You are on page 1of 63


Submitted by
Ajinkya D. Jagtap

(MIS NO: 121595010)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of
Automotive Technology
Professor Aatmesh Jain



PUNE- 411005


YEAR 2015-2016


This is to certify that the report entitled EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON IC

ENGINE PERFORMANCE submitted by AJINKYA D. JAGTAP (MIS No. 121595010),
in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master of Technology
Automotive Technology of College of Engineering Pune, Pune, and ARAI Academy, ARAI,
Pune, is approved.
Place: Pune



HOD mechanical department,

Dy. Director & Head, ARAI Academy

COEP, Pune


Prof. Aatmesh Jain

Seminar guide

Internal Examiner

I feel great pleasure in submitting my seminar report on EFFECT OF VARIOUS
PARAMETERS ON IC ENGINE PERFORMANCE. I wish to express true sense of
gratitude towards my guide Prof. Aatmesh Jain for his constant encouragement and valuable
guidance and for providing all necessary facilities, which were indispensable in the
completion of this seminar. I would like to thank ARAI & COEP who extended their kind
support during the accomplishment of the seminar report. Finally, I express my sincere thanks
to all those who helped me directly and indirectly in many ways in completion of this seminar.

The invention of internal combustion engine had taken place more than century
ago. Since that time these engines have continued to develop as our knowledge of engine
process has increased. As nature of human has been continuous evaluation and the IC engine
is no exception for that. Todays engines have taken new dimensions towards all aspect to that
of conventional engines.
With a growing demand for transportation IC engines have gained lot of
importance in automobile industry. It is therefore necessary to produce efficient and
economical engines. While developing an IC engine it is required to take in consideration all
the parameters affecting the engines design and performance. There are enormous parameters
so it becomes difficult to account them while designing an engine. So it becomes necessary to
conduct tests on the engine and determine the measures to be taken to improve the engines
In this seminar review the effect of different parameters on performance of
IC engine. Engine performance can be measured in terms of Power output, various
efficiencies, emission etc. There are large number of parameters which affects the engine
performance. These parameters are basically of two types one is Design parameters and
second is operating parameters. As scope of this subject is very large we will restrict our
review to only some basic parameters such as speed, load, A/F ratio to name a few. Also we
will discuss some advanced technologies. IC engines are basically classified as Spark ignition
engines and Compression ignition engines. Some parameters are more significant for SI
engines while that may be insignificant for CI engine. We will first discuss what are the
parameters and their significance with respect to IC engine. After that we will focus on how to
measure them and analyse result obtained from them.

Table of Contents


Literature review.........................................................................................12

Stroke to Bore Ratio...................................................................................13

Compression Ratio.....................................................................................15

SI Engine Performance...............................................................................................16


CI Engine Performance...............................................................................................19

Valve Timing and Valve Overlap................................................................23


Effect of changes to Intake Valve Opening Timing....................................................23


Effect of changes to Intake Valve Closing Timing......................................................25


Effects of Changes to Exhaust Valve Opening Timing...............................................26


Effects of Changes to Exhaust Valve Closing Timing................................................28


Effect of Overlap angle (IVO EVC)........................................................................29

Air-Fuel Ratio.............................................................................................32

Ignition Timing...........................................................................................37

Load and Speed..........................................................................................42


Injection Timing and Injection Pressure.....................................................45




SI Engine Performance............................................................................................49


CI Engine Performance...........................................................................................50




Cetane Number...........................................................................................57


Future Scope...............................................................................................60





Figure 3.1 Effect of Stroke to Bore on IMEP............................................................................13
Figure 3.2 Effect of Stroke to Bore Ratio on IFSC...................................................................13
Figure 4.1 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Thermal Efficiency..........................................16
Figure 4.2 Effect of Variation of CR on IMEP and Thermal Efficiency...................................16
Figure 4.3 Effect of Variation of CR on IMEP and Thermal Efficiency...................................17
Figure 4.4 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Thermal Efficiency..........................................18
Figure 4.5 Effect of Variation of CR on Fuel Consumption......................................................18
Figure 4.6 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption.............................19
Figure 4.7 Effect of Variation of CR on NOx............................................................................19
Figure 4.8 Effect of Variation of CR on PM, CO, HC...............................................................20
Figure 5.1 Standard Valve Timing for SI and CI engine...........................................................22
Figure 5.2 Effect of IVO on Brake Power.................................................................................23

