt
B x A ,

where

(11)

A FA max A
F
Q A FA max AQ A
; B B max B B
.
B FB max B
B FB max B

Let the enterprises groups A and B interact between themselves in not large territory. Let us assume that
in 2014 year enterprises group A got profit in quantity of QA 150 billion roubles and enterprises group
B got profit in quantity of QB 200 billion roubles. These profits can be used by own discretion. Its
obvious that those variants investment contradict one another. The enterprise gets increasing the volume
atmospheric pollutions emission if it is investing resources into developing production and environmental
condition is impaired [3]. At this case investment into atmospheric air protection will be increasing but all
volume of distributed resource is constant by the condition of the problem. Parameters of dependences of
(10) and (11) are FBmax 300 ; A 0,01 ; B 0,02 ; A 1 , B 0,5 . Thus calculating shows that
optimal distributing resources by prophylactic of polluting atmosphere between enterprises groups A and
opt
B will be follow: x opt
A 22,18 billion roubles; x B 49,71 billion roubles.

3. CONCLUSION
Consequently, it is environmental rationally and economical reasonably considering atmospheric air as
natural resource of mining-industrial region. Therefore optimizing technical-economical indexes by
atmospheric factor must be based at principals of regulating by institutes of agreement and consolidating
mining enterprises with enterprises of others industrial brunches. Proposed methodical principals of
complex evaluating atmosphere of mining-industrial region allow realizing integrated approach to
forecasting intensity of polluting atmosphere, economical efficiency of production and atmospheric air
condition control with using basic demands of environmental imperative for considered territory.

REFERENCES
[1] .., .., ..
// . 2014. 9. . 138-142.
[2] .., .., ..
//
/ . 2013. . 3. . 126 134.
[3] .., ..
// / .
2013. . 2. . 66 75.

140

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ENVIRONMENTAL DANGER OF WORKED AND LIQUIDATED COAL


MINES OPEN AREAS
Nikolai M. Kachurin1, Sergei A. Vorobev2, Dimitryi N. Shkuratckiy3, Sergei M. Bogdanov1
1
Tula State University, Tula, Russia,
2
Belgorod National Researching University, Belgorod, Russia,
3
Company HALURGY, Perm, Russia
Abstract: Restructuring Russian coal industry made conditional on liquidating a lot of mines in Kuznetsk and
Donetsk Basins. Environmental consequences of liquidating mines problems get special acuteness at these
conditions. Therefore improving methods of evaluating environmental safety and efficiency of using deposits by
underground mining are very topical problems. Generalizing field observation results of gas changing open areas
with atmosphere on Earth surface of mining lease liquidated mines territories in Kuznetsk and Donetsk Basins
illustrates that improving regularities of this process is necessary for providing environmental safety of
undermining territories. Different gases filtration to Earth surface from undermining rocks realizes as result of
these gases excessive pressure in open areas. Neglecting mining operation safety by gas factor is cause of major
accidents, which giving heavy losses. On the other hand, reliable forecasting gas emission can provide high level of
mining safety and create technical measures by aerological safety of liquidated mines mining leases.
Keywords: Liquidating Mines, Open Area, Gas, Earth Surface, Environmental Safety, Filtration, Accident,
Undermining Territory.

1. INTRODUCTION
Environmental condition and necessity getting useful properties from it are two basic factors, which
influence upon Human life activity. Effective society and economy are impossible if natural resources
usage does not contradict principals of sensible self-restraint and environment deteriorates. Natural
resources usage is anthropogenic influence upon environment to get materials and energy for own life
activity. Scientific tools for studying consequences of anthropogenic influence upon environment are
basic part of geoecology. Geoecology is theoretical foundations of environmental (or geoecological)
monitoring. Basic process of this activity is evaluating influence upon environment. That is why
geoecological monitoring is basic part of rational natural resources usage. Abstract theorems of
geoecological monitoring are based on fundamental physical principals [1]. Detailed analysis of Russian
environmental situation showed necessity of taking into the following important system principals:

The territories of industrial regions are complex socio-economical and technical systems.
Management of environmental situation of territories demands efficient information about
consequences of made decisions.

Industrial and technological complex is interconnection open technological and socio-economical subsystems hierarchically connected with all complex ecological systems by vertical and horizontal levels.

141

The idea of proposed concept is following: authentic evaluation of environmental condition under
consideration region is bases on the regularities existing between environmental and population life
quality indexes, which reflecting socio-economical background of the specified territory.
The problem can be solved by following approach:

Algorithm is created for territorial structure of region as finite aggregate of territorial


subdivisions, which entered into regional composition and where environmental and
demographic indexes evenly distributed and depending only time.
Compartmental systems of mathematical models are created for description of population
value, age changing and sexual structure and lifetime with taking into account environmental
indexes reflecting anthropogenic influence in even subdivision.
Experiments are organized and made with government statistical information usage.
Legislative acts are created and practical tested for limitation of anthropogenic influence level
with evaluation method of environmental condition application by physical-chemical, biological,
demographical and epidemiological indexes at the specified territory of mining region.

Structure and objects of geoecological monitoring mining region can be shown in the table 1. There are
three kinds of monitoring in this structure. These are monitoring environmental conditions, sources and
factors of influence. Such structure and objects of geoecological monitoring make possible realization
effective prognosis scheme. This scheme of links at monitoring system has a major goal of management
by quality of environment (figure 1). There are three stages at the process getting and using knowledge.
These are observation, mathematical modeling and evaluating adequacy. Scheme of the process getting
and using knowledge about environmental condition of concerned territory is universal [2]

2. BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE RESEARCHING


Scientific and practical results of monitoring anthropogenic influence upon mining-industrial
territories environment. Evaluating influence upon environment (EIE) is practical base of geoecological
monitoring.
Table 1 Structure and objects of geoecological monitoring in mining region
Numbe
r
1.

Kind
of monitoring
Monitoring
sources
of influence

2.

Monitoring
factors
of influence

3.

Monitoring
environmental
condition

Mining
enterprises

Metallurgic
al
enterprises

Object
of monitoring
Sources of influencing
Power
Chemicalenterprises
technological
enterprises

Enterprises
of
constructio
n complex

Enterprises
of machinebuilding
complex

Factors influencing environmental condition of mining region


Biotic factors
Abiotic factors characterizing
Social factors
characterizing
condition of human
characterizing
condition of
environment
demographic situation and
ecological systems
public health condition
Components of environment
Components
Components
of natural environment
of social environment
Atmosph Water
Soil stratum Energetic
Population of Regional
ere
resources
and
human
the territory
system of
lithosphere
environmen
management
t

142

Evaluation
of real
condition

Observation

Management by quantity
indexes of environment

Prognosis
of conditions

Mathematical
modeling
processes

Evaluate
of forecasted
condition

Figure 1 Scheme of links at the system of geoecological monitoring


Evaluating influence upon environment consists of nine parts. EIE involves follow basic phases:

Assembling and analyzing necessary information;


Sources identification, kinds and objects of influence;
Forecasting of condition variation of natural environment;
Evaluation of probable emergency situations and there consequences;
Evaluation of environmental, social and economical consequences;
Identifying prevention or decreasing negative anthropogenic influences methods and
substantiating of control methods;
Realizing environmental-economical evaluation of projects or operating enterprises;
Analyzing and choosing alternative variants for realization in accordance to the project;
New variants generation in accordance to the project.
Evaluating risk of negative influence is a very important phase of environmental monitoring. Algorithm
of evaluating risk of negative anthropogenic influence upon environment consists of the following parts.
The first is evaluating probability of appearance negative anthropogenic influence to environment, which
more then maximal level. The second is evaluating probability of failure at the environmental protection
system [3]. The third is evaluating detriment of negative anthropogenic influence upon environment.
Evaluating risk of negative influence is a very important phase of environmental monitoring. Algorithm
of evaluating risk of negative anthropogenic influence upon environment consists of the following parts.
The first is evaluating probability of appearance negative anthropogenic influence to environment, which
more then maximal level. The second is evaluating probability of failure at the environmental protection
system [3]. The third is evaluating detriment of negative anthropogenic influence upon environment
Results of gas monitoring realizing by Center of Monitoring Society-Environmental Consequences of
Liquidating East Donets Basin Mines demonstrate that aerogasdynamical connection of open areas with
earth surface is very topical environmental problem of Russian coal industry. Analogous situations arise
in Kuznetsk Basin and Pecherskiy Coal Basin [1]. Gas monitoring was made at mining leases of 38
liquidated mines on 216 threatened and 70 dangerous zones by gas factor with total acres of 4742
hectares. There are more then 9 thousand domestic houses and administrative-industrial buildings in this
territory. Location of dangerous and threatened zones on Glubokay mine in Shahtinskiy Coal District,
Kirova mine in Novoshahtinskiy Coal District, Kalitva mine in Sholohovskiy Coal District and
Komissarovskay mine in Gukovo Coal District was specified quarterly. Many thousands of gas-air
mixture samples were assayed from liquidated mining workings, water and gas observational wells,
basements and other deepened objects of domestic houses and administrative-industrial buildings and
143

soil air samples were analyzed during research. Constantly, dangerous concentration of methane and
carbonic acid were registered in liquidated mining workings and water-gas observational wells.
Blackdamp is ejected into earth surface from mining workings and water-gas observational wells at
insignificant volumes and quickly mixed with atmospheric air. Therefore we dont see danger
concentrations of noxious gases in those places. Gas situation is stable here and doesnt create real danger
for vital functions of population. Gas emission into earth surface control is realized constantly in
compliance with the Instructions about order of controlling gases emission into earth surface by
liquidating (conservation) mines. Several hundreds different gas situations when concentrations gas-air
mixtures in basement floors have been unfit for respiration were fixed.
Results of gas monitoring indicate about stable interconnection of emitted mine gases concentration and
season. Penetrations of noxious gases into basements of domestic houses are registered during warm
seasons and by decreasing atmospheric pressure. But sometimes gas emission with danger concentrations
is fixed and by high atmospheric pressure. Cause of such processes can be increasing gasification as a
result of changing level of submergence and geodynamic processes in rock massif. At these events
mining air pressure begin to exceed atmospheric one and the blackdamp ejects into the basements or
basement floors [2].
Generalization of field observations confirms theoretical principle about high sensitivity of open areas gas
environment by even minor reducing atmospheric pressure. Same physical situation is by gas changing open
areas having gas-dynamic connection with earth surface in liquidated East Donetsk Basin mines territories [3].
Thus studying field observations of gas changing open areas with mining atmosphere and atmosphere of
basement floors and physical substantiating environmental dangerous of undermining territories by
aerological factor require creating mathematical models of filtration and diffusion gas changing in
undermining territories with open areas of liquidated mines. It makes possible to improve environment
monitoring system and creating effective technical proposals providing safety using undermining
territories by aerological factor.
Methane emitting in Earth Surface from worked mines. Generalization of field observation results by
gas changing worked mines open areas with atmosphere surface layer shows that specifying this process
regularities are necessity for safety of undermining territories [4]. Methane filtration process through
undermining rocks to surface layer is realizing as result of excessive pressure of methane containing in
coal-bearing series. Design diagram of this process shows in figure 2.

Earth Surface

0
H0

P(z,0)
Filtration flow of methane
from undermining rocks

P(z,t1)

t1< t2< t3
P(z,t3)

P(z,t2)

Figure 2 - Design diagram of methane filtration into earth surface from undermining rocks
Mathematical model of vertical isothermal filtrating methane has got follow view [5]:
p 2
2 p2
m
, 0zH, 0t ,
t
z 2
initial and boundary conditions:

(1)

144

p2 z,0 p02 const , p2 0, t pa2 const , p2 H, t p02 const ,

(2)

where is pressure of free methane in pores and interstices of undermining rock massif; m is methane
piezoconductivity of undermining rocks; z is vertical coordinate with reference point locating in Earth
Surface; t is time of considering process; H is coal seam depth of occurrence; p 0 is initial pressure of
methane; pa is atmospheric pressure.
Solving can be found at follow view [6]:
p2 z, t v z, t p2 z .

(3)

Where p 2 z is solving follow boundary problem:


d p2 z
dz 2

0, 0 z H ,

(4)

p2 0 pa2 const , p2 H p02 const .

(5)

Solving the equation (4) for the conditions (5) has the view:

p2 z pa2 p02 pa2 zH1 .

(6)

Consequently, p 2 z is limit of p2 for the condition of t . The function of v z, t fulfils follow equation:
v
2v
m 2 , 0 z H , 0 t .
t
z

(7)

At this case, initial and boundary conditions have follow view:


v z,0 p02 const , v 0, t v H,0 0 .

(8)

The solution of equation (7) for conditions (8) is known [6] and has follow view:

1
2
v z, t 1, 273 p02 2n 1 exp 2n 1 2 m H 2 t Sin 2n 1 zH 1 .

n 0

(9)

Then the solution of equation (1) for conditions (2) can be written as

1
2
p2 z, t pa2 p02 pa2 zH 1 1, 273 p02 2n 1 exp 2n 1 2 m H 2 t

n 0

Sin 2n 1 zH1 .

(10)

Its necessity to calculate the first derivative from function of p(z, t). This derivative connects with the
derivative from p2(z, t) follow formula:

145

p
1 p 2
,

z
2p z

p
1
p 2

z z 0
2p z 0 z

.
z 0

The derivative from p2(z, t) (dependence (10)) has the view:

p2

2
H 1 p02 pa2 4 p02 exp 2n 1 2 m H 2 t zH 1 cos 2n 1 zH 1 .

n 0

This derivative for surface layer can be submitted at follow view:


p2
z

2
H 1 p02 pa2 4 p02 exp 2n 1 2 m H 2 t .

n 0

z 0

(11)

Thus, we can get the dependence for calculating methane filtration flow to earth surface with using Darcy
law and limit oneself to the first term of series at formula (11):
jm 0,5 k pa H

2
0

pa2 4 p02 exp 9,87 m H 2 t ,

(12)

where jm is methane filtration flow to earth surface; k is average volume of undermining rocks gas
permeability; is dynamic viscosity of methane.
Analyzing dependence (12) is showing that with the course of time the methane filtration flow to Earth surface
tends to stationary value:

j lim j 0,5 k p02 pa2 pa H .


t

(13)

where j is stationary value of methane filtration flow to Earth surface.


The dependence (13) visually demonstrates that limited value of the filtration flow is depending from coal seam
depth of occurrence, filtration properties and natural gas content of underworking rocks, which influencing upon
initial pressure. It is obvious that measures by degassing underworking rocks allow decreasing methane emission
into Earth surface. Lets introduce follow designation: Fof m tH2 , where Fof is filtration Fourier criterion.
Then we get follow dependence for forecasting methane emission dynamic into Earth surface on the territories of
liquidated mines mining leases:

1
2
Ie.s Fof 0,5 jm j pa H Fe.s k p02 exp 9,87 2n 1 Fo f ,

n 0

(14)

where Ie.s is dimensionless value of methane emission into earth surface from underworking rocks; Fe.s
is underworking earth surface area.
Geotechnological process life is usually very large until unprofitable mine complete liquidation and methane
pressure stationary distribution along underworking rocks is formed in compliance with formula (6). Then
methane filtration flow will correspond with the formula (13). Consequently, forecasting methane emission at
the territory of liquidated mines mining leases reasonably realize with using follow formula:

I 0,5F. k p02 pa2 pa H ,

(15)

where I is stationary methane emission.


146

Thus its proved that methane emission velocity on earth surface from underworking coal-bearing series is the
function of filtration Fourier criterion, which tending to asymptotic value. This value dependences from coal
seam depth of occurrence, filtration properties and natural gas content of underworking rocks too.
Methane emitting in Earth Surface from undermining coal-bearing series after mining. Methane
filtration from undermining rocks takes place as a result of excessive methane pressure, which locating in
coal-bearing series. Design diagram of that process is shown in the figure 2. Then with taking into
account of one-dimensionality moving gas mixture and some assumptions we can to write follow [4]:
P
2P
2m 2 ,
t
z

0 z , 0 t ,

(16)

where = 2 ;
Initial condition and boundary conditions in general view can be written in that way: P(z,0) f (z),
P(0, t) pa2 const, lim P . Results of numerous field observations show p(z,0) pa K P z0 (z H0 ) ,
z

where K p is angular coefficient at the hydrostatic low of changing methane pressure in coal-bearing
series (in compliance with theory of Russian professor Leonid Bikov); 0 (z H0 ) is unit function; H 0 is
thickness of gas weathering zone.
Consequently, designating

2pa K P

we can consider follow function f () , which having

view: f () pa K P 0 ( H0 ) p 0 ( H0 ) K P2 202 ( H0 ) . Solving equation (16) for those


conditions was gotten in follow view:
2

P(z, t)

1
2m

2
a

2 H0

2
2
pa F(z, ) d F(z, ) d K P F(z, ) d ,
t 0
H0
H0

(17)

(z )2
(z ) 2

exp
where F(z, ) exp

.
2
2
4m t
4m t

Using Darcy low we can write that methane emission velocity into undermining Earth surface je.s is
calculating by formula:
je.s (t)

k P
p
,

z z 0
2pa z z 0

(18)

where k is average value of gas permeability for undermining methane-bearing rocks.


Therefore general gas emission Ie.s
m from undermining Earth surface area, which is equal to F e.s, can be
defined by formula:
0.564
0.5

0.25
0.25
exp

1 exp
2pa K p 1
erf

pa H0 Fof
Fof
Fof
Fof

Fof
0.25
0.25

2.26K 2P H0 Fof 1
(19)
exp
.
Fof

Fof

Ie.s
m (Fo f )

0.282 k Fe.s

2
a

147

Calculate experiments were realized for follow functions forming dependence (19):
f1 (Fof )

0,5
0,25
0, 25
1 0,564
1
exp
;
1
1 exp
erf
; f 2 (Fof )

Fof
Fof
Fof
Fof
Fof
Fof

0, 25
0, 25

f3 (Fof ) 1
exp
.
Fof

Fof

Analysis of calculate experiments results show that dependence (19) has got the asymptote Ie.s
:
e.s
Ie.s
lim I m (Fo f ) .
Fof

Thus methane emission at Earth surface from undermining coal-bearing series is monotone decreasing
function, which tends to asymptotic value Ie.s
for large time periods. Consequently steady methane

emission at undermining territory will be observed. The methane emission can be calculated by follow
formula:
Ie.s

0.637 k Fe.s K P2
pa

(20)

Therefore methane emission velocity from undermining Earth surface will be constant value large of time
period. The methane emission velocity will be depending only gas permeability undermining rocks and
changing natural gas content with depth. Apparently those measures by degassing undermining rocks will
allow reducing the gas emission.
Filtration blackdamp through undermining rock massif. It is known that blackdamp is mixture of
nitrogen and carbonic acid. Consequently it is partially but sometimes entirely of deoxygenating gas
mixture, which is unfit for respiration. Mining air oxygen is absorbed by coal and transformed into
carbonic acid in open areas. Filtration of the blackdamp realizes trough mining rocks by decreasing
atmospheric pressure.
The equation of filtrating blackdamp in open area is similarly of equation (1), where pressure of
blackdamp in open area will be already considered and filtration properties will be characterized by
undermining rocks piezoconductivity for blackdamp. Initial condition and boundary conditions for
blackdamp
filtration
equation
have
got
follow
view
[5]:
pb (z,0) pb (0, t) p0 =const, pb (H, t) p0 P t, 0 z H , where p b is pressure of blackdamp in
open area; p0 is pressure, which forming in open area during stable condition of atmospheric pressure;
is velocity of decreasing atmospheric pressure.
Solving equation of blackdamp filtration for those conditions was gotten in follow view:

nz
pb (z, t) Tn (t) Sin
,
H
n 1

where

(21)

b is undermining rocks piezoconductivity for blackdamp;


2
nb 2
H
2p0

n 2 P
Tn (t) (1)
(1)
t
1

exp
t .

n
n
nb
H

148

Precondition for calculating blackdamp emission at earth surface is necessity of defining the first
derivative form function of pressure (6) in point z = H. Analysis the derivative in that point shows that
exponent argument of Tn (t) is near to zero. Thus expression in curly brackets is near to zero too. Then
quantity of blackdamp, which is equal to j b (m3/m2c), will be arriving at unit of time to perpendicular to
filtration flow specific area. Using Darcy low we can follow formula:
jb

2 k
b H

p0 P t ,

(22)

where b is blackdamp viscosity.


Its follow detecting that structure of formula (22) and results of calculating experiment well agree with
qualitative picture of gas emission from open areas. Its known that gas emission velocity, which
conditional on decreasing atmospheric pressure, is proportional of decreasing atmospheric pressure
velocity. Proposed dependence (22) a first confirms conclusions about influence of changing atmospheric
pressure upon gassing open areas in territories of closed mines and a second can use for solving problems
of forecasting gas situations arising in basement floors of buildings and different constructions locating
over undermining rocks massifs.

3. CONCLUSION
Thus created mathematical models of filtration gas changing undermining rocks with Erath surface allow
forecasting methane emission from undermining coal-bearing series and blackdamp emission. Forecasting
gas changing open areas with Erath surface makes possible evaluating level of environmental protection
by gas factor for territories closed mines.

REFERENCES
[1] .., .., ..
//
, , : / . - . 2010. . 26 36.
[2]
// .. ./ . 2010. 5.
.28 32.
[3] Kachurin N.M., Komissarov M.S., Ageeva I.V. Foundation and results of the monitoring
environmental parameters // Energy Mining, New Technologies, Sustainable Development: 3-rd
International Symposium ENERGY MINING. Serbia, Apatin City. 2010. P. 39 45.
[4] //
.. . / - . . 2013. 219 .
[5] .., .., ..

. . . . . 1. . 2. . .
2012. . 152-159.
[6] .., .., .. . .
. 2004. 688 .

149

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

POLLUTING SOILS BY HEAVY METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES


Edward M. Socolov, Tatiyna S. Sviridova
Tula State University, Tula, Russia
Abstract: Results of theoretical and natural investigations on migrating heavy metals and radionuclides in different
structures soils were submitted. Mathematical models of vertical concentration profiles for soils pollutants after volley
contaminants emission were substantiated. Comparing calculating experiments results with natural researching data
confirms adequacy of migrating pollutant in soil model with using one-dimensional equation of parabolic type.
Keywords: Soil, Heavy Metals, Radionuclide, Pollutant, Volley Emission, Diffusion, Mathematical Model.

1. INTRODUCTION
Forecasting heavy metals and radionuclides pollution and evaluating radioactive-environmental situation
at concrete territory must be based on two fundamental theoretical principals, which agreeing with all
available data. According to the first principal there isnt any threshold dose outside it oncological disease
risk doesnt exist. Indefinitely small dose of influencing heavy metals or radionuclides upon people
increases oncological diseases probability. The second principal consists of follow assertion, that
probability and risk of the disease increase in direct proportion to the dose of influencing heavy metals
and radionuclides upon people [1].
Source information for quantity evaluating body burden of population from polluting by heavy metals,
external and internal irradiation are regularities, which describing processes of migrating heavy metals
and radionuclides in soils and trophic nets. Empirical regularities of 137Cs vertical distribution in soils
were studied during investigations and the method of radioactive-environmental monitoring information
processing was created, structure and content of data base model for solving forecasting problems were
based. Improving theoretical regularities of vertical migrating radionuclides in soils made possible of
their adapting existing data base with using mathematical models of radionuclide motion in soils of
disturb and undisturbed structures. Methods of determining convective transport average velocity,
coefficient of diffusion, constant of changing radionuclide in soil velocity and intensity of radionuclide
volley emission on surface of soil [2].

2. BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE RESEARCHING


The soil is poly-phase and polydisperse system. Processes of radionuclide transport in soil seam, which
being open thermodynamical system, reasonably have to be considered as mass transfer in compartmental
system. Structure elements of the compartmental system are solid phase (SP) and soil solution (SS).
Migration of radionuclide in the SP realizes as result its transport in solid phase upon gradient of occluded
substances concentration and convective-diffusion transport in the SS. Intensity of the transport processes
depends on external actions, which changing temperature of the system, filtration, sorption and diffusion
150

properties of the SP and else presence of industrial pollutants (IP) and fertilizers (F). Availability of these
substances upset sorption balance and make possible arising competitive sorption the SP and SS and
migration radionuclide. Major structure element of considered thermodynamical system is vegetable mass
which as a rule removing the radionuclides, IP and F from subsystem of the SP SS.
Pollutant concentration field of soil containing heavy metals or radionuclides is described follow equation [3]:

2
w
D 2 ,
t
z
z

(1)

where (z,t) is the concentration of soil pollutant; t is time; w is vertical component of convective
transporting pollutant in soil; z is z-coordinate; D is effective coefficient of diffusing pollutant in soil; is
constant of polluting extraction by vegetable mass and natural disintegration processes velocity.
Initial and boundary conditions characterizing volley emission of a pollutant on soil have follow view:
C

C z,0 0; D wC Q t ; lim C ,
z
z

z 0

(2)

where Q is intensity of pollutant volley emission; (t) is Dirac delta-function.


Solving equation (1) for conditions (2) has got at follow view [4]:

C Z,Fod Q*exp 0.5WZ exp


0.5W Fod Fod

0.5

exp 0.25Fo d Z

0.5Wexp 0.5W Z 0.5W Fod erfc 0.5 Z Fod W Fod 0.5 ,

(3)

where , Z, Q*, W, , are dimensionless values of follow parameters , z, Q, w, ; Fod is diffusion


Fourier criteria.
Analyzing calculation experiment results shows that theoretical vertical profile of soil pollutant has wavy
view. Real profile of soil having 137Cs specific activity has analogous view. Researching influencing
functions, which being members of dependence (3), upon soil pollutant concentration field showed that
probability integral can be submitted at the view of asymptotic expansion for considering time periods
and intervals of changing mathematical model kinetic parameters.
Mechanical damaging structure of soil takes place by its tillage. It is equal to periodical averaging
pollutant concentration on depth by handling soil seam. A sublayer can be accepted as impermeable layer
if diffusion permeability of the sublayer substantially is less than breaking structure soil permeability.
Dynamic of pollutant concentration (Cc.a.) on the cultivation areas, where this assumption is true, is
described follow dependence:
Cc.a. t C0exp t ,

(4)

where C0 is initial value of topsoil pollutant concentration Cc.a..


It is impossible to suppose that pollutant concentration is uniformly distributed value on depth by making longterm forecasting. The concentration will depend from diffusing radionuclides into underlayer in this case.
Consequently, we have to consider follow double-layer model of migrating pollutant:
dc1
D c1
1 2 c1 3 K d c1 a
dt
s z

,
z 0

151

(5)

da
1a 3 K d c1 a ,
dt

(6)

C2
C
2C
w 2 D 22 1C2 ,
t
z
z

(7)

where c1, C2 are values of pollutant concentration in soil solutions of arable-layer and underlayer
correspondingly; a is sorption of the pollutant by soil; 1, 2, 3 are constants of velocities natural
disintegration, removing radionuclide by plants and sorption changing correspondingly; K d is the
coefficient of distributing pollutant between solid phase and soil solution; s is arable-layer depth.
Solutions of equations (5) - (7) for follow initial and boundary conditions
c1 0 c0 const, a 0 C2 z,0 0, C2 0,t c1 t , lim C2 ,
z

have got at follow view [4]:

0.5
c1 t c0exp t t exp 0.25t 12

A
n

k 1 i=1

ki

m 1

exp A k d ,

(8)

a t 3K d exp
* t c1 d ,

(9)

0
t

C2 z, t z exp z 2
0

1.5

c1 t exp 0.25 2 z 21 d ,

(10)

where Aki, Ak are coefficients, which depending from image of function 1(t) by Laplace; , , , * are
coefficients, which depending from parameters of convective-diffusion moving, process of sorption and
natural disintegration.
Parameters values in mathematical models (3), (4) and (8) (10) can be defined with using vertical
profiles of soil pollutants distribution. Non-linear view of dependences (3), (4) and (8) (10) on
mathematical model parameters is reason of non-linear view for objective function written by leastsquares method. Therefore evaluating parameters mathematical models were realized by approximate
methods (table 1) or with using numerical method for realizing non-linear least-squares method (table 2).
Table 1 Evaluations of migrating 137Cs in undisturbed structure soils kinetic parameters
The velocity of
convective transport

Effective coefficient of
diffusion

The constant of
changing processes

The intensity of emitting


137
Cs on soil

w1010, m/s

D1011, m2/s

109, 1/s

Q, Bq/(s m2)

1.84
1.40
0.13
0.26
1.62
1.95
0.13
1.33
2.02

1.76
1.09
0.35
0.10
1.91
1.47
0.35
2.43
1.54

1.00
35.60
10.50
1.82
11.20
18.20
10.50
8.03
43.00

152

4.76
109.00
8.46
0.66
9.29
9.31
8.46
5.80
65.46

Comparing calculation experiment results with information of field observation corroborates adequacy of
migrating pollutant in soil model, which based at one-dimensional equation of parabolic type. For
example, dynamic of migrating 137Cs in undisturbed structure soils is solving this equation for semiinfinite space with zero initial condition and boundary condition of the third type.
Dynamic of 137Cs concentration field in disturbed structure soil is modeled by system of equations, which
describing processes of natural disintegration, removing radionuclide by plants and sorption changing
between SS and SP.
Table 2 Evaluations of kinetic parameters for double-layer model of migrating 137Cs in soils
The parameter
w1010, m/s
D1011,m2 /s
3 , 1/year
Kd
0, Bq/kg
Correlation coefficient

Numerical values of the model parameters


for different soils
The chernozem
Ravine soil
1.093
0.920
3.647
1.024
1.018
1.339
0.652
6.9910-19
11,057
5.769
0.9780.997
0.9800.996

5. CONCLUSION
The theoretical profile of 137Cs concentration in undisturbed structure soils has wavy view with point,
which corresponding to radionuclide maximal content. The coordinate of the point coincides with the
coordinate of analogous point on empirical profile. Analyzing field observation results in the zone of
radioactive polluting Tula Region territory and calculation experiments allows making follow practical
conclusion. Theoretical profile of pollutant concentrations can be expressed by view of three exponent
products with fallibility (0.9...4.98)10-6 for values of effective coefficient of 137Cs soil diffusion 0.04...4.0
cm2/year, convective transport average velocity 0.055...1.0 cm/year, time periods more than 5...10 years
and depths more than 1 2 cm. Basic source of radiation is soil-layer, which locating outside surface of
soil and surface passing through points of maximal concentration, for population aggregates where main
radiation sources, as a rule, are undisturbed structure soils. Radioactive pollution surface density of
undisturbed structure soils is directly proportional of integral from 137Cs concentration vertical profile for
depth interval (0, z=zmax) and one is equal to average concentration of 137Cs for disturbed structure soil.

REFERENCES
[1] Socolov E.M., Kachurin N.M., Kouznetsov A.A., Sviridova T.S. System of imitation for forecasting
the 137Cs migration in the radioactive trace zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station failure
//International Symposium on Radiation Safety / Moscow, 1994. P. 101-103.
[2] .., .., .. 137Cs
// . :
. : , 1994. . 110 118.
[3] .., .., ..
// . : .
: , 1994. - . 103 106.
[4] .., .., .., ..

// . 2010. 5. . 40-46.

153

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

LEGISLATION TO PRESERVE AND FACILIATE BIOLOGICAL


RESOURCES IN UNDERGROUND COAL EXPLOITATION
Zorica Ivkovic1, Dejan Dramlic2, Vladica Dragosavljevic3
Public Company Underground Exploitation of Coal Resavica, Serbia
2
Institute for Materials Testing JSC Belgrade, Serbia
3
Public Companu Ingrin, Indjija, Serbia

Abstract: Underground exploitation of coal represents specific economic activity which, besides the risk to the
employed, has the impact to the environment. The impact and manner of presentation of underground exploitation
are subject to study and analyse of various professions, both technical and others from various aspects. The policy
of the state and local authorities regarding the environmental protection might be understood on the basis of
greater number of actual regulations that, each from its point gives light to understanding this problem. In this
work the aspects of basic home regulations for environment protection was given to keep and advance biological
resources in the area of underground coal exploitation.
Keywords: Biological Resources, Coal, Mines, Legislation.

1. INTRODUCTION
Exploitation of natural resources and keeping biological diversity, are in conflict between each other. We
need biological resources, but it is necessary to keep them in long run. Therefore the compromise is
sought between the keeping and using these biological resources. In that way we practically adopt the
concept of sustainable (accorded, long term) use. For the last decades the economic points of view and
ecology have been confronted, especially under the condition of population growth, development of
technology and increase of living standard of population in many countries.
Underground coal exploitation is specific for its technological process being both underground and above
ground, having the impact to the narrow and wider environment around the mine. The practice of both
home and foreign underground mining there is the evidence of the underground coal exploitation
influence to the air, water, soil and objects, as well as the surround environment.[2]
Basically the exploitation leads to accelerate the process of environmental decay of mainly in three
aspects:

Depletion of reserves;
Destruction of environment, and
Pollution of environmental factors.

Notwithstanding to the quoted above, the mining has been and is the necessity. The specialist dealing
with coal exploitation face the most prominent task: necessity to exploit with maximum economy and
safety the deposits with minimal endanger to labour force and environment. The underground exploitation
154

degrades fewer environments in comparison with surface exploitation, but here appears sinking of terrain,
storage of barren soil, mining objects with bunker, workshops and other storages, as well as dwelling
objects for people.
Mining must accept the environmental protection as its activity, as technology of digging, ventilation,
transport, processing and alike. In that sense the legislation expedites severe obligations of connection
mining-environmental protection.[3]

2. BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN REGIONS WITH ACTIVE MINES AND REVIEW


OF EXISTING LEGISLATIVE
Biological values and resources are within the total biological diversity, in its practical, scientific,
economical, esthetical, and ethical and culture historical dimension. According to the widest accepted
definition the term biological diversity or bi diversity (bios-life; diversion- variety) meaning the gene
ensemble (genetic diversity), types (diversity of species) and ecosystems (eco system diversity) on earth
or any of its part. [1]
While analysing the influence of works of undergoing coal exploitation to the environment, basically
there are narrow and wider area of exploitation. Thus the narrow areas are under the direct influence of
exploitation, whereas wider off the mining works zones and often research area, but they are specified for
the evaluation of eventual impact of the underground exploitation.
In wider areas of active mines the protected natural areas are registered, cultural historic monuments and
protected types of flora and fauna, but it is found out that the same underground exploitation has no
damaging effects, forest vegetation and pastures covers the greatest part of narrow mine areas, whereas
the agriculture soil is less present. The plans and animals species are characteristic for this geography
zone in Serbia, with all climate and other characteristics.
Protection of flora value and sustainable biological resources is one of most important strategic priority in
protection of environment and accommodated long run sustainable development both in globally and at
the level of each country, and Serbia too.
Basic craft Law on mining (Official Gazette RS, no. 88/11) and Rule on technical norms for
underground exploitation of coal (Official Gazette RS, no. ) regulates among other issues the protection
of environment and proscribes measures that have to be carried out in that field. The field of protection
of environment, for its greatest par relating to biodiversity, is regulated directly or indirectly by following
acts:

Law on environmental protection (Official Gazette RS, number. 43/11);


Law on evaluation of influence to environment (Official Gazette RS, number. 36/09);
Law on strategic evaluation of influence (Official Gazette RS, number 88/10);
Law on protection of nature (Official Gazette RS, number 91/10);
Law on protection of air (Official Gazette RS, number 10/13);
Law on waters (Official Gazette RS, number. 93/12);
Law on agricultural ground (Official Gazette RS, number 41/09);
Law on waste management (Official Gazette RS, number 88/10);
Law on protection of plants (Official Gazette RS, number 101/05);
Law on protection of plants from decease and pests (Official Gazette RS, number 101/05);
Law on recognition and protection of agricultural and forest products (Official Gazette RS,
number 28/00);
Law on sustainable use of fish fund (Official Gazette RS, number 36/09);
Regulation on protection of natural rarities (Official Gazette RS, number 93/93);
Convention on policy of biodiversity in SR Yugoslavia (Official Gazette SRY, number
22/94);
155

Law on forests (Official Gazette RS, number 93/12);


Law on national parks (Official Gazette RS, number 101/05);
Law on hunting (Official Gazette RS, number 20/09);
Law on cultural heritage (Official Gazette RS, number. 22/11);
Law on animal welfare (Official Gazette RS, number 41/09);
Law on planning and construction (.Official Gazette RS, number 72/09);
Law on proclamation and protection of strictly protected and protected wild species of flora,
fauna and fungi (Official Gazette RS, number 5/10);
Regulation on control of wild flora and fauna use and turnover (Official Gazette RS, number
31/05);
Law on protection and sustainable use of fish fund (Official Gazette RS, number 36/09);
Regulation on proclamation of strictly protected and protected wild species of flora, fauna
and fungi (Official Gazette RS, number 5/10).

In procedure of obtaining permission for exploitation (Article 57) the holder of the exploitation design
must provide documentation from the field of environmental protection as follows: confirmation on
location, act issued by relevant ministry for environmental protection and confirmation for institution for
protection of cultural heritage, and act of relevant ministry for waters.[5]
To precede further activities, that is to obtain permission for mining works it is necessary to create
technical and design documentation (Article 64-78). Namely, mining works should be carried out upon
the prior receipt on mining design and obtaining permission for work execution. The extraordinary rule
stipulates the content of mining designs that have compulsory protection of environment. Attached to the
mining design submitted to the relevant authority there should be attached obligatory Study of influence
of the exploitation to environment, approved by the relevant republic authority for environment
protection. The Study must have the appendix with stipulated permissions issued by other relevant
bodies, connected to environment. The creation of these studies is stipulated by special Law on evaluation
of influence to environment (Official Gazette RS, no. 135/04).
In the part relating to the protective measures, the Law on mining in Article 108 stipulates the duty of the
obligation of the holder of exploitation as follows:
-

To plan measures to prevent endanger of water regime and environment, that is measures of recultivation and sanction and to provide the execution of such stipulated measures;
Register data on kinds and quantities of dangerous and hazardous matters being used for carrying
out activities, that is keeping evidence on types and quantities of dangerous, hazardous and waste
materials that he exhaust or storage into environment;
Carries out measures and conditions to prevent endanger of water regime and environment quoted
in analysis of the environment (Study) influence of carrying out the activity to the environment
and water regime in relation to the special law.[4]

The Article 109 stipulates that the water protection measures and environmental protection provides:

Direct monitoring of executing such stipulated protective measures for water and environment;
Creating preventive protection plans for accidents, incidents and other damages;
Follow up of the activity to the water regime and environment;
Giving proposals for protection measures and facilitate environment and water regime in relation
to the special law.

In addition to the quoted Law on mining (Article 130) obliging the holder of exploitation that his duty is
in the course and upon the completion of executed exploitation works, the latest date one year from the
completion of works in zones where mining works were completed, to carry out re-cultivation of soil, as
pre the design of re-cultivation of soil, made in relation to the special regulations, that is to undertake
protective measures to the soil whereupon the works were done and soil protection and waters, too.
156

While planning coal exploitation in any zone the start-up document is Spatial design of Republic of
Serbia of 2010 2020 (Official Gazette RS, no.. 88/10). The Spatial design basically directs and controls
organization and spatial landscaping, but it contains propositions from other developing areas:
-

Protection and use of natural resources (agricultural and wooden grounds, waters, mineral and
energy raw materials);
Basics of population dispersion;
Development and arrangement of city and village areas;
Principles of spatial organization of public administration;
Location conditions and directing re-settlement of industry;
Development and re-settlement of local (hydraulicity, energetics, transportation network and
telecommunication systems);
Development and organization of touristic zones;
Sustainable use of natural resources and protected and developed environment.

Spatial design comprises chapter on application and execution of a) general, and i b) particular goals as
well as on instruments for their execution.
a) Basic general objectives are acquiring rational organisation and spatial arrangement of space by
accommodating its use with possibilities and limits in free use of natural and created values, as
with needs of long run social and economic development, as follows:

General objectives in sustainable use of natural resources and protection of environment;


General objectives in the field of protection of natural resources;
General objectives in the field of protection of biological diversity.

b) Basic special objectives in the field of environment protection, among others, comprising
objectives in the field of protection of environment and natural resources, hydraulicity, water
protection, soil protection, and etc.[6]
At the zones proposed for protection as natural resources, construction, regulation, and use up to the
bringing forth resolution on protection, might be done only upon the corresponding designs and upon the
prior executed evaluation of natural resources and analysis of impact to the environment. For each
protected, sparse and endangered species, the spatial and urban plans should necessary stipulate regimes
of protection in areas where the protected natural resources are, based upon the conditions of relevant
authorities.

3. BASIC REGULATIVES TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENT OF UNDERGROUND


COAL EXPLOITATION
From the set of existing acts relating to the protection of environment in the field of human resources and keeping
biological diversity in relation to activity of underground exploitation of coal, there are basic regulative
Law on protection of environment (Official Gazette RS, no. 66/91, 83/92, 53/93, 67/93, 48/94, 53/95,
135/95, 43/11).
As per the Law on protection of environment, natural resources are following natural resources: air,
water, soil, forests, geological resources, flora and fauna, whereas biodiversity (biological diversity) is
the diversity of organisms within the species, within the types and eco-systems and comprises total
diversity of genes, species and ecosystems at local, regional and global level .
It is also quoted as: The protection of biosphere comprises protection of organisms, their collective and
habitats, including protection of natural processes and natural balance within the ecosystems, providing
157

their sustainability. Biodiversity and biological resources protect each other and are used in such a way as
to enable their existence, diversity, renewal and improvement in case of degradation.
Law on protection of nature (Official Gazette RS, no. 36/09, 91/10)
This law stipulates protection and keeping nature, biological, geological and landscape diversity as well
as the part of environment. As stipulated by Article 2, the objective of the Law is:
1) Protection, keeping and facilitating biological (genetic, species and ecosystems ), geological and
landscape diversity;
2) Conforming human activities, economic and social plans, basis and designs with sustainable use
of renewable developing plans, programs and non-renewable natural resources and long term
protection of natural resources and long term protection of natural ecosystems and natural
balance;
3) Sustainable use and/or management with natural resources and goods, providing their function
protecting their function by keeping natural values and balance of ecosystems;
4) Timely prevention of human activities and doings that might lead to permanent impoverishment
of biological, geological and landscape diversity, and also the perturbed with negative impact to
nature;
5) Estimate and follow up status in nature;
6) Improve status of perturbed parts of nature and landscape.
As stipulated by Article 8, planning, arrangement and use of space, natural resources and protected
regions, is to be carried out on the basis of spatial and urban designs, plans and designs, basis and
programs for management and use of natural resources and goods in mining, energetics, traffic,
hydraulics, agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, tourism and other activities having the impact to nature,
in commodity with measures and conditions of protection of nature.
As stipulated by Article 27, thus protected natural goods are:
1) Protected regions (strictly protected region, special natural reserve, national park,
monument, protected habitat, landscape of exceptional quality, nature park).
2) Protected species (strictly protected wild species, protected wild species).
3) Movable protected natural goods.

natural

As stipulated by Article 36, wild species that are endangered or might become endangered, that have
special importance from genetic, ecology, ecosystem, scientific, health, economic and other aspect, are
protected as strictly protected wild species or protected wild species.
As stipulated by Article 38, the flock of inter connected or spatially close ecological regions enables free
gene flow and substantially attributes to preserve natural equilibrium and biological diversity thus making
ecological network. Within such an ecological network its parts are connecting via natural or artificial
corridors. Raising ecological network provides connecting and preservation of ecological regions, that is
renewal of habitats with eroded appropriate condition, as well as preservation of endangered species.
As stipulated by Article 55, organization, use, spatial arrangement and construction of objects at the
protected area is done on the basis of spatial plan of the area for special usage that is urban plan, in
relation with the law. The quoted plans must be in compliance with act on proclamation of protected area
and management plan for protected area.
As stipulated by Article 71, the protection and preservation of wild species understands prevention of all
actions having the impact to degradation of appropriate status of wild animals population, destruction or
damaging their habitats, nests, coveys or destruction of their life cycles that means appropriate condition.
As stipulated by Article 72, while carrying out works and activities in nature and use of natural resources
from the habitat of wild species, measures, methods and technical means are applied to facilitate
158

preservation of appropriate condition of species, that is not to endanger wild species and/or the habitats of
their population, or those activities might be limited in period which coincides with important phases of
their life cycle.
As stipulated by Article 74, the following activities are prohibited as use, destroy and undertaking other
actions to endanger strictly protected species of flora, fauna, fungi and their habitats. In relation to the
aforesaid it is prohibited to:
-

Destroy units of plants and fungi and their developing forms by picking, collecting, cutting or
digging from roots, in any phases of their biological cycle and endanger or destroy their habitats;
Hold and trade with indigenously strictly protected plats and fungi and their development forms;
Catch and keep and /or kill, strictly protected species in any phase of biological cycle, damage or
destroy their developing phases, eggs, nests and pockets, and also the zones of their propagation,
resting place and endanger or destroy their habitats and alike.
Disturb, especially during propagate period, raising progenies, migration and hibernation;
Cut migration roads;
Hide, keep, trade, export, import, traffic, estrange or in any other way acquire or publicly exhibit
animals including all their derived and development forms.

As stipulated by Article 79, the use of some tools is forbidden which serves for catching and killing wild
species of animals, to disturb and endanger their population and/or habitats, harm their welfare, and might
provoke their local disappearance.
As stipulated by Article 91, for temporary and/or permanent establishment of protected wild animals,
dedicated receptacles are to be created. Receptacle in sense of this law is the ground or zone with objects
made for temporary or permanent care of individual wild animals that are not capable to take care of it
independently so it might spend some time there until its permanent resolution of the problem.
Regulation on proclamation and protection of strictly protected and protected wild species of flora,
fauna and fungi (Official Gazette RS, no. 5/10)
This Regulation proclaims wild species of flora, fauna and fungi, to keep their biological diversity,
natural gene fund, that is species that have extraordinary importance from ecological, eco-systematic,
biogeography, scientific, health, economic and other aspects for the Republic of Serbia, as strictly
protected wild species or protected wild species so measures to make safe protected species and their
habitats are stipulated.
Protected species proclaimed by this regulation as strictly protected wild species are quoted in: Annex I
Strictly protected wild species, whereas protected wild species in Annex II species Protected wild
species. Protected wild species that are under the control of use and turnover in relation to the special
rules are marked in special way in Annex II. Protection, management, hunting, use and growing of
population by fish close season of endangered species of wild game and fish, marked in Annex II with
letters L and R that are stipulated by hunting and fishing regulations.
Strictly protected wild species of plants, animals and fungi are wild species of wild plants that has disappeared
from the territory of Republic of Serbia or its regions, but returned through programs of re-introduction,
extremely endangered, endangered, relics, locally endemic, stone endemic, internationally important and
protected wild species, of extraordinary importance for preservation of biological diversity in Serbia.
Protection of strictly protected wild species is carried out by the means of forbidden use, destroys and
undertaking all activities that might endanger wild species and their habitats, as well as undertaking
measures and activities to manage populations, stipulated by this regulation and special law.
Exceptionally, strictly protected wild species might be used under conditions and in a way as stipulated
by the Law on protection of nature, based upon the permission of the ministry in charge of natural
protection issues.
159

Protected wild species of flora, fauna and fungi are wild species that in nature are not endangered at the
moment to the extent that they are threatened to disappear or become critically endangered, as they are
vulnerable, endemic, indicatory, key and umbrella species, relicts, internationally important and protected
wild species, as well as species that are not endangered but for their appearance might easily be mistaken
for strictly protected species.
The protection of wild species is carried out with limited application of destruction prohibition and
undertaking other activities creating damage to species and their habitats, as with undertaking measures
and activities of management of population, stipulated by these regulation and special law.
The protection and keeping strictly protected and protected wild species is carried out by undertaking
measures and activities for population management, such as:
1) Habitat protection;
2) Following up population species and factors of their endanger, especially following and decreasing
influence of climate change to highly vulnerable species and their habitats;
3) Bio-technical measures;
4) Re-introduction of species on the territory of Republic of Serbia or some its parts, that is growing
species in conditions off the natural habitat (ex situ) and on natural habitats (in situ) for their return to
nature;
5) Sanitation and revitalization of damaged habitats;
6) Carrying out measures of compensation by creating new locality having the same or similar features
to other localities in order to increase strength;
7) Support to scientific research, educational activities and polarisation of preservation and protection of species;
8) Collecting stem individuals for reproduction, breeding of their off springs and turn over in
commercial purpose in relevant registered plantations and farms;
9) Relocating units of strictly protected species in case of accidental situations (pollution of air, water
and soil, mass invasion of crawlers, reptiles, and alike);
10) Increase in number of strictly protected species beyond optimal number, as stipulated by the special
program, that is development program for hunting ground brought forth by relevant ministry for
agriculture, forestry and hydraulics;
11) Finding corresponding place for the re-introduction of migratory species, as region of importance for
the species development cycles, or habitats of migratory species (fed, cantonment, convey, migratory
corridors, change of fur).
Regulation on control of use and turnover of wild flora and fauna (Official Gazette RS, no. 31/05)
The Regulation on control of use and turn over wild flora and fauna stipulates wild species of flora, fauna
and fungi used by men (as eatable, natural, spicy herbs and alike) as being protected and collecting them
from natural habitat, use and turn over, is put under control and fees for their use is defined.
Collecting, use and turnover of such protected species is put under control to enable its sustainable use by
preventing these species from natural habitats in quantities and in a way that might endanger their
survival in future, structure and stability of their community.
The control of collection, use and turnover of protected species, in relation with this regulation covers:
-

Protective measures and conditions for collection, limits and prohibition of collection, use and
turnover of protected species;
Follow up of the population status in natural habitats to evaluate quantities of particular protected
species that in the collecting season from natural habitat might be approved;
Fulfilment of conditions and manner of permission issue for collecting, use and turnover of
protected species;
Register data on issued permissions on protected species and quantities collected on the basis of
permission, used and put in turn over;
On protected species (plantation and other ways of growing), on plantation capacities and given
penalties for acting contrary to the regulation.
160

The regulation puts under control use and turnover of wild flora and fauna 122 species (94 flora species, 3
lichens, 15 fungi and 10 fauna species.).

4. CONCLUSION
Biological resources must be used for survival, economic and social prosperity of mankind, but it is also
clear that biological resources could not be endlessly and without control depleted as it would lead to
question the stability and survival of biosphere. Global policy of Republic of Serbia in the field of
environmental protection that is protection and upgrading biological resources as its basic segment is in
conformity with legislative course of developed countries of Western Europe. This field is legally well
covered, sometimes with a number of various laws finance and other responsibility is defined. However,
the authorities are stipulated responsible to follow up and regulate this field.

REFERENCES
[1] Amidi, L. (2014): Protection of biodiversity, Faculty for applied ecology Futura, Beograd. ISBN
978-86-86859-33-4
[2] Ivkovi, M. (2012): Improvement of technology of exploitation, upgrading environment and improve
safety and healts of the employed in underground coal mines in Serbia; Committee for underground
exploitation of minerals, Resavica.
[3] Ivkovi, M. (2012): Systematisation of natural/geological conditions for coal exploit in underground
mines in Serbia; Committee for underground exploitation of minerals, Resavica.
[4] Ivkovi, M., Miljanovi, J., Kokeri, S. (2013): Legislative for re-cultivate ground damaged by
underground exploitation of coal, Mining works, 4/2013; 36-40. Resavica.
[5] Law on mining (Official Gazette RS, no. 88/11)
[6] Regulative on technical norms for underground exploitation of coal (Official Gazette RS, no. 4/89,
45/89, 3/90, 54/90):
[7] Law on environmental protection (Official Gazette RS, no. 43/11);
[8]Law on evaluation of influence to environment (Official Gazette RS, no. 36/09).

161

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF


ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF WASTE TREATMENT
Biljana Milutinovic1, Gordana Stefanovic2, Srdjan Jovic3, Hivzo Skrijelj4
1
College of Applied Technical Sciences Nis, Nis, Serbia,
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3
University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
4
Public Utility Company, Novi Pazar, Serbia
Abstract: Developing evaluation criteria and methods that reliably measure sustainability is a prerequisite for
selecting the best waste treatment scenario with energy recovery and identifying non-sustainable scenarios. In
previous published paper, as a first step in assessing the sustainability of waste treatment with energy recovery, an
established algorithm for assessing sustainability was presented. This algorithm provides the calculation of
economic indicators by the mathematical model.
In most cases, in sustainability assessment of waste treatment scenario with energy recovery the used economic indicators
are: investment costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, energy costs and revenues. Unfortunately, cost
estimation is relatively crude in solid waste management, without enough available data. Published cost data are often
fragmented or reflecting specific unique cases with limited information regarding costs breakdown, specific local
conditions, operating practices, system performance, etc. Cost planning for waste management has been discussed in
various forms (user charges, economic analysis and economies of scale). Some have focused primarily on quantitative
approaches such as optimization techniques, statistical methods and cost-benefit analyses.
In this paper focus is made on the developing of mathematical model with the aim to calculate the economic
sustainable indicators (investment costs, operating and maintenance costs and revenues) of waste treatment
scenarios with energy recovery depending on the composition and quantity of waste. The model is based on the
analysis of the structure of investment and operating costs for each waste treatment and supported by the data
available on the field and in the literature. The model is applied to calculate the indicator for the waste management
scenarios with energy recovery: incineration and anaerobic digestion and verified in the case study the city of Ni.
Keywords: Mathematical Model, Waste Treatment, Sustainability, Economic Indicators, Costs.

1. INTRODUCTION
Measuring sustainability of the energy systems is a major issue as well as a driving force of the discussion
on sustainability development [1]. Developing evaluation criteria and methods that reliably measure
sustainability is a prerequisite for selecting the best alternative, identifying non-sustainable best waste
treatment scenario with energy recovery, informing design-makers of the integrated performances of the
alternatives and monitoring impacts on the social environment.
A sustainable energy sector has a balance of energy production and consumption and has no, or minimal,
negative impact on the environment (within the environmental tolerance limits), but gives the opportunity
for a country to employ its social and economic activities [2]. The used criteria to evaluate the waste
treatment scenario with energy recovery in the literatures mainly divide to four aspects: technical,
162

economic, environmental and social criteria. Cost estimation is relatively crude in solid waste
management [3]. In order to provide a more accurate determination of the waste treatment costs, several
methods have been used: unit cost method, benchmarking and cost functions [4]. In the unit cost method
each activity is disaggregated into separate items such as salaries, consumables, fuel costs or maintenance
costs, and the required quantity of each item is noted. Multiplying this with the cost per item or unit cost,
the total cost of each item is calculated and the overall cost of the service is then calculated by summing
the total costs incurred by each item [5]. Benchmarking is a quick way to make a reasonable cost
assessment by using actual cost data from a similar organization due to lack of data in the considered
country [6] or from the literature [7]. The cost functions method relates the cost of solid waste
management to production factors or to variables such as amount of processed waste [8,9] or population
density [10]. In this paper the mathematical model is developed with the aim to calculate the economic
sustainable indicators (investment costs, operating and maintenance costs and revenues) of waste
treatment scenarios with energy recovery. All of the above indicators are calculated depending on the
composition and quantity of waste. The model is based on the analysis of the structure of investment and
operating costs for each waste treatment and supported by the data available on the field and in the
literature. The model is applied to calculate the indicator for the waste management scenarios with energy
recovery: incineration and anaerobic digestion and verified in the case study the city of Ni.

2. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
This description is done in order to assess the main technologies applicable to energy recovery from
municipal solid waste (MSW) and to research factual information relating to their use and costs.
Technologies for generating energy from waste fall into two categories, biochemical and thermochemical
conversion. The biochemical processes (anaerobic digestion and landfill) involve decomposition by
microorganisms to produce biogas. Wastes with high percentage of organic fraction aid microbial activity
and are thus preferable for biochemical conversion. The thermochemical conversion processes
(incineration, gasification and pyrolysis) use thermal decomposition for producing heat, gas or oil.
2.1 Waste incineration
Solid waste incineration fulfills two purposes in the advanced waste management system. Primarily, it
reduces the amount of waste for sanitary landfilling and it uses waste for energy production (electricity or
heat). Solid waste incineration is a highly complex technology, which involves large investments and
high operating costs.
Several types of incineration technologies are available today: the most widely used is mass burning
incineration with a movable grate, rotary kilns incineration and fluidized bed incineration [11]. The plant
design and configuration of incineration plant will differ considerably between technology providers.
However, an incinerator with energy recovery will comprise the following key elements: waste reception
and handling, combustion chamber, energy recovery plant, emissions clean-up for combustion gases and
bottom ash handling and air pollution control residue handling. Mass burning technologies are generally
applied for large-scale incineration of mixed or source-separated municipal and industrial waste.
Mass burning technologies are technically robust and able to accommodate large variations in waste
composition and heating value. The amount of ash is usually some 1025% (by weight) of the waste feed,
depending on the waste composition. The main advantages of the moving grate are that it is well proven
technology, can accommodate large variations in waste composition and in heating values, and can be
built in very large units (up to 50 t/h). The main disadvantage is the investment and maintenance cost
which are relatively high [11]. The investment costs of incineration plant, ranges considerably from 5601030 /t, while the operating costs range from 28-67 /t respectively [12]. The main advantages of the
rotary kiln are similar to the moving grate incineration system, except that the maintenance is slightly
higher and the energy efficiency slightly lower. Raw MSW typically has a low heating value of 811MJ/kg, whereas an Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) can have an energy content of 12-17MJ/kg.

163

2.2 Anaerobic digestion


Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biochemical process producing biogas through the biodegradation of
organic material in the absence of oxygen with anaerobic microorganisms. More widespread use of
anaerobic digestion is: co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from different
sources; digestion of sludge from wastewater treatment plants; digestion of manure; digestion of
industrial wastewater with high content of organic matter. The systems for anaerobic digestion can be
divided technologically according to four characteristics of the digestion process: dry/wet digestion;
thermophilic/mesophilic digestion; one-stage/two-stage digestion and one-phase/two-phase digestion. The
division into dry or wet processes is a question of the moisture content in the biological reactor. A dry
process has moisture content of less than 75%. The wet process has moisture content above 90%.
The anaerobic digestion plant consists of several major technological elements: reception of waste; pretreatment; digestion; gas handling; management of digest from digestion and odour control.
Biogas released during anaerobic digestion is scrubbed to improve gas quality and can then be used
directly as a fuel for power generation, and has an energy content of 20-25 MJ/m3.
The capital costs for dry anaerobic composting plant (DRANCO process) capacity of 5,000-100,000 t/y,
ranges considerably from 200-1000 /t, while the operating costs range from 40-15 /t respectively [13].

3. ECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR WASTE TREATMENT WITH ENERGY


RECOVERY
In conducted a literature review found that the most commonly used economic criteria for the
sustainability assessment: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, revenues, net cost per ton,
fuel cost, electric cost, net present value, payback period, service life, equivalent annual cost etc. In order
to choose a solid waste management system in Finland, using multi criteria decision analysis some
authors as economic criteria used net cost per ton [13]. For the selection among renewable energy
alternatives in Turkey, a fuzzy multi criteria decision- making methodologies are suggested and economic
criteria implementation cost, economic value and availability of funds are used [14]. For trigeneration
systems selection and evaluation the used economic criteria are: investment cost, investment recovery
period, total annual cost and net present value [15].
Investment cost comprises of all costs relating to: land acquisition, the purchase of mechanical equipment,
technological installations, construction of roads and connections to the national grid, engineering services,
construction work, drilling and other incidental construction work. Investment cost is the most used economic
criteria to evaluate energy systems. Operation and maintenance costs consist of two parts. One is the operation
cost that includes employees wages, and the funds spent for the energy, the products and services for the
energy system operation. Another is the maintenance cost that aims to prolong energy system life and avoid
failures that may lead to its operation suspension. The operation and maintenance costs are also divided into
two subcategories: fixed and variable costs. Operation and maintenance cost is another most used economic
criteria. Revenues comprise all revenues obtained from selling the products of waste treatment (gate fee,
produced electricity and heat, compost and other fertilizer).

4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING
4.1. Model parameterization and assumptions
For the needs of the present study the following considerations were taken in account:
The input variables for the model development of all considered waste treatment is the amount of waste
and waste composition. The elemental composition of waste fractions is taken from the literature.
164

Amount of waste was forecasted over the lifetime of the waste treatment facilities. A waste generation
forecast requires a combination of data normally used for town planning purposes along with specific
waste generation data. The forecast for the amount of solid waste (x) for the year (n) was calculated
according to the formula below [16].
(1)
where is: x forecasted amount of waste (facility capacity), PP present population, GRpp growth rate
of population, wc actual key figure (the amount of waste per capita), GRKF growth rate of key figure, n
facility lifetime (20-40 year).
It is assumed that the waste composition does not change during facility lifetime.
The low heating value (Hlow (kJ/kg)) of waste is calculated from the elemental composition (C, H, O, N,
S) using an empirical formula, which provides a reasonably accurate approximation for usual waste
mixtures [17].
(2)
Energy yield from biogas is calculating taken into account that low heating value of methane 36 MJ/m3
i.e. 10 kWh/m3 and assumed that 80% of organic fraction of waste is broken down. The facility lifetime
varies depending on the type of waste treatment (20 -40 years). In order to facilitate comparison, the same
lifetime of 20 years was adopted for all the facility. The investment costs included: project and permits
costs, land acquisition costs, costs of site development, construction cost and facility costs. The operating
costs comprise: fixed operating costs (cost of administration and salaries, maintenance costs of buildings
and equipment) and variable operating costs (costs of chemicals for the flue gas cleaning system, cost of
electricity, costs of water and handling of waste water, cost of residue disposal).
Revenues obtained consist of a gate fee, selling the produced electricity and heat. Revenues generated
from anaerobic digestion of waste consist of a gate fee, selling of generated electricity and compost as byproduct in anaerobic digestion.
4.2. Mathematical Model
The economic aspects of waste treatment with energy recovery vary greatly between regions and
countries, not only due to technical aspects but also depending on waste treatment policies.
4.2.1. Investment costs
The investment costs included project and permits costs, land acquisition costs, costs of site development,
construction cost and facility costs (Equation 3).
(3)
P(x) project and permits costs, LA(x) land acquisition costs, SD(x) costs of site development, CC(x)
construction costs, FC(x) facility costs.
Generally, waste plants with energy recovery a throughput of waste of 400,000 t/y typically have a landtake of 5 ha [27]. Table 1. provides an overview of land required and subject to the incinerator facility
with moving grate technology and anaerobic digestion facility.

165

Table 1 Land-take and building area for sitting incinerator and anaerobic digestion facility
Incineration
Facility capacity
x(t/y)
90,000
150,000
210,000
240,000
250,000
250,000
269,000
292,000
400,000

Land-take
LT (ha)
1.7
3.2
3.7
6.6
2-5
4
3.8
1.6
5

Anaerobic digestion
Buildings Area
BA (m2)
5,850
15,750
9,435
8,468
7,200
6,600

Facility capacity
x(t/y)
40,000
164,000
38,000
5,000
300,000
60,000

Land-take
LT (ha)
0.6

Buildings Area
BA (m2)
2,420
5,420

1.5
2,500
35,000
1.8

From presented data can be concluded that land-take for incinerator is typically between 1.25 2.00 ha
per 100.000 t of waste (Equation 6)
(4)
and for anaerobic digestion facility is typically between 1.50 3.00 ha per 100,000 t of waste (Eq. 4).
(5)
Also, from data presents in Table 1. for buildings area for incinerator facility, it can be concluded that
buildings area of 2,640 6,500 m2 per 100.000 t of waste is required for the incinerator facility (Eq. 6).
(6)
and buildings area of 2,400 11,000 m2 per 100.000 t of waste is required for the anaerobic digestion
facility (Eq. 7).
(7)
Site development costs (SD(x)) include costs of excavation, levelling, access roads, link to technological
networks. Generally, site development costs also depend of land-take area and price of civil works per
squared meter (Eq. 8).
(8)
Construction costs (civil works on building construction) (CC(x)) depend of buildings area (BA) which
house facilities and price of construction work per square meter (Pc). Buildings which house incineration
facilities can be similar in appearance and characteristics, but its area depend of facility capacity as
showed in Table 1 (Eq. 9).
(9)
Facility cost (technical installations and machinery) (FC(x)) also depend of facility capacity and the
authors suggest that for the calculation of facility costs used empirical equations in the literature [9]
obtained by statistical processing of data relevant to European states which provides a reasonably
accurate approximation of investment facility costs.
Investment costs () for incinerator facility with energy recovery cap. range 20,000 600,000 t/y (Eq. 10):
(10)
166

Investment costs () for anaerobic digestion facility capacity range 2,500 100,000 t/y (Eq.11):
(11)
4.2.2. Operating costs
Operating costs include fixed operating cost (independent of waste quantity) and variable operating costs
(dependent of waste quantity) as shown in Equation 14.
(12)
OCfix fixed operational costs, OCvar(x) variable operating costs
The fixed operating costs depend heavily on the number of employees, the percentage of skilled and
unskilled workers and engineers, and the local salary level and maintenance costs of buildings and
equipment. The general conclusion is that for 10,000 t of waste need 1-3 employee for incineration and 46 for anaerobic digestion. Maintenance costs of buildings amounted to 1 % of investment costs and
maintenance costs of equipment amounted to 4 % of investment costs.
Operating costs (/t) for incinerator facility with energy recovery capacity range 20,000 600,000 t/y (Eq. 13):
(13)
Operating costs (/t) for anaerobic digestion facility capacity range 2,500 100,000 t/y (Eq. 14):
(14)
4.2.3. Revenues
Revenues obtained by waste incineration consist of a gate fee, selling the produced electricity and heat, and
depend on the capacity and efficiency of the plant and waste composition. Revenues generated from
anaerobic digestion of waste consist of a gate fee, selling of generated electricity and compost as by-product
in anaerobic digestion and depend on the capacity and efficiency of the plant and waste composition.
Generally, the model for the calculation of revenue obtained in waste treatments with energy recovery is
represented in Equation 15.
(15)
Gate fee vary greatly between regions and countries and is in the range of 18 /t in Spain to 460 /t of
waste in Germany for incineration and in the range of 40 /t in France to 120 /t of waste in United
Kingdom for anaerobic digestion.
(16)
Revenues obtained by selling produced electricity in waste incineration depend of waste composition i.e.
lower heating value of waste Hlow (Equation 2), efficiency of energy recovery systems, selling rate of
produced energy (e) and price of produced electricity (/kWh).
(17)
Revenues obtained by selling produced heat in waste incineration depend of waste composition i.e. lower
heating value of waste Hlow (Equation 2), efficiency of heat recovery systems ( h), selling rate of
produced heat (h) and price of produced heat (/kWh).
167

(18)
Revenues obtained by selling produced electricity in anaerobic digestion depend of waste composition
(amount and composition of generated biogas and energy yield) i.e. energy value if biogas (Eb), efficiency
of energy recovery systems (e), selling rate of produced energy (e) and price of produced electricity
(Pe(/kWh)).
(19)
Revenues obtained by selling produced heat in anaerobic digestion depend of waste composition (amount
and composition of generated biogas and energy yield) i.e. energy value if biogas (E b), efficiency of heat
recovery systems (h), selling rate of produced heat (h) and price of produced heat (Ph(/kWh)).
(20)
Revenues obtained from selling compost depend of amount of compost obtained from 1 t of waste (A c),
which on average 1 t of OFMSW produces 0.415 t of compost and price of compost.
(21)

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


To verify the developed mathematical model for evaluation economic indicators, the community of Ni is
chosen as a case study. Table 1. shows the composition and quantity of waste generated annually. Data on
the quantities of waste generated in the city of Ni are used in the Waste Management Plan of Ni in the
period up to 2015 and presented in Table 2:
Table 2 The composition of municipal solid waste.
Fraction

Percentage (%)

Production (t/year)

Food waste
Yard waste
Paper
Plastics
Glass
Metals
Other
Total

33.7
10.4
15.3
17.7
5.1
1.9
15.9
100

24,298
7,494
11,031
12,762
3,677
1,370
11,464
72,100

Elemental composition of waste fraction is obtained from data in literature due to lack of data [11] and
presented in Table 3.
Table 3 Elemental composition of waste fraction.
Fraction

C (% dw)

H (% dw)

O (% dw)

N (% dw)

S (% dw)

Food waste
Yard waste
Paper
Plastics
Glass
Metals

48.0
47.8
43.5
60.0
0.5
4.5

6.4
6.0
6.0
7.2
0.1
0.6

37.6
38.0
44.0
22.8
0.4
4.3

2.6
3.4
0.3
<0.1
<0.1

0.4
0.3
0.2
-

As input data was taken: the quantity of waste generated 72,100 t, waste composition as shown in table 3,
the population of the city of Nis to the last census in 2011 amounted to 260,237.00, population growth -2.2,
facility lifetime 20 years. Based on these data the capacity of the plant is calculated as follows 189,022 t.
168

The price of land in the City of Ni range between 1,0003,000 /ha, site development cost 20 /m2, the
project and permits costs (utility costs) 40 /m2 and construction costs 450 /m2. Data for wcactual key
figures (the amount of waste per capita) was calculated on the basis of the quantity of waste generated
and the number of inhabitants per day, amounting to 0.76. Gate fee 20 /t, Preferential prices for energy
from waste is adopted as 8.5 c/kWh for power plants and waste 12 c/kWh for biogas power plants.
Energy efficiency for incineration and anaerobic digestion is adopted 27% and 30% respectively and
thermal efficiency 55% and 45% respectively.
The low heating value (Hlow) of waste is calculated as 13,385.06 kJ/kg. For calculation of energy yield
from biogas, is conducted the proceedings in several steps: biogas composition was calculated on the
basis of Buswell equation, where it has been used formula for an organic part of municipal solid waste
and C32H54O16N. Calculated composition of biogas is 57.42% CH4 and 42.58% CO2. Then the amount of
methane per ton of waste is calculated as 106 m3/t and at the end of the energy yield from biogas is
calculated as follows 1059.93 kWh/t.
Based on the amount and composition of waste given in Tables 2 and 3, respectively, as well as data on
population in the city of Nis and the birth rate, as well as the input data and data using equations 1 - 13
and following the steps in the mathematical model for calculating the investment cost, operating costs and
revenue from waste incineration and anaerobic digestion calculated the investment and operating costs for
incineration and anaerobic digestion, as well as revenues are shown in Table 4.
Table 4 Calculated economic indicators.
Cost structure
LT (ha)
LA ()
SD ()
BA (m2)
P ()
CC ()
FC ()
I ()
i (/t)
OP (/t)
Rgf ()
Ree ()
Rhe ()
Rc ()
R ()
r (/t)

Incineration
Investment costs ()
3.31
9,923.66
6,615.77
8,638.31
345,532.25
3,887,237.77
81,546,625.46
85,795,934.90
453.89
Operating costs ()
19.64
Revenues ()
1,442,000.00
6,152,277.07
8,772,691.37
16,366,968.44
227.00

Anaerobic digestion
5.20
15,594.32
10,396.21
12,664.48
506,579.00
5,699,013.80
50,111,045.46
56,342,637.79
298.07
8.42
1,442,000.00
1,634,014.89
2,269,698.31
1,066,292.70
6,412,005.90
88.93

Table 4 presented investment and operating costs and revenues calculated applying mathematical model
for the case study city of Ni. From the obtained results it can be concluded that investment costs are
much higher for incineration, as well as operating costs. But revenues are also higher from incineration
then from anaerobic digestion.

6. CONCLUSION
Mathematical model for evaluation of economic sustainable indicators of waste treatment scenarios with
energy recovery: investment costs, operating costs and revenues is developed mathematical model is
developed. The model is based on the analysis of the structure of investment and operating costs, as well
as revenues for each waste treatment with energy recovery. All of the above indicators are calculated
depending on the composition and quantity of waste.
169

For each indicator an algorithm that predicts several steps for its calculation is presented. As input
variables the quantity and composition of waste are used. Model, when calculating the revenues requires
the following input data related to the technical characteristics of the system: energy and thermal
efficiency of the plant.
The model was developed so that it can be applied to every case study, because it contains elements of
local (price of land, construction cost, design and permit prices, price of the produced electricity and heat,
gate fee, the price of compost), but is sufficiently general that applicable to each case study.
Results obtained by this model can be used for assessing the sustainability of certain waste treatment with
energy recovery.

REFERENCES
[1] Wang J.J., Jing Y.Y., Zhang C.F., Zhao J.H., Review on multi-criteria decision analysis aid in
sustainable energy decision-making, Renew Sust Energ Rev 2009;13:226315.
[2] Hofman K, Li X., Canadas energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development. Appl Energ
2009;86:40715.
[3] Milke M., The Alchemists dream resource, Waste Management 2006;26(11):12031204.
[4] Parthan S.R., Milke M.W., Wilson D.C., Cocks J.H., Cost estimation for solid waste management in
industrializing regionsPrecedents, problems and prospects, Waste Manage 2012;32(3):584594.
[5] Massarutto A., Carli A.de, Graffi M., Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management
systems: A life-cycle costing approach, Waste Manage 2011;31(9-10):21022111.
[6] Widjaya E.R., Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets
in Indonesia, Waste Manage 2006;26(10):11801191.
[7] Lavee D., Nardiya S., A cost evaluation method for transferring municipalities to solid waste sourceseparated system, Waste Manage 2013;33(5):10641072.
[8] Economopoulos A.P., Techno-economic aspects of alternative municipal solid wastes treatment
methods, Waste Manage 2010;30(4):707715.
[9] Tsilemou K., Panagiotakopoulos D., Approximate cost function for solid waste treatment facilities,
Waste Manage Res 2006;24:310322.
[10]
Parthan S.R., Milke M.W., Wilson D.C., Cocks J.H., Cost function analysis for solid waste
management: a developing country experience, Waste Manage Res 2012;30:485491.
[11]
Christensen T.H., Solid Waste Technology&Management. Lyngby, Denmark: A John Wiley and
Sons, Ltd., Publ.;2011. ISBN 978-1-4051-7517-3.
[12]
Murphy J.D., McKeogh E., Technological, economic and environmental analysis of energy
production from municilap solid waste, Renew Energ 2004;29:10431057.
[13]
Hokkanen J., Salminen B., Choosing a solid waste management system using multi criteria
decision analysis, Eur J Oper Res 1997;98:1936.
[14]
Kahraman C., Kaya I., Cebi S., A comparative analysis for multi attribute selection among
renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process,
Energy 2009;34:16031616.
[15]
Wang J.J., Jing Y.Y., Zhang C.F., Shi G.H., Zhang X.T., A fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making
model for trigeneration system, Energ Policy 2008;36:38233832.
[16]
The World Bank, Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, Washington, D.C.; 1999 Aug. Technical
guidance report.
[17]
Schwanecke R., Formulas and nomograms for use of the technical guide for air pollution control;
in German, Wasser, Luft und Betrieb 1976;20(11):607.

170

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CONCEPTUAL PROJECT OF


REGIONAL LANDFILL ON KALENIC
Dragana Savic1, Jelena Majstorovic2, Dejan Nikolic1, Dejan Zivkovic1
1
Geoing Group, Belgrade, Serbia,
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: The planned location for the regional municipal waste landfill "Kalenic" is situated on the territory of the
municipality of Ub and Lajkovac and sanitary disposal of non-hazardous municipal waste in eleven cities and
municipalities is predicted by its construction. The planned location is defined by the General Regulation Plan of
Area of TPP "Kolubara B", at the site of a former opencast mine "Tamnava West Field" of Kolubara mining basin
in the southern zone of General Regulation Plan. This is the best of three alternative locations for the establishment
of a regional center. The paper presents a detailed surveys done in order to consider the geological, geotechnical
and hydro-geological characteristics and settings of the intended location for the construction of a regional landfill
"Kalenic", and for the purposes of the Conceptual Project.
Keywords: Municipal Waste, Municipal Waste Landfill, Open Pit Mine, Geological Exploration, Reclamation

1. INTRODUCTION
The rapid development of the industry has led to the creation of numerous technical and technological
products. Number of products is growing rapidly due to the development of consumer mentality of the
population. Modern technological processes have increased the use of once-packaged products. After
using, these packages become waste. By the middle of 19th century, it was considered that the waste is
not hazardous but frequent outbreaks highlighted the most common pathogens, contaminated drinking
water and land.
Today the problems caused by solid waste are equated with the problems created by industrial waste and
traffic. Half of municipal solid waste generated in the world is deposited in the chaotic disordered regions
without the application of technical and technological processes for environmental protection. In such solid
waste disposal, contaminated leachate is produced and it pollutes the groundwater and surface water, as well
as geological environment. Decontamination of the environment is very complex, limited and expensive. In
developed countries, waste is generally disposed of at sanitary landfills, which represent space designed in
accordance with spatial, urbanistic and engineering criteria. Disposal is achieved through a consistent
application of the prescribed technology that eliminate pollution of air, water and geo-environment, in an
effort to achieve maximum possible protection of existing ecosystem [1].
The definition of landfill is given in the Waste Management Strategy for the period 2010 - 2019,
according to which the landfill "is a waste disposal site on the surface or below the surface". Regardless
of the fact that the landfill is defined as a place, it certainly represents a construction that with the
supporting facilities, must fulfill the general technical requirements for construction, in addition to
economic and environmental aspects [2].
171

Analysis of the condition of municipal landfills and dumps in Serbia [1], showed that we are facing a big
job on rehabilitation and reclamation of existing registered and unregistered non-sanitary landfills, and
the remediation of contaminated media (groundwater and geological environment). The problem is
particularly noticeable in our country, because groundwater is used for water supply of population and of
industry over 80% of supply.
Regulation on waste disposal in landfills published in the Official Herald of RS No. 92/2010 was aimed at
the adoption of new legitimate regulations of conditions and criteria for determining location, technical
and technological requirements for the design, construction and operation of landfills. Regulation is made
in accordance with the latest EU directives on the disposal of non-hazardous and hazardous waste. In the
future municipal waste will be disposed of at sanitary landfills [3]. Sites that are not usable for residential
and industrial construction nor as agricultural land (calmed landslides, abandoned pits, surface mines,
mine pits, marshy land, gullies and ravines) are chosen for their location. When selecting a location for
the construction of a sanitary landfill, geological research must determine the general geo-morphological
characteristics of the terrain, hydro-geological environmental conditions, engineering-geological and
seismic field characteristics.
The study for the selection of micro location of the Regional Centre for Waste Management (IAUS,
2005), identified three alternative locations: Tamnava-West Field (Kalenic), Bogdanovic (Ub) and Caric
(Valjevo). After an evaluation, location Tamnava-West Field (Kalenic) was chosen, as the most favorable
for the establishment of a regional center, table 1 [4].
Table 1 Qualitative assessment of nominated sites
Criteria
Distance from residential area
Distance from the individual houses
outside of residential area
Distance from river
Distance from Health centre
Distance from pipelines, power
lines, oil pipelines
Covertness of location
Traffic connections of location
Deposit of land for sanitary filling
of disposed waste
The possibility of using landfill for
more than 20 years
Environmental and health protection
Position in regard to the region
Location infrastructure
Landscape features
Climatic characteristics
Seismic characteristics
Hydrological conditions
Geological conditions
Space available for depositing
Property relations

Tamnava-West Field
++

Bogdanovica
Evaluation
++

Caric
++

++

++
++

_
++

_
++

++

++

++

++
++

_
++

+
+

++

++

++
++
++
++
++
+
++
++
++
++

_
++
+
_
++
+
_
+
_
_

_
_
_
_
++
+
+
+
_
_

Favorably (++) - all requirements defined by Regulation are fulfilled, Conditionally fulfilled conditions ( + ) - conditions are not
fully met, but certain measures can meet the criteria requirements of Regulations, Unfavorable ( _ ) - criterion does not fulfill
the requirements defined in the ordinance.

Proposed location of the regional landfill is defined by the General Regulation Plan of the area of TPP
"Kolubara B", at the site of the former opencast mine Tamnava-West Field of Kolubara mining basin, in
the southern zone of the plan, the area labeled number 4. Surface area of the landfill is 76 ha, (54 ha
172

Kalenic-Ub, and 22 ha Mali Borak-Lajkovac). Landfill will be used for disposal of waste from 11
municipalities: Ub, Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Valjevo, Koceljeva, Vladimirci, Obrenovac,
Lazarevac and Barajevo and that makes the project interregional.

2. TYPE AND SCOPE OF COMPLEX GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE AREA OF


REGIONAL LANDFILL FOR NON-HAZARDOUS MUNICIPAL WASTE
"KALENIC" LEVEL OF CONCEPTUAL PROJECT
Geological, hydro-geological and engineering research was conducted in the area of exploration and
exploitation field "Tamnava". Detailed overview of history of geological research of the area is presented
in Interpreter OGK 1: 100,000 for sheet Obrenovac L34 -113 (I. Filipovic and V. Rodin, 1976) , as well
as in previous studies on reserves of coal deposits. These works have enabled more proper understanding
of the geological structure of the terrain of chosen location. Results of geological, geo-mechanical and
hydro-geological investigations, integrated with the results of previous research phases, should have to
determine necessary characteristics of terrain, for the appropriate projecting level, in order to obtain
answers to the following questions:

The thickness of lithological members, their lateral distribution and genesis;


Lithological composition, terrain assembly and the degree of physical and mechanical
disintegration;
Engineering, geological and hydro-geological characteristics of the terrain and present rock
masses (hydro-geological function, coefficient of filtration, types of aquifers, the amount and
origin of the water, direction of aquifer moving);
Hydro-chemical properties of groundwater (chemical composition and aggressiveness to
construction materials);
The level of development of contemporary geodynamic phenomena;
Physical and mechanical properties of present rock masses;
Requirements for construction works, stability of artificial slopes, embankment foundation and
foundation of buildings, analysis of the interaction of the landfill body with the base.

According to methodological procedures, following terrain and laboratory geological, engineering and
hydro-geological investigative works were performed:
a) Terrain investigative works
1. Engineering-geological and hydro-geological mapping of the terrain;
2. Instrumental locating and geodesic surveying of boreholes, pits, "slits" on projected positions
28 projected positions in total;
3. Drilling 12 vertical boreholes, the circumference of which is 212,60 m;
4. Engineering-geological mapping of boreholes, the circumference of which is 212,60 m;
5. Taking samples of soil and rocks for geo-mechanical laboratory investigations, in total 64
representatives from all geological changes, to define physical and mechanical parameters: 48
samples from 12 boreholes, 5 samples from 5 pits and 11 samples from "slits";
6. Building in 3 piezometric constructions;
7. Taking samples of water for chemical investigations (one from reservoir, two from piezometers
and one from the river Kladnica);
8. Excavation and engineering mapping of 5 pits and 11 "slits";
9. Standard penetration experiments, 15 experiments in total (SPT);
10. Determination of permeability parameters in situ, in scope of 5 experiments.
b) Laboratory research
1. Geo-mechanical laboratory research;
2. Chemical investigations of water samples.

173

c) Cabinet work
1. Collecting and studying the material on current research (synthesis and analysis of all available
geological, geotechnical and hydro-geological documentation, which refers to the landfill
construction as well as related to open pit mine);
2. Geotechnical calculations;
3. Making studies on research results with conclusions and recommendations.
Terrain investigations, laboratory research and work in cabinet were all carried out in the period from
November 2013 to March 2014 [5].

3. RESEARCH RESULTS
Detailed investigations were carried out in order to determine geological, geo-technical and hydrogeological characteristics and conditions on location that is predicted for the construction of regional
landfill "Kalenic". Conclusions were adopted, based on the results of detailed terrain and laboratory
investigative geological, engineering-geological and hydro-geological works and on the results of tests:

Surface coal mining has completely changed the relief of the area by creating so called anthropogenic
relief. In the northern part of the area that is predicted for the body of landfill, the hill of disposed
materials dominates where terrain elevation ranges from 100.59 to 94.00 MASL (meters above sea
level). The space provided for intended facilities, service buildings and waterpower engineering in the
northern and northwestern part of the field has a uniform altitude (of about 89 MASL). Along the
eastern border, the service road and in the section urbanistically predicted for administrative building,
terrain elevation is mainly around 94 MASL. The southern border which extends through the inner
landfill is at elevation of 80 MASL. The lowest part of the field is in the area around the reservoir
lake, where waterside elevation is around 65 MASL (Figure 1).

Figure1 Elevation model of regional landfill Kalenic

In the area of Tamnava-West, main watercourse is the river Kladnica which long since turned into
intermittent course. This means that at certain periods, part of the watercourse along TPP "Kolubara
B" dries (when pumping station which pumps water from retention Kladnica does not work).
Watercourse of Kladnica is controlled and significantly reduced in comparison to the natural volume.
Kladnica river is the primary recipient of waste water from future landfill so it is necessary to build a
technically optimal and serious system of landfill waste water treatment as well as to maintain the
course by applying standard measures in the form of vegetation growth control and prevention of
174

disposing the waste into the riverbed. Based on the chemical analysis of water from the river
Kladnica, we can say that the tested sample belongs to the following classes:

Class I because the value of pH index is pH = 7,63 and there is no visible waste material and
noticeable odor.
Class III according to the color of the sample and on the basis of the dry residue which is
1177 mg / l.
Based on the maximum allowable concentration of hazardous substances in the water
according to river water classes (Official Herald of RS No. 31/1982) and based on parameters
which are included in short chemical analysis, we conclude:
Based on concentration of ammonium ions (1,10 mg/l), water sample belongs to classes III
and IV (MAC 10,0 mg/l);
- Based on concentration of iron (0,05 mg/l), water sample belongs to classes I and II (MAC
0,3 mg/l);
Based on nitrate concentration (as N) (NO3-N 2,7 mg/l; NO3 12 mg/l), water sample belongs
to classes I and II (MAC 10,0 mg/l);
Based on nitrite concentration (as N) (NO3 less than 0,01 mg/l), water sample belongs to
classes I and II (MAC 0,05 mg/l).

Geological material of the landfill consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments (paleo-relief),
Figure 2. The location itself is built of Neogene (Pontic), Quaternary sediments and anthropogenic
artificial bodies disposal sites, Figure 3.

Figure 2 Typical geological profile of Kolubara coal basin

Disposed material

Quarternary sediments

Miocene sediments-coal

Figure 3 Open slope in which lithological structure and genesis of sediments were determined
175

Detected hydro-geological members have different hydro-geological characteristics and vary from
almost waterproof (Kf = 1 x 10-10 m/s) to very permeable rock masses (Kf = 1 x 10-3 m/s). Based on
the filtration characteristics and spatial position, rocks with following hydro-geological functions
were distinguished:

Overlaying permeable environments litho-facial units for which coefficient of permeability


is between Kf = 1 x 10-8 m/s and Kf = 1 x 10-5 m/s, Quaternary, silty clay in the roof of
riverine-laky and riverine water-bearing environments (7a).
Hydrogeological collector coefficient of permeability is greater than Kf = 1 x 10-5 m/s, floor
fine-grained to medium-grained quartz-mica sands (1); interlayer fine-grained to mediumgrained, rarely coarse-grained, sands in the footwall roof of coal seam, that is in the floor of
the main coal-series (1a); river gravels, sandy gravels and sands (5,6).
Interlayer semi-permeable environments layers of coal which thickness is up to 10 m and
coefficient of permeability is between Kf = 1 x 10-6 m/s and Kf = 1 x 10-5 m/s.
Hydrogeological insulator alluvial yellow-brown clay (7b), gray-blue clay (7c), compact
coal layer which thickness is greater than 10 m (2).

It is difficult to predict permeable properties of formed disposal sites within regulatory line (artificial
anthropogenic bodies) because of their composition and the way of disposing so they can not be
considered as watertight environment. Because of earlier unplanned formation and different degree of
compaction, landfill may function as water-bearing environment.

Based on engineering-geological characteristics, three parts were distinguished and different


environments within them. Viewed from the ground surface to the depth, following parts were
separated (Figure 3):

Figure 4 Engineering-geological profile IV-IV

Interior gangue landfill (environment Oc,s,g, Oa, Oc and Os), built from material which has
anisotropic lithological composition (alevritic, clayey, sandy, pebbly) and physical and
mechanical properties. Due to the low value of the CBR (< 3%) and high content of organic
material (> 6%), material from the trench 4 (Oc,s,g) is not suitable for peripheral embankment nor
for final layer of the embankment (SRPSU.E1.010/1981 and SRPSU.E8.010/1981). Material from the
"slits" Up 1, Up -10 and Up 11 is suitable for embankments built of mixed materials. Deposited
alevrite (Oa) is not suitable for dams because of the possibility of swelling. Adding fly ash can
improve the properties of alevrite. Additional laboratory testing are required to define exact
proportion of alevrite mixture and ash which will give the best results because there is enough alevrite
in the vicinity. In the area designated for landfill body and its first phase, piles (Oc) of disposed
materials are made from carbon dust, fine sand and pieces of coal and they have to be removed
because of bad engineering-geological characteristics. A large amount of material is required for
peripheral levees so the samples of sand (Os) are tested as possible material for embankment body. At
maximum compaction (max) and optimal moisture (op), value Kf = 1,08 x 10-7 m/s is obtained and
this means that the material is medium tight. Tested samples are suitable for embankment
construction of mixed materials; only one sample is not suitable due to the high content of organic
matter (> 6%).
Quaternary clay, (environment alc7a, alcp7b, alcp7c and alcp7d), of high and medium plasticity in the
natural state, uneven granulo-metric composition (participation of 2 to 50%), crumby, poorly
consolidated, in the surface part converted into humus, have brown, blue and ocher yellow color.
Limonited, CaCO3 concretions and Mn skims are noticeable. Clays are semi-hard and compressibility
176

is from medium to large. Under the water, clays have significantly reduced shear. Humus can not be
used as subsoil for construction of buildings and roads.
The alluvial gravels and sands have very heterogeneous particle size distribution and mineralogical
composition. Litho-logic members are: clayish sand, fine to medium gravel, clayey medium to coarse
grave. They often change laterally and build lensed forms (environment alg5 and als6). Heterogeneous
composition has led to great dispersion of the results of laboratory tests of physical and mechanical
properties. These environments have inter-granular porosity, medium and good permeability and have
the function of hydrogeological collector, but there is no groundwater because of surface mine
influence.
Coal (environment 2M32c 2), represents floor of Quaternary sediments but only in certain areas. It was
created in Pontian. It appears at variable depths. This environment can be defined as mostly friable
coal, earthy, rarely clayish which is inter-layered with compact coal. In assembly of terrain, it has
function of hydro-geological insulator. Here we consider the coal, which is very friable and cracked,
of cracking porosity and thickness of less than 10 m, so it can be permeable environment.
Interlayer sand (environment 1a) and floor sand (environment 1) have gray and gray-brown color and
Pontic age. Sands are fine to medium grained, silty and coal in places. Mineralogical composition is
quartz-mica. They are well compacted and have uniform particle size distribution. They have
low compressibility, inter-granular porosity and medium water resistance. In assembly of terrain, they
have function of hydro-geological collector in which there is accumulation of groundwater.
Based on the analysis of engineering-geological material, mode of occurrence and the condition of
rock masses and their physical and mechanical and hydro-geological characteristics, the
categorization is made according to the degree of stability. Analysis included forecast of development
and expansion of actual phenomena on terrain built of rock masses with worse values of the
parameters of physical and mechanical and hydro-physical properties. Heterogeneous deposited
materials are subject to planar and linear erosion and parts of slopes can be broken off so that heavy
rain can cause dredging of slopes. Terrain was stable before excavation. In today conditions, all open
final excavation slopes and landfill slopes are conditionally stable.
Space that is designed for construction of regional landfill "Kalenic" is located in the zone of intensity
MSK-64 7 for return period of 50 years, in the zone of intensity MSK-64 8 for the return period of
200 years, in the zone of intensity MSK-64 9 for the return period of 1000 years. Seismic resistance
is determined on the landfill site for the preliminary phase of the project without seismic microzoning of funding conditions so that the starting point for seismicity evaluation is oleate of seismic
map for return period of 500 years. Earthquake intensity of eighth degree in the Regulation
corresponds to the coefficient of seismicity ks= 0,050 0,055.

4. CONCLUSION
Effect of total anthropogenic impacts on the regime of the basic aquifer (surface mining, constructed
system of protection against underground water and the exploitation of groundwater for water supply) is
continuous decline of piezometric level. Along with the development of mining activities to the south, on
open pit Tamnava-West Field, primary drainage facility open pit will move also. The removal of open
pit will reduce the impact of the "drainage facility" so the level of groundwater will tend to return to
initial stage, i.e. continuous refill of groundwater, with reduced drainage, will raise the level.
Underlying (floor) sands make only porous environment which is not exploited in the exploitation of coal,
representing the water-bearing environment in which source of groundwater is formed. Floor seam sands
must be completely isolated in regard to infiltration from landfill, which will lie on them.
The importance of the future regional landfill for 11 municipalities, and the absence of indications of
groundwater impact for a longer period, require complex hydrodynamic analysis of the regime of
groundwater. In order to protect living environment, it is necessary to apply technological methods in
design and construction of facilities, by which harmful products of manufacturing process are eliminated
or reduced to allowed minimum.
177

In the meantime between Preliminary and Final project, it is necessary to create a hydrodynamic model "in
order to assess the potential moving of groundwater" and "to allow forming of conclusion regarding the
sustainability of future landfill site and possible measures to mitigate the consequences". The main purpose
of the model would be to forecast effects of anthropogenic activities in period of 20 years, on state of
groundwater regime in wider area of future regional landfill, while maintaining the level of groundwater at
projected elevations. Primarily, we should consider the development of mining activities on active and
future surface mines (surface mine "Radljevo"), and impact of water supply system "Kalenic".
It is necessary to carry out short-term synchronized monitoring of groundwater in monitoring wells
(piezometers) which are within competence of Mining basin "Kolubara" and those at the site of future
landfill, where observations of groundwater level have to be performed in the same period. It is possible
to perform stationary simulation of groundwater regime with collected data. When the model is created, it
is necessary to consider several variants of hydrological conditions of landfill groundwater, taking into
account all planned human activities in wider area.
In order to protect groundwater aquifers from impact of future landfill of municipal waste, slopes and the
bottom of landfill have to be covered with natural and synthetic materials which completely prevent
penetration of polluted water from landfill into porous water-bearing environment where the landfill is
located, i.e. rigorous measures of protection of source "Kalenic" and groundwater in the area of landfill
complex have to be performed.
Especially, it is necessary to analyze the effects on groundwater of different types of covering materials,
which cover the bottom and sides of the landfill, for each forecasted variant [6].
Water which will be derived through drainage wells may be used as technical water for landfill buildings
and facilities, landfill dewing (irrigating) system and watering of green areas, and geothermal potential of
water also has to be analyzed for the purpose of air conditioning of landfill facilities. Based on the results
of model testing, it will be possible to determine purpose of groundwater that has to be drained, in the
phase of Final project.
The model should indicate the need for additional investigative works (type, extent and location), which
would be carried out within Final project and which results would increase quality of the model and
forecasted solutions.

Acknowledgement
This papers was realized as a part of the project Improvement of Lignite Open Technology in Order to Increase Energy
Efficiency and Occupational Safety (TR 33039) and a part of the cast project Geotechnical Aspects of Research and
Development the Modern Technologies of Construction and Rehabilitation the Municipality Waste Landfill (TR 36014)
financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia within the
framework of Program of research in the field of the technological development for the period 2011-2015.

REFERENCES
[1] Rakijas M., Matic I.: Hydrogeologic issues of closing existing and building new municipal landfills
in Serbia. 2013, pp. 1 10, ISBN 978-86-7352-267-8.
[2] Rakic D.: Constitutive relations of landfill municipal waste in Serbia, Doctoral Dissertation, Belgrade, 2013.
[3] Regulation on waste disposal to landfill published in Official Herald RS No. 92/2010.
[4] Study on selection of micro-location of Regional Centre for Waste Management (IAUS, 2005), p. 79.
[5] Savic D., Jakic B.: Study on results of detailed geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological
investigations for purpose of Preliminary project of regional landfill of non-hazardous municipal
waste "Kalenic" I stage of construction (2014).
[6] Feasibility
study,
for
Regional
Centre
for
Waste
Management
"Kalenic",
EUROPEAID/127054/C/SER/MULTI; BIPRO GMBH AND PARTICIP GMBH/february 2014.
178

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN THE VELENJE COAL


MINE USING MODIFIED SIGMOID FUNCTION
Drago Potocnik1, Janez Roser1, Milivoj Vulic2
1
PV Invest d.o.o., Velenje, Slovenia
2
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Abstract: The Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) is one of the largest and the most modern underground coal mines in Europe. The
company is leading the innovation activity and has an integrated system for continuous improvement, also in the field of
safety measures. According to official VCM statistics on occupational injuries, mining accident rates have declined in recent
years. This study covers a thirty-three year period in which 16.554 accidents have been reported. The obtained results
suggest that occupational injuries in time correspond well to logistic function. The objective was to investigate the
effectiveness of the safety measures and regulations on occurrence of accidents by using modified sigmoid function.
Keywords: Occupational Injuries, Velenje Coal Mine, Logistic Function, Modified Sigmoid Function

1. INTRODUCTION
Employees in coal mine industry have high potential occurrence of injuries due to dangerous working
environment and heavy machineries. Under dangerous working environment are considered potential
threats such as rock bursts, cave-ins, increased concentrations and explosions of coal gasses, while mining
equipment is incredibly large, heavy and installed on many sites at the same time, which can cause
collisions and crushing the workers due to negligence and carelessness [1].
The Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) in Velenje (Slovenia) is one of the largest and most modern underground
thick layer coal extraction mines in Europe, operational since 1875. VCM is aware that today a company
that is not efficient in ensuring the safety of employees, cannot be socially accepted and commercially
successful. Therefore, in past years, many safety measures were taken with single goal to reduce the
number of injuries and accidents.
In coal mining engineering one of important tasks is to forecasting the surface subsidence due to
underground coal excavation. The surface subsidence is one of many natural processes, which exhibit a
progression from small beginnings that accelerates and approaches a climax over time. When a detailed
data is lacking, a logistic function, with common S shape, is often used [2]. Experiences and principles
from the field of forecasting surface subsidence were applied to the analysis of the number of injuries
recorded in the thirty-three-year period in the VCM.