1 Introduction

The more and more severe regulations on exhaust emissions from vehicles and worldwide
demand for fuel consumption reduction leads to search of new ways towards achieving them.
There are several options available for improving the fuel economy and reduce emissions, we
will discuss them briefly. First, you can improve current technologies implemented to control
the economy and emissions from present IC engines. Second option is to use alternate fuels so
as to compensate the demand for conventional fuels. Third option is to implement concept of
electric or hybrid electric vehicle. As last two options are still in early phase of development;
although they are promising, they have to go far to compete with option one. First option is
traditionally used and evolved in many aspects. As it is being said that todays IC engines are
at the verge saturation towards further evolution, but it has been seen that there is still large
scope for development. Extensive research has been going on to understand the actual
working of all process and effect of various variables on performance of IC engine.
Optimizing major parameters have shown the improved performance. So, with the study of
effect of various parameters deeply lead us to promising results. Today technology is capable
of controlling most of engine variable but unless and until all variables studied thoroughly it
cant be reflected in performance of engine.
Major prime movers used in automobile are four stroke Spark ignition engines and
compression ignition engines. We restrict our review toward SI and CI engines only. There are
large number of parameters that affects the performance of IC engine. As all parameters are
contributing towards varied performance all are very important. To keep the scope of the
review feasibly brief, we will discuss only the relatively important parameters that influence
most. The parameters that can be controlled effectively can be said to be important.
Performance of IC can be evaluated based on Power output, Fuel consumption and Emission
can be evaluated in terms of part per million or g/kWhr. Power Output represented by Brake
Power (BP), Indicated Power (IP), Torque, Indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), Brake
mean effective pressure (BMEP); all parameters signifies power but with different relation.
Fuel consumption can be represented by Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), Indicated
Specific fuel consumption (ISFC). Emission can be represented as Brake specific CO (bsCO),
Brake specific HC (bsHC), Brake specific NO (bsNO). All above Performance parameters are
affected by engine variables. Some engine variables are common for both SI and CI engines

such as Speed, Load, Compression ratio etc. Some Engine variables are different for SI and CI
engine as per their different working principle. Spark timing is important parameter for SI
engine and its CI engine counterpart is fuel injection timing.
Engine variables can be separately discussed for SI and CI engine. Each variable is
explored with its significance. Its effect on above discussed performance parameter explained
with the graphical representation and reason for that is highlighted.

2 Literature review
Extensive research is being done towards optimum engine variables to improve performance
of Internal Combustion Engine. There is plenty of literature available on this topic. Prof. J. B.
Heywood (MIT, USA) is notable person in field of engine performance. Internal Combustion
Engine Fundamentals by J. B. Heywood is one of best book to get fundamental of IC engines.
Prof. Heywood (MIT) went with thorough explanation of performance characteristics and
effect of engine variables with in depth analysis. We can categorize literature review in two
parts as SI engine and CI engine. Diesel engine reviewed mostly with its injection parameters.
Ayala, Gerty and JB Heywood (SAE 2006-01-0229) highlighted effect of Air-Fuel
ratio, Compression ratio and load on SI engine efficiency. They came with experimental
investigation of 5 liter naturally aspirated SI engine. In this paper effect spark timing and A/F
ratio and CR on NIMEP and Net Indicated efficiency is discussed.
Suwanchotchoung and Williamson (SAE 2003-32-0023) highlighted effect of
Equivalence ratio (relative fuel air ratio) on Brake power, bsfc and bsCO, HC, NO emissions
on 2 liter SI engine with manifold injection.
Shehata and Abdel Razek (Engineering Research Journal 120, (December 2008)
discussed variation of BP, BSFC, Efficiency with varied engine speed, load and EGR rate.
Aina T., Folayan C. O. and Pam G. Y. (Advances in Applied Science Research, 2012, 3
(4):1915-1922) evaluated influence of compression ratio on the BP, bsfc, Brake thermal
efficiency of a spark ignition engine.
Hountalas, Kouremenos, Schwarz and Mavropoulos (SAE 2003-01-0340) detailed
fuel injection timing effect on NOx, Soot, bsfc, Heat release rate (HER) with varied injection
pressure upto 1683 bar and different load conditions.
F. Mallamo, M. Badami and F. Millo (SAE 2005-01-0379) evaluated effect of variation
of compression ratio (CR) and Injection pressure on emission of CRDI engine. They also
came with NOx-PM trade-off with optimum injection timing and injection pressure with given
Kermani, Garsi, Ruhland and Kaudewitz (2013-24-0065) came with three different
engine with varying Stroke/Bore ratio and all parameters remained same. They compared

these engines for IMEP, ISFC. Agarwal and Srivastava (Fuel 2013-science-direct) represented
Effect of fuel injection timing and pressure on BSFC, Efficiency, bsCO, bsNOx and PM.