2. MATERIAL
Over the last three decades the number of occupational injuries in VCM has decreased, mainly because of
mining methods have moved towards mechanization and automation. Furthermore, safety measures and
179

stricter regulations have great influence on the positive trend of reducing the number of injuries and
accidents.
The data presented in this paper was obtained from VCM Department of health and safety at works
official records, also briefly presented in [3] (Figure 1). Although that VCM Department of health and
safety at work records all occupational injuries accordingly to degrees of injury severity, i.e. minor
injuries, major injuries and fatal injuries, furthermore part of body affected, employees work
qualification, etc., in this analysis single parameter the number of injuries per year is used, regardless
injury severity, type, or time of unfortunate event. An analysis was conducted to better understand the
safety situation and efficiency of taken safety measures.

Figure 1 A decrease in number of work related injuries from year 1980 to year 2012

3. METHODS
Occupational injuries vary with time and with efficient safety measures the number of injuries decline.
Thus the best mathematical function that gives the best fit to used data have to be chosen. The distribution
of the data used corresponds well to the logistic function, with common S shape.
The special case of logistic function is sigmoid function and with some modification we obtain a simple
sigmoid function that we used in analysis [4]:

x p

R L
P

y L
1
2
2
x

(1)

Where y corresponds to number of injuries in year x, lim y L and lim y R . The parameters R and
x

L are the ordinate values of the right and left horizontal asymptote. By multiplying the functions values
by R L 2 the function can be extended or contracted along the y- axis. The value of the difference
between the asymptotes R L can be negative and thereby the function becomes an inverse. To prevent
this we added the value of the left horizontal asymptote L to the function (see Eq. 1) which transforms the
x values over the ordinate axis and so preserves the y values. Necessary adjustments were also made
on the abscissa, namely with the expression x p P which enables extensions and contractions of the
180

curve along the x- axis depending on the value of parameter P. The parameter p is the abscissa value of
the inflection point.
The right asymptote R corresponds to the number of injuries that are expected even if all safety
parameters are optimal, i.e. the actual number of injuries of stochastic character, and therefore their
number cannot be reduced. The parameter p corresponds to the inflection point, the year in which the
curve passes from positive to negative acceleration of injuries reduction.
The first derivative of the function is the slope of the tangent line to the function at the given point and in
our case is the rate of change of position velocity change, i.e. rate of reducing the number of injuries by
years (Eq. 2).
dy
R L 1
1

3
dx
2 P
2 2
1 x p

(2)

The second derivative corresponds to the acceleration change, i.e. rate of change of velocity (Eq. 3).
d2 y
dx 2

R L

2P 2

x p
P

1 x

2
p
P 2

(3)
2

Maximum and minimum velocity occur at the local extrema, when acceleration is equal zero (Eq. 4).
R L

2P 2

x p
P

1 x

2
p
P 2

(4)

Thus, when x = p, the maximal velocity change is equal to


x p,

dy
R L

dx
2P

(5)

The results of analysis are shown in table 1 and figure 2.


Table 1 Results of analysis
Parameter
L
R
P
p

Value
1460,6
20,6
8,7
1989,7

78,16
30,61
1,12
0,56

1226,1
-71,2
5,4
1988,0

1685,0
112,4
12,1
1991,4

and the maximal velocity change is


year 1989 ,7 p 0,56 ,

dy
R L

82 ,5 dy 21

dx
2P
dx

(6)

On figure 2 real data of injuries per year (solid red curve with points), best fit theoretical modified
sigmoid function (solid blue curve) with confidence interval (dashed blue curves) and target number of
injuries (solid green curve) with confidence interval (dashed green curves) are shown.
181

Figure 2 Graphical presentation of results for injuries from year 1980 to year 2012

4. DISCUSSION
Number of occupational injuries per year corresponds well to logistic function modified sigmoid
function, which is evident from graph in figure 2. Function fitted to real data reached right asymptote R,
theoretically meaning that the number of injuries in last years is stochastic injuries are resulting from
coincident and unforeseen events, which are impossible to observe or predict.
The value of right asymptote R is equal to 21 injuries/year with standard deviations of 31
injuries/year. Therefore value of confidence interval with 3 is -71,2 and 112,4 injuries/year. While
R 0 , only R 112 ,4 injuries/year has practical meaning.
At this time no data of all the taken safety measures is available. Nevertheless, in the time period from
1988 till 1991,4 the taken safety measures have the greatest effect on the reduction of the number of
injuries and accidents in VCM.
A major shortcoming of the conducted analysis is that the analysis did not take into account the number
of employees over the years. The results would be also affect by actual underground working hours in a
year and by taking into account the type of injuries as shown in [5].

5. CONCLUSION
This paper presents the results and conclusions of the analysis of the number of accidents from year 1980
to 2012 in VCM, using a modified sigmoid function. One of the results of the analysis provides the
theoretical number of accidents that have stochastic character, and therefore their number cannot be
reduced. From a theoretical point of view the VCM has reached a goal present number of injuries have
stochastic nature. Nowadays the number of injuries is not any more in the phase of decreasing trend.
Thus, all safety measures and regulations are highly sensitive, while now a trend is constant and every
minor error in safety will theoretically result in accident or injury.
However, all subsequent additional security safety measures and regulations are welcome and are
designed to improve or at least maintain the achieved safety of workers.

182

REFERENCES
[1] Ruff, T., Coleman, P., Martini, L.: Machine-related injuries in the US mining industry and priorities
for safety research. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2011 Mar;18(1):1120. doi: 10.1080/17457300.2010.487154.
[2] Gibbs, M.N.: Variational Gaussian process classifiers. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 11 (6):
pp. 14581464. doi:10.1109/72.883477.
[3] Makovek, B.: Delajmo varno!, Rudar, March 2013,
http://www.rlv.si/si/files/default/Rudar/RUDAR%2003%202013_edit.pdf (October 25, 2014)
[4] Vuli, M.: Sigmoidna funkcija (Internal Mine Surveying Lecture Series). University of Ljubljana,
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana 2013.
[5] Maiti, J. and Bhattacherjee, A.: Predicting accidents susceptibility: a logistic regression analysis of
underground coal mine workers. The Journal of The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
pp. 203-208, July 2001.

183

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

APPLICABILITY OF 3D LASER SCANNING DATA IN UNDERGROUND


CONSTRUCTIONS
Gregor Novakovic1, Simon Kovacic2, Milivoj Vulic3
2
S Infrastruktura, d. o. o., Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Abstract: The paper discusses the Terrestrial 3D Laser Scanning (TLS) method as a comprehensive and systematic
approach to capturing and analyzing spatial as well as other parameters in underground constructions. The
effectiveness of the TLS method in underground facilities is confirmed and demonstrated through a characteristic
example - a tunnel. Laser scanning measurements produce a dense cloud of geo-located points, which is, in addition
to 3D data (xyz), also represented by the value of the intensity of the reflected laser beam. The intensity of the
reflected laser beam is conditioned by the technical characteristics of the measurements as well as by the material
properties of the surface area.
The data resulting from the measurements were interpreted with two methods, a spatial analysis of radial deviation
between the actual and the ideal geometric form and with a map of moist areas. These methods are intended for
forensic examinations of the geometric situation and identification, i.e. for the mapping of water seepage areas. In
the future, monitoring and identical interpretation methods will enable studies estimating the relative impacts
between the anthropogenic shape of the tunnel and the hydrogeological factors of the surrounding rocks.
Keywords: Spatial Analysis, Underground Safety, Terrestrial 3D Laser Scanning, Deviation Analysis, Moisture

1. INTRODUCTION
A point cloud is a direct result of TLS measurements, usually defined by the spatial coordinates of
individual points. The added value of each point is the intensity of the reflection of the laser beam,
which is also indicative of the material properties of the measured surface. The quantity of such a
format of the recorded measurements (ASCII; xyzi) is often too challenging for conventional software
and hardware to process. Thus, this large amount of data needs to first be optimized by making planar
3D models or 2D plans [1]. This paper discusses two methods of direct point cloud interpretation, i.e.
analysis of geometrical deviations of the point cloud with respect to the reference model, and analysis of
the intensity value of the reflected laser beam with regards to the material property of the tunnel walls.
Some possibilities of data interpretations on metric maps as well as assessments of potential impacts
between the shape and humidity of the tunnel tube walls are shown.

2. METHODS, MATERIALS
2.1 Terrestrial 3D laser scanning
Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is a remote sensing method that determines the shape of an object. The
direct result of the measurements is visualized as a dense set of spatially located points. In addition to the
184

spatial record each point also contains the value of the intensity of the reflected laser beam and a possible
color (RGB) value that can be obtained through calibrated synchronous photographing.
Today several types of terrestrial and mobile laser scanners exist, which vary depending on the technical
and performance characteristics as well as the price. The first classification distinguishes between timeof-flight scanners and phase scanners. Phase scanners operate on the principle of measuring the phase
difference between the emitted signal and the received signal. They are distinguished by high speed
(>500,000 points/second) and excellent accuracy (<2 mm/50 m) of measurements. On the other hand,
time-of-flight scanners operate on the principle of measuring the time between the transmission and the
reception of the signal, and are distinguished mainly by their long range, which can exceed 4 km [1].

Figure 1 Working principle of two different types of laser scanners: phase based and time-of-flight.
Image courtesy of the UC Davis AHMCT Research Center: http://www.ahmct.ucdavis.edu [2].
Due to the contactless and systematic collection of data the TLS method enables the production of
detailed and high-resolution metric maps for various interpretive purposes such as:

Analysis and control of the shape and spatial orientation of the object;
Mapping and classification of fractures;
Clearance analysis.

2.1.1 Point Cloud


The point cloud is a direct result of 3D scanner measurements and represents a large number of points on
an object's surface. Usually, each of the points is defined by its recorded 3D coordinates (x, y, z). In
addition to the spatial coordinates, useful information is also given by the intensity of the reflected laser
beam, which is also recorded.
In cases such as tunnel scanning, a larger number of instrument positions is required in order to achieve a
complete coverage of the terrestrial laser measurements. Each scanner position generates its own
coordinate system, which is transformed into the same coordinate system in the registration process using
a 6-parametric transformation. By applying the registration, we get a registered point cloud as a whole,
describing in detail the shape and spatial orientation of the object being measured [1].
These data are generally written in the standard ASCII form and are due to their quantity very extensive
and consequently useless for direct use. Thus, it is usually necessary to digitally process them into
standard 3D surface models. This process represents the most demanding part of data manipulation.
The cloud point is a metric data set, therefore it can be directly used with specific software tools, e.g. for
the analysis of deviations and visualizations on the basis of the reflected laser beam intensity.

185

2.1.2 Reflected laser beam intensity


The intensity of the reflected laser beam gives semantic information about the scanned surface, which has
not been used often in the 3D scanning technology. Only recently have scientific studies been carried out
on this subject [3]. The intensity is described as the calculated value based on the strength of the received
and emitted laser beam and is given by a value from 0 to 8160 [3, 4, 5].
The intensity depends on the recording characteristics, weather conditions and material properties of the
measured surface. In this paper we interpret the latter - material properties, namely its moisture.

3. RESULTS
3.1 As Built As Designed deviation analysis
In order to show the direct metric usability of a point cloud, we selected a section of an older rail tunnel
where different factors cause its profile shape to change over the years. An analysis of radial deviation of
the actual situation was made by simulating an ideal situation. The ideal situation model was constructed
from the average profiles and was then symmetrically corrected. Both models were transformed into the
same coordinate system. For the analysis of deviations an open source software tool called
CloudCompare was used. In this case, the principle of the deviation visualization is based on two sets of
input data: the point cloud that describes the actual form of the surface, and the reference model. The
result of the analysis is a colored point cloud, where the color values represent the shortest distance or the
normal from the point to the surface [6].

Figure 2 "As Built - As Designed" radial deviation analysis; perspective and orthogonal side views
For further interpretation purposes a tool showing the radial deviation in a single 2D profile has also been
studied. For this analysis a 30-day trial version of Geomagic Qualify was used, the result of which is
shown in Figure 3. It should be noted that the number and choice of the locations as well as the profile
direction options are unlimited.

186

Figure 3 "As built - As designed" radial deviation analysis; 2D profile analysis

4. DISCUSSION
Based on the intensity of the laser reflection and the visualization of its value, special software can be
used to identify moist areas on the tunnel walls [7]. In addition to the 3D perspective views and
interactive inspections, orthogonal metric maps can be made from the side and top orthogonal
perspectives. This type of mapping, which is based on periodic measurements, allows the analysis of the
dynamics and surface moisture of the walls in different seasons. Figure 4 shows the identification of
moist areas through interactive adjustments of different parameters in the CloudCompare program.

Figure 4 Perspective view of identifying moist areas with interactive adjustments of intensity parameters

Figure 5 Side perspective of the tunnel wall with interactive adjustments of intensity parameters
Given the high level of deviations as well as the high proportion of moist surfaces, we decided to compare
the two maps. In order to evaluate the potential relative correlations between the observed features, the
deviation map and the moisture map were both transformed into the same coordinate system with the
same orientation. Figure 6 demonstrates that by using this approach the correlations between moisture and
shape of the tunnel wall cannot be identified in the selected section of the tunnel tube.
187

Figure 6 Relative correlation between shape deviation and moisture map

5. CONCLUSION
In addition to the primary geometric data, the possibility of using the intensity of the reflected laser beam
proved to be suitable for the identification and mapping of moist areas in the tunnel. The advantage of this
type of mapping is that in addition to the surface of the moist areas we also get 3D information of the
location. 3D scanning can be carried out without the need of illuminating the areas, which in longer
tunnels can be both time consuming and difficult to ensure. The technology also showed its multiapplicability, as it is possible to carry out a number of technical operations, both from direct
measurements, as well as those related to material properties from one 3D scanning session alone. During
the preparation of this article a new challenge for future research arose, namely to identify and verify a
tool to create 2D metric maps that would be presented as an "unfolded" surface of the tunnel tube.

REFERENCES
[1] Frhlich, C., Mettenleiter, M. (2004). Terrestrial Laser Scanning New Perspectives In 3D
Surveying, International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. XXXIII, part B5/1.
Germany, 7 13.
[2] California Department of Transportation. (2011). Surveys Manual, Chapter 15, Terrestrial Laser
Scanning Specifications, 15 31.
http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/row/landsurveys/SurveysManual/15_Surveys.pdf (20.3.2015)
[3] Ramak vab Lenari, A. (2009). Use of lidar data for land cover classification. Master od Science
Thesis. Ljubljana, Univerza v Ljubljani, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic engineering.
http://www.pif.si/dokumenti/29/2/2010/Mag_ASL_2009_433.pdf (18.3.2015)
[4] Kaasalainen, S., Jaakkola, A., Kaasalainen, M., Krooks, A., Kukko, A. (2011). Analysis of Incidence
Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods.
Remote Sensing(3), 2207-2221.
[5] Blaskow, R., Schneider, D. (2014). Analysis And Correction Of The Dependency Between Laser
Scanner Intensity Values And Range. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote
Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XL-5, ISPRS Technical Commission V
Symposium, Italy. 107 112.
[6] Van Gosliga, R., Lindenbergh, R., Pfeifer, N. (2006). Deformation analysis of a bored tunnel by
means of terrestrial laser scanning. In Proceedings of International Archives of Photogrammetry,
Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Dresden, Germany, September 2527, 2006; Vol.
XXXVI (Part 5), 167 172.
[7] Laurent, J., (2014). Use of 3D Scanning Technology for Automated Inspection of Tunnels
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014., Brazil.
http://www.pavemetrics.com/pdf/9.TunnelScanning_Pavemetrics_Euro.pdf (19.3.2015)
188

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL LJUBLJANSKO


POLJE AQUIFER (SLOVENIA)
Janja Vrzel1,2, Nives Ogrinc2,3, Goran Vizintin4
Ecological Engineering Institute, Maribor, Slovenia,
2
International Postgraduate School Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
4
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia
1

Abstract: The regional steady state model of groundwater flow in Ljubljansko polje aquifer is under preparation. It
will provide a framework for the development of regional transient state groundwater flow model, which will be
extended into transport model, where 18O, 2H and 3H isotopes will be used as transport materials. The model is
constructed with software FEFLOW 6.1. At the present the conceptual model is available. The groundwater model
will extend our knowledge about interactions between surface and groundwater in studied area.
Keywords: Conceptual Model, Groundwater Model, Ljubljansko Polje, FEFLOW

1. INTRODUCTION
The groundwater model is a simplification of complex natural system an aquifer, which based on the
knowledge of its past and present behaviour [1]. Modelling is long-running process and its approach depends
on the purpose of models. However, in general it can be divided into several steps: (1) conceptual model
development, (2) numerical model implementation, (3) development of a steady state model, (4) extension of
the steady state model to the transient model, (5) extension of the hydrodynamic model into transport model,
(6) the calibration and sensitivity analysis follow after development of each model [2].
Conceptualisation is a process that provides the basis for model design and describes how the system
works. If a model is conceptually poor, no amount of calibration can fix it. Therefore, a lot of attention on
the conceptualisation process should be putted [1]. Groundwater model requires a lot of data, which are
limited, incomplete or non-existing usually, therefore several assumptions have to be taken into account.
Several software for groundwater modelling exist, one of them is a finite element flow simulation system
FEFLOW v6.1 from MIKE Powered by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI). It is a software package for
three dimensional (3D) visualization of groundwater flow, mass transfer and heat transport in porous media.
This software has some advantages over other similar software (e.g. MODFLOW): (1) an ability to treat
irregular shapes of a complex model boundary; (2) to refine the density of the mesh around features (e.g.
wells, rivers, border, etc); (3) to simulate a groundwater age and transport of stable isotopes [3].
The aim of our work is to develop a regional steady state model that will provide a framework for the
development of regional transient groundwater model for the whole Ljubljansko polje aquifer system.
The groundwater will be extended into a transport model describing the transport of stable isotopes of O
and H and 3H activity. An importance of the conceptual model is realised, therefore a lot of effort and
189

time were invested into conceptualisation. Its main innovation is high resolution of geometry of Savas
bed, therefore a higher stability of the model during the calibration is expected.

2. STUDY AREA
The Ljubljansko polje aquifer covers a 70.85 km2 large area, which is located in the central part of
Slovenia (Fig. 1). It is bounded with coordinates: 46.12N, 46.08N, 14.43E and 14.64E. The
unconfined aquifer in the studied area, which is one of the most important water sources for Ljubljana and
its soundings, has an intergranular porosity and it is mainly composed of fluvial sediments, which are
Pleistocene and Holocene silty sand gravel and sandy gravel with lens of conglomerates. Layers of clay or
clay with gravel-stone are located only in the local spots [6]. Outcrops of hard pen, which is composed of
impermeable rocks, appear in entjakob, rnue and in Tacen.

Figure 1 Map of the Ljubljansko Polje aquifer with locations where water was sampled for isotopic
analyses.

3. AVAILABLE DATA
Required data are: (1) drilling reports; (2) the counter map of the hard pen depth; (3) elevations of
piezometric groundwater table in 49 piezometers in time period 20102011; (4) groundwater abstractions
from 35 wells in time period 20102011; (5) digital elevation model (DEM); (6) LiDAR data for the Sava
floodplain; (7) Sava cross-sections; (8) grid of water infiltration in studied area; (9) isotopic analyses. The
ArcMap and AutoCAD Map were used for data processing before using FEFLOW. The model is in
D48/GK coordinate system, therefore the data in ETRS 1989 coordinate system needed a transformation.

4. HYDROLOGY
Ljubljansko polje aquifer recharges mainly through infiltration of precipitation and river water, as well as
through lateral underground inflows of groundwater [5, 9]. Underground inflows occur where the hard
pen is deep enough that groundwater is able to recharge the aquifer from Ljubljansko Barje in south and
from Kamniko-Mengeko polje in north [5]. However, the underground inflow is still not very well
known therefore a study about it should be made in the future.
An amount of infiltration of precipitation into the aquifer was calculated with GROWA (Grorumiges
Wasserhaushaltsmodel) model by the Slovenian Environmental Agency (ARSO). The inflow was
calculated through real evapotranspiration, where further parameters were taken into account: climate
conditions, surface water, land use, soil feature, topography, geological composition and depth to the
water table [6].
190

The Sava is one of the most important sources of groundwater in Ljubljansko polje aquifer, although it
does not recharge the aquifer along its entire length. The Sava inflows into the Ljubljansko polje aquifer
between Tacen and entjaob [7], while the groundwater recharges the Sava downstream of entjakob. It
is important to highlight that there are some locations where the Savas bed is in the hard pen, therefore
the river-groundwater interactions do not occur. An important loss of groundwater is also water supply.
There are four pumping stations in Ljubljansko polje: Klee, Jarki prod, Hrastje and entvid. The largest
is in Klee, where 55% of drinking water was pumped in 2003 [8].
The direction of groundwater flow within the Ljubljansko polje aquifer is toward southeast in general.
However, groundwater mining has a large influence on the hydrodynamic in the aquifer [9].

5. MODEL GEOMETRY
Model geometry with high resolution was constructed (Fig. 2). The outcrops of Permian and
Carboniferous rocks, the Ljubljanica and Kamnika Bistrica rivers were the main criteria for definition of
the lateral borderline, as well as for the bottom border of the model. The counter map of the hard pen
(bottom border of the model) was already defined by hydrogeologist in the past. However it was
reconstructed according to later drilling reports and digitalized geological map now. According to the
geological composition of the aquifer was established that the division of the model on five horizontal
modelled layers are the most appropriate. The surface of the model was generated with digital elevation
model 25 x 25 m (DEM) and Savas alluvial floodplain with LiDAR data 5 x 5 m. Since, the LiDAR
technique is unable to scan the area covered with water, the Savas bed geometry was generated with
approximately 120 river cross-sections data sets, which were measured in 2007 and 2010. The distance
between cross-sections range from approximately 20 m to 690 m along the flow path.
95,788 finite elements were used for mesh generation with triangle algorithm. Its density is approximately
50 % higher in floodplain, and even higher in the Savas bed and around wells and piezometers.

Figure 2 The study area of the conceptual model with wells (pink dots).

6. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS


Two types of boundary conditions (BC) were used: Neumann BC where an inflow/outflow under the
ground is present and Cauchy BC in the Savas bed, where surface-groundwater interactions occur.
191

The steady state model is based on: (1) the water table measured in 17 January, 2010 (statistically
presenting high medium groundwater table), (2) water abstractions in time period 1522 January, 2010,
(3) and infiltration of precipitation, which occurs during high medium groundwater table.

7. CONCLUSION
The conceptual model of Ljubljansko polje aquifer was constructed, which will be further developed into
the steady state groundwater flow model. The main advantage of the conceptual model is the construction
of very precise geometry of the study area, especially the topography of the Savas bed, which was
constructed with LiDAR data and river cross sections data. The hard pen is determined as the bottom
border of the five model layers. The existing counter hard pen map was updated according to later drilling
reports and digitalized geological map. The calibration is running at this point. A non-linear inverse
modelling code, so called parameter estimation (PEST) is used for estimation of hydraulic conductivity.
Pilot points are used in this purpose.

Acknowledgment
The model is under preparation as a part of the on going EU 7 th Research Project GLOBAQUA (Managing the
effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystem under water scarcity). The research is partially supported by the
Environmental Social Found (KROP 2012). The authors would like to thank all those who allow using their data:
Javno Podjetje Vodovod-Kanalizacija Ljubljana, The City Municipality of Ljubljana, Holding Slovenske Elektrarne
d.o.o., Pivovarna Union d.d., Slovenian Environmental Agency and The Surveying and Mapping Authority of the
Republic of Slovenia. Special thanks go to Mrs. Branka Brai eleznik, who helped us with her advices as a
hydrologist and specialist of Ljubljansko polje aquifer.

REFERENCES
[1] Barnett, B., Townley, L. R., Post, V., Evans, R. E., Hunt, R. J., Peeters, L., Richardson, S., Werner,
A.D., Knapton, A., Boronkay, A. Australian groundwater modelling guidelines. National Water
Commission, 2012. ISBN: 978-1-921853-91-3.
[2] Knapton, A. Regional Groundwater Modelling of the Cambrian Limestone Aquifer System of the Wiso
Basin.Georgia Basin and Daly Basin. Department of Natural Resources, Environmental & The Arts,
2006, ISBN 978-1-921519-63-5.
[3] MIKE
Prowered
by
DHI.
FEFLOW,
Advanced
groundwater
modelling.
http://www.mikepoweredbydhi.com/products/feflow, 2015.
[4] Brai eleznik, B., Pintar, M., Urbanc, J.. Naravne razmere vodonosnika. Podtalnica Ljubljanskega
polja, Edited by Irena Rejec Brancelj, Ale Smrekar, Drago Kladnik. Zaloba ZRC, 2005, pp. 17-26,
ISBN 961-6500-68-6.
[5] Cerar, S., Urbanc, J. Carbonate Chemistry and isotope characteristics of groundwater of Ljubljansko
polje and Ljubljansko barje aquifers in Slovenia. The Scientific World Journal; No 2013; (2013), pp.
1-11. ISSN 2356-6140.
[6] Andjelov, M., Mikuli, Z., Uhan, J., Dolinar, M. Vodna bilanca z modelom GROWA-SI za koliinsko
ocenjevanje vodnih virov Slovenije. Miievi vodarski dnevi; No 2013; (2013), pp. 127-133.
[7] Andjelov, M., Bat, M., Frantar, P., Mikuli, Z., Savi, V., Uhan, J.. Pregled elementov vodne bilance.
Podtalnica Ljubljanskega polja, Edited by Irena Rejec Brancelj, Ale Smrekar, Drago Kladnik.
Zaloba ZRC, 2005, pp. 17-26, ISBN 961-6500-68-6.
[8] Brai-eleznik, B., Jamnik, B. Javna oskrba s pitno vodo. Podtalnica Ljubljanskega polja, Edited by
Brancelj, I. R., Smrekar, A., Kladnik, D., Zaloba ZRC, 2005, pp. 17-26, ISBN 961-6500-68-6.
[9] Auersperger, P., enur Curk, B., Jamnik, B., Jana, M, Kus, J., Prestor, J., Urbanc, J. Dinamika
podzemne vode. Podtalnica Ljubljanskega polja, Edited by Irena Rejec Brancelj, Ale Smrekar, Drago
Kladnik. Zaloba ZRC, 2005, pp. 17-26, ISBN 961-6500-68-6.

192

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

WELL OPTIMIZATION IN VELENJE COAL MINE USING 3D FINITHE


ELEMENTS MODELING
Zeljko Vukelic, Evgen Dervaric, Goran Vizintin
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract: Since the beginning of mining works at Velenje coal-mine the groundwater was and is still presenting a
constant treat to underground works. Hydrogeological situation is so complex that a lot of structural drilling and welllogging operations were needed in the past to make it clearer. The multilayer aquifer system composed manly from
sends permeable layers and clays impermeable layers was discovered in the past to lie over the lignite seam. In 1981
the Pliocene and Quaternary roof aquifers were divided into three packages. On the basis of water table in a single
aquifer, pumping reactions, chemical analyses of the groundwater, geophysical properties the Pliocene aquifers
directly above the seam and isolative layers were divided in the first water bearing sands (Pl1), the aquifers placed 20
- 80 m above the coal seam (Pl2) and upper Pliocene aquifers (Pl3). The most interesting aquifers are the first waterbearing sands. The pressure of the underground water in these sands directly affects the safety of mining. These
aquifers are mostly affected by the dewatering activities too. However the dewatering objects (wells) are constructed in
the way to capture the whole Pl2 and somewhere even a part of Pl3 complex too. These aquifers are thicker and give
up to 90% of all the Pliocene roof water. Some wells are dewatering only the Pl2 and Pl3 aquifers and indirectly lower
the pressure in the Pl1. The water pressure in this multilayer aquifer can go over 50 bars and a massive program of
drawdown activities was needed and is still need for decreasing the water table in the area concerning mining
operations. A special multilevel observations wells are used for monitoring the water level. Many 3D finite different
models (FDM) were made for a regional estimation of the water drawdown. It has been observed that the FDM are
very good in making the prediction of the regional situation, but it was also noticed that a model predicted drawdown
is less then observed on the observations points. This is well known problem of the FDM in which the drawdown is
reader a function of the cell size then of the current flow situation. The risk of water flooding will increase especially
after the year 2012 and 2017 when a series of wells connected in pumping line batteries will stop to exist due to
excavation works and mining subsidence effects. This is meaning that dewatering procedures have to be severely
overviewed. As a plan for the replacement of destroyed first order dewatering structures a series of drive in filters
will be build around the entering and exiting tunnels of the longwall face. For their optimitization a FDM seems to be
not adequate. Especially if a wrong drawdown and pumping flow prediction is taken in account. For this reason in
year 2011 the finite elements method (FEM) was selected for making the prediction of groundwater drawdown and
water pumping rates on the areas were the underground works will enter in the high risk area. On the basis of the
FEM prediction the optimization of drive in filters was made.
Keywords: Groundwater, Optimitization, 3D Finite Different Models (FDM)

1. INTRODUCTION
The Velenje Coal-mine is one of the largest and most modern equipped collieries in Europe. It is situated
in the north-eastern part of central Slovenia where the aleka Valley represents a tectonic depression,
filled up with more than 1000 m of Pliocene sediments. The sedimented materials represent the complete
sedimentation cycle which covers the terrestrial, swamp and lake phases in both directions. This sequence
is sometimes interrupted with fluviatile sediments transported from the northern and north-western side
(Lajlar, 1997).
193

Coal extraction in the Velenje coal-mine has been carried out uninterruptedly since the end of the 19th
century, during which time several stopping methods for excavation of wide coal seams have been tested.
In the first half of the century the room and pillar and block caving were used. Since 1947 however, the
longwall mining method with improvements has been practised and called The Velenje longwall method
(Mavec, 1998). Velenje coal-mine is producing lignite from the coal seam which dimensions are
astonished. The coal seam is more or less continues body which is 8.3 km long, 2.5 km wide and more
than 160 meters thick. Its deepness is varying from 200 up to 500 meters below the surface. In the central
part, the exploitable seam is up to 168 m thick. In the central part the seam is most deeply deposited
(approx. 450 m) and in the marginal parts it is closer to surface (approx. 100 m) (Fig. 1). In the lower part
of the seam the coal gradually gets more ash contents however, the upper margin is very sharp. The coal
seam is covered by marl with fossil snails followed by mudstone, sometimes laminated or massive.
Within this mudstone, intercalations of water bearing sands and gravel of changeable thickness appear.

Figure 1 Geological cross section (west-east) of Velenje lignite mine. The multilayer aquifer system is
composed from sends strata lying directly on the lignite stratum (Mavec, 1998).
The layer between coal seam and the first sands above is called isolation or the protective layer. This
isolation prevents water and mud inrushes into the excavated spaces (Mavec, 1998). However during the
mining works the big open spaces are making and protecting layer is breaking and multilayer aquifer
sends and gravels come into a contact with the lignite seam. Because of this the groundwater pressure in
the multilayer aquifer has to be constantly monitoring (Supovec, 1989) and groundwater modelling has to
be used for making a prediction of underground hydrological situation. In the past FDM numerical
models were used.
The most successful predictions ware made with Visual ModFlow. Even the Visual ModFlow was the
best in making the prediction and is widely used in Velenje, its limitation were impending its used in
predicting the hydrological situation on a short scale (Marsily, 1986). This problem is very well known
for a long time and different approaches have to be found out. The main problem is that the FDM is
producing groundwaters drawdown which is more function of the cell size than of the current flow
situation (Bear 1992).

2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SITUATION
In general in Velenje coal-mine three hydrogeological systems can be distinguished (Veseli, 1986,
Supovec, 1989 & Mavec, 1998): The upper quaternary system is one, its lower border is anticipated as
Pliocene - quaternary border. The Pliocene system is the lower one and is separated from the coal seam
by the isolation and the floor aquifers in side the water bearing layers of Triassic dolomites on the north,
lithotamnic limestone aquifer in the central part and Pliocene aquifers laying below the coal seam and
inside it. For the safety reasons the most important are the Pliocene aquifers lying over coal seam. It was
194

in 1981 when the roof aquifers were divided into Pliocene and quaternary aquifers (Veseli, 1986). The
division was performed on the basis of water table in a single aquifer, pumping reactions, chemical
analyses of the water and geophysical properties. The Pliocene aquifers were then particularly divided
into three packages. The aquifers directly above the seam and isolative layer - first water bearing sands
(Pl1), the aquifers placed 20 - 80 m above the coal seam (Pl2) and upper Pliocene aquifers (Pl3) (Lajlar
1997). From the view of safety criterias the first and second sends (P11 & Pl2) are the most important.
The high pressure in it can directly affecting the below underground works. The elevation of first sends in
year 2007 is presented on the Fig. 2.
The layer between coal seam and the first sands above is called isolation or the protective layer. This
isolation prevents water and mud inrushes into the excavated spaces (Mavec, 1998). However during the
mining works the big open spaces are making and protecting layer is breaking and multilayer aquifer
sends and gravels come into a contact with the lignite seam. Because of this the groundwater pressure in
the multilayer aquifer has to be constantly monitoring (Supovec, 1989) and groundwater modelling has to
be used for making a prediction of underground hydrological situation. In the past FDM numerical
models were used.
The most successful predictions ware made with Visual ModFlow. Even the Visual ModFlow was the
best in making the prediction and is widely used in Velenje, its limitation were impending its used in
predicting the hydrological situation on a short scale (Marsily, 1986). This problem is very well known
for a long time and different approaches have to be found out. The main problem is that the FDM is
producing groundwaters drawdown which is more function of the cell size than of the current flow
situation (Bear 1992).

Figure 2 3D elevation map of Pliocene water bearing sands P11 & Pl2 in year 2007.
It is clear that underground works will increase the open spaces, in which the upper material lying over
the coal seam will go in. The mining effects will also affect the pumping rates. The pumping wells shown
in red rectangles on the Fig. 2 will stop to work in 2017. This will happen because of the coal excavation
operations directly bellow the area where the wells are (Fig. 2). So the elevation map of sands Pl1 & Pl2
will change to the situation presented on the Fig. 3.

195

Figure 3 3D elevation map of Pliocene water bearing sands Pl1 & Pl2 in year 2017.
138200

P-6ut-II/01

BV-5/85
PM-8a/04

138100

PM-8a/04

P-5r/00

P-8z/92

PN-8b/99

P-6r/00

jv3230-K/05

P-6r/00

P-4o/91

PM-8/96
jv3276-k/05
jv3276-K/05
jv3221-K/04

P-6p/79

138000
BV-24/98
jv3319-k/07

PN-8a/86

jv3069-K/02
BV-22

BV-23/96
PM-7/67

137900

P-6o/89

jv3092-k/02

PM-7a/01
PM-7a/01

PO-11a/89

jv3117-k/02

jv3094K/02
jv3317-K/07

BV-26

P-7m/92

137800

jv3118-k/02
BV-27

P-7m/92
jv3050-k/01

jv3316-K/07
PO-12/88

BV-28

jv3080-K/02

jv3139-K/03
jv3286-k/05

137700

V-12z/86
jv3082-k/02

BV-29

jv3272-k/05

V-12v/87
V-12u/86
jv3324/06

s1

137600

P-10o/97

jv3358_K/07

V-12t/86
s2

P-10o/97

jv3047-k/02

jv3311-K/07

V-11r/86
jv3288-k/05
V-11p/86
V-11o/86

137500

V-11n/88
jv3308_k/06

137400

jv3248-k/05

jv3326-K/06

P-9k/92
P-10k/88

137300

jv3081-k/02

P-11j/95

137200
s4

137100
s3
s7

s6

s5

137000

s10
s8

s9

136900
504600

504700

504800

504900

505000

505100

505200

505300

505400

505500

505600

505700

505800

505900

506000

506100

506200

506300

Figure 4 Map of groundwater heads of water bearing sands Pl1 & Pl2 in year 2007 (nort vertical
orientated). The underground vertical pumping wells are presented with labels VF (black points)
As it has been shown the groundwater pressure in sends Pl1 & Pl2 is the most important. Using the data
from multilevel piezometrs we were able to reproduce the groundwater table (Fig 4). It is obvious that the
groundwater depression is results of long term dewatering occurring because of water extraction with the
pumping wells. For minimizing the effects of closed pumping well battery the vertical pumping wells in
bottom will be made, so called drive in filters (Fig. 4.). The drive in filters will not start to work at the
same time, but their starts and ends will depend on the excavating processes with the longwall method.

3. MODELING
To predict the effects of lowering sends, shutdown of pumping battery due to mining works and
replacement of shutdown wells with drive in filters around longwall face entering and exiting tunnels (Fig
4 & Fig. 5) a 3D FEM was used. For modelling a FeFlow 5.1 modelling program for flow, mass and heat
transport was selected. Using the grids already presented on Fig. 2 and Fig. 4 we first calibrate the model
to the current hydrological and mining situation. After the calibration we used the calculated and
196

calibrated heads as initial condition. For the flow boundary we select the Cauchy type on the north, northwest and north-east (Fig. 5) part of the model. The extraction from old remaining wells was selected as a
single source/sings boundary (Fig. 5). For the pumping rates we select the average rates from years 2005
to 2006. For the estimation of underground vertical wells pumping rates a Dirichlet boundary condition
was used. The heads of Dirichlet boundary conditions were prescribed to the planed groundwater table. In
the model the starts and ends for underground vertical wells was also took in consideration. As an
example on Fig. 6 we are showing the maximum depression for the 230-th day of longwall face working
operation as a result of mathematical modelling. As can be seen the depression is the biggest around the
underground vertical wells. According to the development of water table depression it could be seen that
the dewatering due to underground vertical pumping wells is taking the effects (Fig 6). If we are
considering that the bottom of excavation stage is on 10 m.s.l. and looking at the Fig. 7 we can deduct
that the dewatering is full effective. But if we are looking at the groundwater levels on Fig. 7 we can also
see that after the pumping is stopped on the drive in filters a water table is start to rise up and in fact the
area would be flooded in less than 150 days.

Figure 5 FEM groundwater model, red points are presenting the active pumping wells, blue are
underground pumping wells (Dirichlet b.c.) and pink points are presenting Cauchy b.c.

Figure 6 Predicted groundwater table depression in year 2017 after 230 days working operations on a
longwall face. All underground vertical wells are on. (North vertical orientated)
197

4. CONCLUSIONS
Using the FEM methods we were able to make more accurate prediction of groundwater table. The draw
downs predicted with the FEM are much higher than with FDM. From our previous experience (Supovec,
2006) and from literature Marsily (1986) and (Bear 1992) we could observed that the calculated
drawdown on the bases of FDM were and are more function of the cells size than of the true flow
situation. This can be avoided with the large decrease of cells size but it would be resulting in a FDM
numerical instability and slow numerical computing. So the FEM was used. On the basis of FEM
prediction it can be said that the planed dewatering program has sense. But some attention has to be put
on fast groundwater table rise after the vertical wells are stopped. This has to be avoiding with the
decreasing of time between passings from one longwall face to another.

Figure 7 Predicted drawdown curves for drive in filters positioned around the longwall.

REFERENCES
[1] Bear, J., and Verruijt, A., 1992: Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution. D. Reidel Publishing
Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 414 pp.
[2] Lajlar, Bojan, Supovec, Ivan. Prognosis of the dewatering effects in the Pliocene aquifers in Velenje
colliery using mathematical model. V: VESELI, Miran (ur.), NORTON, Peter J. (ur.). Mine water and the
environment : proceedings. Ljubljana: IRGO; [Granada]: IMWA, 1997, 1997, vol. 1, str. 159-173.
[3] Marsily, de, G., 1986: Quantitative Hydrogeology, Groundwater Hydrology for Engineers. Masson,
Editeur, Paris, 440 pp.
[4] Mavec, Marko, Supovec, Ivan. Pliocene aquifer dewatering in Velenje coal mine and its effects on
land subsidence. V: Norton, Peter J. (ur.), Veseli, Miran (ur.). Mine water and the environment :
proceedings. Johannesburg: IMWA, 1998, vol. 1, str. 75-86, ilustr.
[5] Supovec, Ivan, Veseli, Miran. Poroilo o modeliranju pliocenskih vodonosnikov v RLV. Ljubljana:
Geoloki zavod, december 1989. 27 f., 16 pril., graf. prikazi.
[6] Supovec, Ivan, Lenart, Marjan in Jamnikar, Sergej. Napoved uinkovitosti odvodnjevanja pliocenskih
peskov z barano progo po kadunji. Raziskovalno razvojna naloga. Konno poroilo, maj 2011. 34
str., 66 pril., graf. prikaz. Premogovnik Velenje
[7] Veseli, Miran, Supovec, Ivan. Analiza odvodnjevanja pliocenskih krovninskih vodonosnikov s
poskusnimi vodnjaki ob jamski progi na koti - 72 v letih 1984-1986. Ljubljana: Geoloki zavod, junij
1986. 12 f., pril., graf. prikazi.
[8] Vukeli, eljko, porin, Jurij, Viintin, Goran. Pore pressure. RMZ-mater. geoenviron., 2004, vol. 51,
no. 4, str. 2117-2125, ilustr.
198

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

EXPLOATATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN TERMS OF


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Cvjetko Stojanovic, Biljana Borovic
MH Electric Power of Republic of Srpska, Trebinje, M&TPP Ugljevik, Republic of Srpska
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Abstract: One of the basic concepts of economics of natural resources and the environment is the concept of
sustainability or sustainable development. We are witnessing the intensive economic development on a global scale
directly caused disturbances to nature and the environment, causing the discrepancy between the economic systems
and nature becoming more than obvious. Increasingly powerful demands for achieving sustainable development
imposed as an imperative the creation of far more efficient environmental policy. From that point of view, both
present and future exploitation of mineral resources should be perceived, in order to meet the numerous challenges
and requirements or restrictions. The paper provides a brief presentation of the aforementioned problems with
prospective repercussions to the area of exploitation of mineral resources.
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Exploitation, Mineral Resources, Ecology

1. INTRODUCTION
Business operation of modern mining organizations is particularly dependant on very dynamic and complex
economic, social and political environments. When referring to the economic environment the primary goals
of business operation are minimal costs accompanied by maximum profit. The social impact involves social
values of the mining organization, particularly the developmental impact, followed by sociological aspect,
as well as the impact on the ecological system. The political environment is particularly important for
mining organizations, especially in terms of making important strategic decisions, since legislation and
institutional framework condition the common efforts of all environmental factors.
Viewed from today's perspective, one might say that the exploitation of mineral deposits, due to a number
of uncertainties and ever more stringent norms and standards, is performed in very complex conditions
which currently represent, or will represent in the foreseeable future a limiting factor in terms of design,
planning and preparation for exploitation, as well as in terms of the exploitation process.
When it comes to regional or global worldwide surface mining of coal for power generation, as a dominant
method and resource of exploitation, the aforementioned problems are even more evident, due to a number of
features included. On the other hand, the development of new knowledge in other scientific areas that support
the mining science provide ever more opportunities for its prospective application. Therefore, the objective of
sustainable and rational use of the given resource as well as of other types of mineral raw materials is to
analyze in detail and implement adequate procedures that would result in the increase of mineable reserves,
more efficient exploitation through better use of the deposit, as well as the accomplishment of a number of
demands placed, primarily related to environmental protection.
Otherwise, the discrepancy between the production and verification of new mineral reserves, as well as numerous
and increasingly stringent requirements and restrictions, will inevitably result in the closure of some mines.
199

2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT AND GENESIS


At the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the
establishment of the United Nations Environmental Program was initiated, which subsequently resulted in
the establishment of national environmental agencies in many countries. The same organization
established the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1983, which was later named the
Brundtland Commission, by its chairman.
Under increasing pressure from a number of government and non-governmental organizations, a second
conference on the environment was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where numerous very important
documents related to climate change were adopted. The following year, in 1993, the UN Commission for
Sustainable Development was established with its main objective being monitoring the implementation of
such documents.
Since then, many of the existing international institutions such as the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Bank (WB) and so on. have started to intensively promote
sustainable development through the provision of favourable loans to developing countries in order to
solve environmental problems.
The contemporary literature contains numerous different understandings of the notion of sustainability, as
well as of the concept of sustainable development. According to most authors, sustainable development is
a process that allows the development without degradation or depletion of the resources it is based on,
while all definitions of sustainable development could be classified into five groups.
The first group includes definitions stating that the term sustainable includes situation in which the gain
or level of consumption does not decrease over time.
In 1974, the famous American economist Robert Solow, winner of the Nobel Prize in economics, first
pointed out the need for inter-generational equality in the utilisation of natural resources. To put it simply,
a requirement was set with each generation of men having equal rights to harvest the benefits of nature,
i.e. the environment, and that only the form of economic development that makes such scenario possible
during an unlimited period of time can be considered as sustainable.
Somewhat similar to the above is the Brundtland Commission's Final Report, (United Nations: Report of
the World Commission on Environment and Development, General Assembly Resolution 42/87,
December 1987) stating that sustainable development is the one that meets the current needs, without
jeopardizing the abilities of other generations for fulfilling their own needs.
The second group of definitions refers to sustainable condition as the one in which resources are utilised
in such manner so that future production possibilities of mankind remain preserved. If we consider the
fact that the preferences of future generations remain unknown and that the future level and method of
utilisation of certain natural resources cannot be perceived, Solow chose to highlight the preservation of
production capabilities as the sustainability criteria.
This practically means that economic growth is likely to be sustained despite the expenditure of nonreproductive assets, provided that such reduction in resource deposits are compensated for by increasing
the quantity and quality of physical assets and accumulated intellectual assets.
From the above it can be concluded that there are significant opportunities for substitution of natural
assets or capital by some other forms of capital. If the capital is segmented onto natural and man-made,
and in order to fulfil the aforementioned sustainability criteria, it is important that the total capital stock
does not decrease over time, and that there is a balance between natural capital and man-made capital.
The third concept defines as sustainable the conditions in which the stock of natural capital does not
decrease over time. The assumption is that if the stock of natural resources is consumed over time, the
possibility of substitution of such resources will decrease. Hence the strict request for a development that
200

does not reduce the stock of certain natural resources, which is one of the items UNESCO insists on in its
documents.
The fourth definition characterizes as sustainable the state in which the resources are used in such manner
so that they deliver sustainable yield or growth. This interpretation of sustainability primarily corresponds
to the exploitation of renewable resources. If, however, it would generally apply to all kinds of natural
resources, such view would inevitably collide with the fact that resources are heterogeneous, thus
resulting in variable yield, which is hard to measure due to heterogeneity.
The fifth group of definitions is based on the concept of stability and balancing of ecological populations
through time. Namely, the state in which the minimum of ecosystem stability and balance is achieved, can
be considered as sustainable.
If we would accept the criterion of environmental sustainability as one of the objectives of development
policy, its performance would be reflected in avoiding accidents that may endanger the balance of the
ecosystem. To put it simply one of the basic tasks of environmental economics is to identify those
economic activities that favour sustainability versus those opposing or disrupting it.

3.PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


Most authors believe the concept of sustainable and balanced development should not be taken as a
specific definition, but as a process of change in relations established between social, economic and
natural systems and processes. In its essence, the concept of sustainable development is based on several
principles, which, among many others, include the following:
-

The principles of environmental sustainability, which provide that the development is compatible
with the maintenance of vital ecological processes.
The principle of social and cultural sustainability, which provide that the development is
compatible with the cultural and traditional values of human communities.
The principle of economic sustainability which provides that the development is economically
efficient and that the resources are managed in a way that they can be successfully used by future
generations.

Given the complexity of the demands are placed before human society it is obvious that the process of
change can only be achieved gradually. It is also obvious that no single economic sector nor the economy
as a whole, thus including the mining industry, can be considered successful if its prosperity is achieved
at the expense of future generations.

4.CONCLUSION
One of the basic preconditions for sustainable economic development in organizations dealing with the
exploitation of non-renewable natural resources is to increase the efficiency of their exploitation, in terms
of better utilization of reserves, minimizing the mismatch between production and the reserves being
exploited, by performing additional research, and through fulfilment of a number of demands, primarily
relating to protection of the environment.
If such options are exhausted, another way to compensate for reduction in the amount of resources is by
increasing the amount of capital generated by human activity, such as physical assets in the form of
infrastructure facilities or by constructing replacement capacities with accumulated intellectual assets,
considering that there are significant opportunities for substitution of natural assets with other alternative
forms.

201

In other words, disregard of the sustainability concept inevitably leads to inefficient economic
development in terms of a greater waste of existing resources and energy which seriously threatens the
future of generations to come. Similarly, environmental degradation must be timely prevented through
protective measures while respecting certain principles of economic policy that are of fundamental
importance for the realization of the sustainability concept.
Only by such understanding and, above all, such attitude towards non-renewable mineral resources, their
exploitation has a future. Otherwise, the growing demand and stringent standards are to pose as limiting
factors.

REFERENCES
[1] E. Kula: History of Environmental Economic Thought, London and New York, Routledge, 1998.
[2] R. M. Solow: Intergenerational Equity and Exhaustible Resources, Review of Economist Studies,
1974, p.p. 29-36.
[3] R. V. Pei: Economics of Natural Resources and Environment (orig. Ekonomija prirodnih resursa i
ivotne sredine), Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 2002, p.9-21, ISBN:86-80733-30-x.
[4] C. Stojanovi, A.Gaji: Strategic Management for Sustainable Development of Mining Coal Basins
(orig. Strategijski menadment u funkciji odrivog razvoja rudarskog basena uglja), Proceedings of
the 5th International Conference "COAL 2011", p. 339-349, Zlatibor, Serbia, 2011. str. -349, ISBN:
978-86-83497-17-1.
[5] M. Kezovi: Sustainable and Rational Utilisation of Kolubara Coal (orig. Odrivo i racionalno
korienje kolubarskog uglja), Proceedings, 3rd International Counseling, ENERGY AND MINING
2015, Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development, Zlatibor, Serbia, 2011, p. 201-210,
ISBN: 978-86-80809-96-0.

202

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

REGULATION OF SASKA RIVER WITH AIM FOR ENVIRONMETAL


PROTECTION AT No.4 FLOTATION TAILING DAM CONSTRUCTION
IN THE SASA MINE
Zoran Despodov, Dejan Mirakovski, Nikolinka Doneva, Stojane Mijalkovski, Zoran Panov
University Goce Delcev tip, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Republic of Macedonia

Abstract: In the paper will be presented the regulation of the Saska river flow by construction of diversion tunnel on
the No.4 Flotation tailing dam and its location in the surrounding rocks. Considering the negative experiences in the
regulation of the river flow with gallery tunnel which was made beneath the former flotation tailing dams,
management team of the Sasa mine decided to secure technical solution in terms of environmental protection.
Keywords: Saska River, Diversion Tunnel, Flotation Tailing Dam.

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Geographical location of the "Sasa" mine
Mine "Sasa" for production of lead and zinc concentrates is located in the north-eastern part of
R.Macedonia, in the central part of the Osogovo mountain range (Fig.1). Permission for exploitation of
mineral deposit was given to mining company Sasa LLC - Makedonska Kamenica.
Mine "Sasa" territorially belongs to the Municipality Makedonska Kamenica, close to the village Sasa,
and to the north-east "Sasa" mine extends near to the Macedonian-Bulgarian border. Administrative
building of "Sasa" mine is located at the mine, where also are located the plant for processing the
minerals and other working plants.
The main road of Sasa mine - M. Kamenica is with length of about 12 km, which connects the mine to
the regional road Delchevo Kochani. In the Municipality of Kochani which is away of "Sasa" mine for
38 km is situated the nearest railway station.

203

Figure 1 Location of the Sasa mine in Republic of Macedonia


Ore field "Sasa" consists of three ore deposits: "Svinja River, "Kozja River" and "Golema River" with
height from 750 to 1,700 meters, width from 2,000 m, and length to approximately 10.000 m. Currently
the active exploitation is in the ore deposit of "Svinja River".
1.2 Environmental description in the wider area of the "Sasa" mine
The relief of the wider area of the "Sasa" mine is mostly mountainous, and because of that, this area is
sparsely populated. Surrounding of the mine is rich in forests, especially with beech forest.
Municipality of Makedonska Kamenica covers an area of 190.37 km2. Within this Municipality there are 9
settlements, city of Makedonska Kamenica and the villages: Dulica, Kosevica, Kostin Dol, Lukovica,
Moshtica, Sasa, Todorovci and Cera. According to the statistical data of the R.Macedonia for 2005, this
Municipality has 8,110 people. In the village of Sasa, which is located near the mine live 876 inhabitants.
The area of the mine and the immediate surroundings are very rich with water. The river Saska and the other
rivers: Svinja river, Kozja river and Crvena river that originate from the site of ore deposit and flow into
Saska river, which further flows into Kamenichka river, throughout the whole year are rich with water.
South of town Makedonska Kamenica, the Kamenichka River flows into the river Bregalnica which flows
in the artificial lake for irrigation "Kalimanci" with a capacity of 127 million m3 stored water.
1.3 Description of "Sasa" mine as an industrial facility
The development path of Sasa mine started from 1954 when it was first made elaborate for calculation
of geological ore reserves in the region of Osogovo mountain range. Active mine production began in
1964. The maximum production of ore for the period when the mine was in public ownership accounted
for 625,000 t / year.
In the year 2006 the Sasa mine was bought by a Russian company, which restarted the production of
lead and zinc ore. The new ownership made a long term plan for production of ore for the period 20132024, in which the maximum output is limited to 750,000 t/y. The exploitation of the ore deposit in
Sasa mine is done by sublevel caving method.
The system for processing the raw minerals, designed for processing 900 000 tonnes of dry ore uses
method of flotation concentration. The end products of this technological process is lead and zinc
concentrate and flotation waste slag.
204

The waste flotation slag goes in the tailing dam (Fig.2, Fig.3), which is located near the mine in the
riverbed of Saska river.

Figure 2 Disposal of slag flotation - Tailing dam No.3/2


For the disposal of the slag flotation, in the next ten years is planned building new Tailing dam No.4. The
amount of waste flotation slag which is predicted to be placed in Tailing dam No.4 between years 2018 to
2024 is 3.471.300 t or 1.950.168 m3 of flotation slag.
The location of tailing dams in the Sasa mine and Saska river is shown in Fig.3.

Figure 3 Location of tailing dams and Saska River

2. HARMFUL IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AS A RESPONSE TO


INADEQUATE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS IN REGULATING SASKA RIVER
Construction of tailing dams 1; 2; 3/1 and 3/2 in the riverbed of Saska river get regulation of the water
flow solved with a technical solution for the construction of hydro-technical tunnel located mostly
beneath drainage sand (tailing dams 1 and 2) and in sediment lake section that passes through tailing
dams No. 3/1 and 3/2. In those sections the hydro-technical tunnel is made according the gallery method,
where first there is cementing of the section and then it is covered with waste slag flotation, Fig.4.

205

Figure 4 Hydro-technical tunnel made with gallery method


In 2003 on August 30th, in heavy rain, there was a blockage at the entrance of the collector 6, which
should accept stormwater from the right side of the tailing dam and bring them in the diversion tunnel of
Saska river.
The tailing dam was built on higher elevation than previously planned, which filled with water and
flooded with additional water layer with a height of about 1 meter. This additional weigh exceeded the
load capacity of the cover plate wich collapses and caused waste slag flotation of 150,000 m3 to leak
through the tunnel. Waste slag flotation flowed in to the Saska river, reaching artificial lake accumulation
Kalimanci. After this in the tailing dam was formed gap in shape like crater with diameter greater than
100 m, Fig.5, [3].
The amount of waste slag flotation which flowed by this diversion tunnel, caused enormous
environmental pollution along the Saska river while polluting the surface waters, soil and underground
waters. To fix this disaster, the Government of R.Macedonia has taken range of activities including:

Fixing the diversion tunnel of Saska river


Returning of the waste slag flotation in the tailing dam
Making a protective dam to protect from possible breaking of the tailing dam

Figure 5 Gap in shape like crater in tailing dam No.3/1, formed as a result of leakage of waste slag
flotation through diversion tunnel
206

3. TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR REGULATING SASKA RIVER WITH BUILDING


DIVERSION TUNNE IN SURROUNDING ROCK MASSES
Taking into account the negative experience with previous disaster, management of "Sasa" mine in
building the next tailing dam No.4, decided the regulating of Saska river to be perform in such a way so
the diversion tunnel be located in the surrounding rock masses (Fig.6).

Figure 6 Location of the diversion tunnel for regulation of Saska River in tailing dam No.4
It is planned the diversion tunnel in the right block of the valley to be connected to the existing tunnel,
and the location of its output construction is planned in the area downstream of the tailing dam No.4 [2].
The tunnel has a total length of 540 m, and its length is not exposed to the same loads because of various
geotechnical conditions in the surrounding rock masses. Therefore, for several specific sections is
performed structural analysis in PLAXIS software based on method for finite elements, which provides a
simple display of loads and deformed conditions of the surrounding rock masses.
The route of the tunnel is mostly located in the gneisses, which according the geomechanical
classification of Bienavski is located in category III of the working environment.
The hydro-technical tunnel has horseshoe shaped cross section with surface of Pis=18 m2, (Fig.7). The
primary constraction layer of the tunnel will be consist of sprayed concrete, anchor bolts and steel mesh,
while secondary constraction layer is reinforced concrete, (Fig.8).
For building the diversion tunnel will be used drilling and blasting technology using electro-hydraulically
drilling mechanisation [1]. For the transport of the excavated material will be used diesel-powered
machine with a shovel capacity of 2,7 m3. The total amount for one blasting will be 100 kg of explosives,
and the advance is around 2,4 m/day.

Figure 7 Blasthole pattern in making the diversion tunnel


207

The final concrete lining is planned to be performed with pumped concrete MB-30, which satisfies the
criteria according to PBAB standard.

Figure 8 Final concrete lining of diversion tunnel


The total time to complete the preparation of the diversion tunnel is estimated to be 700 days (1.9 years),
working in 3 shifts. Construction work will be done by special unit of "Sasa" mine. The total investment
for the construction of the diversion tunnel of Saska river are estimated to be 2.423.720 , with cost of
4.661 / m '.

4. CONCLUSION
Based on the text above can be concluded that the construction of hydro-technical diversion tunnel,
surrounded with rock masses to regulate the flow of Saska river as one of the stages for the construction
of new tailing dam No.4 is good technical solution. Although this technical solution requires certain
capital investments but protecting the environment is invaluable and it should always be at first plan.

REFERENCES
[1] Despodov,Z., Doneva, N., Mirakovski D., Mijalkovski, S.(2015): Aneks na Osnoven proekt za
Obikolen tunel-konstruktivna analiza, izvetaj i nacrti (kniga 7), za rudarskiot del, Fakultet za prirodni
i tehniki nauki, UGD-tip
[2] Gorgeski, S i ostanati (2015): Osnoven proekt - Obikolen tunel (konstruktivna analiza, izvetai i
nacrti)- kniga 7, Gradeen fakultet, Skopje
[3] Krstev, B., Golomeov, B. (2007): Elaborat za oskultacija na branata na Flotaciskoto jalovite na
Rudnikot Sasa M.Kamenica za 2006, Rudarsko-geoloki fakultet, tip

208

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

SOIL METAL POLLUTION RELATED TO ACTIVE ZLETOVO Pb-Zn


MINE, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Todor Serafimovski, Goran Tasev
University "Goce Delev", Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip, Republic of Macedonia
Abstract: Within this study a total content of 20 elements was determined in 24 soil samples taken from the vicinity of
the "Zletovo" mine, Republic of Macedonia, covering an area of 24.5 km2. However, in this paper we present four
elements significant from anthropogenic point of view. In that manner, in soils of the Zletovo mine area Fe values
ranged 19.3-76.9 g kg-1 with 24 above the optimum (18 g kg-1) and 1 above action value (72 g kg-1), Mn values ranged
643-28000 mg kg-1 with 24 above optimum (33 mg kg-1) as well as 24 over the action value (330 mg kg-1), Pb with
range of 42.3-529.66 mg kg-1 with 23 over optimal (85 mg kg-1) and none above action value (530 mg kg-1), and Zn
with range 138-3240 mg kg-1 with 23 over optimal (140 mg kg-1) and 14 above action value (720 mg kg-1).
Keywords: Zletovo Mine, Waste, Heavy Metals, Pollution, Soil

1. INTRODUCTION
Mine wastes represent the greatest proportion of waste produced by industrial activity. It is well known that
mining and metallurgical activities lead to enormous soil contamination with heavy metals [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. In fact, the quantity of solid mine waste and the quantity of Earths materials moved
by fundamental global geological processes are of the same order of magnitude or approximately several
thousand million tonnes per year [14, 15]. Opposite to the fundamental global geological processes such as
oceanic crust formation, soil erosion, sediment discharge to the oceans, and mountain building, which
naturally move Earths materials around the Earths crust and shape our planet, the human extracts material
from the Earth during mining and discards most of the extracted crust as waste. Although the modern
mining industry is of considerable importance to the world economy as it provides a great diversity of
mineral products for industrial and household consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to
protect the environment from pollution with heavy metals from when it comes from such processes. This is
especially important for the proper waste management. There are several the most important approaches to
minimize the environmental impact, i.e. more sustainable mining operations, like proper deposition,
monitoring, reusing, bioremediation etc. [16]. Increased environmental awareness about the anthropogenic
input around the industrial facilities around the world induced the study of Zletovo Mines influence to the
adjacent environ. Here we are showing our work and analytical data of 2011 study of concentration of
different chemical elements in surface soil around one of the oldest Macedonian mines (Zletovo Mine) and
determination of its environmental impact to the adjacent vicinity (Fig. 1).

209

Figure 1 Main sources of heavy metals pollution induced by work of Zletovo Mine, Macedonia

2. THE ZLETOVO Pb-Zn DEPOSIT SHORT FACTS


The Zletovo mine is located in the vicinity of the city of Probistip, Macedonia. The mine started operation
in 1940 and its production lasts until today with certain short-term interruptions. As it is well known the
mineralization is related to Tertiary calcalkaline magmatic rocks, mostly dacites and andesites.
Mineralization is found in a dacitic volcano-sedimentary suite that has been altered to clays and micas
[17, 18]. Detailed information about the mineral parageneses and geochemical features of major minerals
in ore veins is provided in extensive literature [19, 20]. The main ore mineral association is composed of
galena and sphalerite, followed by tetrahedrite, pyrrhotite, magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and Mn oxides
are also common. Production during certain periods have reached 300000 t of ore per annum, with ore
grades higher than 9% Pb and 2% Zn, and variable concentrations of Ag, Bi, Cd, and Cu. Ore was
concentrated by flotation at Probistip and tailings were disposed of in two impoundments situated in
adjacent river and stream valleys. One of them, the river Kiselica, drains the flotation plant at Probistip
while the Koritnica River drains the area containing the main workings of the Zletovo mine (Figure 1).
Both of them join the River Zletovska, which flows down into the River Bregalnica.

3. SAMPLING AREA AND METHODS


Sampling was carried out at the beginning of May 2011. Soil surface samples (0 cm to 5 cm depth) were
collected in around the Zletovo Mine and its surrounding region (Fig. 1). The main locations that have
been sampled were at the drainage systems of Zletovo, Koritnica River, Globica, Kiselica, Strmos,
Buciste, Ziganci and Ularci as well as sites around these streams-rivers. Soil samples were collected at
several locations, but in general perpendicular to the stream-river flows. In total, 24 samples were
collected from 24 locations, over an area of 24.5 km2. Samples were located using the Global Positioning
System (GPS) and topographic maps at scale of 1:25 000. Each sample represented the composite
material collected at the central sampling point itself together with at least four points collected around a
central one with radius of 1 m towards N, E, S and W directions. The composite material of each sample
(about 0.5 kg) was placed into plastic self-closing bags and brought to the Faculty of Natural and
Technical Sciences, University Goce Delcev Stip, Republic of Macedonia, where they were prepared
for the analysis. Hot (80C) concentrated nitric acid digest was used to leach elements from the soil.
Solutions were analysed by ICP-AES or ICP-MS, depending on concentrations. The precision was less
than 5%. A large number of analytes were determined but only those that are likely mining related and
environmentally significant are presented and discussed here. The concentrations were compared to
reference guidelines to assess their significance.
210

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Studying results and statistically processing them it was determined that representative are elements such are
lead, zinc, iron and manganese and they are given in more details within this paper while there are elements
such are chromium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, have not displayed elevated concentrations and being without
any significant impact as direct product of geological setting and anthropogenetic activity (Table 1).
Table 1.Concentrations of particular heavy metals in soil samples from the vicinity of the Zletovo Mine, Macedonia
Sample
ZN-1
ZN-2
ZN-3
ZN-4
ZN-5
ZN-6
ZN-7
ZN-8
ZN-9
ZN-10
ZN-11
ZN-12
ZN-13
ZN-14
ZN-15
ZN-16
ZN-17
ZN-18
ZN-19
ZN-20
ZN-21
ZN-22
ZN-23
ZN-24
min
max
average
Dutch list (Optimum)
Dutch list (Action)
Above optimum
Above action

Pb
(mg kg-1)

Zn
(mg kg-1)

Fe
(g kg-1)

Mn
(mg kg-1)

42.3
102
153
529.66
389
201
116.3

138
283
163
2300
1800
300
298

19.3
29.66
31.66
44.5
29.45
31.23
29.36

643
1980
8680
8553
5920
1842
2016

192
209
493.8
435
333
480
358
443
211
198
211
283
233
229
190
165
200
42.3
529.66
284.36
85
530
23
0

420
265
2333
2400
1390
2320
3007
3240
444
489
611
1230
1120
1326
745
796
910
138
3240
1303.54
140
720
23
14

42.36
37.89
61
61.12
37.45
76.9
63.32
55.22
29.45
31.22
29.33
33.71
30.16
31.78
34.23
29.97
28.63
19.3
76.9
40.67
18
72
24
1

2090
2312
28000
5440
8666
4350
21560
18960
3320
5550
2750
2630
2610
2590
6870
7540
6110
643
28000
7791.75
33
330
24
24

Lead (Pb). In mining areas, Pb may be dispersed due to the erosion and chemical weathering of tailings.
The severity of these processes depends on chemical characteristics, and the minerals present in the
tailings [6]. In general, several observations of Pb balance in various ecosystems show that the input of
this metal greatly exceeds its output. The strong Pb adsorption in soils may mean that Pb additions to soil
are permanent and irreversible. The average amount of Pb in the worlds soils is 35 mg kg-1 [21], in the
European topsoil is 33 mg kg-1 [6], in Macedonia (studied part) is 26 mg kg-1 [22]. As it is obvious from
the table above (Table 1), we would like to stress out that lead values ranged from the 42.30529.66
mgkg-1 Pb, while the lowest values were determined near the Zletovo village the highest ones were
determined in samples from localities Koritnica, Kiselica and Strmos. Calculated enrichment factor and
index of geo-accumulation were 16.66 and 0.327, respectively. In the main polluted area the average
concentration of Pb is 8.6-times higher than the European Pb average and Macedonian average for 10.9times. Although the average content of lead in the topsoil for the entire study area was found to be about
211

284.36 mg kg-1, there are areas with increased concentration up to 529.66 mg kg-1, although even such
values were not above action values by the Dutch list (Table 1; Figure 2).

a)

b)

c)
d)
Figure 2 Measured concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn) vs. Dutch standard in
soils around the Zletovo Mine, Macedonia. (Note: all plots have logarithmic vertical scale)
Zinc (Zn). The most important anthropogenic sources of Zn are the metallurgy industry, burning of fossil
fuels, mines and Zn ore processing [1]. Zn is an essential element for most living organism (plants,
animals and humans) with important role in enzymes processes and cellular metabolism, in immune
function, protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, and cell division and daily intake of zinc is required to
maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system [23]. Even the toxicity of
Zn is relatively low, there are cases when poisoning with Zn can occur in both acute and chronic forms
[24]. The average amount of Zn in the worlds soils is 90 mg kg-1 [21], in the European topsoil is 68 mg
kg-1 [25], in Macedonia (studied part) is 55 mg kg-1 [22]. The highest concentrations of zinc were
determined near the Koritnica, Kiselica and Ziganci while the whole range was quite wide starting from
138 mgkg-1 Zn and ending up to 3240 mgkg-1Zn with enrichment factor of 24.60 and index of geoaccumulation of 0.135. For the main polluted area, the average concentration of Zn is 19.2-times higher
than the European Zn average and Macedonian average for 23.7-times. Similarly to the findings for lead,
although the average content of zinc in the topsoil for the entire study area was found to be about 1303.5
mg kg-1, there are areas with very high level of contamination (Table 1; Figure 2).
Iron (Fe). Since about 3 000 years BC iron has been the most commonly used metal in all civilizations.
The common range of Fe contents in soils is between 0.1 and 10% (in forms of oxides and hydroxides, as
amorphous compounds and small particles) and its distribution in soil profiles is variable and controlled
by several soil parameters (ex. soil texture etc.). However, Fe plays a special role in the behavior of
several trace elements and is in the intermediate position between macro and micronutrients in plants,
212

animals and humans. As a very chemically reactive metal, Fe tarnishes rapidly in air or water. Effects of
corrosion processes, on a global scale, are a serious source of this metal in different environmental
compartments [26]. Contents of Fe in soils are both inherited from parent materials and/or resulted from
soil processes that are controlled by climatic factors. Must to mention fact in regards to iron is that it is an
excellent metallic material for environmental remediation because it is a strong and nontoxic reducer,
effective in coprecipitating and sorbing inorganic pollutants [27]. The average amount of Fe in the
worlds soils is 35 g kg-1 [21], in the European topsoil is 21.7 g kg-1 [25], in Macedonia in the considered
area is 33 g kg-1 [22]. As it is obvious from the table above (Table 1), we would like to stress out that iron
values ranged from the 19.376.9 gkg-1 Fe. Either the iron havent shown significantly increased values,
the highest ones were recorded for the locations such as Kiselica, Koritnica and Strmos. Also, for iron
were calculated enrichment factor of 2.15 and index of geo-accumulation of 0.193. In the main polluted
area the average concentration of Fe is 1.9-times higher than the European Fe average and Macedonian
average for 1.2-times. Although the average content of iron in the topsoil for the entire study area was
found to be about 40.67 g kg-1, there are areas with increased concentration up to 76.9 g kg-1, although
only one value was above action value by the Dutch list (Table 1; Figure 2).
Manganese (Mn). The major anthropogenic sources of Mn are: municipal wastewaters, sewage sludge, and
metal smelting processes. The combustion of fuel additives (MMT) is of a lesser importance. In soils irrigated
with water affected by acid mine drainage the soluble Mn fraction increases due to reductive dissolution of Mn
oxides [28]. Manganese has not been considered to be a polluting metal in soils; however, the MAC value for this
metal in agricultural soils is estimated at the range 15003000 mg kg-1. Manganese is a member of the iron
family and both elements are closely associated in geochemical processes (Mn cycles follow Fe cycles in various
terrestrial environments). The behavior of Mn in surfacial deposits is very complex and is governed by different
environmental factors, of which EhpH conditions are the most important. There the negatively charged
Mn(OH)4 and MnO2 are responsible for the high degree of association of Mn concretions with some trace metals,
in particular with Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Tl, W, and Mo. In addition, the oxidation of As, Cr, V, Se, Hg, and Pu
by Mn oxides is likely to control the redox behavior of these elements in soils. On the world scale, the range of
Mn average contents was calculated at 488 mg kg-1, while for the U.S. soils the calculation is 495 mg/kg [24]
while in the European topsoil is 382 mg kg-1 [25], and in Macedonia in the considered area is averaging 650 mg
kg-1 [22]. Manganese analyses around the Zletovo mine area have shown the highest concentrations among
analyzed elements, ranging from 643 up to 28000 mg kg-1 Mn. Calculated enrichment factor was of respectable
203.3 while the index of geo-accumulation was 0.0246. In the main polluted area the average concentration of
Mn is 14.9-times higher than the European Pb average and Macedonian average for 11.9-times. Although the
average content of manganese in the topsoil for the entire study area was found to be about 7791.75 mg kg-1,
there are areas with increased concentration up to 28000 mg kg-1, however all the measured values were above
action value by the Dutch list (Table 1). Data from geochemical analyzes were statistically processed in regular
Excel calculations procedure going through the Data menu where we chose Data analysis option with an array of
Analysis tools where we continued with Correlation and selected data range for that particular type of data
analysis. Summarizing results and findings of this process, we have found that there are strong correlations
between the aforementioned elements (Table 2) and appropriate correlation plot (Figure 3).
Table 2 Correlation of Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn in soil samples from the vicinity of the Zletovo Mine, Macedonia
Pb (mg kg-1)
Pb (mg kg-1)
-1

Zn (mg kg-1)

Fe (g kg-1)

Mn (mg kg-1)

Zn (mg kg )

0,890744195

Fe (g kg-1)

0,786717042

0,791725219

0,587304633

0,693057484

0,585819281

-1

Mn (mg kg )

The first suite encloses Pb-Zn with correlation coefficient of 0.89, Fe-Pb of 0.78 and Fe-Zn of 0.79. These
values indicate a high elemental correlation for this suite where lead and zinc have historical roots of
their high correlation even in their primary sources. The second elemental suite consists of Mn-Pb-Zn-Fe
with correlation coefficient for Mn-Pb of 0.58, Mn-Zn of 0.69 and Mn-Fe of 0.58. All these correlation
213

coefficients are relatively high and reflect the and the clear geochemical relationship of these elements,
which basically belong to their geochemical nature.

Figure 3 Correlation of Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in soils from the vicinity of the Zletovo Mine, Macedonia
(Note: all plots have logarithmic vertical scale)
However, here we are dealing with their anthropogenic input in soils around the Zletovo mine, which
clearly indicates their connection with the processing of lead-zinc ore from the mine.

5. CONCLUSION
Analytical data of the soil study around the Zletovo mine displayed contamination with heavy metals where
have been determined increased concentrations of Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn. These contaminations coincide with
the active exploitation of the mine and respective material discharges from the mining processes. Our study
confirmed that in soils of the Zletovo mine area Fe values ranged 19.3-76.9 g kg-1, Mn values ranged
643-28000 mg kg-1, Pb with range of 42.3-529.66 mg kg-1 and Zn with range 138-3240 mg kg-1, as well as
determined several geochemical pairs have shown correlation coefficients: Pb-Zn with correlation
coefficient 0.89, Fe-Pb of 0.78, Fe-Zn of 0.79, Mn-Pb of 0.58, Mn-Zn of 0.69 and Mn-Fe of 0.58. Increased
concentration of almost all analyzed metals in soil around the Zletovo mine implies direct correlation to the
processing of lead-zinc ore in the mine, while metal deposition in soil the most frequently comes through
the several medias (water, waste leachates and air).

REFERENCES
[1] Aliu M., ajn R., Stafilov T.: Distribution of zinc in surface soils in K. Mitrovica Region, Kosovo,
International Journal of Pure & Applied Chemistry, 5; (2010), pp. 351-357.
[2] Aliu M., ajn R., Stafilov T.: Distribution of cadmium in surface soils in K. Mitrovica Region,
Kosovo, Geologica Macedonica, 23, (2013), pp. 2734.
[3] Aryal R. K., Murakami M., Furumai H., Nakajima F., JinadasaH. K. P. K.: Prolonged deposition of
heavy metals in infiltration facilities and its possible threat to groundwater contamination, Water
Science and Technology, 54, (2006), pp. 205212.
[4] Cappuyns V., Swennen R. Vandamme A., Niclaes M.: Environmental impact of the former Pb-Zn
mining and smelting in East Belgium, J Geochemical Exploration, 88, (2006), pp. 69.
[5] Cemek B., Kizilkaya R.: Spatial variability and monitoring of Pb contamination of farming soils
affected by industry, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 117, (2006), pp. 357-375
[6] Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H.: Trace Elements in Soil and Plants. 5th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton,
FL, (2011), pp 505.
214

[7] Li J., Xie Z. M., Zhu Y. G., Naidu R.: Risk assessment of heavy metal contaminated soil in the vicinity of a lead/zinc mine, J. Environmental Science China, 17, (2005), pp. 881885
[8] Li Y., Wang Y. B., Gou X., Su Y., Wang G.: Risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables
around non-ferrous metals mining and smelting sites, Baiyin, China, Journal of Environmental
Science China, 18, (2006), pp. 11241134.
[9] Pruvot C., Douay F., Herve F., Waterlot C.: Heavy metals in soil, crops and grass as a source of
human exposure in the former mining areas, Journal of Soils and Sediments, 6, (2006), pp. 215220.
[10] Stafilov T., ajn R., Panevski Z., Boev B., Frontasyeva V. M., Strelkova P. L.: Heavy metal
contamination of topsoils around a lead and zinc smelter in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal of
Hazardous Materials, 175, (2010a), pp. 896914.
[11] Stafilov T., ajn R., Boev B., Cvetkovi J., Mukaetov D., Andreevski M., Lepitkova S.: Distribution
of some elements in surface soil over the Kavadarci Region, Republic of Macedonia, Environmental
Earth Sciences, 61, (2010b), pp. 1515-1530.
[12] Tembo B. D., Sichilongo K., Cernak J.: Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia, Chemosphere, 63, (2006), pp. 497-501.
[13] Wilson B., Lang B., Pyatt F.B.: The dispersion of heavy metals in the vicinity of Britannia Mine,
British Columbia, Canada. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60, (2005), pp. 269276.
[14] Fyfe W. S.: The environmental crisis: quantifying geosphere interactions. Science 213, (1981), pp.
105110.
[15] Frstner U.: Introduction. In: Azcue JM (ed) Environmental impacts of mining activities:
emphasison mitigation and remedial measures. Springer, (1999), - pp 13.
[16] Dold, B.: Sustainability in Metal Mining: From Exploration, Over Processing to Mine Waste
Management. ReViews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 8, (2008), pp. 275-285.
[17] Serafimovski T. and Aleksandrov M.: Lead-zinc deposits and occurrences in the Republic of
Macedonia. Faculty of Mining and Geology Special issue no. 4, Stip, (1995), - pp 387 (in
Macedonian)
[18] Serafimovski T. and Boev B.: Metallogeny of the Kratovo-Zletovo volcano-intrusive complex. In:
Knezevic V, Krstic B [Eds] Terranes of Serbia, Proc. UNESCO-IGCP project no. 356, Plate
Tectonics of the Alpine metallogeny in the Carpatho-Balkan region, Belgrade, (1996), pp. 347-352
[19] Mudrinic, C, Serafimovski T.: Geochemical and geochronological examinations by isotopes in
Zletovo ore field. Geologica Macedonica, T 5, Nr.1, (1991), pp. 105-120.
[20] Serafimovski T, Tasev G.: The Zletovo Subvolcanic Hydrothermal Pb-Zn Mineral Deposit in the
Republic of Macedonia. Geodynamics and Ore Deposit Evolution of the Alpine-Balkan-CarpathianDinaride Province. Final GEODE-ABCD Workshop. Programme and Abstracts. Seggauberg,
Austria, 22-24 March, (2003), 50-51.
[21] Bowen H. M.: Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, New York, (1979), - pp.
333.
[22] Stafilov, T., Balabanova, B. and ajn, R.: Geochemical atlas of the region of the Bregalnica River
basin. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics-Skopje, (2014), - pp. 172
[23] Rink L, Gabriel P.: Zinc and the Immune System. Proc Nutr Soc 59, (2000), pp. 541-552.
[24] Prasad A. S.: Zinc: An Overview. Nutrition, 11, (1995), pp. 93-99.
[25] Salminen, R., Batista, M.J., Bidovec, M., Demetriades, A., De Vivo, B., De Vos, W., Duris, M.,
Gilucis, A., Gregorauskiene, V., Halamic, J., Heitzmann, P., Jordan, G., Klaver, G., Klein, P., Lis,
J., Locutura, J., Marsina, K., Mazreku, A., OConnor, P.J., Olsson, S. A., Ottesen, R.T., Petersell, V.,
Plant, J.A., Reeder, S., Salpeteur, I., Sandstrom, H., Siewers, U., Steenfelt, A. and Tarvainen T.:
Geochemical Atlas of Europe. Part 1, Background information, methodology and maps. Geological
Survey of Finland, Espoo, (2005), - pp. 526.
[26] Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H.: Biogeochemistry of trace elements, 2nd ed.; Wyd Nauk PWN,
Warszaw (in Polish), (1999), - pp. 363.
[27] Kaplan, D.I., Knox, A.S., Myers, J.: Mercury geochemistry in wetland and its implications for in situ
remediation. J. Environ. Eng. -ASCE 128, (2002), pp. 723732.
[28] Green C.H., Heil D.M., Cardon G.E., et al.: Solubility of manganese and trace metals in soils
affected by acid mine runoff. J. Environ. Qual. 32, (2003), pp. 13231334.

215

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF MINE WASTE MANAGEMENT


PLAN
Dejan Mirakovski, Marija Hadzi-Nikolova, Zoran Despodov, Nikolinka Doneva, Stojance Mijalkovski
Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Goce Delcev University Stip, Republic of Macedonia

Abstract: Mining operations and processing plant generate vast amount of waste (extractive) which falls under the
scope of the Mining Waste Directive (MWD). The MWD has been implemented in Macedonian legislation through
the Law on Mineral Resources. Waste Management Plans WMP are documents that describes the measures that
should be implemented at the site to prevent or reduce adverse environmental effects, which may result from the
extractive waste disposal or treatment. This paper presents our experiences and guidelines for preparation of
management plan for waste generated in extractive industries in line with MWD. Also the paper point some of the
most important measures necessary to assure that extractive waste is managed and controlled in a safe and
environmentally acceptable manner.
Keywords: Mine Waste, Management Plan, Environment, Measures, Control

1. INTRODUCTION
Waste management is one of the most important steps in achievement of sustainable development goal. The waste
should be rationally handled and disposal sites should be carefully selected in order to reduce the environmental and
risks to human health [1]. Preventive and protective measures taken should be based on best national and
international practice, without prescribing the use of a particular techniques or specific technologies, but rather
taking into account the technical characteristics of the mining waste facilities (MWF), their geographical location
and local environmental conditions. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 15 March
2006 on the Mine Waste Management, known as the Mining Waste Directive (MWD) and amending Directive
2004/35/EC was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 11 April 2006 (L102/15). The overall
objectives of those regulations was to prevent or reduce as far as possible any adverse environmental effects as well
as any resultant risk to human health from the Mine Waste Management. Requirements of the MWD have been
transposed into Macedonian legislation through the Law on Mineral Resources.

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE MINE WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN


WMP are very complex documents dealing quite diverse aspects of extractive waste management processes
and site specific conditions. That way setting the clear objectives of the documents is the first step in creation
of successful WMP. Overall objectives of the WMP could be summarized as follows [2]:
1. Prevent or reduce waste production and its harmfulness, in particular, by considering:
waste management in the design phase and in the choice of the method used for mineral
extraction and treatment;
216

the changes that the extractive waste may undergo in relation to an increase in surface area and
exposure to conditions above ground;
placing extractive waste back into the excavation void after extraction of the mineral, as far as is
technically and economically feasible and environmentally sound in accordance with existing
environmental standards at the Community level and with the requirements of the Directive,
where relevant;
putting topsoil back in place after the closure of the Mining Waste Facility (MWF) or if this is not
practically feasible, reusing topsoil elsewhere; and
usage of less dangerous substances for the treatment of mineral resources.
2. To encourage the recovery of extractive waste by means of recycling, reusing or reclaiming such
waste, where this is environmentally sound in accordance with existing environmental standards at
Community level and with the requirements of the Directive where relevant.
3. To ensure short and long term safe disposal of the extractive waste, during the design phase,
management during the operation and after-closure of a mining waste facility and by choosing a
design which:
requires minimal and, if possible, ultimately no monitoring, control and management of the
closed Mining Waste Facility;
prevents or at least minimises any long term negative environmental effects from the Mining
Waste Facility to the water, air and soil; and
ensures the long-term geotechnical stability of MWF.

3. STRUCTURE OF MINE WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN


Considering the above objectives, mine waste management plan should contain enough information that
specify the obligations of certain mine for dealing with mine waste in line with Mine Waste Directive and Law
on Mineral resources, its possibility for implementation and achievement of MWMP objectives. According to
the MWD Guidelines the following MWMP structure has been established [3]:
1

Facility Classification

Waste Characterisation

Construction and management of


Mining Waste Facilities

Risk assessment to the


environment and human health

Prevention measures of
environmental risks

Review on the criteria for classification of the Mining Waste Facility


Background informations
Description of the waste nature and its intended handling
Geo-technical waste characteristics
Geo-chemical waste characteristics
Monitoring of the drainage systems
Description of the Mining Waste Facility
Stability of Mining Waste Facility
Surface and ground water pollution
Air pollution
Soil pollution
Protection measures of water
Protection measures of air
Protection measures of soil
Slope stability and overall strength of MWF constructive elements
Environmental protection measures in case of emergency
Administrative measures

Control and monitoring


procedures

Emergency Plan

Proposed
plan for
closure
aftercare and monitoring

Monitoring during the construction and usage of MWF


Monitoring during remediation phase
Post closure monitoring
Purpose of the emergency plan
Scope of the emergency plan
Objectives of the emergency plan
Alert in case of an accident on the MWF
Alert levels and activities on the site location
Selection of acceptable methods for closure / remediation
Remediation Plan for MWF

217

3.1 Facility Classification


For all mining waste operations including a Mining Waste Facility, all operators must classify their
Mining Waste Facility as Category A or provide justification that it is not a Category A facility. This is a
particular requirement of the Mining Waste Directive (Article 5.3(a)) and must be included in the Waste
Management Plan for the site.
Criteria for determination of Mining Waste Facilities as Category A are listed in Annex III to the Mining
Waste Directive 2006/21/EC and include:

If a failure or incorrect operation, e.g. the collapse of a heap or the bursting of a dam, could give
rise to a major accident, on the basis of a risk assessment taking into account factors such as the
present or future size, the location and the environmental impact of the waste facility; or
it contains waste classified as hazardous under Directive 91/689/EEC above a certain threshold; or
it contains substances or preparations classified as dangerous under Directives 67/548/EEC or
1999/45/EC above a certain threshold.

A Mining Waste Facility shall be classified under Category A in accordance with the first indent of
Annex III of Directive 2006/21/EC if the predicted consequences in the short or the long term of a failure
due to loss of structural integrity, or due to incorrect operation of a waste facility could lead to:
(a) non-negligible potential for loss of life;
(b) serious danger to human health;
(c) serious danger to the environment.

Figure 1 Scheme for classification of the Mining Waste Facility [3]


3.2 Waste Characterisation
In order to perform a proper and reliable waste characterisation in accordance with the Commission
Decision (2009/360/EC) of 30 April 2009 and to complete the technical requirements for categorization
of waste set out in Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on mine waste
management it is necessary to take into account the following information [4]:
218

geological characteristics of mining site;


background information of mining site;
nature of the waste and its intended handling;
geo-mechanical characteristics of the waste;
geo-chemical characteristics of the waste.

In order to categorize the waste generated during the exploitation of mineral resources following
informations have particular importance:
The geological characteristics of the mine site and vicinity, including mineral and chemical
composition of waste-rock;
size and geometry of the mining site.
Background information of extraction/excavation site provide an overview and introduction to the basic
background condition of mine site and objectives of its usage. Those data include information about:
Activities in the field of exploration, extraction and processing;
Description of the extraction method applied;
Nature of the intended product/s.
Description of the nature of all the wastes occurring in each prospecting, extraction and processing operation,
including overburden, waste rock and tailings, by providing information on the following elements:
origin of the waste in the extraction site and the process generating that waste such as
prospecting, extraction, milling, concentration,
quantity of the waste,
description of the waste transport system,
description of the chemical substances to be used during treatment,
classification of the waste according to Commission decision 2000/532/EC (1), including
hazardous properties,
type of intended MWF, final form of exposure of the waste and method of deposition of the
waste into the facility.
To determine geo-mechanical characteristics of the waste, relevant parameters to be considered include:
grain size, plasticity, density and water content, degree of compaction, shear strength and angle of
friction, permeability and void ratio, compressibility and consolidation.

3.3 Construction and management of Mining Waste Facility


Based on environmental risk assessments suitable choice of a location and definition of measures necessary to
prevent pollution of soil, air, groundwater or surface water, is particular important for the design and
construction of Mining Waste Facility taking account of protected areas and geological, hydrological,
hydrogeological, seismic and geotechnical factors in line with national legislation.
In respect of the construction and management of Mining Waste Facilities following issues must be
considered:
Efficient means for collection of contaminated water (and leachate if produced).
Measures necessary to reduce erosion caused by water or wind.
Measures that will be taken to ensure that the Mining Waste Facility will be constructed,
managed and maintained in order to ensure physical stability in the short and long term.
Measures that will be taken to prevent pollution or contamination from the Mining Waste
Facility of soil, air, surface water or groundwater in the short and long term.
Measures that have been adopted to minimise as far as possible damage to the landscape.
219

Arrangements for rehabilitation of the land and the closure of the mining waste facility.
Arrangements for aftercare of the mining waste facility.
Figure 2 shows procedures that covers safety management of tailings facility [5].

Selection of embankment type


Classification

Risk Assessment

Design

Discharge capacity

Site Assessment

Construction
Operation

Decommission and Closure


Rising of dam

Surveillance

Figure 2 Procedures of safety management tailings dam [6]

3.4 Risk assessment to the environment and human health


Environmental risk assessment is realized through systematization and analysis of existing information
and support for implementation of the planned activities of the Mining Waste Facility, their
environmental impact and compliance with the Law on Mineral Resources. Environmental risk
assessment refers to changes that may occur in the waste-rock which on the surface is exposed to
weathering and its environmental impact (based on the identification of the source-path transmissionreceptors).
Risk assessment is intended to show that the proposed measures will ensure human health and prevent
short or long term harms of the environment, as well as safety disposal on mining waste. During
environmental risk assessment should be taken into account the stability of MWF in order to draw
attention to the fact that these facilities will be stable for a longer period.
Ecological risk assessment identify all potential hazards and pollution associated with the disposal of the
waste-rock, risks and impose measures for risk management that are propose to be implement in order to
mitigate these risks. The proposed mitigation measures should meet the requirements of mining waste in
accordance with the Law on Mineral Resources, including the need to prevent air, water and soil
pollution.
Figure 3 shows risk assessment steps [5].
Scope and purpose of risk assessment is to determine and identify all stakeholders in the risk assessment.
Risk assessment is a structured methodology aimed at:

Identifying hazardous substances inventory


Identifying possible accidents
Estimating the Frequency of each Event
Defining causes for each event
Estimating the frequencies of each scenario
Assessing the magnitude of the consequences of each scenario
220

Hazard identification

Consequence identification

Estimate magnitude of hazards and


consequences
Risk estimation
(qualitative)

Estimate frequency of hazards and


consequences

or

Risk estimation
(quantitative)

Risk aassessment
Risk = consequence x frequency
Figure 3 Risk assessment steps [6]
Risk assessment provides a basis for development of risk management system. Risk management goals are:

minimize the likelihood of adverse safety or environmental impacts;


detect and respond to potential failures;
establish contingency and emergency preparedness plans to deal with significant events. (The
Mining Association of Canada, 1998).

Risk assessment helps to focus on cost effective approaches to improving the performance of MWF.
3.5 Prevention measures of environmental risks
The environment is a complex system whose components are interconnected and dependent on each
other, so that changes in one part can cause changes in other ones. Therefore, the issue of environmental
protection, can be resolved only with integrated systematic approach.
In order to ensure maximum efficiency of proposed measures and to ensure their successful
implementation, their integration into a comprehensive management/control plan (EMP) seems very good
idea. Such plans could provide sound base for further implementation of Environmental Management
Systems (EMS) according to ISO 14001: 2006.
The Environmental Management Systems will provide complete set of tools that enables on mining top
management to respond on current and future problems in the field of environment. Proper
implementation of EMS result in many benefits. The plan for the control and management of the
environment as part of the EMS focuses on the way how objectives are achieved. Protective
environmental measures are classified into several main groups:

Measures of water protection;


Measures of air protection;
Measures of soil protection;
Measures to ensure stability of the Mining Waste Facility;
Protective environmental measures in case of an emergency;
Administrative measures.
221

3.6 Control and monitoring procedures


Control and monitoring procedures are relevant to mining waste operations and MWF so, within WMP a
clear monitoring procedures should be proposed as appropriate.
In order to monitor the environmental quality during the construction and operation of MWF as well as
during the closure/remediation and extended period after the closure of MWF (post-monitoring), it is
necessary to develop a monitoring plan, taking into account the specifics of the planned activities and
local conditions.
The monitoring plans should define monitoring objectives, locations, techniques and frequency of
monitoring, including in minimum following data sub-sets:

initial monitoring - scheduled to begin before the construction and usage of MWF,
monitoring during usage and remediation - which generally uses the infrastructure developed
in initial monitoring, and only when necessary includes other facilities;

after-closure monitoring - which includes a smaller number of locations/objects and lower


monitoring frequency, but for a longer time periods [1].
3.7 Emergency Plan
After all strategies for the risk reduction are adopted during design and construction of the MWF, the
Emergency Plan (EP) refers to the residual (remaining) risks management. Emergencies that may arise in
the MWF [7] could be summarized as follow:
1. Natural disasters, earthquakes, floods, erosion of surrounding land;
2. Unplanned embankment failure;
3. Over-topping of embankment;
4. Unplanned chemical/process solution release into the environment;
5. Bomb/terrorist threat;
7. Vehicle or Mobile equipment incidents jeopardising integrity of the facility;
8. Fire / Explosion; and
9. Other Emergencies.
The emergency management systems are widely used for disaster management planning. This generally
covers the planning and coordination requirements for large-scale events such as earthquakes, floods and
large fires, and also includes large emergencies involving hazardous materials. Emergency management
involves a cyclical process of four phases [8]:
prevention: regulatory, physical or operational measures to prevent emergencies or mitigate
their impact,
preparedness: arrangements to mobilise and deploy all necessary resources and services,
response: actions taken during and immediately after an emergency to minimise the impact,
recovery: arrangements to restore the facility to normal as quickly and efficiently as possible
and to assist the community to recover.
Emergency planning plays a key role in this cycle of emergency management, focussing primarily on the
phases of preparedness and response. Therefore emergency planning presents a cyclical process as
illustrated in Error! Reference source not found.4Error! Reference source not found.. All of stages
are inter-related and plan details should be continually evaluated and revised as appropriate.

222

Figure 4 Emergency planning process [8]


Overall objectives of the Emergency Plans are:
1. To establish and maintain an EP for all potential emergencies at the Waste Management Facility
resulting in potential containment failure;
2. To provide a method of controlling and minimizing injury to personnel, detrimental damage to
the environmental and damage to property in the event of a significant incident;
3. To ensure site based personnel are trained and prepared to respond to incidents in an effective
manner;
4. Awareness at onsite personal of their responsibilities in the event of an emergency.
5. Preserving safety of personnel during an incident;
6. Continuously review and improve the EP in-line with recommendations arising from debriefs and
reviews;
3.8 Proposed plan for closure aftercare and monitoring
Guidelines for environmental management and planning activities to close the MWF are set out in Article
94 of the Law on Mineral Resources (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia, No. 136/12, 25/13,
93/13, 132/13) and other international standards. Plans for closure, rehabilitation, monitoring and aftercare include technical, environmental and economic elements. The operator of MWF after
decommissioning should provide in minimum:
monitoring of physical and chemical stability of the MWF and to reduce any negative impact
on the environment, particularly of surface and groundwater,
maintenance of monitoring and measuring devices in good/proper conditions,
maintainance operational lingering overflow channels.
Closure planning for mine waste facilities should be firmly based in developing a robust set of closure
criteria. The framework for closure planning presented in Figure 5 shows an iterative process that tests
factors of the design against closure criteria. During each step of this process, conservative measures
should be incorporated so that risk is minimised. This may include the selection of conservative
parameters during numerical modelling procedures to ensure the predicted results are for the worst-case
scenario [10].

223

Figure 5 General cover system and final landform design process [10]
The rehabilitation should be aligned with regulatory requirements, specific aspects of the site, the mine
policy and best industrial practice, which includes:

Protecting the health and welfare;


Achieving the agreed objectives for land use after closing;
Geotechnical stability of the mine;
Improving the visual landscape by minimizing the transport of sediment, erosion and
potential harmful environmental impact;
Protection of the quantity and quality of water and
Protection of air quality.

4. CONCLUSION
Proper waste disposal is crucial in achieving sustainable development of extractive industries, and
development and implementation of MWMP should provide for:
Mine Waste Management without harming human health and without using processes or
methods which could harm the environment, especially without risk to water, air, soil, fauna
and flora, without causing inconvenience with noise or odours and without negative impacts
on the landscape or protected areas and habitats;
Implementation of necessary measures to prohibit the abandonment, un-safe disposal or
uncontrolled mine waste storage; and
Mine operators should take all measures necessary to prevent or reduce as far as possible any
adverse effects on the environment and on human health, as a result of the waste management
processes in short or long term perspective. This includes managing any type of waste facility
during operation and after its closure, prevention of major accidents involving this facility, as
well as limiting the impact on the environment and human health.

224

REFERENCES
[1] Mine Waste Management Plan for SASA mine, Makedonska Kamenica, Faculty of Natural and
Technical Sciences, tip, june, 2014.
[2] Mining Waste Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries, 2006.
[3] Additional guidance for: mining waste operations, How to comply with your environmental permit,
EPR 6.14, Environment Agency, United Kingdom, 2006.
[4] Commission Decision 2009/360/EC of completing the technical requirements for waste
characterisation laid down by Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on
the management of waste from extractive industries of 30 April 2009.
[5] Hadzi-Nikolova, M., Mirakovski, D., Stefanova, V., Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure.
In: 3rd International workshop on the project: Antropogenic effects on the human environment in the
Neogene basins in the SE Europe, 2011.
[6] Alexandru Ozunu, Institutional Practitioner Training in Risk Management in Mining 7-11 Tirana,
Albania, December, 2009.
[7] Internal Emergency Plan, Hemerdon Waste Mining Facility, April, 2013.
[8] Guide for major hazard facilities: Emergency Plans, Safe Work Australia, March, 2012.
[9] Establishment of guidelines for the inspection of mining waste facilities, inventory and rehabilitation
of abandoned facilities and review of the BREF document, No. 070307/2010/576108/ETU/C2,
Supporting document on closure methodologies for closed and abandoned mining waste facilities,
April, 2012.
[10] Bonstrom, K., Chapman, D., Swain, D., OKane, M., Closure Planning for a Tailings Storage
Facility in Western Australia, 2011.

225

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

VERIFICATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE DISPERSION


MODEL IN MINING
Marija Hadzi-Nikolova, Dejan Mirakovski, Zoran Despodov,
Nikolinka Doneva, Stojance Mijalkovski
Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Goce Delcev University Stip, Republic of Macedonia

Abstract: Environmental Noise Dispersion Model (ENDM) simulates outdoor sound prorogation and predicts noise
levels from known noise sources for close and distant locations. The Model calculates attenuation due to noise source
enclosures and other noise control measures, for distance from the source to the receiver, for the noise source size,
type and directivity, for barriers and natural topographical features and for sound absorption in the air.
In practice the physical environment will usually not be fixed, but will be characterized by constantly varying
conditions. These variations in real world conditions will subsequently cause the actual sound field to vary in time and
space. Thus it is important to recognize that the output of an Environmental Noise Model (ENM) will only represent an
estimate of the range of actual environmental noise levels that could occur in time and space. Therefore verification of
ENDM is essential step in increased model confidentiality. By comparing results calculated and measured on site
during the model development and model adjustment, compliance between measurement and calculation results could
be obtained. This paper presents steps of ENDM verification in mining sites.
Keywords: Noise, Model, Verification, Environment

1. INTRODUCTION
Noise pollution affects quality of life and has been linked to health problems [1]. The EU Environmental
Noise Directive (END) aims to manage noise and preserve quiet areas by engaging the public, local
authorities and operators.
The European Community Green Paper on Future Noise Policy (1996) recognised that environmental
noise is one of the main local environmental problems in Europe but that it has had a lower priority
than other environmental problems, such as air or water pollution [2]. It also recognised that, despite
significant reductions in the noise produced by individual sources, total exposure to environmental noise
has not changed significantly. For example, the introduction of quieter vehicles has been offset by an
increase in traffic.
Environmental noise in Republic of Macedonia is controlled by Law on Environmental Noise Protection
and related regulations that gives guidelines and standards covering planning, transport, the environment
and compensation. To provide a common approach to noise management, the European
Union introduced the Environmental Noise Directive (END) in 2002. This was transposed into
Environmental Noise Regulations in Republic of Macedonia.

226

2. OBJECTIVES OF NOISE MAPPING


Noise mapping is the first tool to effectively assess noise exposure, communicating information to
citizens, and defining effective action plans for protecting citizens from high noise levels and preserving
quiet urban areas [3]. Environmental Noise Dispersion Models and Noise Mapping Procedures shows
how to integrate data with geographical information systems, improve accuracy in model and prediction
software, and assess different methods and descriptors for evaluating annoyance and noise exposure.
ENDM is prepared based on regulations, communication processes, physical aspects, and application of
noise mapping. Beginning with fundamental concepts in acoustics and a presentation of legal frameworks
for noise mapping, many software packages cover all the main issues about noise mapping. It presents
numerical models for roads, railways, airports, harbours, and industrial sites [4].
Noise mapping is a form of environmental modelling and like most risk based environmental models is
used on the source-pathway-receiver conceptual model, whereby the source emission is first calculated,
and then propagated across a geographical extent to the receiver (at a specified location).
Noise dispersion modeling can be used for calculating the areas, that are affected by noise and for
determining the number of sensitive buildings, that are affected by high noise levels. Using noise model
the number of citizens who are annoyed can be determined. Noise dispersion models can be helpful in
planning and decision making process to reduce the noise pollution.
2.1 Quality and accuracy of data for noise mapping
The accuracy and quality of noise mapping depend on the scale and details of the input data. Nevertheless
redundant data should be avoided reducing the computation time. During noise mapping, if the density of
information is high then accurate results can be achieved, specially in the case where the noise levels
changes quickly. The observation point (which represents the virtual microphone) should be in high
density close to the source and objects, low density parallel to the track and further away.
The densely spacing of observation points is not only scale factor that has to be consider. The scale and
the details of the information of area and buildings sensitive to noise are also very important (Stoter,
1999). The quality of the results of noise mapping depends on the quality of input data used. The GIS can
control and supervise the quality of the results by considering the quality of input data into account [5].
Noise mapping approach for noise management is effective when there is more reliable, meaningful,
transparent and unambiguous information in the noise maps. In order to have an accurate noise maps, the
process of noise mapping should be clear and with a proper sequence. The following step illustrates the
process of 2D noise mapping:
Step 1: Collection of raw data, preparing, storing and querying of these data.
The GIS provides the central database management environment. The noise data can be imported into
GIS where the quality can be checked and stored [6]. The data needed to compute noise levels should be
in accordance with the site conditions. The raw data should include the road information, building details,
population of area, parks, and other sensitive areas (school, hospitals). The data can be distinguished in
two sets; first, the data needed for computing noise in noise calculation model and the second is the
geographical data such as location of people, buildings, roads (Kluijver de Henk et al., 2003). Scale and
level of detail of the data should be sufficient to reach the proposed accuracy of study.
Step 2: Calculation of noise levels
Computation of noise levels is carried out for the observation points located on map. Computation is
carried with standard noise calculation models. The quality of input data required for computation is to be
checked for accurate results. The calculation models are integrated with GIS and the result (observation
points with noise values) s converted into GIS data.

227

Step 3: Determining noise contours


Noise contours are computed by interpolation of calculated noise levels of observation points using Noise
Modeling Software. Since significant decisions are based on these noise contours, which makes it
important that these decision are unbiased (Kluijver de Henk et al., 2003). The accuracy of contour maps
of noise situation can be obtained if the density of observation points is significantly high.
Figure 1 shows general review of developing noise dispersion model and content of noise maps [7].

Calculation and development of


model

Input data
Road traffic

Noise map

Output data
Noise map
Assessment of exposure

Land use

Industrial sources

Streets

Terrain data

Districts
Parcels

Buildings, walls,
obstacles

Terrain relief

Numerical data

Other data

Public information

Figure 1 Review of developing Noise Dispersion Model [7]


2.2. Input Data Requirements for Assessment of Industrial Noise
The type of information required for each industrial site is determined by the choice of approach being
undertaken, and the resolution of the modelling to be carried out. At the most simplistic approach, using
area sources to describe operational elements of the industrial site, the following information is typically
required [8]:

Location of industrial area;


Description of industrial process;
Sound power emission level(s) for operations on the site; and
Mean frequency band for assessment of global noise exposure.

If a more detailed assessment is undertaken, more additional information may be required, such as:

Location, size and height of noise source on site;


Sound power level(s) for each noise source on site, possibly in octave bands;
Noise source directivity; and
Operational periods of each noise source.

2.2.1. Mining noise sources


The sound pressure level generated depends on the type of the noise source, distance from the source to
the receiver and the nature of the working environment. For a given machine, the sound pressure levels
depend on the part of the total mechanical or electrical energy that is transformed into acoustical energy.
228

Sound fields in the workplace are usually complex, due to the participation of many sources: propagation
through air (air-borne noise), propagation through solids (structure-borne noise), diffraction at the
machinery boundaries, reflection from the floor, wall, ceiling and machinery surface, absorption on the
surfaces, etc. Therefore any noise control measure should be carried out after a source ranking study,
using identification and quantification techniques.
The mechanism of noise generation on mining site depend on the particularly noisy operations and
equipment including drilling, blasting (quarries and mines), crushing, Hand-held pneumatic drills
pneumatic equipment (e.g. hammers, etc.), milling machines and grinders, as well as , pumps and
compressors, drive units, hand-guided machines, self-propelled working machines, in-plant conveying
systems and transport vehicles [9].
With 15 -minute measuring of noise levels in 1/3 octave band nearby heavy mining machinery in mining
site, bulldozers, excavators and haul trucks were identified as main noise sources (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Main noise sources on mining site

3. DEVELOPMENT OF NOISE DISPERSION MODEL


Based on measurements of noise level and identification of noise sources in the mining site a Noise
Dispersion Model in the vicinity (at recipients) of mining site were performed using most sophisticated
Software for Noise and Air Pollution Modeling, SoundPLAN 7.2. production by company Braunstein +
Berndt GmbH / SoundPLAN International LLC.
SoundPLAN Software by SoundPLAN International LLC and Braunstein + Berndt GmbH is a software
package offering a flexible range of noise and air pollution evaluation modules. It is used by more than
5,000 users, including governments, consultants and researchers in more than 40 countries and is the
worlds leading environmental prediction software. The speed and accuracy of SoundPLAN has been
developed to the point where evaluation of noise and pollution impacts on whole cities can be carried out
using computer power available to even the most modest of users. The output can range from noise
prediction tables to colour contour maps and 3D animations. SoundPLAN has been a leader in its field for
more than 25 years [10].

229

Daily noise level


in dB(A)

Figure 3 2D Noise Dispersion Model in vicinity of industrial processing plant on mining site, close to
recipients, during the day

4. VERIFICATION OF THE NOISE DISPERSION MODEL


Verification of noise dispersion model is made on the basis of noise level measurements conducted in the
residential areas in the vicinity of the mining site on 5 measurement points close to mining site. Table 1
shows that the measured noise level close to noise sources and the nearest recipients in vicinity of the
mining site fully confirm the Noise Dispersion Model in immediate and wider surrounding of the mining
site developed using the Software for Noise and Air pollution Modeling, SoundPLAN 7.2, based on the
measurements of the noise level at sources in the mining site. Small deviations that occur at individual
measurement points resulting of additional noise that comes from parking space and nearby roads, which
software takes into account in the Noise Dispersion Model.
A comparison of the measured and calculated values at the points for the verification of the model
provided the deviation of the calculated and measured values in the range of 4dB (A).
Tble 1 Comparison of measured equivalent noise level and calculated noise levelaccording to
model for 5 measurement points close to noise sources on the mining site
Measurement point

Measured Leq,15min [dB(A)]

Leq [dB(A)] according to model

1
2
3
4
5

71,6
73,3
61,9
63,6
62,8

75-78
72-75
66-69
66-69
63-66

230

5. CONCLUSION
Noise Dispersion Model and noise maps are used to assessment and monitoring of noise adverse impact
effects and can be useful in planning and decision-making on noise reduction measures. SoundPLAN
Software is a leader in the field of noise mapping. SoundPLAN as software for noise modeling and
mapping is quite flexible in the management and control of multiple scenarios and models of noise and
offers fast and reliable transformation of these models into noise maps. SoundPLAN uses advanced
algorithms to filter the data so that the model can be reduced to the defined tolerance from the user.
SoundPLAN software offers many tools for data preparation, consistent control and preparation of reports
and documentation. These tools offered very good solutions for all that can be expected from a acoustic
simulation program. Noise maps are considered to be sufficiently accurate near major noise sources to
allow the areas of highest exposure to be identified for Noise Action Plans.
Environmental Noise Dispersion Model has proven to be a popular and useful acoustic tool to provide
accurate prediction for a wide range of environmental noise sources. Improvements are being made to the
algorithms as more information becomes available. Improvements are also being made to interfaces with
other programs and software packages. Thus the program has become even simple to use without any
decrease in the accuracy of the predictions, and noise level contours can be clearly presented.
REFERENCES
[1] Noise Pollution: The Problem and Some Solutions Informations Collected from Assorted Websites, 2010.
[2] European Commission, Future Noise Policy, Green Paper, COM (96)540, Brussels, 1996.
[3] European Commission Working Group, Good Practice Guide for Strategic Noise Mapping and the
Production of Associated Data on Noise Exposure, 2006.
[4] Nicoll, R., Butten, N., Shilton,S., Northern Ireland Environmental Noise Directive Mapping Data
Study: Data Options, Feasibility, and Pilot Study Report, 2005
[5] Stoter, J., Noise Prediction Models and Geographic Information Systems, a sound combination. SIRC
99-The 11th Annual Colloquium of the SpatialInformation Research Centre University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand, 1999.
[6] Burrough, P.A., Principles of Geographic Information System for Land Resource Assessment,. Oxford
Clarendon Press, London, 1986.
[7] Hadzi-Nikolova, M., Modern approach in management and noise control in urban areas, PhD Thesis,
June, 2013.
[8] Barron, R.F., Industrial Noise Control and Acoustics, Louisiana Tech University Ruston,
Louisiana,U.S.A , 2001.
[9] Mirakovski, D., Hadzi-Nikolova, M., Ristovic, I., Despodov, Z., Panov, Z., Modeling of Noise Impact
Assessment on the Aggregate Surface Mines, Integrated International Symposium TIORIR`11,
Zlatibor, Republic of Serbia, 2011.
[10] SoundPLAN Manual 7.1, Braunstein + Berndt GmbH/SoundPLAN International LLC, January, 2012.
[11] Tonin, R. Validation of Environmental Noise Model, Renzo Tonin & Pty Ltd, Sidney, Australia, 2000.

231

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEM


FOR SURFACE LIGNITE MINING
Aleksandar Simic1, Radoje Lausevic2, Ana Popovic3, Mirjana Bartula2
1
Kolubara LTD, Lazarevac, Serbia,
2
Futura, Belgrade, Serbia,
3
Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Ady Endre ut, Szentendre, Hungary
Abstract: Paper presents an innovative environmental management and information system (EMIS) for surface
lignite mining, developed on TEAMS Sustainability Reporting software platform. Described system enables
integrated electronic environmental reporting and introduction of EMIS in interested industrial companies. Paper
presents TEAMS Parent Client Solution (PCS) Kolubara, developed in line of PRTR Protocol rules and Serbian
legislation on environmental reporting. Presented results indicate that this system could be easily transposed into
similar lignite producing facilities.
Keywords: Environmental Management, Information System, Reporting, TEAMS, Kolubara Ltd, Serbia

1. INTRODUCTION
As result of the pronounced needs of state authorities for reliable reporting and problems in meeting relevant
environmental standards which business are facing (Aamodt et al., 2013), a methodological framework for
the design and implementation of integrated Environmental Management Information Systems (EMIS)was
developed. EMIS is used to fulfill tasks of sustainability reporting by various businesses. It is also part of the
early warning systems for the identification of environmental risks as it provides adequate environmental
performance indicators of products and processes (Pocajt et al., 2013). Businesses which are using EMIS
can efficiently monitor their environmental performance. Such approach contributes to their competitiveness
as there is positive correlation between proactive environmental management and the improvement of firm
performance with respect to the other firms in its sector (Claver et al., 2013).
In the Republic of Serbia, a legal framework defines the ground of an integrated environmental
information system. It gives the mandate to the Serbian Environmental protection Agency (SEPA) for
development and management of the national integrated environmental system, environmental data
acquisition, centralization and processing, reporting about the state of environmentand policy
implementation in the field of environmental protection (Aamodt et al., 2013). SEPA keeps the National
Register of Pollution Sources (NRPS), which is an important source of systematized information and data
on environmental media pollution sources (Lauevi et al. 2013). NRPS generates an incentive for
knowledge sharing and implementation of various organizational, technical and other solutions aimed at
reduction of the environmental impact and improvement of competitiveness (Redi et al., 2013).
Environmental monitoring and reporting became obligatory in Serbia after adoption of Law on Integrated
Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) in 2004. All IPPC facilities in Serbia have to obtain IPPC license
232

which aims to prevent or reduce emissions, reduce waste generation and improve energy and resource
efficiency (Stevanovi-arapina and Jovovi, 2013).
Following the need to improve the functionalities of the existing register and environmental management
and reporting in Serbia SEPA agreedin2010tothe bilateral support of Norway for the implementation of
the project of establishing an Environmental Management Center (EMC) in Serbia for efficient emission
monitoring and reporting (Popovi, 2013). Within the project two solutions were developed to support
environmental reporting and management in Serbia:(i) comprehensive environmental management system
for SEPA for receiving and processing emission monitoring data from the reporting companies, and (ii)
tailored integrated reporting for selected industries(Aamodt et al., 2013).
In this paper we are presenting the methodology for establishing an environmental management and
information system for surface lignite mining which has been tested in Kolubara Ltd.

2. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTABLISHING AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


AND INFORMATION SYSTEM
2.1 TEAMS as Reporting Platform
EMIS for surface lignite mining was developed using TEAMS Sustainability Reporting software
platform, developed by Emisoft, Norway (http://www.emisoft.com).
Using TEAMS as development platform new tools were developed to support environmental reporting
and management in Serbia: Competent Authority TEAMS Solution for SEPA and Parent Client TEAMS
Solution (PCS) for industrial clients, surface lignite mines being among them. Developed systems enables
integrated electronic environmental reporting in Serbia and the introduction of EMAS in interested
industrial companies (Aamodt et al. 2013).
TEAMS has well separated environments for configuration, testing and production. The Solution
Designer is a stand-alone Windows client and each client is able to simulate the whole Solution for
development purposes. Versioning of the Solution is handled through a source control server. Once a
configuration phase is completed, the Solution is deployed to a test server. After testing is approved, the
configuration or changes in the configuration is automatically deployed to the production environment,
minimizing downtime in production. Deployment between configuration, testing and production
environments is managed through the Solutions Deployment Tool (Fig. 1).

Figure1 Operational architecture and phases in TEAMS implementation


233

For supporting solutions Deployment Tool TEAMS contains four user interfaces, all connected to the
same XML model: Web based (End Users and User Administration) and Windows based (Solution
Designer and Deployment Tool). The End User and User Administration Interfaces is web based and uses
Microsoft Silver light. This allows Rich Internet Application functionality(RIA) for web applications with
look and feel superior to standard web pages (Tab.1)
Table 1: TEAMS user Interfaces and their functionality (Source: Aamodt et al. 2013).
User interface
Functionality
Register and modify transactional data
View
dashboard
Drilldown Reporting
Auditing/tracking of data(log)
End User
Manual running of imports, exports and query
(Web)
Register and modify master data
(according to assigned permissions)
Users and roles (assign permissions)
User Administration
User tasks
(Web)
System messages

Solution Designer
(Windows)

Deployment Tool
(Windows)

Structure of master data


Structure of transactions
Forms
Calculations
Queries
Advanced reports
Dashboards
Imports and exports
Simulate the Solution in a test environment
Deployment changes in the Solution to the production database

2.2 TEAMS- Parent Client Solution


TEAMS-Parent Client Solution (PCS) is an Information System designed according to PRTR Protocol
rules and domestic legislation.
PCS represents flexible reporting tool which meets requirements of a diverse group of customers. The
reporting tool in TEAMS is based on Dev Express Xtra Reports. This gives a professional reporting tool
with full flexibility of reporting across areas and the organization based on all available information in the
database. In TEAMS, information and data from several areas can be combined in one report. This can
either be on a one page overview containing a range of performance indicators or spread over several
pages with a mix of numbers, text and graphics. Reports will always be directly available in TEAMS,
ready for view or printing. In addition all reports can instantly be exported or saved to several formats,
including PDF, Excel, Image, etc. and such reports can easily be incorporated in e-mail messages as
attachments, other reports and presentations.
Report templates so far integrated within TEAMS are summaries of various emissions (to air,
water, land- per month, year, per facility, water and energy use, fuel consumption, waste- per
different parameters, environmental development, GHG emissions, etc.). Almost forty forms are
available, or, depending on requirements of company or stakeholders, customized reports can be
programmed using Web Report Designer, which is integral part of software and requires only
elemental knowledge of SQL.

234

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1. TEAMSPCS case study Kolubara
In order to test TEAMS as Reporting Platform, PCS for mining basin Kolubara has been developed,
which enables data input, data calculation and aggregation, various reporting and analysis.
Different levels of security are provided for those using the system. Viewing information or registering
and changing data can only be carried out by those with the appropriate permission. They are easily
managed by the administrator through one single module, where he can control modules which end users
can view and work with them. All data entries and changes are logged, containing all historical
information, which makes the system easily accessible for data audits. Core part of Kolubara PCS is well
defined master data base. We developed solution in which master database includes specific
organizational structure of the company, decomposed to the 5thlevel (including addresses, NACE and
activity codes, responsible persons etc.), list of 91 pollutants divided in 7 groups, list of 65 activities
within 8 industries/sectors, and 14 code lists in accordance with E-PRTR.
In TEAMS PCS Kolubara, following particular requirements of legal framework, company management
and stakeholders needs we developed reporting structure which consists of almost forty reporting
templates divided in 6 categories: (1) Pollutant Release and Transfer; (2) Water, Energy and Fuel
consumption, (3) Waste; (4) PRTR report; (5) National Registry report; (6) Others.
First category of reporting templates covers all emissions in different environmental media (air, water,
land) expressed in different units for practical reasons. Templates are designed in a way that can meet
every day needs of average user, i.e. to give quick response for stakeholders inquiries on daily, monthly
or annual level. Important part of this reporting templates are related to CO2emissions, which will become
particularly significant once that type of reporting will become compulsory in Serbia with further
approaching of Serbia to EU (EU ETS). Second category of reporting templates refers to use of resources.
From the point of EN16212:2012 and similar documents, information from this section represent basic
input for top-down methods for energy efficiency and saving calculations.
Reports in waste section give total amounts of waste per facility for different time intervals. It is
empirically proven that waste reporting might be too general, so customized reports that can pinpoint
exact amounts of specific waste type in storages (point sources in TEAMS) are developed. PRTR and
National Registry reports are using exactly the same data stored within TEAMS, but different reporting
forms: one according to E-PRTR and another to National and Local Register of Pollution Sources (Rules
on methodology for National and Local Register of Pollution Sources, and the methodology of ways,
types and terms of data collection. Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia 135/04, 36/09, 36/09, 72/09),
which is based on previous one. Finally, Other section contains information valuable for reporting on
mining operations as it comprises various product information. Besides those templates this section
contains also templates for Greenhouse gas emissions and Environmental development reporting.
3.2. Benefits of using TEAMS Kolubara case study
Developed PCS Kolubara offers several important benefits: possibility to collect environmental data in
one place, time saving for annual reporting, integrated key performance indicator and quality control
reports, improved regulatory compliance with EU standards, transparency and traceability as all
registrations and changes are logged and linked to entry operator, developed uniform code lists and
master data tables, ensuring consistent reporting, limiting report errors and improving data quality,
threshold value comparisons, and reduced time needed for reporting.
After implementation of Kolubara PCS an immediate positive effect was identified as all data are
consolidated in common database and available for production of all needed environmental reports. This
also increased transparency of company operations and communication with public stakeholders. It is
expected that introduction of TEAMS into Kolubara Ltd. will strengthen corporate social responsibility,
235

as itis shown that information systems could play critical role in shaping beliefs about the environment, in
enabling and transforming sustainable processes and practices in organizations, and in improving
environmental and economic performance of organization (Melville, 2010).
Besides environmental reporting required by law Kolubara PCS enabled various internal reporting, e.g.
fuel, energy and raw material consumption. This will enable introduction of various efficiency measures,
including energy efficiency with multiple benefits for the company. This reporting will also enable
assessment of GHG mitigation potential in Kolubara Ltd., mainly in boiler plants which are using lignite
as fuel. It is known that a power systems with prevailing use of lignite has high GHG mitigation potential,
as shown in assessment of Macedonian power system (Taseska et al., 2011).In addition, this reporting
will be basis for analyses of possible use of fuel mixtures in boilers, as it is one of the best available
techniques to be applied in order to guarantee a longer life for the boilers (Dios et al., 2013).
In accordance with the principle of user pays and polluter pays(Law on Environmental Protection.
Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia135/04,36/09, 72/09, 43/11), the importance of monitoring of
emissions to the environment is particularly significant. Practice in 2012 has shown that the continuous
measurement and recording of discharged mine wastewater with flow meters instead of the previous
calculation based on the work hours of pumps reduced fee for disposal of such water in the
environmentby30%.Thisconfirms empirical view that the implementation of an EMS simultaneously
reduces environmental impacts and improves productivity, and that a reduction in environmental impacts
also improves productivity (Nishitani et al., 2012).

3. CONCLUSION
TEAMS Sustainability Reporting software platform was used for development of TEAMS Parent Client
Solution (PCS) for mining basin Kolubara Ltd. By introducing PCS, Kolubara Ltd. Gained a robust,
flexible, state-of-the-art environmental management reporting system.
Developed TEAMS PCS completely satisfies needs of Kolubara Ltd. For internal and external
environmental reporting and corporate responsibility. System is flexible and enables further developments
in line with identified needs. On one hand it enables company to fulfill its legal requirements, but on the
other it brings economic benefits thorough resources efficiency.
Results of this study indicate that such system could be transposed into similar lignite producing facilities.

Acknowledgement
Results presented in this paper are developed under the project Setting up Environmental Management Center in
Serbia financially supported by the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs under grant number SRB10/0124.

REFERENCES
[1] Aamodt, T., Lauevi, R., Berge, S., Popovi, A., Kotanjac, B. (2007). Environmental management
and information system - TEAMS in Serbia, Proc. Int. Conf. Reporting for Sustainability, Beii,
2013. pp. 105-112
[2] Claver, E., Lpez, M.D., Molina, .F., Tar, J.J. (2007). Environmental management and firm
performance: A case study. Journal of Environmental Management, 84(4), 606-619.
[3] Dios, M., Souto ,J. A., Casares, J.J. (2013). Experimental development of CO2, SO2and NOxemission
factors for mixed lignite and sub bituminous coal-fired power plant. Energy, 53(1), 4051.
[4] Melville, N. P. (2010). Information Systems Innovation for Environmental Sustainability. MIS
Quarterly, 34 (1), 1-22.
236

[5] Nishitani, K., Kaneko,S., Fujii, H., Komatsu,S. (2012). Are firms' voluntary environmental
management activities beneficial for the environment and business? An empirical study focusing on
Japanese manufacturing firms. Journal of Environmental Management, 105, 121-130.
[6] Pocajt, V., Atanasijevi, D., Risti, M., Peri-Gruji, A. (2013). Environmental Sustainability and
Information Technologies: A Dynamic Interdependence. Proc. Int. Conf. Reporting for Sustainability,
Beii, 39-47.
[7] Popovic, A. (Ed.), (2013). TEAMS success: Setting up an Environmental Management Center in
Serbia, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Szentendre, 2013
[8] Redi, N., orevi,LJ., voro, D., Mihailovi, L., Markovi, I. (2013). National register of pollution
sources of Serbian Environmental Protection Agency supporting environmental management. Proc.
Int. Conf. Reporting for Sustainability, Beii, 97-103.
[9] Stevanovi-arapina, H., Jovovi, A. (2013). The Implementation of an IPPC Directive in the region,
Proc. Int. Conf. Reporting for Sustainability, Beii, 77-82.
[10]
Taseska,V., Markovska,N., Causevski, A.,Bosevski, T., Pop-Jordanov, J.(2011). Green house
gases (GHG) emissions reduction in a power system predominantly based on lignite. Energy, 36 (4),
2266-2270.

237

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS IN PROCESSES OF


STRATEGIC ENERGY PLANNING - CASE OF THE CITY OF NIS
Marija Zivkovic, Dejan Ivezic, Aleksandar Madzarevic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: This paper presents the role of environmental indicators in the process of strategic energy planning. Indicators
are selected to describe environmental performance, in the backcasting strategic planning approach, for the case of
development of heating system in the city of Nis. Backcasting planning approach is given in brief, as well as the analysis
of current heating system in the city of Nis. For determination of present and future heating system environment
performances, list of indicators is established, as well as algorithm for their calculation. Environmental indicators are
calculated for base year and the end year of planning horizon for two different scenarios of development. BAU (Business
as Usual) scenario and selected, proposed scenario of heating system development are modeled in LEAP software. It was
shown that possibilities for significant environmental improvement exist, in line with the most developed EU cities.
However, this requires the changing of development pattern, from BAU to selected scenario of development. It was
concluded that obtained value of environmental indicators for selected scenario in the end year should be used as
benchmarks and guidelines in development of heating system.
Keywords: Environmental, Energy, Indicators, Backcasting Planning

1. INTRODUCTION
Energy has the crucial role for the social and economic well-being and it is essential for development of
industrial and commercial sectors. Because of that it has a key role in alleviating poverty and improving living
conditions. However, energy is also a branch of the economy with the greatest negative impact on the
environment, and its foundation predominantly on non-renewable energy resources represents a real threat to
the sustainability of economies and to sustainability in general. That is why it is necessary to develop long term
energy strategies that include detailed analysis of all aspects: general and developmental, technological,
economic, and social, environmental and others. It should be borne in mind that there is not such source of
energy, coal, solar, wind or any other, which can be generally classified as good or bad. Each energy source is
only as valuable as it is useful for achieving the objectives of sustainable development: a healthy and educated
population, a prosperous economy and unpolluted environment.
Issues related to energy supply from day to day become more relevant. Strategic planning in the energy
sector is gaining in importance and is an important element of policy in each country. The rising trend in
energy prices, increasing demand for all forms of energy, the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, greenhouse
gas emissions and the impact on the climate and environment in general, supply problems and the energy
crisis are some of the facts which confirm the importance and the need for strategic planning. It should be
underlined that strategy need to provide more sustainable solution for the future then the current one, and
that at the end sustainability is related to providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all
community residents, present and future.
For exploring possible futures, for planning and decision making, three classes of scenarios can be used
[1]. Classes of scenarios provide the answer to the different question:
238

1) What will happen? Scenarios that answer this question are based on trends extrapolations. It is
assumed that no major changes will occur, and that societies, technologies, and cultures will
develop according to a continuous path from the past towards the future (business as usual
scenarios).
2) What could happen? This class of scenarios usually explore a range of possible futures, due to
uncertainty of influential parameters (exploratory; foresighting; strategic scenarios). In
development of such scenarios assumptions of trends, expectations, cultural changes and changes
in other relevant variables are included.
3) What should happen? This class represents normative scenarios, which are used when
backcasting approach is applying. Backcasting can be explained as generating a desirable future,
then looking backwards from that future to the present in order to strategize and to plan how it
could be achieved [2]. In this approach desired and preferable future, which is in aforementioned
scenarios an end point, in this case is a starting point, and the analysis steps back in time to
explore how it may be achieved.
It is shown that significant shift toward more sustainable option of energy system can be achieved when
backcasting approach is applied. Backcasting has been used in many cases to explore goal-fulfilling or
desirable futures for the climate change mitigation, for decreased energy use and decreased emissions of
greenhouse gases [3]. Pathway for climate-neutral Sweden was developed by integrated exploratory and
normative approach [4]. According to [5], it is presented backcasting study focused on fulfillment of a
Swedish target to decrease energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by 2050
compared with the consumption in 1995, and identifying possible measures for achieving it. Scenarios
and action plans for sustainable heating in Ireland developed by participatory backcasting study were
presented at [6]. This approach is also implemented at local level in United Kingdom [7].
Participatory backcasting approach for strategic energy planning and decision making in Serbia has been
implemented for the first time, for developing long term strategy for heating system of the city of Nis. In
order to develop strategic document complete backcasting procedure is carried out: the current situation
analysis, creation of the future vision and criteria, driver analysis, elaboration of the alternative solutions
for the heating, analysis and testing of the solutions, selection of the solution for implementation,
development of pathway and action plan for its implementation [8]. One of important phases is
determination and selection of criteria that future (desired) energy system should fulfill. As important
criteria environmental performance is pointed out. This paper presents the role of environmental
indicators, selected to describe environmental performance, in the backcasting strategic planning
approach, for the case of the city of Nis.

2. CURRENT STATE ANALYSES


The city of Nis is the administrative, industrial, commercial and cultural center of the south-eastern part
of Republic of Serbia, and the third largest city in Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the city
population is 260,037 inhabitants, with 187,544 inhabitants in the urban area [9]. Climate is moderate
continental, with mean annual air temperature of 11.4C. Typical heating season lasts six months,
average number of heating days per season is 179, while the number of degree days is 2613. Average
temperature during heating season is 4.4C [10].
In the base year (2010) total heating area of the households in Nis was 7,105,600m2, while annual energy
consumption related to heating - 662.3GWh [11]. Figure 1a shows structure of energy sources used for
heating in the household sector of Nis in 2010. Electricity occupies the largest share in the final demand energy
mix related to heating. It is followed by firewood and heat provided by centralized heat supply system.

239

Figure 1a Structure of final energy used for heating in households in the City of Nis [10]
Figure 1b Structure of final energy consumption for the heat demand in the public sector in 2010. [10]
The main reason of such huge share of electricity in the heating energy mix is its low price comparing to
other sources [2]. It must be noted that in practice consumers usually use electrical heater(s) to heat only a
part of an apartment or house, what leads to low level of comfort.
Firewood is the renewable energy source with the high share in consumption. Mainly it is used in
inefficient traditional way, mostly burned in wood stoves. This way of usage (uncontrolled combustion)
causes high emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ash and particles. The common practice is
when wood is used to heat only a part of an apartment, similar to the electricity usage case.
In the base year (2010) energy consumption in public buildings for heating was 40.18 GWh, while the
total heating area was 306,479 m2. Figure 1b presents the structure of fuels/energy sources used for
heating in 2010.
Public Company "District Heating Company of Ni" produces and distributes heat for consumers
connected to district heating network. The total installed capacity of the company facilities is 236.8 MW.
Natural gas is predominantly used fuel with the share of 91%, while the rest is covered by the heavy oil.
Electricity market in Serbia is liberated, but the most part of consumed electricity is produced by the
Electric Power Industry of Serbia. Electricity is mainly produced in lignite fired thermal power plants
(63.8%) while rest is produced in hydro power plants (27.2%) [12]. Consequently, average emission of
carbon dioxide per kWh of electricity produced is 0.745 kg/kWh [13].

3. CRITERIA AND INDICATORS


For assessment of present and possible or desired future system criteria are needed. The criteria that
should fulfill future heating system were selected, formulated and adopted by agreement of the interested
parties (stakeholders) are presented in Table 1.
Issues related to the technical aspects of heating: share of imported or locally available fuels and share of
renewable energy sources can determine a system or a method of heating as a reliable and available.
Affordable heating option should not take a large share of the budget of individuals, households or
companies, while also providing sustainable operation of energy companies (producers and distributors of
energy). A healthy environment is clearly stated in the vision and should be achieved through
environmentally friendly heating pattern. Comfort is a criterion that arose from the need to emphasize
customer requirements for heating and energy efficiency is selected as the paradigm of modernity,
efficiency and quality.
Importance of each criterion is accessed, and stakeholders proposed weights for each of them (Table 1).

240

Table 1 Criteria and corresponding weights defined by stakeholders group


CRITERIA

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Reliability and availability


Affordability

0.35
0.25

0.30
0.25

0.30
0.25

Environmental acceptance (environmentally friendly)

0.10

0.15

0.20

Comfortable

0.10

0.20

0.10

Energy efficiency

0.20

0.10

0.15

In order to describe in more details, performance of current and future system for each criterion several
sub-criterions are proposed (Table 2). It can be seen that in the case of environmental performance,
proposed sub-criterions can be considered as environmental indicators.
Table 2 Sub-criterions for environmental performance - Environmental indicators
Environmental indicators

Base year value

Emission of carbon-dioxide per kWh thermal


kg CO2/kWh

0,3623 Kg CO2 /kWh

Emission of carbon-dioxide per square meter of heating area related to heating


purposes
kg CO2/m2

34,13 kg CO2/m2

Emission of carbon-monoxide per kWh thermal-final consumption


kg of CO/kWh

0,0055 kg of CO/kWh

Emission of nitrogen oxides per kWh thermal-final consumption


kg of NOx/kWh

0,355x10-3 kg of
NOx/kWh

Emission of sulfur oxides per kWh thermal-final consumption,


kg of SOx/ kWh

0.039x10-3 kg of SOx/
kWh

Meeting of heating needs make consequences on the environment. Because of that environmental
performance has been recognized as an important criterion on the basis of which decision makers can
compare and access different options. As sub-criteria that are closer describing the influence of heating
system to the environment are indicators relating to air pollution: carbon monoxide emissions from the
final energy consumption per kWh of thermal energy, the emission of nitrogen oxides from the final
consumption per kWh of heat and sulfur dioxide emissions from final consumption per kWh of thermal
energy, and indicators related to the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide
emissions per kWh of thermal energy and the annual carbon dioxide emissions per m2 of heating area.
Although the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions-the dominant greenhouse gas is a priority in developed
countries, emissions of conventional pollutants values indicate that the problem of local pollution necessary to
devote significant attention. High levels of emission of these pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,
sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, CH groups) are the consequences of unregulated process of combustion in
individual boilers and furnaces. The base year emissions of these pollutants are determined by using emission
factors by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
In Table 3 sub criterions related to environmental performance are presented, as well as corresponding
values for the base year, calculated from energy balance.
Analysis of the values of the indicators related to heating for Nis in the base year provides guidelines for
the future developments of the heating system. Thus, comparison with the EU countries shows that Nis
heating system is characterized by high emission of carbon dioxide per kWh of thermal energy (393
g/kWh) and high primary to final energy ratio (1.585) [14],[15].
241

4. ENVIRNOMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF PROPOSED HEATING SYSTEM


As a visualization of possible futures plays is an essential role in the strategic planning processes, special
attention should be devoted to development of BAU scenario, which provides an answer to the question
"what will happen if the present practice continues?". That is the reason why when developing BAU
scenario historical trends need to be included. The expected enlargement of the heating area in the city of
Nis is assumed to have the growth rate that corresponds to historical growth in period 1971-2011 (Statistical
office of the Republic of Serbia, Census). Other facts relevant for BAU assumptions are: there will not be
improvement in energy efficiency of the buildings; for new buildings strict standards will not be requested;
no changes in the structure of energy sources used meet heat demand, both in final and transformation
sector; the share of heat provided from DH company in final energy mix will remain as in the base year.
For future system development several options were proposed. Elaboration of options and the selection
process, will be the topic of separate paper, and will not be discussed here.
Option that is selected for future heating system development was conceived with the idea to examine
separately the heating in collective housing (multistory buildings) by heating in residential houses (single
family houses), as well as in existing buildings and facilities that will be constructed during the considered
period. For facilities whose construction is planned, the high energy efficiency class B must be met. Existing
buildings will be retrofitted, to meet class C by 2030. Substitution of the use of electricity for heating is
adopted as a priority. This scenario promotes lower energy consumption through the introduction of "smart"
technology, which provides the ability to manage consumption and adapt it to the needs of consumers.
Green architecture will be considered and applied in some extent during the construction of new buildings,
and the renovation of existing ones. Expansion of the district heating network and the connection of new
customers is planned, especially for multi-story buildings and city center area. In the areas with low heat
load density foreseen is the development of individual heating systems.
The proposed options are modeled using a software LEAP (Long range Energy Alternatives Planning) in
order to provide a better overview, possibility of interpretation and analysis. LEAP is a tool for creation
energy balances and scenario development. It can be used for modeling different energy systems (from
local governments, energy companies, to the countries and regions).
Projection of final energy consumption for heating by 2030 for BAU and Selected scenario is presented at
Figure 2. Structure of energy sources used is presented at Figure 3.

Figure 2 Final energy demand for heating, by scenario

242

Figure 3 Final energy demand for heating, by scenario


Reduced heat demand and change of the structure of energy sources reflects on impact to environment. It
can be expected a significant reduction of pollutants from final consumption (as a result of combustion at
final consumers). The expected reduction in carbon monoxide emissions in 2030 is 22% compared to the
base year and 43% compared to the BAU scenario (Figure 4). Reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides
in 2030 is 29% compared to the base year and 49% compared to the BAU scenario (Figure 5), while the
expected reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions is 80% and 85% respectively (Figure 6).

Figure 4 Carbon monoxide emission in 2030, by scenario

Figure 5 Nitrogen oxides emission in 2030, by scenario

243

Figure 6 Sulfur dioxide emission in 2030, by scenario


Figure 7 shows expected effects related to the reduction of emission of carbon dioxide. In the balance of
carbon dioxide in 2010, the dominant contribution, 69%, is from the electricity used for heating (0.745 kg
/ kWh). The expected effect of all these measures is to reduce the emission of 253 thousand tons to 119.6
thousand tons in 2030.
Thousand tons

300

Emission related to electricity


generation, used for heat
pumps
Emission related to electricity
generation, used for heating

250
200
150
100

Emission related to final


energy consumption

50
0
2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

Emission from DH systemnatural gas and heavy oil


combustion

Figure 7 Emission of carbon dioxide in selected scenario


Based on presented results, value of indicators in end year of selected scenario can be determined (Table 3).

244

Table 3 Environmental indicators in 2030 by selected scenario


Indicator

Value in 2030

Effects compared
to BAU

Emission of carbon dioxide per kWh thermal,


kg CO2/kWh

0.201kg CO2 /kWh

Decrease 45%

Emission of carbon dioxide per square meter of heating area


related to heating purposes, kg CO2/m2

11.58kg CO2/m2

Decrease 66%

Emission of carbon monoxide per kWh thermal-final consumption,


kg of CO/kWh

0.0047
kg of CO/kWh

Decrease 14%

Emission of nitrogfen oxides per kWh thermal-final consumption,


kg of NOx/kWh

0.106x10-3 kg of
NOx/kWh

Decrease 70%

Emission of sulfur oxides per kWh thermal-final consumption,


kg of SOx/ kWh

0.039x10-3 kg of
SOx/ kWh

Decrease 78%

Indicators` values in 2030 can be understood as target values, which should be reached in future. This
approach could be the base for establishing the systematic determination and tracking of presented
indicators. The procedure could provide year to year measurement, reporting and determination of target
fulfilment.

5. CONCLUSION
Participatory backcasting approach for strategic energy planning and decision making in Serbia has been
implemented for the first time, for developing long term strategy for heating system of the city of Nis.
One of the steps in implementing this approach is selection and elaboration of criteria that desirable
system should fulfil in the future. For the case of the city of Nis, five criteria were selected. As the one of
relevant criteria environmental performance was pointed out. This criterion was later divided in five subcriteria, which are environmental indicators. Determination of their values in the base year provides a
possibility for benchmarking and obtaining guidelines for development of analyzed system.
Proposed solution for the future system should provide substantial improvement of all indicators. Model
of proposed energy system is developed for determination the target values of environmental indicators.
Establishing a list of indicators, their base year and target values, as well as algorithm for calculation,
enable measuring of a progress towards the target. In the case of the city of Nis target values for
environmental indicators were selected in order to reduce air pollution and make heating system of the
city of Nis comparable with other European cities.

REFERENCES
[1] Vergragt, P. J., Quist, J., Backcasting for sustainability: Introduction to the special issue,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol 78, Issue 5, 2011, pp. 747755
[2] Quist, J., Vergragt, P., Past and future of backcasting: the shift to stakeholder participation and a
proposal for a methodological framework, Futures, Vol 38, 2006, pp. 10271045
[3] Green, K., Vergragt, P., Towards sustainable households: a methodology for developing sustainable
technological and social innovations, Futures, Vol 34, 2002, pp. 381400
245

[4] Milestad, R., Svenfelt, A., Dreborg, K.H., Developing integrated explorative and normative scenarios:
The case of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden, Futures, Vol 60, 2014, pp. 5971
[5] Svenfelta, A., Engstrmb, R., Svanea, O., Decreasing energy use in buildings by 50% by 2050-A
backcasting study using stakeholder groups, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol 78,
Issue 5, 2011, pp. 785796
[6] Doyle, R., Davies, A., Towards sustainable household consumption: exploring a practice oriented,
participatory backcasting approach for sustainable home heating practices in Ireland, Journal of
Cleaner Production, Vol 48, 2013, pp. 260271
[7] Bale, C.S.E., Foxon, T.J., Hannon, M.J., Gale, W.F., Strategic energy planning within local authorities
in the UK: A study of the city of Leeds, Energy Policy, Vol 48, 2012, pp. 242-251
[8] ivkovi, M., Pereverza, K., Pasichnyi, O., Madarevi, A., Ivezi, D., Kordas, O., Exploring
solutions for more sustainable heating in Ni, Serbia, Proceedings of 8th Conference on sustainable
development of Energy, water and environment systems, Croatia, 2015, in press.
[9] Robinson, J., Energy backcasting: a proposed method of policy analysis, Energy Policy ,Volume 10,
Issue 4,1982, pp. 337-344
[10]
Lovins, A.B., Soft energy paths: toward a durable peace, Friends of the Earth International /
Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge MA., 1977.
[11]
Holmberg, J., Robrt, K. H., Backcasting: a framework for strategic planning. International
Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Volume 7, Issue 4, 2000, pp 291308.
[12]
Keirstead, J., Jennings, M., & Sivakumar, A., A review of urban energy system models:
Approaches, challenges and opportunities., Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), 2012,
pp. 3847-3866.
[13]
Urban, F. R. M. J., Benders, R. M. J., & Moll, H. C., Modelling energy systems for developing
countries. Energy Policy, Vol. 35, Issue 6, 2007, pp. 3473-3482
[14]
Mirakyan, A. De Guio, R., Integrated energy planning in cities and territories: a review of
methods and tools, Renewable Sustainable Energy Review, Volume 22, 2013, pp. 289297
[15]
Gruji, M., Ivezi, D., ivkovi, M., Application of multi-criteria decision-making model for
choice of the optimal solution for meeting heat demand in the centralized supply system in Belgrade,
Energy, Vol. 67, 2014, pp. 341350

246

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BY


CO2 INJECTION
Vesna Karovic Maricic, Branko Lekovic, Dusan Danilovic, Miroslav Crnogorac
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: Carbon dioxide injection today is the most commonly used tertiary method, besides thermal ones, for
increasing oil recovery after application of primary and secondary recovery methods from oil reservoir. In general,
CO2 injection can add an additional 10-15% of original oil in place to the oil production.
CO2 injection method has been used in petroleum industry for over 40 years but recently it represents a promising
technology for mitigating greenhouse gas emission as a carbon sequestration method. Geologic carbon
sequestration involves the CO2 separation and capturing from large point sources, as well as storing it into the
underground geologic formations besides other types, such as nearly depleted oil reservoirs.
In this paper are presented characteristics of enhanced oil recovery process by CO2 injection, brief review of carbon
capture and storing methods with an emphasis on worldwide current and future application of CO2-EOR for CO2
storage and oil recovery.
Keywords: Oil Reservoir, CO2 Injection, Geologic Sequestration, Environmental Benefit

1. INTRODUCTION
Conventional primary and secondary oil reservoir recovery processes are producing about one-third of the
estimated original oil in place. The aim of enhanced oil recovery methods (EOR) is to increase this
recovery factor by mobilizing remaining oil in the reservoir. Application of this tertiary oil reservoir
recovery methods can increase recovery factor to about 60%. (Karovi Marii et al, 2013).
Thermal, chemical and miscible/immiscible gas injection methods are three broad categories of EOR
processes. They differ in type of injected fluid, the physical mechanisms responsible for oil recovery,
complexity and in application techniques.
Depending on the specific principles of functioning, EOR methods can be divided into two categories: 1)
methods that improve the efficiency of oil microscopic displacement by fluid injection and 2) methods
that improve volumetric sweep efficiency of reservoir by fluid injection. Oil microscopic displacement
efficiency increase is achieved by reducing the oil viscosity (thermal method application) or capillary
force/interfacial tension (application of chemical methods-injection of surfactants, alkali or by injection
of, CO2, hydrocarbon gases..) (Terry, 2001). The volumetric sweep efficiency is increased by reduction of
injected fluid mobility (e.g. injection of polymer aqueous solution) or by increasing the mobility of oil
(e.g. thermal methods) (Sydansk and Romero-Zern, 2011).

247

Carbon dioxide injection today is the most commonly used method besides thermal EOR methods for
increasing oil recovery after application of primary and secondary recovery methods. In general, using
CO2 as an EOR method can add an additional 10-15% of OOIP to the production from oil reservoir.
CO2 injection has been used in petroleum industry for over 40 years as an enhanced oil recovery method,
but recently it represents a promising technology for mitigating greenhouse emissions as a carbon
sequestration method.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is recently developed technology for capturing carbon dioxide from
emission sources (such as fossil fuel-fired power plants, refineries, cement plants, etc.) and storing CO2
after that instead of releasing into the atmosphere.
Due to development of this technology carbon dioxide by-products from large point sources inject in the
oil reservoir for enhancing oil recovery.
For these reasons, it can be considered that EOR method has an important environmental impact in
reducing greenhouse emissions by storing CO2 in deep geological formations (Holloway et al, 2006).

2. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESS BY CO2


INJECTION
The oil production mechanisms due to carbon dioxide injection are:

reduction of oil viscosity,


oil swelling,
vaporization of oil and
reduction of interfacial tension.

These mechanisms depend on whether the oil displacement by CO2 is miscible or immiscible process. In
the case of immiscible carbon dioxide displacement, the reduction of the crude oil viscosity and oil
swelling are present, while in miscible process all mentioned mechanisms are acting. Miscibility of CO 2
and reservoir oil depends primarily on reservoir conditions (reservoir pressure value, e.g mimimum
miscibility pressure-MMP) and crude oil composition. In the immiscible process when the pressure is
below the MMP, CO2 displaces the oil by remaining in gaseous phase with a front between the two
phases When the pressure is above the MMP, CO2 and oil are mixing at the first contact or in multi
contacts forming one phase. Miscible processes have a higher oil recovery factors than immiscible CO 2
injection (Latil, 1980; Willhite, 1986).
There are several CO2 injection techniques:
1.
Oil well stimulation by cyclic CO2 injection includes three phases (figure 1): gas injection in
certain amount, shuting the well for few weeks and resuming production through the same wellPlease do
not insert figures into text boxes.

248

Figure 1 Oil well stimulation by cyclic CO2 injection (www.praxair.com)


2.
Continuous CO2 injection implies injecting a certain amount of CO2 constantly until the projected
slug size is reached (Nasir and Chong, 2009).

Figure 2 Continuous CO2 injection (www.evolutionpetroleum.com)


3.
The WAG or water alternate gas method involves the injection of slugs of water alternately
with certain amount of CO2. This type of CO2 injection, given in figure 3, is the most applied and
considered as a most successful.

Figure 3Water alternate gas method (www.cornerstonemag.net)


249

4.
SWAG or simultaneous water alternate gas method implies injection of water and CO2 at the
same time in the reservoir. In figure 4. is presented CO2 injection by horizontal well and simultaneous
water injection by vertical well.

Figure 4 SWAG method (www.decarboni.se/publications/technical-aspects-co2)


CO2-EOR is complex, expensive and long lasting process concerning reservoir response in sense of oil
recovery increase and payback period of investments. For implementation of this method is needed about
6-10 years and it includes: screening fluid and reservoir parameters for estimating oil reservoirs suitable
for CO2-EOR (table 1.), (Terry, 2001), conducting reservoir studies involving laboratory testing and
development of static geological and dynamic reservoir models, designing and implementing the pilot test
with continuous monitoring of production and injection parameters, planning and implementation of EOR
project at the whole reservoir. (Bonder, 2010).
Table 1 Optimum fluid and reservoir parameters for CO2-EOR
Fluid and reservoir parameters
Value
Density (oAPI)
>25
Viscosity (mPas)
<12
Oil saturation %
>30
Formation type
sandstone or carbonate
Net thickness (m)
5-7,5
-15 2
Permeability (10 m )
non critical
Depth (m)
>600
non critical
Temp. (C)
For the largest number of applied CO2-EOR projects in the world so far, carbon dioxide came from
naturally occurring sources with relatively pure CO2. It is transported to the oil fields by pipelines. In the
USA, which is the greatest oil producer by CO2 injection (6% of its total oil production in last two
decades) 20% of used CO2 is anthropogenic in origin i.e., from industrial sources, such as natural gas
processing plants, hydrocarbon conversion facilities (Kuuskraa et al 2013).

3. CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) TECHNOLOGY


Carbon sequestration or CO2 capture and permanent storage depending primarily of storage site can be:

Geologic carbon sequestration involves the CO2 separation and capturing from large point sources and
storing it into underground geologic formations. There are several types of geologic formations where
CO2 can be stored: saline formations, depleted oil and gas fields, unminable coal seams for enhanced
coal bed methane recovery and oil reservoir for enhanced oil recovery (figure 5).
Terrestrial carbon sequestration implies the separation of CO2 from the atmosphere by plants
through photosynthesis and its storing in biomass and in soils.
250

Ocean sequestration involves 2 methods: CO2 injection by ship or pipeline into the water column
at depths of 1000 m or more where CO2 dissolves or on the sea floor at depths greater than 3000
m where CO2 is expected to form a lake that would delay its dissolution (www.ipcc.ch).

Figure 5 Geologic carbon sequestration options (www.ipcc.ch)


Geological formations are currently the most promising CO2 storage sites, and according to Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change- IPCC estimate, their storage capacity can be at least 2000 Gt CO2.
In the study, that has been conducted in 2011 by Advanced Resources for the International Energy
Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) with an objective of assessment of worldwide CO2
storage and oil recovery potential by CO2-EOR, it is estimated for considered 54 world oil basins that
additional oil recovery would be 1297 billion barrels with possible CO2 storage capacity of 370 billion
tons. Considered anthropogenic CO2 sources for EOR are existing fuel power plants and industrial
facilities. (Kuuskraa et al 2013).
Besides U.S. where 20% of used CO2 for EOR processes has an anthropogenic origin and largest
application, in 2014 in Saskatchewan, Canada, has started the world's first commercial-scale carbon
capture and storage project at a coal-fired power plant designed for lowering 90 % of the plant's carbon
emissions. Captured CO2 in this project will be used for EOR and for storing in saline formations. Since
2009, number of planned large CSS projects in Europe are growing mainly because Energy program for
recovery (EEPR) was formed for funding these types of projects. Currently, the largest number
of planned large scale power plant CCS-EOR projects and applied pilot CSS-EOR projects is in
China (www.sequestration.mit.edu).
Current CSS application, as well as CSS-EOR, is small and it could be considered as a not yet
commercially viable due to few reasons. It is still developing technology, capital and operating costs of
CO2 capturing, transportation and injection are rather high. Major concern is possible leakage from
storages. For that reason, the European Parliament and the Council has established the
Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological CO2 storage (www.eur-lex.europa.eu).

4. CONCLUSION
The fourth element of the EU s climate and energy package is a directive on the geological storage of
CO2 that refers to the legal framework for the environmentally safe use of carbon capture and
storage technologies. Since 2009, number of planned large CSS projects in Europe is growing mainly
because Energy program for recovery (EEPR) was formed for funding these types of projects.
CSS technology shouldnt be far future technology for Serbia. There are numerous studies already
conducted for applying CO2 injection in some our nearly depleted oil fields that are an adequate candidate
251

for enhancing oil recovery. Besides increasing oil production, using anthropogenic CO2 for that process
could be a considerable contribution to a Serbias fulfillment of European requirements concerning
greenhouse gas emission limitations.

Acknowledgment
This article is the result of the project financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Serbia
(Project No. 33001). We thank the ministry for the support.

REFERENCES
[1] Karovi Marii, V. et al (2013). The criteria for application of enhanced oil recovery methods,
Energy, economy, ecology (in Serbian) No. 3-4, pp 173-180.
[2] Terry, R. (2001) Enhanced Oil Recovery, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Third
edition, Academic press, volume 18, pp 503-518.
[3] Sydansk, R. D. and Romero-Zern, L. (2011) Reservoir Conformance Improvement, Society of
Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, Texas, 138pp
[4] Holloway, S.et al. (2006) Carbon dioxide transport, injection and geological storage, IPCC Guidelines
for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Volume 2: Energy.
[5] Latil, M. (1980) Enhanced oil recovery, Gulf Publishers, Houston.
[6] Willhite, G. P. (1986) Enhanced oil recovery, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson.
[7] Praxair Technology, (2015) CO2 Huff n Puff Services for Stimulating Oil Wells, Available from:
http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/0383(2014).pdf [Accessed 20/04/2015].
[8] Nasir F. and Chong Y. (2009) The Effect of Different Carbon Dioxide Injection Modes on Oil
Recovery, International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET Vol. 9, No
[9] Delhi project (2015), Available from: http://www.evolutionpetroleum.com/delhi.html [Accessed
01/05/2015]
[10]
CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery: The Enabling Technology for CO2 Capture and Storage Available
from: http://cornerstonemag.net/co2-enhanced-oil-recovery-the-enabling-technology-for-co2-captureand-storage [Accessed 06/05/2015]
[11]
Recovery
Methods
and
Processes
(2014),
Available
from:
http://decarboni.se/publications/technical-aspects-co2-enhanced-oil-recovery-and-associated-carbonstorage/13-recovery-methods-and-processes [Accessed 05/04/2015]
[12]
Bonder, P. (2010) EOR-the time is now: Its contribution of world energy supply, [Online] Society
of Petroleum Engineers. Available from: http://www.spe.org/dl/2010.php [Accessed 10/11/2014]
[13]
Kuuskraa A. V. et al (2013), CO2 Utilization from Next Generation CO2 Enhanced Oil
Recovery Technology, Energy Procedia 37, 6854 6866.
[14]
IPCC (2005), IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Available from:
https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_wholereport.pdf [Accessed 20/04/2015]
[15]
Commercial EOR projects using anthropogenic carbon dioxide (2015),Available from:
https://sequestration.mit.edu/tools/projects/index_capture.html [Accessed 02/05/2015]
[16]
Document 32009L0031
(2009),
Available
from:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32009L0031[Accessed 10/05/2015]

252

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

PREVENTING HARMFUL EMISSIONS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE


UPON MANIPULATION OIL DERIVATIVES
Dusan Danilovic, Vesna Karovic-Maricic, Branko Lekovic, Miroslav Crnogorac
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: Gaseous vapors generated when loading products in the transportation equipment and during their
storage in reservoirs. Gaseous vapors have multiple negative effects, starting with the fact that they are harmful to
the environment, in certain concentrations may be explosive, flammable also reduces the quality of products and
due to evaporation loss of the right material. In this paper we analyze and quantify gaseous vapors that arise when
handling oil derivatives, on the one hand and present solutions for their prevention on the other. It also presents the
application of such a system in our country.
Keywords: Harmful Emissions, Petroleum Products, Gaseous Vapors

1. INTRODUCTION
When loading of petroleum products in the means of transportation during their storage in reservoirs can
lead to the gaseous vapors, or the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. During charging
means of transport (car and rail tankers or barges) classical method (top) air that was previously in them
due to the influence of derivatives is forced to go outside. The air stream coming out of the tank along a
part of the hydrocarbons. The reason for that is what was done through the same hole filling tanks and
exit air from it, ie. the application of classical methods of filling.
The use of so-called underfloor methods of filling of transport means is far better because in this case the
air exits through the top hole on the tank and does not interfere with the derivative bottom enters the tank.
This significantly reduces the emission of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. In this case, comes
exclusively to the emission of gaseous vapors into the atmosphere from the tank.
Also during the storage of oil in the reservoir comes to the appearance of gaseous vapors and their
emissions to the atmosphere. Change the outside temperature causes a change of the conditions of
pressure and temperature in the tanks coming up to of lighter hydrocarbons from petroleum products. Due
to the increasing pressure safety valves react and produce the resulting vapor light hydrocarbons. The
problem is solved by installing a system for preventing discharges of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.
This system collects gaseous hydrocarbons gripper system, pipeline directs them to the condenser and
back to the reservoir.
The intensity of the formation of gaseous vapor is directly dependent on the temperature and stronger
during the warm period, especially in the summer when the air temperature is extremely high.
Gaseous vapors that arise during manipulation derivatives or storage in reservoirs have multiple negative
effects. Primarily gaseous vapors are harmful to the environment and therefore is prohibited their release into
the atmosphere. Since this is a gaseous hydrocarbons, it is flammable, and at a certain concentration and
253

explosive. Due to security, that is a potential threat to possession and persons is prohibited their release into the
atmosphere. The loss of light hydrocarbons from petroleum products had direct causes cutback quality
products. Also, due to the loss of light hydrocarbons comes to material loss of the derivatives.
In this paper we analyze and quantify gaseous vapors that arise when handling oil derivatives, on the one
hand and display solutions for their prevention on the other. Also, is their application to us.

2. ANALYSIS OF RESERVOIR CAPACITY


In order to evaluate hydrocarbon emissions during the handling of petroleum products were analyzed for
storage facilities on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.
The Republic of Serbia has a well-developed network storage products. The total tank capacity of traffic
wardens of the Republic of Serbia (without refinery capacity) is about 431,000 m. The capacity of the
reservoir area's largest energy undertakings in the Republic of Serbia is given in table 1.
Table 1 Tank capacity [1]
NIS
201 562*

Energy companies
OMV
5200

Lukoil
24730

Other
200 000

* without refineries
Table 2 shows the capacities of individual terminals.
able 2 Storage of petroleum products [1]
Terminal

Tank capacity, t

Belgrade
Novi Sad
Smederevo
Nis
Prahovo
Sombor
Bezdan
Elemir
Pozega
Surcin
Refinery Pancevo
Refinery Novi Sad

13.461
35.325
17.148
12.135
20.591
509
1.108
25.560
10.185
7.791
360.471
248.203

180
150
150
200
620
90
100
100
240

Reloading capacity m3/h


Receive
Delivery
300
360
240
240
300
90
40
360
240

The Republic of Serbia has developed retail network, which currently has about 1420 retail outlets,
different size and content. The number of petrol stations energy entities in the Republic of Serbia is given
in table 3.
able 3 Number of petrol stations [1]
NIS
472

Lukoil
138

OMV
58

nergy entities
EKO
MOL
47
33

AVIA
27

Other
650

If we take into account all of reservoir capacity in the territory of the Republic of Serbia for the storage of
petroleum products leads to a capacity of over of 700 000 m. If we add the number of over 1400 petrol
stations in which are also located storage tanks, one can get a picture of the importance of preventing
emissions of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere when handling of petroleum products.

254

3. LEGISLATIVE REGULATIONS
Regulation on technical measures and requirements pertaining to permissible emission factors for volatile
organic compounds originating from the process of storage and transportation of gasoline came into force
on 1 January 2013. (Sl. glasnik RS, no. 1/2012, 25/2012 and 48/2012). It provides that the regulations
related to emissions of organic compounds during the storage and transportation of gas. The main
objective of the legislation is to ensure the reduction of air pollution from volatile organic compounds
emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and its transport from one terminal to another or from a
terminal to a gas station, and during the additions of motor vehicle fuel at petrol stations. [2]
When the tank with a fixed roof is defined that total annual losses due to evaporation must not be greater than
0.01%, while the tanks with a sliding roof shall not be greater than 0.005%. The legislation is envisaged that
the previous measures are not to be applied to terminals which have an annual handling capacity of less than
10 000 t. Tanks on the terminals must be equipped with a device for collecting petrol vapor.
Tanks for the storage of gasoline at gas stations are not allowed to have a total annual loss due to
evaporation is greater than 0.01%. This does not apply to petrol stations with an annual petrol throughput
of less than 100 m3 or at petrol stations with an annual petrol throughput of less than 500 m3 while the
fumes will not significantly harm the environment or human health.
Accordingly, each new petrol station must be equipped with a system of collecting petrol vapor, while the
existing need to install this system. Gas station must be equipped with a system for gathering steam, so
that the pair separated from the tank of the vehicle during its amendments gasoline collected via the vapor
collection system in accordance with the best available techniques and returned to the storage tank at a
gas station. Retention efficiency gasoline fumes may not bits' opinions of 85%.
Legal regulations for tanks with floor filling is defined that the adapter must have a diameter of 101.6 mm
(4 "male) to which you can connect a charging adapter arm (4", female). Through this adapter allows
charging tanks and trapping of volatile hydrocarbons. Filling speed is about 2300 l/min per hand for
charging. Maximum counter pressure steam that may occur when filling the tank with floor filling is 0.55
bar, measured on the adapter to collect vapor on side of the vehicle.

4. QUANTIFYING THE LOSS OF EMITTED HYDROCARBONS FROM THE


RESERVOIR
During the process of filling and emptying the tank leading to a loss of hydrocarbons.
For rapid quantification of losses can be used equation 1 [3].

g 0,043VPy k

(1)

where they are:


g - losses hydrocarbons, t/year
V - hydrocarbon volume that passes through the reservoir during the year, m3/ year
- density of hydrocarbons, kg/m3
Py - hydrocarbon vapor pressure at mean annual air temperature, Pa
K - coefficient that depends on the number of refueling during the year, table 4
Table 4
Number of filling
1 - 40
40 - 60
60 - 100

k
1,0
0,8
0,6

The exact value of the loss of hydrocarbons during refueling can be calculated based on the equation 2 [3].
255


P P P
m Vo Vg 2 1 y
P P TR
y
g
2

(2)

where they are:


m
- losses hydrocarbons, kg
Vo, Vg - tank volume occupied by the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons at the beginning of
charging, m3
P1, P2 - the pressure in the gas tank part at the beginning and end of charge, Pa
Py
- vapor pressure at the temperature of hydrocarbons in the reservoir, Pa
Rg
- gas constant vapor hydrocarbons
T
- the average temperature in the gas tank part, oC

5. THE APPLICATION OF THE LEGISLATION ON THE PREVENTION OF


HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS
Terminal in Pancevo Oil Refinery is one of the largest terminals in Serbia, with which the derivatives are
shipped via all three forms of transport. Accordingly, the terminal has a separate sub terminals for filling
car tanks, rail tankers and barges and boats on the Danube.
The reconstruction and modernization of filling stations for road tankers, rail wagons and barges and
boats on the Danube. As part of the reconstruction of filling stations was introduced modern underfloor
filling the tank with a system for capturing volatile hydrocarbons (Figure 1). Two-thirds of all freight
places covered by this method of filling: gasoline, diesel and jet fuel in car tanks. In the five unit in the
refinery filling stations, is now provided a total of 15 loading arm for floor filling the tank, which
completely eliminated plume of pollutants into the atmosphere. The same system was introduced at filling
stations and rail tankers.
What is the significance of the introduced system for floor filling with a system for capturing volatile
hydrocarbons best illustrated by the fact that for the year prevented the evaporation of about 430000 liters
petroleum products. This system has prevented the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere
and enable a closed and environmentally safe loading products. [4]

Figure 1. Auto filling station oil refinery in Pancevo


In the final phase of the installation of the new system at the terminal on the Danube for filling barges and
boats (Figure 2).
It should be noted that on 83 reservoirs been reconstructed, which will also prevent the emission of
harmful substances into the atmosphere.
256

Figure 2. The modern terminal on the Danube in Pancevo


NIS has 44 modern auto tanks capacity 35,000 liters. It is a multi-chamber aluminum tanks constructed
according to the highest European standards, which include equipment for floor filling (Figure 3).
Environmental protection is provided air conditioning for floor filling the tank, as well as systems for a
refund of petroleum products.

Figure 3. Modern tank transport derivatives equipped with a system for floor filling

4. CONCLUSION
Gaseous vapors that arise when handling petroleum products have multiple negative effects, starting with
the fact that they are harmful to the environment, in certain concentrations may be explosive, flammable
also reduce the quality of products and due to evaporation loss of the right material. The paper discusses
the latest regulations related to preventing the emission of volatile hydrocarbons. We analyzed the storage
capacity in the Republic of Serbia. Also, given the methodology to quantify gaseous vapors that arise
when handling of petroleum products.
The dominant aspect of this work is the application of the system to prevent the emission of volatile
hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The application of this system to a modern terminal for charging auto
and rail tank oil refinery in Pancevo. In the first year of application prevented the evaporation of about
430000 liters petroleum products. This data illustrates the extent of the financial savings obtained and
what it means in terms of environment protection.

REFERENCES
[1] Energy Development Strategy of Serbia for the period until 2025 with projections to 2030, RGF, 2013
[2] Regulation on technical measures and requirements pertaining to permissible emission factors for volatile
organic compounds originating from the process of storage and transportation of gasoline, Slubeni glasnik
RS", br. 1/2012, 25/2012 i 48/2012.
[3] Boidar Prstojevi, Preparation of oil and gas, RGF, 2012.
[4] www.nis.eu

257

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ANALYSIS OF ATTAINABLE TECHNICAL-TECHNOLOGICAL


RESULTS WORK OPEN PIT MINES ELECTRICAL INDUSTRYEPS
OF SERBIA
Snezana Savkovic, Jelena Majstorovic, Predrag Jovancic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Summary:This paper presents one of the possible ways to rank bucket wheel excavators, on the basis of actual
production, way of maintenance and applied technology.This is an attempt to get on the statistical data and
parameters, carry out evaluation of the bucket wheel excavators effectiveness on Serbian open pit mines.
Keywords: Excavator, Open Pit Mine, Coal Production, Ranking

1. INTRODUCTION
Coal production in Serbian open pit mines, Kolubara and Kostolac basins, is one of the most important
industrial activities in our country. Coal - lignite is the most important energy potential of Serbia. Annual
lignite production is around 35 million tones, a respectable amount even by European standards.
Various and numerous mechanization is engaged on the achievement of such production. Currently there
are 30 bucket wheel excavators operating at EPS open pit mines, that are 30 years old on average. We
have considered 10 of various bucket wheel excavators in open pit mines, Kolubara and Kostolac basins,
in the period from 2000 to 2012. [1,2]

2. RESULTS AND DISSCUSION


Considered excavators have a different design, weight, capacity, range and are used in various
environments (for example, mass excavator is between 560 and 2875 tons).The bucket wheel excavator is
one of the most complex technical systems in the industry in general. First, a complex hierarchy of the
structure, of high value, both regarded as and investment and operational, characterizes it.
Conditions of the working environment on open pit mine are favorable. We have considered 10 of various
bucket wheel excavators in open pit mines, Kolubara and Kostolac basins, in the period from 2000 to 2012. [1]
We tried to relate the following parameters: annual production, time utilization, capacitive utilization,
total utilization, mass excavator, installed capacity, simultaneous capacity, ratio annual production-mass
excavator, ratio of annual production-simultaneous capacity. Based on this parameters was carried
ranking excavators.
Coefficient of utilization of time is the ratio of operating time and the total calendar time. Influential
factors on bucket wheel excavator are: constructive, nature, technological and organizational.
258

Table 1Ranking Parameters


Bucket wheel excavators
Field D, SchRs630.25/6 (G7)
Drmno, SchRs800.15/1.5
TamnavaZapad, SchRs630.25/6 (G1)
Field D, SRs1300.26/5 (G8)
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G3)
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G4)
TamnavaZapad, SRs2000.32/5+VR
Drmno, SRs2000.28/3+VR
Drmno, SRs2000.32/5+VR
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G5)

Q/Mb
54345
77147
59195
33529
42197
48392
45338
35143
36590
45998

Q/Pj
60532
48750
65934
40218
59371
68087
47330
42420
38198
64719

etaT*etaQ
0,219
0,157
0,239
0,189
0,231
0,267
0,245
0,200
0,200
0,251

0,300
Q/Mb
Q/Pj

80000

etaT*etaQ

0,250

etaT *etaQ

90000

70000

60000

0,200

50000
0,150

40000

30000

0,100

20000

0,050
10000

P o lje D , S Rs 1200.24/4
(G 5)

D rm no , S Rs 2000.32/5+ V
R

D rm no , S Rs 2000.28/3+ V
R

Tam nav a
Z ap ad , S Rs 2000.32/5+ V
R

P o lje D , S Rs 1200.24/4
(G 4)

P o lje D , S Rs 1200.24/4
(G 3)

P o lje D , S Rs 1300.26/5
(G 8)

Tam nav a
Z ap ad , S c hRs 630.25/6
(G 1)

0,000
D rm no , S c hRs 800.15/1.5

0
P o lje D , S c hRs 630.25/6
(G 7)

P ro d u ctio n /M ass E xcavato r, P ro d u ctio n /S im u ltan eo u s Cap acity, Q /M b , Q /P j

*Q/Mb - ratio annual production-mass excavator, Q/Pj - ratio annual production-simultaneous capacity,
etaT*etaQ time utilization*capacitive utilization

Figure1 Ranking Parameters (ratio annual production-mass excavator, ratio annual production
simultaneous capacity, and product of time utilization and capacitive utilization)[1]
Capacitive utilization is the ratio theoretical (designed) capacity and actual exploitation capacity in
practice.
On table 1 and in figure 1, are presented ranking parameters: ratio production-mass excavator, ratio
production-simultaneous capacity and product of time utilization and capacitive utilization for ten bucket
wheel excavators.[1,3]

259

Table 2 Bucket wheel excavators Ranking


Bucket wheel excavators Ranking
TamnavaZapad, SchRs630.25/6
934017241,6
(G1)
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G4)
878816101,8
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G5)
747671903,2
Field D, SchRs630.25/6 (G7)
721932944,2
Drmno, SchRs800.15/1.5
591836798,8
Field D, SRs1200.24/4 (G3)
579555373,5
TamnavaZapad , SRs2000.32/5+VR 525212995,7
Drmno, SRs2000.28/3+VR
298489293,3
Drmno, SRs2000.32/5+VR
279135297,9
Field D, SRs1300.26/5 (G8)
254908532,7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

On table 2 and figure 2 are presented ranking excavators.

1
2
4

Excavators ranking

Drmno, SRs2000.28/
3+VR

Tam nava
Zapad, SRs2000.32/
5+VR

Polje
D, SRs1200.24/4
(G 3)

Drm no, SchRs800.1


5/1.5

Polje
D, SchRs630.25/6
(G 7)

Polje
D, SRs1200.24/4
(G 5)

Polje
D, SRs1200.24/4
(G 4)

Tam nava
Zapad, SchRs630.25
/6 (G 1)

10

Polje
D, SRs1300.26/5
(G 8)

Drm no, SRs2000.32/


5+VR

Figure 2 Excavator Ranking [1]


This is currently the ranking coincides with expert assessment engineer working in operation and
maintenance of these excavators.

3. CONCLUSION
This paper presents one of the possible ways to rank bucket wheel excavators, on the basis of actual
production, way of maintenance and applied technology.
Not taken into account excavator age, their current effectiveness of primary production based on
excavator mass and simultaneous capacity, which is characterize accuracy of the supply of machinery for
individual mines.
This is an attempt to get on the statistical data and parameters, carry out evaluation of the bucket wheel
excavators effectiveness on Serbian open pit mines.
Excavators ranking indicates:

260

Conditions, compatibility excavators and working environment, the impact of working


environment in the process of excavation.
Abilities mechanical and electrical maintenance service performance of the operating
parameters of excavator held at the desired level.
Proper selection of mining equipment depending on mining-technological conditions.

This is currently the ranking coincides with expert assessment engineer working in operation and
maintenance of these excavators.[1,2,3]

REFERENCES
[1] Annual report on the operation and production on EPS open pit mines, www.eps.rs.
[2] Savkovic, S., Majstorovic, J.: Mining Machinery Life Cycle Bucket Wheel Excavator. 44-th
International October Conference in Mining and Geology, Bor, Serbia, October 2012, pp. 115-118,
ISBN 978-86-7827-042-0.
[3] Polovina, D., Ivkovic, S., Ignjatovic, D., Tanasijevic, M.: Remaining operational capabilities
evaluation of bucket wheel excavator by applying expert assessment method with empirical correction
factor. Structural Integrity and Life, Vol. 10, Number 1, 2010, pp. 31-41.ISSN 1451-3749.

261

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL


SAFETY IN MINING-ENERGY COMPLEXES
Jelena Malenovic Nikolic1, Ana Vukadinovic1, Vojin Cokorilo2
1
University of Nis, Faculty of Occupational Safety in Nis, Serbia
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: The management of mining and energy complexes has an obligation to enforce laws in the field of
environmental protection and energy, as well as the possibility to apply modern European standards. Application of
European recommendations and guidelines for planning of management processes in mining and energy complexes
is an acceptable option because it uses existing standards and prescribed procedures. Recommendations in ISO
14000 standard provide a basis for simplified environmental management systems, while ISO 50001 standard
regulates the energy management systems and encourage actions to increase the level of energy efficiency. This
paper presents the possibility of ISO 14000 and ISO 50001 integration in the case of mining and energy complex
management system. Application of ISO 14000 standard and determination of significant environmental aspects can
greatly contribute to defining environmental protection policy in the mining and energy complex. This paper
discusses aspects of the environment and energy indicators, as a basis for improving the environmental management
system in the mining and energy complexes.
Keywords: Management Systems, Environmental Protection, Energy, Management

1. INTRODUCTION
The processes of exploitation, preparation and combustion of coal represent the basic processes of mining
and energy complexes. Coal mining is the first group of processes that include: coal excavation,
transportation of coal and tailings and storage of coal and tailings. Coal refinement (crushing, shredding,
grinding and drying) and internal coal transport represents a second group of processes. Coal burning and
disposal of ash and slag falls into the third and the most complex group of processes in mining and energy
complexes. This paper analyzes the impact of mining and energy complex operations on the
environmental quality in order to create a basis for mitigating the negative consequences and solving
environmental problems.

2. CONSEQUENCES OF MINING AND ENERGY COMPLEX OPERATIONS


Surface mining impact on the environmental quality depends on the capacity of mining machinery and
transport machinery, labor productivity and meteorological conditions. Flushing of surface mines slopes
is a serious problem and precipitation leads to the emergence of untreated wastewaters. Dust is emitted
during excavation, transportation to the receiving bunker and coal crushing and transport. Disposal of
tailings with the emission of dust and exhaust gases is another source of environmental pollution.
262

Impact of coal and tailings transport on the environment depends on the quality of roads, truck loading
methods and meteorological conditions. Wind flow leads to dispersion of dust from roads and transport
vehicles, and precipitation is washing down the dust from the road surface. Serious problems are: exhaust
fumes emissions, dispersion of dust due to shattering of the surface, and soil contamination by washing
the bulk tailings.
Preparation of coal for combustion is determined by boiler characteristics. It may include: washing,
removal of tailings and separation, where waste waters and coal dust are separated. Coal burning affects
the quality of air, water and soil, and it depends on coal type, combustion modes and maintenance of
system for gaseous products treatment. Disposal of ash in landfills can be a major problem if there is a
dispersion of ash particles due to irregular sprinkling or spills of drainage water and leachate due to the
unfavorable ratio of water and ash in a thick pulp.

3. MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE MINING AND


ENERGY COMPLEXES
Environmental protection management in mining and energy complexes is a complex problem. It requires
cooperation of the management structure in mining and energy complex with department of
environmental protection.
Modern environmental protection systems include the organization of planning system and process
improvement of surface extraction and combustion of coal, with the aim to meet legal norms in the field
of environmental protection and energy. Environmental Management System (EMS) and energy
management system (EnMS) enable the observance of the environmental protection principle, achieving
the goals of environmental protection and providing a higher level of energy efficiency. By identifying
the causes of problems we create a basis for preventing negative consequences to the environmental
quality and we also reduce energy losses. Efficient organization of protective measures in mining and
energy complex and timely mitigation of negative consequences can be done on the basis of international
standards principles.
International Organization for Standardization - ISO performs standardization in the field of
environmental management (ISO 14001) and in the field of energy (ISO 16000 and ISO 50001). The ISO
14001 standard was adopted in early 1996 [1,2]. The aim of this standard is to facilitate the
implementation at the international level, encouraging the improvement of environmental protection
management. The ISO 16001 standard [3] sets out the requirements relating to the improvement of energy
management systems. The standard includes: general requirements, energy policy, planning, practical
implementation, operation, checking and review of the management system by the top management. The
ISO 50001 standard [4] was published in 2011 entitled "Energy management '', at the same time as ISO
16001 standard. It is based on ISO 16001 standard, but has a wider application. It refers to increasing
levels of energy performance, which include: energy efficiency, energy intensity, and energy
consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
The concept of an integrated environmental management system (introducing ISO 14001 standard) and
energy management (introducing ISO 50001 standard) is very important for mining and energy
complexes, if management goal is preserving the quality of the environment, saving coal and increasing
energy efficiency.

4. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT


SYSTEM IN MINING AND ENERGY COMPLEXES
Environmental Management Systems (EMS) [1] and Energy Management Systems (EnMS) [4] can be
applied in the mining and energy complexes. Proposal for Environmental Management System is
represented by the guidelines of ISO 14001 standard, because it can facilitate the mitigation of impacts on
263

air, water and soil quality for the mining and energy complex representatives. Applying the planning
approach within the process of environmental management system, developed on the basis of ISO 14001
guidelines, is presented in tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Table 1 Requirements for the environmental management system in the mining and energy complex,
general requirements, environmental policy and planning phases in accordance with the
requirements of ISO 14001
ISO 14001: 2004
Requirements for the environmental management system in the mining and energy complex
General requirements
Environmental policy in the mining and energy complex
Planning
Implementation and operation
Checking
Review

Designation
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Table 2 Planning - the first stage of planning and requirements of ISO 14001
ISO 14001: 2004
P (Plan) - Planning
Planning of goals and ways of achieving operating activities in the mining and energy complex
The identification of environmental aspects and impacts of mining and energy complex
Legal and other requirements in the field of environmental protection, energy and waste
management
General and specific environmental targets and programs

Designation
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3

Table 3 Realization - the second phase of planning and ISO 14001 requirements
ISO 14001: 2004
D (Do) - Realization - Implementation and operation
Application of adopted communication procedures, documenting, document management,
operational control and emergency response by the workers and representatives of the
environmental protection department in the mining and energy complex
Resources, roles, responsibility and authority of the representatives of environmental protection
department in the mining and energy complex
Competence, training and awareness of workers in the environmental protection department of the
mining and energy complex
Communication of environmental protection department representatives with the management and
employees of mining and energy complex
Documentation relating to the application of protective measures in mining and energy complexes
Control of documents
Control of operations (Operational control) for implementation of environmental protection
measures in mining and energy complexes
Emergency preparedness and response

Designation
4.4

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7

Table 4 Checking - the third phase of planning and requirements of ISO 14001 standard
ISO 14001: 2004
C (Check) - Control - Checking
Control, monitoring and measurement of work activities parameters, preparation of reports on the
determined condition of the environment and the impact of mining and energy complex
Monitoring and measurement of environmental quality
Evaluation of compliance in functioning of environmental management in the mining and energy
complexes
Identification of nonconformities, corrective action and preventive action for environmental
protection

264

Designation
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3

Table 5 Operation - the fourth stage of planning and requirements of ISO 14001 standard
ISO 14001: 2004
A (Act) - Operation - Reviewing
Taking measures to improve the environmental management system in the mining and energy
complex
Reviewing the system of environmental management in mining and energy complex
Identify areas for improvement of environmental management system functioning in mining and
energy complex

Designation
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2

The proposal environmental management system in mining and energy complexes, in accordance with the
above principles and guidelines presented in tables is the basis which top managers in energy complex
and environmental protection department may apply and improve in accordance with the available
financial resources and technological capabilities. Table T. 6 presents a comparative display of guidelines
of ISO 14001 and 50001, which can be applied in an integrated management system of mining and
energy complex.
Table 6 Guidelines of ISO 14001 and 50001 standards in the system of environmental management and
energy transformations in mining and energy complex
Policy
-Environmental Protection Policy
-Energy Policy
Planning of mining and energy management system
-Energy profile and energy basis
-The exercise of work activities
-Energy performance of mining and energy complex
-Identification of environmental aspects
-Energy requirements
-Identification of mining and energy complex
impacts
General and specific objectives of environmental protection and mining and energy complex programs
-Environmental management system programs
-Plans for achieving energy efficiency
-Internal audits of application of prescribed measures -Control of coal consumption
for environmental protection
-Internal audits on achieving the planned savings
-Training of workers for environmental protection
-Energy efficiency analysis of coal energy
transformation
Mining and energy complex documentation in the area of systems management
-Documenting of operations management processes and
-Control of environmental protection systems
design processes
-Procedures for emergency situations response
-Documenting the processes of internal audits and
-Documents related to the application of protective
system improvements
measures in mining and energy complexes
-Planning of coal exploitation and energy source
- Document management
procurements
Reviewing management system improvements
-Reviewing of environmental management system in -Nonconformities in the analysis of energy
transformation
mining and energy complex
-Corrective and preventive actions for reducing energy
-Identifying areas for improving the functioning of
losses in the course of coal mining, coal transportation,
the management system
disposal of tailings and ash and energy distribution
-Taking measures to improve the environmental
-Responsibilities and authorities for nonconformities in
management system
the functioning of the energy management
- Improving the energy management system

An example of the proposed procedure (T .6) for the environmental management system and energy
flows integration is of great importance for the reduction of harmful consequences of operating activities
of primary coal energy transformation into secondary energy and the achievement of higher energy
efficiency levels. Parallel implementation of ISO 14001 and ISO 5001 standard, based on the principles
of Deming cycle (PDCA), can encourage regular implementation of planned measures for environmental
protection and energy saving and ease the backlog of environmental problems.

265

6. CONCLUSION
Functioning of environmental protection systems in mining and energy complexes, based on ISO 14000
and ISO 50001 guidelines and the implementation of energy indicators facilitates the work of mining and
energy complex representatives, but also points to the effects of energy efficiency and measures
implemented to protect the environment. Identification of shortcomings and attempts to adequately
review and solve problems are a good way to build modern management systems. The willingness of
mining and energy complex management to deal with real problems facilitates decision-making, reduces
the level of negative impacts on environmental quality and increases the level of energy efficiency.

Acknowledgement
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Research on possibility for AT (Advanced Technology) rockbolting
application in mines for the purpose of increasing work safety and production efficiency" (TR 33025) financed by
the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of Programme of research in
the field of technological development for the period 2011-2015.

REFERENCES
[1] Heleta, M., Design of management system in living and working environment, Singidunum
University, Belgrade, 2010.
[2] Standard ISO 14000 - International Organization for Standardization.
[3] ISO 16001 Energy management system, Requirements with guidelines for application, the Institute for
Standardization of Serbia, 2010.
[4] ISO 50001:2011 Energy management systems Requirements with guidance for use, International
organization for standardization, 2009.

266

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

IMPROVING SYSTEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY IN MININGENERGY COMPLEXES BY APPLYING THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Jelena Malenovic Nikolic, Dejan Vasovic
University of Nis, Faculty of Occupational Safety in Nis, Serbia,
Abstract: This paper presents the possibility for improving the mining and energy complex environmental protection
system by applying the basic principles of sustainable development. Project management is based on providing energy
stability and the importance of preserving environmental quality. Application of sustainable development principles
depends on the countrys energy potential and the application of the adopted environmental policy regarding mining
and energy complex. Strict enforcement of existing laws and regulations presents an opportunity to rectify many
shortcomings while providing economic benefits, restoring the usable value of ravaged land and preserving the air and
water quality. Project management is based on the application of network planning technique because it is suitable for
representing the logical structure and improving the environmental protection system.
Keywords: Management, Mining and Energy Complexes, Environment, Sustainable Development, Network Planning.

1. INTRODUCTION
Mining and energy complexes represent significant sources of air, water and land pollution, through
technological processes from coal excavation up to the disposal of ash. The consequences for environmental
quality are related to temporary or permanent destruction of agricultural land, deterioration of air quality and
discharge of untreated wastewater. Daily challenges come with the depletion of economically recoverable coal
reserves, desolated areas, the destruction of humus layer, a change in pedological and geological composition,
disturbance of soil stability, land subsidence, disposal of tailings, ash and slag, and delivery of coal dust and
ash through airflow and gas emissions due to coal combustion. Wastewaters in the abandoned mines and
undermines lead to pollution of the surrounding land and the absence of flora and fauna in river beds. Flushing
of mine slopes is a source of wastewater with high content of heavy metals.

2. INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR APPLICATION IN


THE ENERGY SECTOR
Improving the environmental management system in the energy complex contributes to increased efficiency in
completion of the adopted environmental objectives and basic principles of sustainable development. Regular
monitoring of air, water and soil quality enables timely response and prevention of hazardous events.
Alignment of production and consumption with the available natural resources play a significant role in
creating the basis for harmonious relations between the energy sector and sustainable development. The
concept of sustainable development, adopted in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro [2], represents the forefront of
environmental quality. It is based on the assessment of adverse impacts in order to avoid: irrational use of
energy and raw materials, introduction of pollutants into the environment and the disturbance of biodiversity.
267

Energy efficiency and exhaust fumes are indicators of the environmental condition, defined by a set of
world development indicators [5], which include:
-

Real GDP per unit of energy consumption,


Net energy imports as a percentage of commercial energy consumption and
Total carbon dioxide emissions per capita and per real GDP unit.

Table 1 shows the indicators of causes, conditions and responses, defined on the basis of most important
sources of environmental pollution as part of the work process in mining and energy complexes.
Table1. Indicators of coal consumption [3]
Topic

Causes indicator

Conditions
indicator

Response indicator

Energy
use

-Level of annual coal exploitation


-Convert primary coal energy into
secondary energy

-Share of lignite use


compared to other
types of coal

-Rational consumption of coal reserves


-Energy efficiency incentive
-Use of alternative energy sources and
better types of coal

Measures to be taken in order to mitigate the impact of surface mining [4] preserve the quality of the
environment and achieve sustainable development principles include indicators of response, while causes
indicators represent the environmental consequences of mining and energy complex operations, and
conditions indicators are related to environmental quality.
The principle of sustainable development brought by the Bergen Declaration, which was adopted by the Federal
Ministry for Development, Science and the Environment, and which can be applied in the energy sector include [1,
3]: understanding and assessment of possible adverse effects (the precautionary principle), risk prediction,
elimination of causes for threats to the environment (applying adequate technical and technological measures),
ethical relationship of man (new appreciation for the environment), active protection of the environment (changing
behavior) and new consumer style (changing consumption patterns).
Managing the process of action planning to prevent negative consequences, assessment of adverse effects, and
reduction of excessive consumption of natural resources contribute to the preservation of environmental quality,
compliance with applicable regulations and moving closer to European standards. Analysis of the impact of work
activities in mining and energy complexes and risk prediction are the basis for establishing sustainable
development principles. The goal is to enable the transformation of coal energy with less environmental
degradation through moderate development and by saving the natural resources. Environmental and economic
benefits of respecting the principle of sustainable development are reflected in the rational exploitation of natural
resources, preservation of the soil humus layer and rehabilitation of degraded soils.

3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL


PROTECTION BY APPLYING NETWORK PLANNING TECHNIQUES
The management of mining and energy complex has a duty to promote environmental protection system
and apply necessary legislation. Project Management, in harmonizing with the sustainable development
principles should include concrete actions to protect and improve the environment. According to the
proposed indicators, The Energy Development Organization is important in order to reduce harmful
consequences and achieve economic benefits. Network planning technique is a good starting point for
project management, defining activities and representation of the logical structure. Application of the
critical path method (CPM) and precisely defined activity durations allows the creation of project
management models with adjustments to the mining and energy complex environmental protection
systems and in accordance with the sustainable development principles.
The first phase of the project management system for improving environmental protection in energy
complex is the definition of the necessary model actions which would accomplish the basic principles of
sustainable development. Table 2 presents the activities of projects.
268

Table 2 A list of project management activities, with the defined duration and schedule of activities
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Activities under the project management


Defining real possibilities for improving the environmental protection system in mining
and energy complex
Election of multidisciplinary team members for the correction of the environmental
protection system
Defining the impact of energy complex operations on environmental quality
Defining key problems in functioning of mining and energy complexes protection systems
Analysis of the possibility for applying the basic principles of sustainable development in
the energy sector
Selection of the basic sustainable development principles on which management system
improvement would be based
Investigation of air quality effects of coal dust, ash and gaseous products emitted
Investigation of the effects of untreated mine wastewater, landfills leachate and ash
Investigation of the effects of surface exploitation and disposal of ash on the humus layer
destruction of abandoned areas and on quality of agricultural land
Establishing ratios for concentrations of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the air and
their acceptable values
Establishing ratios for concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater and their acceptable
values
Establishing ratios for concentrations of heavy metals in soil and their acceptable values
Analysis and evaluation of harmful consequences of coal exploitation and coal combustion
Prediction of risks to human health and environmental condition
Identifying vulnerabilities in the application of the applicable laws in the field of
environmental protection
Identifying gaps in the preventative safety measures
Identifying opportunities for eliminating causes of the adverse effects caused by operations
Consideration of opportunities for active environmental protection
Consideration of financial and technical causes of threats to the environment
Considerations about the need for environmental education and ethical attitude change in
the management
Formation of the amendments proposals on the adopted short-term and long-term goals of
environmental protection
Formation of the amendments proposals on the adopted environmental policy
Analysis of studies on the country energy potential and consideration of coal reserves
Analysis of the annual level of coal exploitation
Identifying opportunities for rational consumption of coal, promoting energy efficiency
and reducing energy losses
Data analysis on GDP per unit of consumption and total emissions of carbon dioxide per
GDP unit
Identifying opportunities for rationalization of coal consumption as a natural resource
Analysis of energy consumption and possibilities for changing the modalities
Establishing procedures to stop neglecting the importance of environmental degradation
Establishing procedures for work activities with reduced environmental pollution and
compliance with European standards
Preparation of documentation for the implementation of regular analysis procedures on the
impact of work activities and timely risk identification
The proposal of applying basic sustainable development principles in the process of
improving environmental management system

Time
(t)

Label
(i-j)

0-1

1-2

2
1

4-5
2-5

3-5

5-6

4
3

6-14
6-13

6-12

14-17

13-17

1
2
1

12-17
17-20
20-21

6-11

4
3
1
1

6-10
6-9
11-16
10-16

9-16

16-19

1
4
3

19-21
6-8
6-7

8-15

7-15

1
1
2

15-18
18-21
21-22

22-23

23-24

24-25

The relation between activities and their order of execution has been established upon the defined project
management activities (Table T.2). The process of making project management models begins with
activities related to consideration of options for improving the management system, multidisciplinary
team members' selection and the analysis of basic sustainable development principles. By implementing
these activities, we create conditions for analyzing the consequences of mining and energy complex
operations (on the quality of air, water and land), determining the negligence in environmental protection,
discussion on the available energy potentials and yearly coal exploitation. Risk prediction, making
269

proposals for changes to the adopted environmental policy and changing consumption patterns are basic
conditions to form a suggestion on applying basic sustainable development principles in the process for
improving the environmental management system.
Time analysis per method CPM (critical path method) begins with the evaluation of time for each activity
(t ij), on the basis of which we calculate the earliest and latest time of the events occurrence. The earliest
time for the events occurrence (T E) is the sum of the earliest occurrence of the event and the duration of
the activity t ij:

( TE ) j = imax
x j ( TE )i + tij ; ( TE )0 = 0

(1)

where x j denotes the set of all the events from which it can move directly into the event j only via one
activity (i, j) [6].
Time scheduled for harmonization of the environmental management system with the principles of
sustainable development is equated with the latest time for the events occurrence [6]:
( TL ) n = ( TE ) n .

(2)

Latest time for the events occurrence (T L) is represented by the formula:

( TL ) i = min
j yi ( TL ) i tij ,

(3)

where y i denotes the set of the events that can be directly crossed into from the event and just over one
activity (i, j) [6].
Based on the defined duration times for the activities, we performed duration of activities analysis,
represented by the formula (1) and (3). Table 3 presents the results of the events occurrence analysis.
Table 3 The earliest time for the events occurrence (T E) and Latest time for the events occurrence (T L)
No.
n

1*
2*
F1 (2-3)
F2 (2-4)
3*
4
5
6*
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16*
17
18
19*

The earliest time for the events occurrence


(TE)i

0
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
8
8
8
12
11
10
13
15
8
8
8
10
12

Latest time for the events occurrence

(TE)j

2
4
4
4
6
5
6
8
12
11
10
13
13
13
15
17
10
12
11
13
13

(TL)i

0
2
4
4
4
4
5
6
8
8
8
13
13
13
14
16
8
8
8
12
12

270

(TL)j

2
4
4
5
6
6
6
8
13
13
13
14
14
14
16
17
12
12
12
13
13

Table 3 The earliest time for the events occurrence (T E) and Latest time for the events occurrence (T L)
No.
n

The earliest time for the events occurrence


(TE)i

20
11
21*
13
22*
16
23
8
24
8
25
12
26
11
27
13
28
14
29*
17
30*
19
31*
25
32*
27
* Label for the activities on the critical path

Latest time for the events occurrence

(TE)j

13
16
17
12
11
13
13
14
17
19
25
26
28

(TL)i

12
13
16
8
8
14
14
15
16
17
19
25
26

(TL)j

13
16
17
14
14
15
15
16
17
19
25
26
28

Based on the analysis of the activity duration (Table T. 3) we determined the critical path, represented by
the formula (2). It represents a chain of interrelated activities that have the same earliest and latest time
durations. It stretches between the initial and the final event. Special care should be taken of the activities
that belong to the critical path. There is a necessary time extension for: consideration of basic sustainable
development principles on which management system improvement should be based (n 6), the
determination of failure in implementing preventive protective measures (n 16), the consideration of
financial and technical reasons for threats to the environment (n 19), making proposals for amendments in
the adopted short-term and long-term goals of environmental protection (n 21) and formation of the
amendments proposals for the adopted environmental policy (n 22).

4. CONCLUSION
Overcoming of problems arising in the environment, resulting from the work of mining and energy
complexes should be based on sustainable development principles and with the respect to the modern
European attitudes. Proposed project management project is based on a realistic assessment of harmful
consequences, risk prediction, applying contemporary measures of protection and changes in ethical
attitudes by the leadership. The planned improvement of mining and energy complex environmental
protection systems actively contributes to the environmental protection and more harmonious relationship
of energy sector and sustainable development.

REFERENCES
[1] Djukanovi, M., Sustainable Development and the Environment, Elit, Belgrade, 1996.
[2] The concept of sustainable development - Environment and Development (1997), Federal Ministry for
Development, Science and Environment, Belgrade.
[3] Malenovi Nikoli, J., Indicators of sustainable thermal energy systems based on coal surface mines,
Master Thesis, Faculty of Occupational Safety, Nis, 2007.
[4] Miljkovi M., Z. Stojkovi, Influence of metal ores surface extraction to environmental factors of the
environment, Monograph, Faculty of Engineering, Bor, 1998.
[5] Uyterlinde, M.A., van Arkel, W.G., Burger, H., van Dril, A.W.N., Jeeninga, H., Kroon, P. ,
Monitoring Energy Efficiency Indicators, Dutch contribution to the project Cross country comparison
on energy efficiency- Phase 6, 2000.
[6] Zlatanovi, M., Matejevi, B., Construction technology and organization - a collection of solved
problems with excerpts from the theory, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Nis, 2012.

271

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE, INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS


DIRECTIVE, SEVESO DIRECTIVE: A TRIANGLE OF EQUAL SIDES
Dejan Vasovic1, Jelena Malenovic Nikolic1, Stevan Musicki2
1
University of Nis, Faculty of Occupational Safety in Nis, Serbia
2
University of Defense, Military Academy, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: In the last decades, there is a tendency that the investment in the remediation of adverse effects of
environmental pollution should be increasingly relocated in the environmental pollution prevention (Industrial
Pollution Prevention and Control/Industrial Emissions Directive). Also, there is an obvious tendency that major
industrial accidents involving dangerous chemicals that pose a significant threat to humans and the environment
should be predicted and prevented (Seveso). Both approaches concern the most important element for the
environment and humans: water (Water Framework Directive).
Keywords: Water Framework Directive (WFD), Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), Seveso Directive.

1. INTEGRATED POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL IPPC/IED


At the European Union level, first directive concerning integrated pollution prevention and control was
Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24th of September 1996, published in Official Journal L 257.[1] This
Directive came into force on 30th October 1996. The aim of this Directive edition was the integrated
prevention and control of pollution arising from the activities listed out in Annex I of the Directive.[2]
Activities listed out in Annex I of the Directive included industries operating in energy sector, basic organic
chemicals production, industries operating in waste management sector, and production of pulp from
timber, as the slaughtering and production of food products from animal or vegetable raw materials. This
Directive provided a basis for preventing environmental pollution from activities listed out in Annex I.[2]
Over time, ever present need for amendments in the field of environmental law lead to issuance of
Council Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15th January 2008, which
replaces the Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24th September 1996 on IPPC matter. Council Directive
2008/1/EC of the European Parliament was published in Official Journal L 24 of 29 th January 2008. This
Directive came into force on 18th February 2008. As in the case of the previous one, an activity to which
the Directive applies was listed out in Annex I of this Directive. Its provisions was remain applicable until
6th January 2014.[3]
On 6th January 2011 the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) entered into force. The Industrial Emissions
Directive (Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 th November 2010
on industrial emissions (new term instead of integrated pollution prevention and control)). New features
under the Industrial Emissions Directive are shown in Picture 1.

272

Figure 1 Illustrative model of new features under IED [4]


Directive 2010/75/EU was published in Official Journal L 334 of 12 th December 2010.[5] With effect
from 7th January 2014, Directive 2010/75/EU definitively replaces following Directives:
1. Directive 78/176/EEC of 20th February 1978 on waste from the titanium dioxide industry
(Titanium Dioxide Directive)
2. Directive 82/883/EEC on the surveillance and monitoring of titanium dioxide waste
3. Directive 92/112/EEC on the reduction of titanium dioxide industrial waste
4. Directive 1999/13/EC on reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
5. Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration (Waste Incineration Directive (WID))
6. Directive 2008/1/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive)
With effect from 1st January 2016, Directive 2010/75/EU definitively replaces Directive 2001/80/EC on
the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants from large combustion plants (LCP Directive).[5] The
IED aims to reduce or eliminate emissions of pollution from industrial activities, to increase the
effectiveness of the best available techniques legislation, to strengthen existing minimum of
environmental quality requirements and to reduce all unnecessary administrative burdens regarding
implementation of Directive. [5] Nowadays, there are approximately 52,000 IPPC/IED installations in the
EU and accession countries combined, varying from around 9,000 in Germany, 4000 in the United
Kingdom to 20 in Malta. [6, 7]

2. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS PREVENTION - SEVESO


Uniformly to the previous Directives, at the European Union level, first directive concerning industrial
accidents prevention was Council Directive 82/501/EEC of 24th June 1982, on the cardinal accident
hazards of certain industrial activities, published in Official Journal L 230 (also known as Seveso I
Directive). This Directive came into force on 8th July 1982. The aim of this Directive edition was the
industrial accidents prevention arising from the dangerous chemicals used in different industrial activities
(quantity is crucial) that pose a significant threat to humans and the environment. For the first time, this
Directive sets out a definition of industrial activity (in sense of accident hazards) as: any operation
carried out in and industrial installations referees to in Annex I involving, or possibly involving, one or
more dangerous substances and capable of presenting major-accidents hazards, and also transport
carried out within the establishment for internal reasons and the storage associated with this operation
within the establishment. Likewise, for the first time this first version of Seveso directive sets out a
definition of major accident as: an occurrence such as a major emission, fire or explosion resulting from
uncontrolled developments in the course of an industrial activity, leading to a serious danger to man,
immediate or delayed, inside or outside the establishment, and/or to the environment, and involving one
273

or more dangerous substances. The list of dangerous substances has been given within Annex II and III,
while the referential criteria has been given within Annex IV. [9]
In the time that followed Seveso I Directive, learned from later accidents such as Bhopal lead to
numerous amends, resulting with issuance of Council Directive 96/82/EC of the European Parliament and
of the Council of 9th December 1996, published in Official Journal L 010, of 14.01.1997, (also known as
Seveso II Directive). The scope of application of the Seveso II Directive was aimed to establishments
where dangerous substances are present in quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities listed in
Annex I, Parts 1 and 2, column 2, with the exception of Articles 9, 11 and 13 which shall apply to any
establishment where dangerous substances are present in quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities
listed in Annex I, Parts 1 and 2, column 3.[9] Similar to the first Seveso Directive edition, this issue sets
out a definition of installation as: technical unit within an establishment in which dangerous substances
are produced, used, handled or stored. It shall include all the equipment, structures, pipe work,
machinery, tools, private railway sidings, docks, unloading quays serving the installation, jetties,
warehouses or similar structures, floating or otherwise, necessary for the operation of the installation.
This definition is very important considering that the term installation is very often used within IPPC/IED
and WFD directive. [11]
On 4th July 2012, because of the amends and learning process (Schweizerhalle, Enschede, Toulouse,
Buncefield), the new Directive 2012/18/EU (Seveso III) was adopted. This Directive repeals the Seveso II
Directive (96/82/EC) by 1st June 2015 (published in Official Journal of the European Union L 197/1, of
24.7.2012).[11] Likewise first and secod edition, Seveso I and Seveso II, this directive brings completely
new structure of definitions, which are introduced and a significant number of completely new terms.
Seveso III Directive sets out a definition of dangerous substance as: substance or mixture covered by
Part 1 or listed in Part 2 of Annex I, including in the form of a raw material, product, by-product, residue
or intermediate.[13] But in the field of definitions the most important are of the new divides relating to
the term of establishment:
1. establishment means the whole location under the control of an operator where dangerous
substances are present in one or more installations, including common or related infrastructures
or activities; establishments are either lower-tier establishments or upper-tier establishments;
2. lower-tier establishment means an establishment where dangerous substances are present in
quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities listed in Column 2 of Part 1 or in Column 2 of
Part 2 of Annex I, but less than the quantities listed in Column 3 of Part 1 or in Column 3 of Part
2 of Annex I, where applicable using the summation rule laid down in note 4 to Annex I;
3. upper-tier establishment means an establishment where dangerous substances are present in
quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities listed in Column 3 of Part 1 or in Column 3 of
Part 2 of Annex I, where applicable using the summation rule laid down in note 4 to Annex I;
4. neighbouring establishment means an establishment that is located in such proximity to another
establishment so as to increase the risk or consequences of a major accident;
5. new establishment means
an establishment that enters into operation or is constructed, on or after 1 June 2015; or
a site of operation that falls within the scope of this Directive, or a lower-tier establishment
that becomes an upper-tier establishment or vice versa, on or after 1 June 2015 due to
modifications to its installations or activities resulting in a change in its inventory of
dangerous substances;
6. existing establishment means an establishment that on 31 May 2015 falls within the scope of
Directive 96/82/EC and from 1 June 2015 falls within the scope of this Directive without
changing its classification as a lower-tier establishment or upper-tier establishment;
7. other establishment means a site of operation that falls within the scope of this Directive, or a
lower-tier establishment that becomes an upper-tier establishment or vice versa, on or after 1 June
2015 for reasons other than those referred to in point 5;[12]
While the aforementioned definitions changed over time, approach to industrial accident risk management
process has not changed too much from Seveso I to Seveso III Directive. Illustrative model of industrial
accident risk management under Seveso directives is shown in Figure 1.
274

Figure 2 Risk analysis under Seveso III Directive (14)


Having in mind the very high rate of industrialisation process within the European Union the Seveso (I, II
and III) Directive has significantly contributed to achieving a low frequency of major industrial accidents.
The Seveso III Directive now applies to more than 10 000 industrial establishments within the European
Union where dangerous substances are used or stored in large quantities, mainly in the chemical,
petrochemical, logistics and metal refining sectors.

3. WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE - WFD


The Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of
23th October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy) is the first
framework Directive, because this Directive amended significant number of previous directives in the
field of water policy. The Water Framework Directive was published in the Official Journal of European
Union OJL 327 on 22nd December 2000 and entered into force the same day.[15] Water Framework
Directive aims for good ecological status for all ground and surface waters (rivers, lakes, transitional
waters, coastal waters, water bodies) in the European Union by 2015. The ecological and chemical status
of surface waters are assessed according to the following criteria:
6.
7.
8.
9.

Biological quality
Hydromorphological quality
Physical-chemical quality
Chemical quality

Abovementioned legislation (IPPC/IED, Seveso) designed to protect environment against pollution and
deterioration and linkages to the Water Framework Directive are shown in Figure 3.

275

Figure 3 Illustrative model of linkages between WFD, IPPC/IED and Seveso [16]
The main features of IPPC/IED directive linked to WFD are reflected in the following facts.
The IPPC/IED Directive prescribes measures designed to prevent or reduce air, water or soil pollution.
The IPPC directive applies to a significant number of mainly industrial activities (installations, operators)
with a high pollution potential such as the installations in the energy sector, the production and processing
of metals, the mineral and chemical industries, waste management facilities, food production and nonindustrial activities such as livestock farming. It establishes provisions for issuing permit for existing and
new installations. The permits include requirements to ensure the protection of soil, surface water and
groundwater and set emission limits for pollutants.
The Seveso Directive (particularly Seveso III) seeks to prevent or reduce the negative effects of major
industrial accidents, thus directly influencing water quality. Seveso III Directive also deals with cardinal
accident hazards of certain industrial activities, linked with dangerous substances, listed in Annex I of the
Directive.Like the IPPC Directive the Seveso III directive establishes provisions for issuing permits based
on a range of conditions including impact assessment studies. This permit also includes requirements to
ensure the protection of soil, surface water and groundwater, and are thus associated with the Water
Framework Directive.

4.CONCLUDING REMARKS
The IPPC/IED directive requires industrial and agricultural activities with a high pollution potential to
have a permit. This permit can only be issued if certain environmental conditions are met, so that the
companies themselves bear responsibility for preventing and reducing any pollution they may cause.
IPPC/IED also lays down rules to achieve a high level of protection of the environment as a whole. The
focus of this directive is mainly on industrial emissions.
The Seveso disaster was an industrial accident that occurred on 10th July 1976, in a small chemical
manufacturing plant approximately 15 kilometres north of Milano in the Lombardy region in Italy. It
resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential
populations which gave rise to numerous scientific studies and standardized industrial safety regulations
(Seveso I, Seveso II, Seveso III).
The Water Framework Directive represents the most substantial element of water legislation ever
produced by the European Commission, providing the major driver for achieving sustainable management
of water in the European Union Member States and accession countries. The IPPC Directive (now IED),
Seveso I, II, III and Water Framework Directive, are three of the most wide-reaching items of EU
environmental law.
276

Acknowledgments
The presented research is a part of the projects Development of new information and communication technologies,
based on advances mathematical methods, with applications in medicine, telecommunications, power systems,
protection of natural heritage and education (III 44006) and Research and development of energy efficient and
environment friendly polygeneration systems based on renewable energy sources utilization (III 42006), under the
auspices of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1] Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24th September 1996, Official Journal of the European Union L 257
[2] Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24th September 1996, Official Journal of the European Union
257, Annex I
[3] Council Directive 2008/1/EC of 15th January 2008, Official Journal of the European Union L 24
[4] http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/print/volume-15/issue2/features/incineration-in-the-spotlight-revised-wi-bref.html
[5] Council Directive 2010/75/EU of 24th November 2010, Official Journal of the European
Union L 334
[6] JRC Reference Report on Monitoring of emissions from IED-installations, final draft, Joint
Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Sustainable Production and
Consumption Unit, European IPPC Bureau, 2013.
[7] New Features under the Industrial Emissions Directive, summary report, European
Environmental Bureau, 2011.
[8] Council Directive 82/501/EEC of 24th June 1982, Official Journal of the European Union L 230
[9] Council Directive 82/501/EEC of 24th June 1982, Official Journal of the European Union L
230, Annex II, III, IV
[10] Council Directive 96/82/EC of 9th December 1996, Official Journal of the European
Union L 010
[11] Council Directive 96/82/EC of 9th December 1996, Official Journal of the European
Union L 010, Annex I
[12] Council Directive 2012/18/EU of 4th July 2012, Official Journal of the European Union 197/1
[13] Council Directive 2012/18/EU of 4th July 2012, Official Journal of the European Union
197/1, Annex I
[14] http://epasoluzioni.it/en/articoli/2013/08/major-accident-risks-seveso-iii-directive/
[15] Council Directive 2000/60/EC of 23th October 2000, Official Journal of the European
Union 327
[16] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/groundwater/framework.htm

277

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

EXPERT ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Radule Tosovic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: The successful operation of the mineral sector in modern business conditions, labeled by transition
crossing to a market mineral economy and establishing market conditions for the production and trade of mineral
raw materials, requires the development of expert economic evaluations of mineral reserves and resources. This
evaluation basically represents an expert analysis, which includes four important aspects, namely: geological,
mining, economical and environmental. The ecological aspect is related to the previous geoecological analysis of
the impact of various phases of the conquest of mineral deposits on the environment, by identifying types of impacts,
character of influences, prevention of pollution measures, measures to eliminate the impact and recultivation.
Expert economic evaluation is to quantify environmental costs, analyzing their share in the total costs and impact on
the economic viability of valorization of mineral raw materials from the mineral deposits.
Keywords: Expert Economic Evaluation, Mineral Deposit, Mineral Reserves, Eoecology.

1. INTRODUCTION
The macroeconomic framework of business and economic trends in Serbia in the coming years, which
will be reflected in the mineral economy, among other things, is defined by the fiscal strategy for 2015
with projections for 2016 and 2017 year 2. The general framework and main objectives and guidelines
of the economic policies are arising from the strategic orientations of the Government of the Republic of
Serbia in the European integration process for faster acquisition of full membership in the EU. The
present general framework of economic policy for the aforementioned period, among other things, was
established by the development documents of the Government, including the National Programme for the
Adoption of the EU Acquis (2013 - 2016), general and sectoral national development strategies. In these
economic directions, in particular is highlighted the need for the development of a market economy and
strengthening of its capacity in order to respond to the upcoming competition and market forces within
the EU. These trends and market adaptations of the mineral sector condition the use of European
experience and good practice in basic production of mineral resources. The two main objectives of
economic policy in the medium term are: (1) The establishment of macroeconomic stability,
implementation of fiscal consolidation and strengthening of financial sector stability; and (2) Removal of
barriers to economic growth and competitiveness implementing comprehensive structural reforms 2.
The country's mineral economy and mineral sector activities are directly related to mineral policy, which
stems from the country's economic policy, and includes a general definition of the relationship to the
conditions, manner and use of mineral resources. Therefore, the events in the mining sector are directly
connected with the aforementioned economic developments, although mining as a basic material sector
has part of autonomy in achievement of material and economic results. For mineral economics, this
means the need to implement European practices and experience in the functioning and directing the
278

mineral sector of the country and harmonization of relevant legal and regulatory elements with the
European legislation in the field of mining and geology.
Analytically viewed, in the mineral sector in the previous 2014 year was particularly pronounced negative
impact of floods, which inflicted the greatest damage to industry, especially in the mining sector on the
part with surface coal mining and electricity generation sector. These events, together with decline in
production identified yoy decline in total industrial production in 2014 compared to 2013 from 6.3% in
the period January - October (-14.3% and -18.5%, respectively) 2.
The latest data 4 show that industrial production in Serbia in February 2015, is lower 3.3% than in
February 2014, and compared to the average of 2014 decreased by 6.3%. Industrial production in the
period between January-February 2015, compared to the same period of 2014, decreased by 3.1%.
Observed by sectors in February 2015, compared to the same month of 2014, the mining sector recorded a
decline of 13.6%. The biggest influence on the decline in production in this sector had a drop 1:
exploitation of coal (18.2%), exploitation of crude oil and natural gas (6.2%), exploitation of metal ores
(3.9%) and other mining which includes the exploitation of non-metallic minerals (10.3%).
To illustrate the complexity of the macroeconomic conditions of functioning in the mineral economy of
Serbia may serve an example of PIS in the first quarter of 2015. The first three months were marked by a
very low price of crude oil on the world market (below 50 $/bbl) and the strengthening of the dollar,
causing foreign exchange losses were almost 10 times higher than in the same period in last year 3.
Despite the difficult economic situation, the PIS has managed to increase its total turnover of petroleum
products by 6%, while the share of the retail market in Serbia increased by 2% compared with the first
quarter last year. Adverse macroeconomic trends are reflected in the EBITDA, which in the first quarter
of 2015 amounted to 7.2 billion dinars, which is 53 percent less than the same period last year, while in
the first quarter of 2015 recorded a net loss of 4.7 billion dinars 3.
These data illustrate the necessity of economic monitoring state of reserves of metallic, non-metallic and
energy minerals and actualization of their cost-effectiveness, efficiency and profitability. The simplest and
most effective way of present economic monitoring is expert economic evaluation. Preparation of strategic
long-term decisions about the production of mineral raw materials for various economic sectors requires
actualization of state reserves of metallic, non-metallic and energy minerals. It can be achieved through the
creation of special economic expert assessment, which contain the necessary elements of geological and
economic assessment, with the participation of all relevant factors and the same indicators 10.
Application of expert economic assessment is relatively uncommon in domestic practice, and is based on
the basic assumptions of mineral economics, basic principles and issues related to assessments of mineral
resources and connections with geo-ecological aspects of the assessment 5-16. It is important due to the
modern approach, assessment reliability and application effects of the current conditions of the expert
work in the mineral sector, particularly in order to prepare and make important strategic decisions in the
mineral economy of Serbia, which particularly include an ecological component. The main objective of
this paper is a general review of the place, the significance and role of the expert economic assessment in
modern business conditions as a basis for strategic decision-making in the mining sector, particularly with
the inclusion of ecology, then the inclusion of the concept of sustainable development and the successful
development of mineral economics.

2. EXPERT ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES


Expert economic evaluation, in its broadest sense, is a form of geological and economic evaluation of mineral
resources. The other known forms of evaluation are: geological, economic (value), technical and exploitation,
technological and other evaluation. Each of them has a specific function, tasks, methods and precise objective
of economic analysis and economic evaluation.

279

Expert economic evaluation has developed structure, consisting of the appropriate factors (genetic minral,
geological, legislative and legal, technical and exploitation, technological, regional, market, social-politicaleconomic and geo-ecological), as well as natural, value and synthetic indicators 10 . The expert economic
evaluation can be extracted in 4 important aspects, namely: geological, mining, economically and
environmentally. The first two are basic, the third roof, and the fourth is in parallel with the three previous.
Expert economic assessment is essentially a complex methodological procedure, with the primary objective
of determining the economic significance of the object under evaluation, where they performed geological
exploration of different phases and stages. This assessment may include: (a) mineral-raw material base of a
certain area; and (b) Individual geological and economic structures.
2.1. Expert economic assessment of the mineral-raw material base of a certain area
Expert economic assessment of the mineral-raw material base of a certain area may be related to the area of:
(a) the countries as a whole; (b) regions; (c) county; (d) municipalities; and (e) other territorial units. This
assessment should be worked by experts of highly educated scientific and professional teams, made up of a
large number of engineers of geology and mining, economists, technologists and experts of other significant
profile. Expert economic assessment in fact refers to the re-evaluation of known mineral reserves and
resources, with the actualized condition of factors and assessment indicators. This assessment should include
explored and potential metallic, non-metallic and energy mineral reserves and resources of subject areas. For
the purposes of strategic, economic and business planning is necessary assessment work in the area of the
country as a whole.
A characteristic example of the use of innovated expert geological and economic evaluation of mineral
resources is an example of the Russian Federation, which carried out this assessment in 1995 8. In this
revision the evaluation were involved 145 experts-professionals, who have geologically and economically
analyzed 35 types of mineral resources in over 2,600 facilities. At each of these facilities, there was made
division of reserves on active and passive. Active reserves belong to the reserves of deposits, whose
utilization is possible with the acceptable cost-effectiveness in the current economic conditions. The main
characteristic of the active reserves is the equalization or enlarging the medium content of useful components
in relation to the minimum economic content, calculated taking into account the current level of exploitation
costs and the market price of the product, as well as existing legal obligations in terms of fees, taxes,
contributions, write-offs, etc. Thus, this content in market conditions should be such that at least a usable
value of mineral raw materials (useful components) provides covering of operating costs, the settlement of
the corresponding taxes and other various contributions and write-offs, while ensuring a minimum income,
which corresponds to the rate of interest of the banks with inflation coverage. In order to win the so-called
Reserve deposits must be used the indicators of effectiveness with the inclusion of taxes, contributions and
appropriate deductions. These indicators include: the discounted net profit, index of income (profitability),
internal rate of profit, profitability in relation to production funds, profitability according to the of operating
costs and capital investment payback time.
The aforementioned methodology of expert economic assessment, essentially a revision or re-evaluation of
reserves of mineral raw materials, being implemented in Russia, can be successfully applied in domestic
conditions, because it is based on commonly acceptable principles and criteria of the modern market mineral
economics, management of mineral resources and economic assessment.
From the geological aspect and the aspect of management of mineral resources is necessary to carry out
the on-going and modern evaluation of known explored deposits of raw materials in Serbia, whose
justification is confirmed by the fact that the latest economic assessment of the mineral wealth of the
country was made in 1971 with the balance of reserves on 31.12.1969. 8. New economic assessment
means the need that the found and explored deposits and reserves must be assessed not only through the
natural indicators, but particularly complemented by the use of modern methods of market and economic
assessment, as well as the inclusion of appropriate environmental costs.

280

2.2. Expert economic evaluation of certain geological-economic structures


Expert economic and geological-economic assessment may include the following individual geologicaleconomic structures 11, 12:
The new economic structures;
The old economic structures; and
The technogenic economic structures.
The new economic structures include: concept, deposits or anomalies in the various stages/phases of research.
The old economic structures include: exploited deposits or old mines preserved in the narrow sense of the
technological, economic, monopoly, military-strategic and environmental reasons, or off-balance sheet
deposits, which are recorded in the existing balance sheet of mineral resources of the state. Technogenic
economic facilities include facilities associated with the waste of mining production, preparation and
processing, respectively various landfills, Slag and ash ground, etc.
Expert economic assessment is based on a complex, analytical and synthetic consideration of previously
accumulated designing materials (existing studies, reports, expertises, possible previous expert assessments,
studies on reserves, etc.). Practically, the basis for a concrete expert economic assessment is consisted of complex
and varied data (information) of fundamental geological research and study, then the results of evaluation of
potentiality (forecasting), prospecting, research from previous geological-economic analysis or evaluation.
According to current knowledge, the following mineral resources of Serbia and their facilities (anomalies,
phenomena, ore bodies, deposits, etc.), deserve priority status of expert assessments of previously
conducted research: (a) metal-resources: copper, lead and zinc, antimony, nickel, chromium, tungsten,
gold, etc.; (b) non-metallic resources: graphite, quartz raw materials, magnesite, tee, diatomite, etc.; and
(c) energy resources: oil, gas, coal and oil shale. As such, should be the subject of expert economic
assessment, which will be the basis for decision-making on deposits, which will activate the production
and perform market valorization.

3. GEOLOGICAL FACTORS AND EXPERT ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


In terms of implementation of sustainable development strategies in the field of mineral economy of
Serbia and geological, mining and technological activities related to mineral resources are of extremely
great importance to economic expert evaluation of mineral resources, deposits and occurrences of mineral
resources, especially its part, which includes the geo-ecological issues.
The main objective of the expert economic assessment is to determine the necessary parameters for
determining the economic importance of mineral resources, deposits or metallogenic units, which will
consequently affect the planning and management of geological research, as well as the sustainable use of
mineral raw materials fom defined deposits. Expert economic assessment proceeds on the objective
consideration of the nine groups of factors and a large number of indicators derived from them. A special
significant place, in the so far development of mineral economics, expansion of the mineral-raw material
base and the functioning of the mineral sector in Serbia, by applying the principles of sustainable
development, possess a factor analysis of geoecological expert economic assessment. Geo-ecological
analysis and display of geo-ecological problems in this paper, due to the limited space, have a general
character, and detailed presentation will take place in continuation of scientific research, applicative and
expert work of the author in the upcoming period.
Geo-ecological factors of expert economic evaluation of the mineral resources, as one of the nine groups
of factors, include a wide range of different data, which are essential for understanding of geoecological
conditions, then the impact and associated consequences of geological-mining technology activities on
deposits of mineral raw materials for the living environment, but also and planning and programming
281

elements of necessary measures to reduce, neutralize, eliminate or prevent adverse effects and impacts on
the environment and supporting procedures of recultivation and remediation.
Geo-ecological factors in the entire developed form, as a segment of the expert system of integrated
economic evaluation of mineral resources, include the following individual factors:
1) Geo-ecological type of minerals, ores or deposits;
2) Condition of geological environment, namely: (a) before the commencement of geological
research, (b) prior to commencement of exploitation and (c) prior to commencement of mineral
raw-materials;
3) Changes of geological environment condition, influenced by (a) geological research, (b)
exploitation and (c) preparation of mineral raw-materials;
4) The impact of exploration, exploitation, preparation, valorization of mineral resources and
associated processes on the changes of condition: (a) air; (b) water; (c) land and (d) flora and
fauna;
5) Measures of recultivization and revitalization of the geological environment;
6) The possibility of complex utilization of mineral raw-materials, especially utilization/removal of
environmentally important/toxic components;
7) Geo-ecological state of tailings and their impact on the living environment;
8) (6) The using possibility of technogenic mineral raw-materials, existing or arising during the use
of deposits;
9) Monitoring of geological environment in the local area and beyond;
10) Geo-ecological conservation of mineral raw-materials;
11) Geo-ethical factors and their impact on the assessment of the deposits;
12) The impact of the construction of infrastructure facilities on the natural/geological environment;
13) Sustainable use of mineral raw-materials in the deposit;
14) Indicators of sustainable use of mineral raw-materials in the deposit;
15) Post-exploitation use of open pits and underground mining rooms;
16) Measures to prevent pollution in various procedural-operational phases in: exploration,
exploitation, preparation, valorization of mineral resources and associated processes;
17) Environmental costs and their impact on profitability and balance reserves.
The above factors, it is necessary to fully, completely and meticulously studied in a variety of metallic,
nonmetallic mineral and energy resources, and their scope and level of treatment depends on the type of
mineral resources, the level of their geoecological impact on the environment, the availability of baseline
information and detailed knowledge of the genetic, geochemical and geological processes, which are
essential for monitoring the process in different media environment.
For a complete economic expert assessment, as well as recognizing the importance of the geoecological
factors, particularly in issues of this study are particularly important relations of geoecological factors
with other factors of expert economic evaluation or relations: the geo-ecological factors - metallogenic
factors, the geo-ecological factors - geological factors, the geo-ecological factors - technical and
exploitation factors, the geo-ecological factors - technological factors, geo-ecological factors - legislative
and legal factors, the geo-ecological factors - market factors, the geo-ecological factors - regional factors
and geo-ecological factors - socio-political-economic-strategic factors.
The problematic relationship of geoecological factors such as a subsystem of expert economic assessment deposits
includes both considered geogenic, and with a certain specificity, technogenic deposits or tailings, slag and ash
grounds, as the associating products with the exploration, exploitation, treatment and use of mineral raw-materials.
Correlation of geoecological and other factors within the economic expert assessments deposit is economically
very important, because if the expert economic assessment shows the inadequacy of environmental
exploitation, geological research and the accompanying investments should stop and not start activities leading
to the construction of the mine. In accordance with the gradualness of applying expert economic evaluation
deposits and appearance of mineral raw materials, there is a necessity of gathering all relevant geo-ecological
282

information from the first phase of the research, in order to complete the processing of such geoecological
factors and its detailing on the basis of the displayed factor elements.
Geological and economic evaluation of mineral raw-materials deposits in the last two decades under the
influence of methods of modeling and systems analysis, respectively the systems engineering, focuses on
the geology and economic modeling, with the systemic structure 10. Under this approach, the
geological-economic assessment and individual factors can be expressed through appropriate models or
sub-models as the constituents of a lower order. In this way, and to display of these individual
geoecological factors can be carried out through the model structure, which in this way results in
geoecological model. This facilitates a model display of important geoecological characteristics and
allows their adequate evaluation and inclusion in the expert economic assessment.

4. CONCLUSION
The country's mineral economy and mineral sector activities are directly related to mineral policy, which
stems from the country's economic policy. Functioning of the mineral sector is directly related to the
macroeconomic business trends, but partially has autonomy in exercising material and economic results.
Preparation of strategic long-term decisions about the production of mineral raw materials for various
economic sectors, with the inclusion of environmental aspects and sustainable development requires
actualization of state reserves of mineral raw materials, which is achieved through the creation of expert
economic assessment.
Transitional changes and general orientation towards European integration, which involves the mineral-raw
material complex, especially geo-industry and geo-administration, also influence the expert economic expert
work and economic evaluation of mineral resources, particularly the need of the current market defining of
the key economic characteristics of mineral resources in Serbia. Expert economic evaluation of mineral
resources, as the highest hierarchical system, comprises nine subsystems - factors, among which is the geoecological factors. They include a wide range of different data, essential for understanding the geoecological
conditions, then the impact and consequences of supporting geological-mining-technological activities on
mineral raw-materils deposits for the environment, but also the planning and programming elements of
necessary measures to reduce, neutralize, eliminate or prevent adverse effects and impacts on the
environment and supporting processes of recultivation and remediation.
The discussed the geo-ecological problems, in addition to great importance to the geo-ecological aspects of
the expert economic evaluation is important for defining the strategy of sustainable use of mineral resources,
as well as practical, rational and effective use of the required investments. In the upcoming time is very
important to intensify the systematic and thorough analysis of geoecological factors of expert economic
assessment and the development of geoecological model of mineral deposits in Serbia, due to the proper
handling of the geo-ecological problems of mineral resources. Expert economic evaluation should be an
integral part of the strategy of geological exploration of mineral resources in Serbia and in direct function of
successful management of mineral resources, sustainable development of the mineral sector and the mineral
economy of the country.

REFERENCES
Indeksi industrijske proizvodnje u Republici Srbiji, februar 2015 - Prethodni rezultati, Republiki
zavod za statistiku, god. LXV, broj 79, 4 pp., Beograd, 2015.
Fiskalna strategija za 2015. godinu sa projekcijama za 2016. i 2017. godinu, Slubeni glasnik RS, br.
15/15, Beograd, 2015.
Fjodorov A., Rezultatati poslovanja NIS-a za prvi kvartal 2015, NIS A.D., Novi sad, 2015.
http://www.nis.eu/prescentar/nis-na-beogradskoj-berzi-predstavio-rezultatate-poslovanja-za-prvikvartal-2015
Republika Srbija Industrijska proizvodnja u februaru 2015, Republiki zavod za statistiku, 1 pp.,
Beograd, 2015.
283

Rudenno V., The Mining Valuation Handbook: Mining and Energy Valuation for Investors and
Management, Wrightbooks; 4 edition, 624 pp., 2012.
Rundge I., Mining Economics and Strategy, Society for Mining Metallurgy & Exploration, 1 edition,
316 pp., Littleton, Colorado, 1998.
Torries F.T., Evaluating Mineral Projects: Applications and Misconceptions, Society for Mining
Metallurgy & Exploration, 172 pp., Littleton, Colorado, 1998.
Toovi R., Expert Economic Evaluation of Mineral Resources in Modern Conditions of Transition
and Management, Proceeding of 14th ICDQM-2011, 624-634, Belgrade, 2011.
Toovi R., Management in Modern Conditions of Serbian Mineral Economy, MISKO 10, 411-434,
Belgrade, 2010.
Toovi R., Geoloko-ekonomsko modeliranje polimetalinog leita Rudnik, Katedra ekonomske
geologije RGF-a, Poseb. izd. br. 8, 226 pp., Beograd, 2006.
Toovi R., Razrada kriterijuma savremene geoloko-ekonomske ocene resursa i rezervi
nemetalinih mineralnih sirovina Srbije, 135 pp., Beograd, 2010.
Toovi R., Razrada kriterijuma savremene geoloko-ekonomske ocene resursa i rezervi metalinih
mineralnih sirovina Srbije, 115 pp., Beograd, 2010.
Toovi R., Geoecological model as a subsystem of the geological-economic model of mineral
deposit, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium Mining and Environmental Protection,
Faculty of Mining and Geology, 27-32, Belgrade, 2003.
Toovi R., D. Polomi, B. Kneevi, Mineral resources and local ecological action plan,
Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium Mining and Environmental Protection, Faculty of
Mining and Geology, 60-64, Belgrade, 2003.
Toovi R., Milovanovi D., Relacije geoloko-ekonomske ocene leita mineralnih sirovina i
prifizibiliti i fizibiliti studije pri oceni ineralnih resursa Srbije, Zbornik savetovanja IMES03, 252260, Aranelovac, 2003.
Wellmer F.W., Dalheimer M., Wagner M., Economic Evaluations in Exploration, Springer; 2nd
edition, 264 pp., 2010

284

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

PLANNING AND OPTIONS OF MINE CLOSURE

Tomislav Subaranovic1, Vladimir Pavlovic2, Ivan Jankovi3


University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia,
2
Opencast Mining Centre, Belgrade, Serbia
3
Ministry of Mining and Energy, Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Mine closure planning includes a range of activities related to the mining of mineral resources. The
process of planning mine closure is much more demanding and complex than were several years ago. Closure of the
mine can be planned, sudden or unplanned, and temporary closure.By the mines closure is necessary to prevent or
reduce to a minimum a long-term negative impact on the environment and enable the creation of self sustaining
natural ecosystems.
Keywords: Planning, Mine Closure, Environmental Protection

1. INTRODUCTION
Closure of the mine is a series of related activities that begins with the conceptual planning of closure,
and ends with achieving a long-term stability of the site and establishing of the self-sustainable
ecosystem. Applying of this concept is achieved an adequate conclusion in regard to the environment.
Proper planning and measures for the mine closure are issues that need to be resolved by the mining sector
of the state in compliance with international environmental standards such as ISO 14001, in order to:

provide adequate resources to implement plans for the environment protection during operation
and closure, and that
plans for closure are designed with taking into account possible changes of geological and
technological conditions on the site and community expectations.

In planning the mine closure it is necessary to: protect human health and safety, to reduce or eliminate
negative environmental impacts of exploitation, to enable the successful use of land and intensifying
social and economic benefits during sustainable development and operation of the mine (ICMM, 2008).
For the realization of the objectives of the closure of the mine is necessary to progressively reduce the
risks caused by insufficient knowledge of the many influencing factors (Pavlovi, 2002).
From the very beginning, the mine closure planning includes conceptual solutions becoming more
detailed over the time (Figure 1, Pavlovi, 2012).
In the stage of conceptual decisions are to be set the general solutions and goals. During the detailed
planning is to be made selection of the possible options for closing, determined the implementation
methodology, defined monitoring and developed economic analysis.

285

2. MINE CLOSURE PLANNING


Planning of mine closure should begin during the development of Prefeasibility Study, design phase and
permitting for the mine, with upgrade during the operation. The lack of a mine closure plan update can
lead to serious environmental and economic consequences. Planning ensures that the process of closure is
cost effective and in due time.
As a planning rule, risk-based approach has to reduce costs and uncertainty. Current trends in closure
planning involve technical review and risks analysis, as well as the costs compensation in terms of
engineering and the environment.
Mine closure plans include all the parameters of the natural environment and the mining system,
including geology, geo-engineering, hydrogeology, hydrology, geochemistry, biology, environmental
science and social factors.

Figure 1 Mine closure planning


To verify the choice of options for mine closure plan, commonly are used risk pattern that allows
relatively quick and easy way to identify the best alternative for multicriteria decision making issues.
Patterns are formed as the ratio of the probability of risk occurrence and criteria to be considered in
relation to the consequences.
The probability of risk occurrence for the most negative effects can be divided into five classes for the
possible conditions of the system (Table 1, Pavlovi (2012)). In addition, it can be distinguished two main
groups of probability criteria which includes the endangerment of the safety and protection and
environmental and community interests imperil. Number of classes and groups can be adjusted and
optimized for each specific facility.

286

Table 1 Risk probabilities


Probability classes
Not likely
Unlikely
Medium likely
Very likely
Expected

Probabilities of risk
occurrence due to security
endangerment
(number of events/year)
< 0,01%
0,01 0,1%
0,1 1%
1 10%
> 10%

Probabilities of risk occurrence


due to imperil of environment
and community interests
(number of events/year)
< 0,1%
0,1 1%
1 10%
10 50%
> 50%

Requirements for the mine closure can set list of criteria, where the ranking according to the possible
consequences from neglected up to the extreme can be conditional in the five levels, but also adjusted to a
particular situation. Every type of planning is ranked from the best to the worst according to the evaluated
risk indicators.
It is necessary to draw up plans for the closure that reflect the status of the project or business. During the
lifetime of the mine, at least two types of closure plans are required: Conceptual closure plan (designingfeasibility stage) and the Main closure plan (phase of mining- mine opening, work and operations upon
completion of work). Planning of closure is necessary to ensure the technical, environmental, economic
and social feasibility.
The dynamics of closure planning requires regular review to reflect changing circumstances during the
mine operation (Australian and New Zealand Minerals and Energy Council, Mineral Council of Australia,
2000). Closure plan should be modified in the event of any operational changes, new regulations or a new
technology and should be comprehensively reviewed regularly. Typical cyclic planning and design phases
during the mine lifetime are set out at Figure 2.

Figure 2 Cyclic development of phase planning and design during the mine lifetime
The wider objectives of mine closure planning are:

environmental and public health and safety protection, with a safe and reliable closure practices;
reduction or elimination of adverse impacts at the environmental when the mine ceases
operations;
establish of conditions that are consistent with pre-set targets for the final land use;
reducing the need for the long-term monitoring and maintenance of the environment through the
establishment of effective physical and chemical stability of the mine area.
287

On the basis of the closure plan shall be made cost estimation for closure, to be reviewed regularly in
order to comply with changes in the mining circumstances.

3. MINE CLOSURE OPTIONS


Closure of the mine can be planned, sudden or unplanned, and temporary closure.
Planned closure involves the preparation of Conceptual Closure Plan under which is performed the
evaluation of closure plan in due time. The closure plan is based on the level of the existing bio-physical
and socio-economic information and details on planning and development of the mine. As the project
progresses, the Closure Plan is to be updated regularly and processes to reflect changes in the mine
development, operational planning, and environmental conditions. The planned closure requires the
preparation of the Plan for the cessation of the opencast mine operations a few years before closing, and
systematic implementation of this plan.
In the event of sudden and unplanned closure, is implemented an accelerated process of closing. This
includes immediate preparation and implementation of the Plan for the cessation, taking into account nonoperating status of the terrain. Where the calculated measures are inadequate to fund all requirements
during the closure, the funds has been provided from other sources of the company.
As a result of economic or operational circumstances, it is possible to stop the mining, so mine is to be
temporarily closed. Temporary closure of this nature is normally planned and assumed in terms of
restarting of the mining. Control and maintenance process include immediate preparation and
implementation of cessation plan, taking into account the potential for future operations in the field. It is
recommended that, where it is feasible and economically reasonable, to carry out reclamation in all
disturbed areas, even if it is unlikely that some of these areas are to remain undisturbed in the future. Field
reclamation, and work to prevent potential contamination of the environment, should be implemented in
accordance with the conception of the final closure. The temporary closure should always be a trigger for
a review of the Final Closure Plan, which application is to be required if the circumstances are
unfavourable for the re-opening

4. CONCLUSION
Closure of the mines began closing the conceptual planning of closure with establishing a self-sustainable
ecosystem.
Planning of mine closure should begin during the development of Prefeasibility Study, design phase and
permitting for the mine, with upgrade during the operation. Planning ensures that the process of closure is
cost effective and in due time.
Also, mine closure may be a variant: i.e.: planned, sudden or unplanned, and temporary closure.

REFERENCES
[1] ICMM (2008): Planning for Integrated Mine Closure: Toolkit, London, UK.
[2] Pavlovi, V. (2002): Rekultivacija povrinskih kopova, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Rudarsko-geoloki
fakultet, Beograd.
[3] Pavlovi V., ubaranovi T. (2012): Strategija zatvaranja rudnika, asopis Podzemni radovi, broj 20,
UDK 62, ISSN: 03542904, str. 39-46, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Rudarsko-geoloki fakultet, Beograd
[4] Australian and New Zealand Minerals and Energy Council, Mineral Council of Australia (2000):
Strategic Framework for Mine Closure.

288

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTION OF PHASE II COAL PREPARATION


PLANT (CRUSHER) TAMNAVA-EAST FIELD AND LANDFILL FINE
COAL TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Milorad Stojanovic, Slavica Stojanovic
MB "Kolubara" d.o.o., Lazarevac, Serbia
Abstract: Working mining-energy-industrial complex, has a significant negative environmental dimension, which is
manifested through pollution of air, soil, surface water and groundwater, noise emissions. Protection of the
environment in the area is one of the first-rate obligations RB Kolubara.
Keywords: Kolubara, Crushers, Protection of the Environment

1. INTRODUCTION
Every human activity in space leads to certain changes and negative impacts in terms of disrupting the
natural balance. Opencast mining and processing of lignite accompanying facilities within the entire
system on the exploitation and production of electricity are specific industrial objects that can not locate
the legal and technical requirements and parameters (spatial distance in relation to human agglomeration,
traffic flows, soil quality classes according to credit ratings et seq.). They are built / opened, where the
mineral deposits and can not be relocated, spatially shaped or organized. They can be located on valuable
land, near or next to settlements, in areas of interest for tourism in protected areas, even in national parks.
In this sense, activities such as research, planning, design and exploitation of the project itself emerge as
significant problems in the field of conservation and environmental protection. The main characteristic of
the observed area is closely linked with the development of RB Kolubara. The development and operation
of mining-energy-industrial complex, where the most important role opencast mining and thermal power
plants, it has largely environmental dimension, which is manifested through pollution of air, soil, surface
and ground water, thermal overload protection, noise emissions, etc.

2. COAL PREPARATION PLANT (CRUSHER)


Increasing processing capacity of raw coal 25 million tons of raw coal a year is certainly required to
ensure adequate reserves (in terms of equipment and facilities), or the extension of another line transport
to the preparation plant (SUP2), and the third line of crushing (crushing production line 1) also and
construction of the landfill fine coal as planned main project coal preparation plant "Tamnava". Upon
completion of the construction of the plant will enable continuous and reliable processing of coal needed
for power plants supply while ensuring adequate reserves in terms of equipment and facilities.
Technological process of coal in coal preparation plant for "Tamnava" is based on technology defined in
the Preliminary techno-mechanical project and the adopted technological solution that was prepared
289

Delattre Livivier. Technological process of coal preparation adopted and processed in the main project for
this plant, which is in operation since February 1983.Thirty years of experience suggests that the adopted
technological process corresponding to the main purpose of the plant, is the preparation of coal for
combustion in thermal power plants of Elektroprivreda Serbia. Figure 1 shows a schematic view of the
layout of open pits currently in operation and future mines, on whose opening and development works
rapidly because of the pending construction of new termeoenergetskih capacity to predominantly burn
coal mines with Tamnavskih (TE "Kolubara B" and TPP "Nikola Tesla B3"), with the location of plants
for coal preparation in relation to them.

Figure 1 Schematic of surface mines Tamnavski


The main task of this paper is to summarize the impact of the construction of the other two parts of the
plant-second collection conveyor for transportation of coal from mines to the plant (SUP2) associated
with a new third line of crushing as well as warehouse lines of fine coal.
2.1 The current state of the plant "crusher"
The plant "crusher" is in operation since 1983. The complex occupies an area of about 65 hectares, of
which about 16 ha goes to landfill fine coal, a raw dump to about 7 ha. Location is characterized by very
favorable transportation conditions and communication links. The plant is located about 5 km from the
Ibar magistarale with which it is connected by asphalt road. Additionally, located near regional roads and
Lazarevac - Aranelovac - Kragujevac and Valjevo - Ub - Obrenovac. At the same time the entire area
around the plant is intersected by roads of a lower order, a macadam road Lajkovac - Obrenovac go the
route of the old narrow-gauge railway line.
The railway standard gauge Belgrade-Bar passes at a distance of about 6 km, while electrified industrial
gauge Vreoci - Large Crljeni - Obrenovac was located in the immediate vicinity of the plant and the same
is used for the transport of coal to thermal power plants' Nikola Tesla '' A and B and shunting station
limits plant on the north side.
This facility is designed and built with the aim to prepare the raw coal from surface mines for use in
power stations. The preparation of coal are the following:
1. raw coal crushing on size 100% (90%) - 30mm
2. sampling of crushed coal in order to determine the quality of the coal
3. temporal alignment of availability of coal surface mine "Tamnava" with consumption of coal in
thermal power plants.

290

Figure 2 View of the crusher


The plant is designed so that after completion of construction production takes place on three production
lines with capacity of coal preparation (crushing) the 2500t / h on each line. In 1983 the completion of
two production lines, which are usually called "Technological line 2 and line 3 technology."
Technological line 1 will be built in the planned phase capacity expansion.
Coal preparation plant with its capacity in bunkers, raw coal storage capacity and crushing in the course
of 15h / day to meet the needs of thermal power plants, which are directly involved in the power system
and operate 24 hours / day.
2.2 Construction of Phase II of the plant "crusher"
Increasing processing capacity of raw coal 25 million tons of raw coal a year is certainly required to
ensure adequate reserves (in terms of equipment and facilities), or the extension of another line transport
to the preparation plant (SUP2), and the third line of crushing (crushing production line 1) also and
construction of the landfill fine coal as planned main project coal preparation plant "Tamnava". Upon
completion of the construction of the plant will enable continuous and reliable processing of coal needed
for power plants supply while ensuring adequate reserves in terms of equipment and facilities.
Technological process of coal in coal preparation plant for "Tamnava" is based on technology defined in
the Preliminary techno-mechanical project and the adopted technological solution that was prepared
Delattre Livivier. Technological process of coal preparation adopted and processed in the main project for
this plant, which is in operation since February 1983.Thirty years of experience suggests that the adopted
technological process corresponding to the main purpose of the plant, ie the preparation of coal for
combustion in thermal power plants of Elektroprivreda Serbia.
B AC1

MS5

B AC2

MS3

E101

T35

MS4

AC2

UZ
E201

T8

T1

E1

C1

BT1
E2

T2

G
T3

E3
E4

H3

B7

T2A

BT2

C3

T5

E5
E6

T4A

C6

OV6
T6

BT6

F3

F1

T26

T23
4'
T2

T1
4

T23'
T1
3

5
T1

T1
2

6
T1

OV9

TP2
4
T2

C7B

C8A

C8B

T3
3

GM15'
RR1

C7A

T3
4

B10

T25

TP
1

TS1

F2

T11

T6A

6'
T1

OV8

B6
F4

T5A
BT5

E8

B8

BT4

C5

B7

T3A

C4

OV4
OV5

T4

BT
33

T21

PT2

T10

T9

BT3

B1

H2

T1A

C2

OV2
OV3

BT
34

PT1

B4

E301

OV1

B2

SUP 1

H1

T7

B3

B5

G
E7

PR
IJEM
NI

G1

P1
B SU

SUP 2

BU
NK
ER
I TE
RM
OE
LE
KT
RA
NE

AC1

G2

P2
B SU

T14A

E1

OLA33 OLA34

E9

E10

OLA27

BT27

T32

T27
MS2

T17

T31

MS1
B RS1
RS1

T3
0

T2
8

T29

T19

ODLAGAC
UZIMAC

OD
T28'

SK1

D2

I faza

D1

II faza
IV linija drobljenja i deponija
sitnog uglja sa sistemom
otpreme uglja ka potroaima
koja je predmet ovog projekta

UZIMAC
SK2

D3

D4

Figure 3 Scheme preparation and processing of coal in the plant Tamnava


Landfill crushed coal consists of 6 stacks, by 3 on each side transporters, each storage capacity per 93500 t.
291

3. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE CAUSES OF POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL


DEGRADATION IN ENVIRONMENTS PLANT
Environmental protection in the area of facilities large and complex thermal power system is one of the
first class of social problems. The main long-term goal of environmental protection in the wider area of
Kolubara lignite basin is to provide controlled conditions on the exploitation of lignite and generation of
electricity and simultaneously reduce permanent area degradation and environmental pollution.
Technology surface exploitation of lignite and other coal refining process within the entire system on the
exploitation and production of electricity is a source of environmental pollution. The success of each
solution in the field of protection and improvement of the environment includes the comprehensive
overview and definition of all possible impacts. Consequently always becomes a priority obligation to
define possible impacts in relation to basic ecological categories such as: air, water, soil, air, flora, fauna,
landscape and others.
Since the subject of this paper upgrade another line of crushing and dump fine coal within the existing
plants for the preparation of coal Tamnava and that the current technological procedure of treatment
and planned new stages will be very similar to the already existing, from past experience, we can say that
the further operation of the plant upgraded certainly be the cause of the increased pollution of the
environment but that with the application of certain protection measures that can significantly reduce the
negative impact. Only the execution of the project of upgrading the new phase will cause some additional
adverse impacts on already degraded environment in this area.
The success of each solution in the field of protection and improvement of the environment includes the
comprehensive overview and definition of all possible impacts. Consequently always becomes a priority
obligation to define possible impacts in relation to basic ecological categories such as: air, water, soil, air,
flora, fauna, landscape and others.
When it comes to the subject project, considering the above, it is necessary to assess the impact of the
project on the environment and define the objectives of environmental quality of which will benefit the
project leader and the local community and society at large.
The analysis of the possible causes of pollution and environmental degradation in the area of the plant for
the preparation and processing includes the following facilities:
crushing, transportation and shipping,
dumps raw coal,
landfill fine coal
Classification of impact can be performed with respect to multiple parameters, namely:
In relation to the spatial aspect, the impacts may be local, regional and global,
In relation to the time aspect, the effects can be temporary or permanent, short-term or long-term,
In relation to the intensity, impacts are classified in five gradations (from serious to negligible)
and can be negative and positive,
In relation to the type or character, impacts can be direct or indirect, or cumulative and synergetic.
3.1. Description of potential impacts of coal preparation plant on the environment during the
construction phase of the new part of the plant
Construction of new lines of crushing and fine coal dump accompanied by a series of activities which can
have positive and negative effects on the environment. These activities include:
Execution of on-site work of the new plant,
Delivery of materials and equipment to the installation site,
Construction works on the installation site,
292

Performing mechanical and electrical works on the installation site,


Removal of waste from the installation site,
Arranging circuit plant after completion of the construction of the new work,
Providing conditions for living and work of employees at the site.

Bearing in mind that the coal preparation plant at the open pit mine "Tamnava" in operation since 1983,
when the completion of two production lines, which are commonly referred to as "technological line 2
and line 3 technology" and that to build a "technological line 1 "technological lines and fine coal
(crushing, storage and shipping) most buildings already completed can be said that some of the above
activities have already been completed (site preparation) or started.
Given the long period since the activities related to the phase of construction started and then interrupted
(built in one part of the plant or two technological lines and crushing raw coal dumps that are already long
in operation), it can be considered that the negative impacts are then produced in the meantime been
neutralized, so that their effect no longer feels.
Generally, for each of these upcoming activities on the new work possible impacts are the result of:

Additional traffic and transportation,


Generation of waste (inert, dangerous, sanitary)
Work construction and other machinery on site,
Taking up space and changing the use of space,
Changes in the social structure of the area.

Traffic and transport


During the construction of a new section of the plant, on the routes which gravitate to the location
Crushers expected increased traffic flows, as road, rail and, as a consequence of the need to deliver to the
site all the necessary equipment and supplies, transport workers and other employees at the site and
regularly perform other supporting activities necessary for the functioning of the site.
Location Crushers associated local road with the main traffic route Ibar highway, and industrial track for
the railroad Belgrade-Bar.
Increasing the intensity of traffic on these routes can have the following additional adverse impacts on the
environment:
Slowing down and obstructing traffic, primarily on road routes, due to the movement of trucks
carrying heavy equipment. This applies in particular to the Ibar highway, which is normally one
of the busiest roads in Serbia. It is therefore essential that these activities are thoroughly planned
and advance notice to the competent traffic police, and recommended that this special transport
performed at the time of reduced traffic intensity (after 21 h or the like).
Increased traffic levels high load additionally affects the damage to roads and requires additional,
increased maintenance loaded stocks.
Increased traffic levels increase the likelihood of accidents. This applies in particular to parts of
the Ibar highway passing through urban areas, which are normally referred to as "black spots" in
the traffic network in Serbia.
Increased traffic levels leads to increased emission of products of combustion of fuel (mostly diesel),
which will affect air quality along roads. The main pollutants of combustion products of diesel fuel are
carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, soot abrasive particles from tires, as
well as carbon dioxide, the most important representative of greenhouse gases.
In addition to the emissions of combustion products, transportation of bulk cargo delivery causes the
material to be transported along the road, causing further pollution of soil in the vicinity of roads.
Increased traffic levels leads to increased noise along the road, which is particularly unfavorable
to parts of the road passing through the village.
293

The work of construction and other mechanization on the site


Operation of machinery at the construction site caused local adverse impacts that result from emissions of
products of combustion of fuel in engines (mainly diesel engines), causing noise and soil pollution in case of
spillage of oil and / or fuel when on a machine. The extent of these emissions pollution is limited in terms of
space and time influence. From the standpoint of potential impacts on the environment ie. the area outside the
circle of power, the most significant noise impact. At this point it is difficult to predict the level of noise in the
environment because it depends on the scope of works to be carried out simultaneously.
Taking up space and change of use of space
Location Crushers located on the edge of the surface of open, as in the previous period caused the change
of the original purpose of area.
Changes in the social structure of the area
Given the size and complexity of the site, occasionally at the site is expected presence of a large number
of contractors and large number of workers. Since the location Crushers located in a predominantly rural
setting, with most of the village of 5,000 inhabitants, a longer stay of seasonal workers will have an
impact on the established life habits of the local population of the area. In addition, it is expected that a
significant number of local working-age population of the surrounding villages to find work linked
directly or indirectly to the construction of a new work Crushers.
Stay casual workers on construction Crushers enlargement will influence the development of certain
activities in the vicinity of locations that are related to service activities in the field of trade, catering and
culture, all of which will have a positive effect on the income of the surrounding municipalities and the
possibility of employment in these activities.
The adverse effects may be related to the occurrence of crime, drug use and some diseases to a greater
extent than ever before commencement of construction.
3.2 Description of possible impacts of coal preparation plant on the environment after the
construction phase of the new part of the plant
a) Describe the impact due to the existence of objects
Given that the present project the existing coal preparation plant Tamnava with additional building of
another line of crushing and fine coal dump in addition to the existing dump raw coal within Tamnava
mines and that existing technological procedure of treatment and planned new phase very similar to
already existing from past experience is can say that the plant upgraded certainly be the cause of
environmental pollution but that with the application of certain protection measures that can significantly
reduce the negative impact.
Possible changes and impacts are considered through the impacts on:
Air pollution - The existing facility is already a significant source of air pollution. Where the new
plant will only work intensity of air pollution in the environment environment to be enhanced
Land degradation -in close environment plant soil is contaminated with accumulated dust from the
plant. Construction of a new landfill fine coal will only reinforce the negative impact.
Vegetation - No impact on the surrounding plant life except his immediate surroundings.
Water pollution - Wastewater from the plant is discharged into the recipient without previous treatment.
Noise and vibration We expect the threat to the environment from these impacts.
It is possible accidental situations - Potential dangers conditional application of appropriate
technical and organizational measures which will prevent the possibility of accidents and ensure
the protection of buildings.
294

Knowing the technological process of preparation and shipment of coal in the plant can be expected as
most present real accident situations occurrence of self-combustion-ignition of coal, and consequently the
development of fire and fire gases emissions.
Flammability Coal (temperature glow and ignition temperature of the mixture of coal dust and air) and an
explosive properties of coal are extremely important characteristics of coal a secure and safe operation of
the plant for coal preparation.
Taking into account the established properties of coal dust in factories and facilities where coal is treated
these characteristics is necessary to apply the prescribed measures of protection that are defined by the
relevant regulations and standards.
b) Describe the impact from the use of natural resources
Coal preparation plant Tamnava function as an integral part of the system of exploitation of coal deposits
in coal and electricity production and in itself does not matter a significant impact on the environment due
to the use of natural resursa. Prostor of the plant is owned by RB Kolubara and beyond will not be
optional occupation of land. During operation designed technology inevitably causes changes, especially
in terms of pollution of natural resources in the region but will implement measures to protect those
reduced to a minimum.
c) Describe the impact due to the emission of pollutants, as well as description of forecasting methods
used when cheap environmental impact
Relevant potential danger to the environment are suspended dust particles minernalne whose emission
values, in certain natural conditions can be above the limit values. Entering the floating dust in the air
environment appears to a greater or lesser extent in all stages of technological procesa. The characteristic
projected sources of air pollution particulate matter are: in-line (roads within the plant, belt conveyors),
and surfactants (surface active dumps at coal).
Primary sources make mining machinery and technological equipment in operation, and secondary
sources make all the active surface, which under the influence of wind emitted into the air ball floating
fraction of deposited dust. The presence of pollutants is expressed primarily in the workplace, while in
principle the presence in the life Redini far less.

4. CONCLUSION
The general assessment is that plant for preparation and shipping of coal is already causing pollution in
the environment close environment primarily from the aspect air pollution, surface water pollution (due to
lack of wastewater treatment plants), land degradation due to contamination of the deposited particles of
coal dust, adverse noise impacts and vibration in the neighboring area and so on. Upgrade new crushing
line with related equipment as well as the construction of a landfill fine coal will only increase to some
extent, these negative impacts but will those envisaged measures for mitigation be kept to a minimum.

REFERENCES
[1] Additional mining project on the second phase of the plant for coal preparation Tamnava, Delta
Engineering, Belgrade 2013.
[2] Assessment of the environmental impact of coal preparation plant (crusher) "Tamnava-East Field"
mining basin "Kolubara" doo Branch Project, 2014:
[3] The strategic impact assessment of the spatial plan area of Kolubara lignite basin on the environment
Strategic assessment report, the Institute za arhitekturu and Urban Planning of Serbia, 2008.
295

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

EXPLORATION OF Pb-Zn ORE ON SURROUNDING AREAS OF THE


CRNAC MINE
Gordana Milentijevic, Blagoje Nedeljkovic, Milan Milojevic
University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show what are the possibilities for securing ore on the surrounding areas for
the exploitation in the mine of Crnac. Also is presented an overview of the further development of research works on
potential areas that could be involved by mining exploration works and exploration wells. On the potential areas for
further research is shown the research area of Crnac - Istok, Plakaonica II and Kukavica, Kajski Breg. The applied
research methods are mining exploration activities and geological exploration wells. The result of this research is
the managing of reserves from C1 to C2 reserves and B categories. This provides a greater amount of lead and zinc
ores for future exploitation.
Keywords: Mining, Exploration, Lead, Zinc, Drilling, Wells.

1. INTRODUCTION
The deposit of Crnac was opened after ten years of intensive research by drilling from surface and mining
exploration works in the period from 1957 to 1968 by the Geological Service of mines and smeltery of
lead and zinc of Trepca in Zvean. The opening of the mine of Crnac has contributed to the increase in
raw material base of lead and zinc as basic raw materials for metallurgical plants and newly constructed
processing capacities of the combine of Trepca based on these metals. The opening of the mine of Crnac
with a relatively high content of lead and zinc metal is a major incentive for the development of an
underdeveloped area such as is the territory of Leposavic.
From the outset, respectively since 1968 the mine Crnac is part of OC Mines and Flotation of Kopaonik Leposavic. The current unfavorable situation of raw material base of the OC of Kopaonik, as well as
combine of Trepca in general, and the increasing need to meet the processing capacities require further
intensification of research work both in the deposit, including its wider area. At the same time with the
introduction of the exploration works are investing considerable material and financial funds in opening
of new mines in order to increase production, income and standard of workers.
The mine of lead and zinc of Crnac, more than two decades has not exercised geological exploration,
neither drilling of exploratory wells nor even mining exploration works. During this time there was
carried out exploitation in the scope of 50.000 t to 150.000 t of ore annually. For these reasons, there was
a reduction of ore reserves at a level that allows the exploitation of ore for the next few years [2].
Considering the current state of ore reserves and the need to maintain continuity in the production of ore,
it is proposed that in the shortest period of time to research the structures of potential mines. In the
potential areas that could cover explanatory mining operations, as well as explanatory wells include Plakaonica II,
Crnac Istok and Kukavice, Kajski Breg.
296

Results from a previous period of study that were obtained from surface exploration drilling and drilling
of exploration wells from the pit, suggest that, in these areas may be proved more ore wire, which in
terms of quality and quantity of the metal content correspond to existing mineral wires in the central part
of the deposit of Crnac.
Insufficient exploration of mineral wires in the central part of the deposit of Crnac where currently is
being performed an exploitation of ore is planned to drill exploratory wells in length up to 100 m. These
wells will resolve the issue of continuity of ore wires in the providing and deposition direction [1].

2. EVALUATION OF POTENTIALITY OF THE CRNAC MINE


2.1 The Plakaonica II Area
Exploration of mineral structure on this area was performed in the period of 1983. until 1994. with
exploratory wells from surface such as the wells of B-52; B-53; B-54 and B-55 in the three profiles. The
results of these exploratory wells were positive, but insufficient for the calculation of reserves of higher
categories [4].
In the later period (1994) were conducted additional research with new exploratory wells from the surface
into four profiles at a distance of 50 m. With the wells of B-56; B-57; B-58 and B-59 were obtained
positive results; These results indicate continuity in the propagation of the ore deposits to the west. For
these reasons, we decided to undertake the mining exploration works (extension of hall of the GPIH-503
and GPIH 416 as well as burial undertaking per ore structure) in the direction of Plakaonica II. The aim of
the research was that with the minimum volume of mining operations execute re-categorization into
mineable ore reserves.
2.2 The Crnac - Istok Area
This mineral structure was researched in seventies (1979) with the exploration wells from the surface.
Wells B-33; B-34; B-35 and B-36 in the two profiles at a distance of 200 m was drilled several mineral
structures with significant content of lead and zinc. Performed volume of operations on the study of this
area does not satisfy the criteria for the assessment of reserves. For these reasons it is necessary to
research further exploration wells. In order to achieve a favorable position for drilling of exploration
wells in the district of Crnac Istok it is necessary to extend the corridor H - 410 on the IV-th horizon over
a length of 230 m.
2.3 The Kukavica Kajski Breg Area
Ore structures in the area of Kukavice was researched during the period of 1964 -1965. There have been
conducted five exploration wells with a total length 1401.5 m. All of these wells have yielded positive
results. Detailed data on the situation and the data of the drilled intervals could not be provided.
Taking into account the distance of this area of the existing facilities in the Crnac (about 2 km), is proposed
the subsequently detailing in the purpose of providing technical documentation for the area Kukavice.

3. THE DEGREE OF EXPLORATION OF THE SURROUNDING AREAS


3.1 The Crnac - Istok Area
Research of the Crnac ore structure to the east, started in 1979 with exploration wells from surface in the
structures of Mladjev up to Metalica. These operations involved the research of these structures of wells
from the surface structure and was found the presence of more lead - zinc ore wire with the economic
metal content of lead, zinc and silver in the gabbro-amphibolites and roof shale.
297

Wells B-33, B-30, B-34, B-35 and B-36 in the two profiles at a distance of 200m were drilled several
wires with a significant content of lead and zinc. Derivative volume of research works on the area of
Metalica - Mladjev do not meet the criteria for the assessment of reserves of the C1 category. Therefore,
it is necessary the re-categorization in order to perform additional exploration works from the pit in the
extension of the corridor N410 on the fourth horizon.
Results from these exploration wells B-33, B-34, B-35 and B-36 confirm that in these structures are
present the lead-zinc mineralization which are identical with an open ore bodies of the Crnac deposit in
terms of modes of appearance and content of lead, zinc, silver, etc.
From this ore structure Mladjev to - Metalica according to previously specified data, based on data from
boreholes B-33, B-34, B-35 and B-36, can be safely concluded the presence of 90 000 t of ore of the C2
category with the average rate of 10, 47% lead, 5.29% zinc and 115 g/t silver [2,4].
In order to further research and converting of these reserves in a higher category, it is necessary from the
hall N410 to construct the research hallway covering the length of do 230 m toward the site of Mladjev.
At the end of the corridor to make a chamber of 16 m2 of which are projected six wells or 2 fans by three
wells, one fan is directed to the north, the other to the south, perpendicular to the direction of the ore wire.
After the undertaken drilling, the further elaboration would be planned of this locality related to mining operations.
In Table 1 are presented the the results of so far research of the lead and zink ore on the area of Crnac - Istok [3].
Table 1 Table view of C2 reserves Crnac Istok
Category

Well

Ore (t)

Mean content of metal


Pb (%)
Zn(%)
Ag (g/t)

Pb (t)

Quantity of metal
Zn (t)
Ag (kg)

B- 33

30. 000

9.70

7.59

89

2 910

2 227

2 670

B-34

40.000

12.20

1.82

161

4880

728

6440

B- 36

10.000

3.13

4.02

21

313

402

210

B-35

10. 000

13.24

13.60

105

1 324

1 360

1 050

B-43

50. 000

5.79

0.44

66

2 895

220

3 300

140. 000

8.79

3.56

97.5

12 322

4937

13 670

Total C2

3.2 The Plakaonica II Area


Research of this ore structure was carried out in the period from 1983 to 1994. A large number of wells was
made before the opening of the mine Crnac. In order to define the mineral structures that are located south
of the English undermine. In 1983 was made four boreholes (B-55, B-54, B-53 and B-52) in three profiles,
whose results were positive and in several levels all cut the ore structures, but with insufficient data for the
calculation of reserves. Opening of new exploration wells from the surface was made in 1994, with the aim
of better defining the exploration area as well as the re-categorization of mineral reserves [4].
Wells B-55, B-56, B-57, B-58 and B-59 in four profiles at a distance of 50 m, results were positive. All
five wells have drilled several mineral structure, which enabled the reserves of C2 category to render to a
higher C1 category. Making of undermine at the angles of 945 m and with the pit wells B-1/87, B-2/87,
B-3/87 B 4/87 which have the drilling direction toward Plakaonica l, to the ore wire 13 and 15, from the
profile it can be concluded that there is a broader sterile space between these two ore structure.
Results of so far research operations are presented in Table 2 [3]
Table 2 Table view of C1 reserves Plakaonica II
Category
C1

Well

Mean content of metals


Pb(%)
Zn (%)
Ag(gA)

Ore (t)

B-57,58,59, 200 000


55, 60

5.0

3.50

70

298

Quantity of metal
Pb(t)
Zn (t) Ag(kg)
10000

7000

1400

4. THE CONCEPT OF FURTHER RESEARCH


4.1 The Further Research Concept of Crnac Istok Area
To the area of Crnac - Istok belong the research of mineral structures in the east direction of the capital
facilities pit of Crnac, respectively, of the service windows and central ore bars. Studies of these areas
were performed only with exploration wells from the surface. Research wells are located in the two
profiles at a distance of 200 m profile from the profile, including the wells B-33; B-34; B-35 and B-36,
which are punched by the profiles 33 - 34 and 35-36.
The conducted scope of work on the study of this area, clearly indicates the presence of more lead-zinc
ore wire, with the economic content of metals of lead, zinc and silver. Also, it is concluded that the scope
of works conducted from exploration wells from the surface indicates the promising reserves of C2
category. Based on these data can be evaluated reserves that will serve as a roadmap for further
geological research, to convert the reserves into more categories. Taking into account the current level of
exploration areas of Crnac - Istok and the results of these studies, its imposed as a priority, to carry out
further research system development of mining operations and development of exploration wells. For this
approach of research we committed on the basis of so far experience in the research of other areas.
In accordance with the position of mining facilities of the active part of the pit, as well as the position of
the results obtained with wells B-33; B-34; B-35 and B-36 is imposed the following solution for
additional research grounds of Crnac - Istok. To extend the hallway H-410 on the IV-th horizon over the
length of 230 m according to the results of wells. At the end of the hall to predict a chamber 4 x 4 m and 3
m in height, from which are projected exploration wells amount of 6 wells, respectively, in two (2) fans
of 3 (three) wells. With this scope of works we could make a re-categorization of mineral resources from
C2 to C1 category (Table 3) [3].
Table 3 Table view results of interpolation data from research operations of Crnac-Istok.
Category
B+C1

Ore (t)
399 000

Pb(%)
8.25

Mean content of metals


Zn (%)
2.33

Ag(gA)
93.5

4.2 The Concept for Further Research of Plakaonica Revira


On the basis of so far performed research works on this area, there were separated the reserves of C1
category. To this category of mineral resources in the district of Plakaonica II was realized by drilling
wells from surface and mining exploration works at the level of the horizon II the level of 945 m. In order
to carry out the re-categorization of mineral resources of categories C1 to a higher category of B or A is
necessary to do additional mining. Based on the so far experience gained in the district of Crnac and the
areas of the Plakaonica I as well as experience with other similar mines further research mining
operations that will have the function of opening the areas of Plakaonica II will comprise the following:
Creating a transverse corridor at least on two levels of the hall H-416 on the horizon IV and from the end of
the hall H-503 on the horizon V, up to data from wells B-59 and B-60 in the area of Plakaonica II.
Making research substratum hall for individual wire ore by way of providing the same.
Making transient transport of excavation from lower to higher levels after the fall of ore wire.
For this conceptual approach of research and opening of ore mining area of the Plakaonica II is defined
for the following reasons:
By working out and opening the areas of Crnac and areas of Plakaonica I were created conditions for
continued research towards new areas in this case areas Plakaonica II. Providing and fallings of some ore
wires and their parallelism, and the location of windows and central ore bars (COB) in the basement of the
ore body, impose and for this area making one of the main transverse corridor, which will connect all future
ore wire, while merging areas of Plakaonica II with the areas of Crnac and Plakaonica I, with a window and
a central ore rod.
299

In a later stage in the development and exploitation of ore from this area, may be the spaces for exploration,
first of all, all corridors and excavations turn into objects of elaboration, transportation, transient and
ventilation pathways. Converting of research halls for these purposes in addition to all the advantages there
are and a number of shortcomings such as:
Due to the purpose of the preparation of mining exploration works, as well as the inability at that
time to look at the final position of mining operations, the most appropriate organization to new
transport on these areas was almost disabled.
Transport routes are generally unregulated with a large number of inadequate curves, inadequate
floors and climbs, and with the inappropriate track that was left from the research phase.
So far experience tells us that almost on all mineral wires, direct contact of ore and associated
rocks is unfavorable in terms of stability of the spaces, which resulted in the necessary
supporting. If you take that to support elements are performed almost exclusively with the
frameworks of a curved structure, because the previous works were of researched character, a
result are significant costs to maintain these facilities.
Creating a transient-transport excavation by declining ore wire creates conditions for the
subsequent rapid preparation of some ore blocks. These excavations serve as basic ventilation
passes. In the phase of research of the construction hallway by mineral wires approach the airflow
to working forehead, thus reducing the scope of a separate ventilation, which is very important
for the speed and security of making the same. Ore reserves shown in Table 2, made by
exploratory mining operations in depth of deposits, as well as the interpolation of data from wells
can be converted to a higher category as shown in Table 4 [3].
Table 4 Tabulation of results interpolation of data from research operations of Plakaonica II
Category
B+C1

Ore (t)
956 000

Mean content of metals


Zn(%)

Pb(%)
8.09

2.58

Ag(gA)

116

5. CONCLUSION
Bearing in mind the location position of areas Crnac-Istok and areas Plakaonica II in relation to the active
part of the pit Crnac was made the most favorable choice of location of mining research works and
geological exploration wells. The data obtained from research operations and wells at all levels point to a
very promising area of the mine Crnac. Combining data from exploration wells and mining exploration
work on these areas was secured through 1.100.000 t of high quality lead and zinc ore. Proved reserves
guarantee a stable production of lead and zinc ore from the mine Crnac, at the same time sustainable
development, primarily of the Leposavic Municipality.
Acknowledgement
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence on the environment:
impacts, adaptation and mitigation" (43007) and Optimization of the process of preparation of ore from OP Prole
in flotation mine Rudnik (TR 33045), financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia
within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research for the period 2011-2014.

REFERENCES
[1] Milentijevi, G.O.: Osnove geologije i inenjerske geologije, Univerzitet u Pritini, Fakultet tehnikih

nauka, 2011, str.385-412.


[2] Tehnika dokumentacija geoloke slube RIF Kopaonik Leposavi
[3] Nedeljkovi, B.LJ., Milentijevi, G.O.: Tehniki rudarski projekat izrade rudarskih istranih radova za
revir Plakaonica II, 2013
[4] Izvetaj o istraivanju olovno-cinkove rude u periodu 1983.godine do 1994.godine na Rogozni.
Izvestioc Geozavod Beograd
300

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

THE IMPACT OF FLOTATION PROCESSING OF THE Pb Zn ORE


ON THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIF KOPAONIK IN
LEPOSAVIC
Gordana Milentijevic, Blagoje Nedeljkovic, Milan Milojevic
University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the research carried out during the primary processing of lead and
zinc ore in the Flotation Plant of the MIF "Kopaonik" in Leposavic and its impact on the living environment. In the
introduction of the paper was presented the scheme of the technological process of ores flotation, with all stages of
the processing from the primary crushing of ore to the condensation of concentrates. From the description of the
technological process of flotation, can be noted that there are significant deviations both from our and European
standards in terms of environmental protection. This was the reason for the determination of measuring points and
setting up equipment for measurement of microclimate, air quality, dust concentration and the concentration of lead
in dust, as well as the quality of wastewater from flotation. The results of these parameters are given in the table of
this paper including the discussion of the results.
Keywords: Fotation, Measuring Points, Air Quality, Water Quality, Dust Processing Concentration.

1. INTRODUCTION
The plant for flotation concentration of lead zinks ore of Leposavic in Leposavic, is located 30 km.
north of Kosovska Mitrovica on the main road Belgrade - Kraljevo - Skopje. It is a new mining plant in
the framework of a complex organization of the MMCI "Trepca" with new work organization mines and
flotation "Kopaonik" in Leposavic.
The flotation plant is in the center and around which in the north is the deposit of Belo Brdo (28 km.), in
the northeast is the deposit of uta Prlina (18 km.) and Kopori (15 km.) and in the southwest is the
deposit of Crnac (17 km.). Currently in the exploitation are the mines of Belo Brdo and Crnac and the ore
from these mines is processing in flotation in of Leposavic.
The deposits of Belo Brdo and Crnac were in exploitation before commissioning of flotation in
Leposavic, and their ores then were processed in the flotation of Zvecan - "Trepca". With the construction
of the plant in Leposavic begins exploitation and of the deposits of uta - Prlina and Kopori. The
exploitation of these deposits lasted until 1996 years.
The aim of the construction of the flotation plant in Leposavic for metalliferous areas of Kopaonik and
Rogozna is to shorten the road of transport ore from deposits to the place of processing of ore for about
30 km. and provide, through a separate processing of each ore, higher technological utilization of useful
metals, or change the boundaries of the minimum economic content of useful metals in the ore and extend
the concept of balance ore reserves and to those parts of the deposits, but also to those deposits that have
not yet been.
301

Flotation plant in Leposavic was put into operation in 25.12.1971 yr., with a design capacity of 375,000
tons per year, thus opening a new chapter in the development of the metalliferous areas. In so far
operation of the flotation plant of "Kopaonik" in Leposavic have been processed around 6.5 million tons
of ore.
Technological processes are analyzed and schematically shown: technological processes of crushing,
screening, grinding and sizing of ore in Figure 1 and Figure 2, while Figure 3 shows the principal
technological scheme of flotation in Leposavic [3]. Equipment in flotation is technologically outdated and
there is no possibility of reaching today's level of technological results. There is neither automatic control
nor regulation of technological process. For these reasons, conditions were created for the deterioration in
the quality of the working environment. This paper presents the results of analysis of the microclimate, air
quality in the workplace-flotation measured on the specified measuring points.

Figure 1 The scheme of the technological process of crushing and screening of ore
Legend: 1. Reception bunker, 2. Plate feeder, 3. Conveyor belt, 4. Stationary grid, 5. Jaw crusher, 6. Conveyor
belt, 7. Primarily crumbling ore bunker, 8. Star feeder, 9. Conveyor belt, 10. Conveyor belt, 11. Electromagnet for
separation of metal objects, 12. Vibrating sieve, 13. Circular crusher (secondary crushing), 14. Conveyer belt,
15. Vibrating sieve, 16. Circular crusher (tertiary crushing), 17. Conveyor belt, 18. Reversible conveyor,
100. Crumbling ore bunker

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of the technological process of grinding and classification


Legend: 100. Crumbling ore bunker, 101. Vibrating feeder, 102. Conveyor belt, 102-a. Automatic scale,
103. Conveyor belt, 104. Bead mill, 105. Spiral classifier, 106. Sludge pump, 107 Hydro-cyclone

302

Figure 3 Principal technological flotation scheme of "Kopaonik" - Leposavic


Legend: 108. Air-conditioning PbS, 109. Coarse flotation PbS, 110. Flotation control PbS, 111. Sludge pump,
112. Cleaner PbS, 113. Mud pump, 114. Mud pump, 115. Mud pump, 116. Thickener K/PbS, 117. Filter K/PbS, 118.
Sludge pump, 119. Air-conditioning ZnS, 120. Coarse flotation ZnS, 121. Control flotation of ZnS, 122. Sludge pump,
123. Cleaner ZnS, 124. Sludge pump 125. Thickener ZnS. 126. Filter ZnS, 127. Sludge pump, 128. Sludge pump

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
Bearing in mind all the mechanical physical - chemical and chemical processes that occur in the
processing process of ore leads to the conclusion that there are potential contamination of air, water and
land. The first possibility of environmental pollution comes from small particles of SO2, MS - ZnS, FeS2,
CuFeS2 which are generated during the grinding and transportation of ore, when small particles are
blown in the aeration environment which contaminates the soil, watercourses and air.
Another possiblity of pollution comes in the wet processing stage during flotation when reagents are used
(chemical substances), which are added in the flotation stage.
Harmful substances can enter in the living environment not only by technological process, but also with
negligent handling during transport, going to the warehouse and preparatory departments. Heavy metals
such as ZnS, PbS, FeS, CuFeS can also reach the living environment through waste water, as the deposit
of the landfill because it is known that the beneficial minerals cannot be accurately extracted from the ore.
Hazard substances which are being released with the process of ore processing depends in what quantity
they are present in the environment. Frankly speaking, they are harmful in any amount but it is believed
that the presence of any harmful substances above the MAC values significantly impact the environment,
and that they must be reduced at least in terms of MAC values. In order to know how much is the
presence of harmful substances into the environment must be carried out measurements that involve
sampling and processing.
In the framework of the ecology service mine of "Kopaonik" was made a program for measurement,
control and reporting.
1.
2.

Air pollution control in labour and urban environment,


Water pollution control.

Microclimate parameters are measured at the following measuring points: 1. The entrance to the flotation
circuit (at reception), 2. Platform with reagents 3. Platform of reversible belt, 4. Tertiary crusher. The
apparatus by means of which was conducted the sampling and measurement is as follows: 1. ASSMANN
ASPIRATION PSYCHROMETER (humidity), 2. wing anemometer (air flow velocity), 3. Dosimeter of
type VIB008 (noise-dose measurements vibration).
303

Air samples to determine the concentration of total dust concentrations of lead are taken at the following
measuring points: 1. Enter to flotation (at the reception), 2. Platform with reagents 3. Tertiary crusher. The
apparatus by means of which was conducted the sampling and measurement is as follows: high-flow STAPLEX
pump, a filter paper of Whatman GF/A, atomic absorber.

3. THE RESULTS OF DISCUSSION


The obtained measurement results of microclimate parameters of total dust concentration and the
concentration of lead in the air at the facility flotation, are given in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4.
3.1 Results of air pollution
1. Control of air pollution in the labour and urban environment is carried out twice per month,
2. Control of total sedimentary materials from atmospheric precipitation and sludges at three
measuring points every day and once in a month will be conducted chemical processing of
samples.
Table 1 Concentration of lead and dust in the air
No.

Data of sampling

Pb
(g/m3)

Place of sampling

Total dust
(mg/m3)

1.

23.04. 2012

Gateway

1.43

0.025

2.

23. 04. 2012

Platform with reagent

10.88

0.171

3.

23. 04. 2012

Tertiary crushing

498.69

21.77

150

10

MDK - JUS

The apparatus by means of which was sampling and measuremnt is as follows:

high-throughput pump STAPLEX


filter papar Watman GF-A
atomic absorber

With the chemical analysis of air samples in working environment was found that
concentration of lead in the air in the tertiary crushing plant in flotation
exceeded the limit values and mission by JUS (150 mg/m3). Also, it can be
seen that the concentration of lead in the air in the working environment is up to 100 meters from
pollutants (measuring point at the reception) is far below the limit values and mission both by JUS and
EU standards.
As in the concentration of lead and total dust concentration at the measuring point "Tertiary crusher" is
far above the MAC values for 11.77 (mg/m) exceed the limits. On the other measuring points total dust
concentration is in the MAC limits.
The sampling method:
1. Monitoring of air pollution is carried out using the high-throughput pump (STAPLES) and using
personal pump next to the pollutants in urban environment.
2. Control of overall sedimentary materials is conducted by the meter and the directed meter dust at
specific locations on a daily basis.
Directed meters of atmospheric deposits (from 21.03 2012 to 23.04 2012)

304

Table 2 Analysis of atmospheric sediment


Serial Designation
Number of sample
1.

Total solid
materials
(mg/m2/day)

Insoluble solid
materials
(mg/m2/day)

Soluble
solid materials
(mg/m2/day)

Ash
(mg/m2/day)

Flammable materials
(mg/m2/day)

274.01

208.03

65.98

183.38

24.65

184.57

137.89

46.68

89.35

48.53

212.94

172.82

40.12

117.39

55.43

4.

191.03

118.76

72.27

108.08

10.68

5.

312.06

252.12

59.94

205.05

47.07

122.61

79.83

42.78

49.49

30.34

138.30

93.63

44.67

65.38

39.52

8.

175.48

104.90

70.58

18.40

26.50

9.

182.65

100.23

82.42

65.33

34.90

191.79

95.11

96.68

54.29

40.80

256.99

198.98

58.01

174.30

24.68

115.82

58.64

57.28

34.42

24.12

2.

3.

6.

7.

10.
3

11.
12.

3.2. Results of water pollution


Ecological service of "Trepa" and "Kopaonik" Leposavi perform the control of wastewater and river Ibar as
a receiver as follows [7]:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Watercourse of Ibar river upstream from casting of wastewater 100 m.


Tvrdjanski stream before casting into the Ibar river.
The main collector of tailings.
Watercourse of Ibar river 200 m downstream from casting of wastewater.

In Table 3. are presented data of wastewater sampling.


Table 3 Quality control of wastewater
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Determination of
components

Data of sampling
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.
03.05.2012.

pH
Undissolved solids
Dissolved solids
Total solids
SO4
Pb
Zn
Cu
Fe
Ca
Mg
Cd

Units
mg/dm

Obtained
values

MAC
mg/dm3

7.06

6-9

36.54

80

179.00
215.54
70.25
11.22
0.76
<0.03
0.40
50.77
33.40
<0.03

1500
1580
200

1
0,01

mg/dm
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3
mg/dm3

In the wastewater is measured drastically increased presence of lead, while the rest of components are
within the limits of the MAC.
Table 4 presents the results of samples of the river Ibar for heavy metals before and after the dischare of
wastewater from the flotation in Leposavic [7].
305

Table 4 Tabulation results of sampled waters of the river Ibar for heavy metals before and after the
discharge of wastewater from the flotation in Leposavi.
No.

Sampling

Color

Fe
SO4
Zn
Cu
Cd
Ca
Pb
(mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)

Total solid
materials
(mg/l)

1.

Leposavic bridge access

7.21 Muddy

0.07

0.14

<0.03 <0.03 1.50

60.92 49.47

198.05

2.

Leposavic bridge exit

7.30 Muddy

0.07

0.14

<0.03 <0.03 1.33

53.23 57.78

268.78

3.

Tvrdjanski stream

7.30 Muddy

0.21

0.02

<0.03 <0.03 0.10

24.12 181.56

214.18

MDK - JUS

6-8.5 Transparent 0,10

0,01

200

1580

With the chemical analysis of wastewater in the northern part of Kosovo was found that the concentration
of the examined parameters are within the limits of maximum permissible concentration (except the
concentration of Pb, Fe).

4. CONCLUSION
After analyzing the parameters that are collected from measuring points in the flotation plant of the MIF
"Kopaonik" Leposavic, were obtained results of micro climate, both dust and lead concentration in the air
and the quality of wastewater. After analyzing the results, and tabular views for the specified parameters,
it can be concluded that the concentration of measuring parameters exceed the limit of allowed values of
the individual measuring points (tertiary crushing of ore). EU Directive 2002/44/EC, Official Gazette no.
54/92, 30/99 and 19/06, Regulation on limit values, methods of emission measuring, criteria for
establishment of measuring points and data records.
Based on these results may be indicated the flotation technology of the lead and zinc ore at a facility of the
MIF "Kopaonok" in Leposavic, as a signal that the work of the flotation plant to be complied with the
standards of the Republic of Serbia and the EU Directives regarding on labour and the living environment.
Acknowledgement
This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence on the environment:
impacts, adaptation and mitigation" (43007) and Optimization of the process of preparation of ore from OP Prole
in flotation mine Rudnik (TR 33045), financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia
within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research for the period 2011-2014.

REFERENCES
[1] Milentijevi, G.: Podzemne vode severnog dela Kosova i Metohije iskoriavanje i zatita.

Doktorska disertacija, Beograd: Rudarsko-geoloki fakultet, 2005.- pp 160


[2] Milentijevi, G., Nedeljkovi, B., Djoki, J.: Assessement of the mining practices effects on the water

quality in the Ibar river withen the Leposavi municipality, Journal of the Geographical Institute
Jovan Cviji SASA; No 1; (2010), pp. 31-46, ISSN: 1821-2808.
[3] Nedeljkovi i dr : Tehnogena leiota mineralnih sirovina severnog dela Kosova i Metohije-elaborat,
Kosovska Mitrovica, Fakultet tehnikih nauka, 2011.-pp 73
[4] EU Direktiva 2002/44/EC
[5] Sl. glasnik RS, br. 54/92, 30/99 i 19/06, Pravilnik o graninim vrednostima, metodama merenja
imisije, kriterijumima za uspostavljanje mernih mesta i evidenciji podataka
[6] Tehnika dokumentacija: Izvetaji o koncentraciji olova u vazduhu, koncentraciji praine u vazduhu,
merenju parametara mikroklime, Leposavi: Trepa-RIF Kopaonik, 2012.-pp.7
[7] Tehnika dokumentacija Leposavi: Trepa-RIF Kopaonik
306

5th International Symposium

MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


10 - 13. June 2015., Vrdnik, Serbia

ANALYSIS OF NOISE SOURCES IN POWER TRANSFORMERS AND


ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES
Snezana Aleksandrovic, Aleksandar Cvjetic
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: The increased environmental awareness, especially in developed countries, has brought about more focus
on the noise produced by power transformers and rotating electrical machines. To effectively apply safety measures
intended for protection against noise during exploitation, it is necessary to know the basic mechanism of its
occurrence and characteristics, such as the level of sound power and the frequency spectrum. This paper presents
the causes of its occurrence as well as the ways the noise produced by transformers and electrical machines is
transferred to their surroundings. It also considers methods and measures of its elimination, that is alleviation of the
operation noise effects, from the aspect of dealing with the source of the noise itself, and with the noise already
existing in the plant.
Key words: Power Transformer, Rotating Electrical Machine, Noise, Sound Level, Noise Reduction

1. INTRODUCTION
As a consequence of industrialization, besides making more profit, certain limitations have appeared,
ignoring which represents a direct health hazard for all employees. In this sense, pollution caused by
noise requires special attention, since it represents a rather dangerous side-effect to the development of
modern civilization.
Noise brings nervous system into the state of extreme agitation, which can cause certain somatic diseases.
We should not disregard the psychological consequences such as: diminished concentration, problems in
communication with other people and the subjective feeling of the affected person feeling badly. Whether
there are health conditions of subjective or objective nature, the diminished work capacity or even
acquired disability are sufficient reasons to treat noise as an alarming agent of environmental pollution.
The level of industrial nose is in constant rise and frequently surpasses the acceptable level. During their
operation, power transformers and rotating electrical machines produce noise which is transferred to the
surrounding area via the foundation, housing, elastic surfaces and cooling fluids. There is a constant effort at
improving transformer features, that is at decreasing their total operation loss and increasing energy efficiency.
For example, an amorphous metal transformers was designed which have about 50 % lower core losses than
corresponding conventional transformers, but such transformer has higher overall dimensions and higher noise
level [1]. Electrical machines of new generation are permitted to make as much noise as it is inevitable. The
safest method of protection against noise is its diminishing or elimination from the source, by applying suitable
design methods, choosing adequate material and components, and by using adequate maintenance and
assembling procedure. However, there a number of procedures and means the purpose of which is to repair the
machinery currently in use, in the sense of noise attenuation. But above all, it is necessary to identify the
source of the noise, the way it acts and is being transferred, in order to establish its activity and decrease it to
the level required by the existing regulations.
307

2. NOISE EFFECT AND PROPAGATION


The term noise refers to all kinds of undesired and disagreeable sounds or other disturbance. Noise is the
result of compressive oscillations of the elastic medium, generated by a vibrating surface, or turbulent
fluid flow. Such oscillations propagate in the form of longitudinal waves producing alternating
compressions and rarefactions in the elastic medium.
Noise (or sound) is characterized by the following values: sound pressure p (in Pa), sound intensity I (in
W/m2) and sound power P (in W). Since these quantities change over a wide range of values, the relative
unit is used, the decibel (dB), which is given in relation to the reference value.
Reference quantities characterizing the sound field are: the minimum audible acoustic pressure
p0 = 2105 Pa, the sound intensity reference level I0 = 1012 W/m2 and the lowest sound power level
P0 = 1012 W. Thus the relative sound levels can be determined as follows:
Lp 20 log( p p0 ) [dB],

sound pressure level

sound intensity level LI 10 log( I I 0 ) [dB], and

sound power level LW 10 log(P P0 ) [dB].

When analyzing the noise from electrical machines and devices, the parameters that are more significant
are: sound level, the amplitude spectrum, and its variation as a function of time. If the noise level is prone
to variations, which is a frequent case in praxis, the way to get round it is using the method of equivalent
level. The level in question is an imaginary constant level which has equally unfavourable effect on
humans as the variable noise levels in the same time frame
Due to the fact that a human has different reactions to sounds of the same level but different frequency,
different correction filters (A, B, C etc) were introduced during noise measurement. The characteristics of
these filters are such that they accentuate a specific frequency area, and in the segments above or below
this area, they bring certain weakening. Namely, filter A mildly accentuates the area between 1 and
5 kHz, but weakens other areas. This produces readings expressed as dB(A).
Low and high frequencies which are measured within the noise spectrum should be evaluated to a greater
extent than medium frequencies corresponding to the so-called "equal-loudness contours" (Figure 1). The
curve MAF in Fig. 1 represents the average threshold of hearing (minimum audible field), and the curve
ELC is an approximation of the curve of equal loudness within the frequency range up to 500 Hz [2].

Figure 1 Standardised equal loudness contours


Industrial noise is usually complex because it is combinations of sounds from many sources. Furthermore,
noise can propagate through air (air-borne noise), through solids (structure-borne noise), it can be
reflected from the floor, wall, ceiling and machinery surface, etc. Therefore it is important not just to
determine the noise quantification techniques, but to identify its sources as well.
308

3. TRANSFORMER AND ELECTRICAL MACHINES NOISE


The level of noise produced by transformers and electrical machines depends on the geometry of the
machine parts, magnetic and electrical loads, construction, ventilation and reservoir assemblies,
installation quality, etc. Depending on the causes, industrial noise can be: electromagnetic, aerodynamic
and mechanical.
Electromagnetic noise is caused by alternating forces that originate from electromagnetic field. There are
three types of electromagnetic forces: Maxwell radial reluctance forces (Maxwell stress tensor) acting on
the surfaces between two magnetic media with different magnetic properties (the machine stator teeth or
air gap regions and the joints of cores in transformers), Biot-Savarat forces acting on the conductor with
current in the magnetic field, and magnetostriction forces caused by the deformation of magnetic
materials under the effect of magnetic eld (such as transformer core materials) [3, 4].
Aerodynamic noise is caused by air turbulent flow due to the relative motion between a solid body and
the surrounding medium. It comes from the rotating parts of the machines (e.g., ends of the induction
machine rotor bars) or from the fans. This type of noise is dominantly produced in the electrical
machines, but its influence also can be important in the transformers with forced air cooling.
Mechanical noise is a solid vibrating noise, and it comprises bearing and brushes noise, as well as noise
due to mechanical defects, machine mounting and balancing. Noise produced by rotating machines,
which has mechanical nature, can often be successfully eliminated by permanent monitoring of the status
and regular maintenance based on the status.
3.1 Transformer noise
Operational transformer noise originates mostly from the core magnetostriction, i.e. from the expansion
and contraction of the core laminations due to the magnetic flux changing. This expansion and
contraction take place twice during a normal current cycle, and transformer magnetic noise is usually
double that of the power supply frequency (if a supply frequency is 50 Hz the fundamental noise
frequency will be 100 Hz). Reduction of magnetostriction can be carried out by tightening the magnetic
circuit and increasing the silicon content in the ferromagnetic laminations. By using transformers with
cold-rolled grain oriented (CRGO) steel core, magnetic noise reduction can be achieved. Moreover,
CRGO core transformers have lower core losses than their best conventional counterparts.
There is also transformer noise which increase as the load increases, due to the electromagnetic forces
which are proportional to the square of the load currents. These electromagnetic forces cause axial and
radial vibrations in transformer windings. Loading a transformer has little effect on the noise level, about
1 to 2 dB. Load noise can be reduced to a certain extent by using an appropriate laminated magnetic
shields construction. However, there is not sufficient experience as to which measures to take for
diminishing the noise produced by coil and that is he subject of many research projects.
Aerodynamic noise in the transformer is generated by the cooling fans and it can be neglected in large
power transformers, since cooling units contribute more to the total noise for transformers of smaller
ra