3 Stroke to Bore Ratio

While there are many factors that contribute to an engines efficiency, the primary factor that
needs to be considered is the engine geometry itself. Not only does the overall size of the
engine matter, but the aspect ratio of the engine cylinders defined by the stroke-to-bore ratio
also matters. Simple geometric relationships show that an engine cylinder with longer stroketo-bore ratio will have a smaller surface area exposed to the combustion chamber gasses
compared to a cylinder with shorter stroke-to-bore ratio. The smaller area leads directly to
reduced in-cylinder heat transfer, increased energy transfer to the crankshaft and, therefore,
higher efficiency. Engine friction is affected by the stroke-to-bore ratio because of two
competing effects: crankshaft bearing friction and power-cylinder friction. As the stroke-tobore ratio decreases, the bearing friction increases because the larger piston area transfers
larger forces to the crankshaft bearings. However, the corresponding shorter stroke results in
decreased power-cylinder friction originating at the ring/cylinder interface.
Therefore, it is vital that the efforts intended to optimize these parameters achieve the
best engine performance. The stroke/bore (S/B) ratio is one of the most important geometric
parameters for modern spark-ignition (SI) engines because it determines the overall
dimensions of the engine for a given displacement. However, there are only a few studies
performed to investigate S/B ratio effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions for
two- and four-stroke engines. Usually, in these studies, the S/B ratio changes between 0.7 and
1.4 as in modern engines and single-spark-ignition (SSI) engines having centrally located plug
were commonly used. In general, a longer stroke leads to higher thermal efficiency through
faster burning (reduction in combustion duration) and lowering the overall chamber heat loss.
It also increases the maximum operating speed, maximum power, indicated mean effective
pressure (imep), and also blow-by of the engine. In addition, the larger bore will provide more
room for poppet valves in four-stroke engines. Hence, increasing the number of valves per
cylinder for a given cylinder bore improves engine breathing. On the other hand, the variation
of the S/B ratio has impacts on exhaust emissions. The CO and HC emissions increase with a
decreasing S/B ratio, while NO emissions tended to decrease because of increasing crevice
volume and decreasing temperature.
The limiting factor in this relationship is the inertial forces origination from the piston
motion. To achieve high power density, the engine must operate at a high engine speed (up to
18,000 rpm for the Formula 1 engine), which leads to high inertial forces that must be limited
by using a small stroke-to-bore ratio. For applications that demand high efficiency, a long

stroke-to-bore ratio is necessary and, again because of the inertial forces of the piston, requires
a slower engine speed and lower power density. For the marine application that has a 2.5 m
stroke, the engine speed is limited to 102 rpm.

S/B 1.3
S/B 1.0
S/B 0.7

Figure 3.1 Effect of Stroke to Bore on IMEP

Effect of Bore to Stroke ratio on IMEP is represented by Figure 3.1. As Engine speed
increases the trend of IMEP is same for all S/B ratio but there is variation in slope of curve. It
can be seen that for same engine speed and large S/B ratio IMEP is on higher side, this is due
to reduction in heat loss from combustion chamber. At large B/S ratio (high speed engines) as
speed increases the decrease in IMEP is small because of a shorter stroke decreases engine
heat loss and friction, most noticeably at higher engine speed.

S/B 0.7
S/B 1.0
S/B 1.3

Figure 3.2 Effect of Stroke to Bore Ratio on IFSC

Effect of Bore to Stroke ratio on IFSC is represented by Figure 3.2. As Engine speed
increases the trend of IMEP is same for all S/B ratio but there is variation in slope of curve. It
can be seen that for same engine speed and large S/B ratio IFSC is on lower side, this is due to
reduction in heat loss from combustion chamber and less fuel burned for same power output.
On the other hand, the variation of the S/B ratio has impacts on exhaust emissions. The CO
and HC emissions increase with a decreasing S/B ratio, while NO emissions tended to
decrease because of increasing crevice volume and decreasing temperature.
The trend is more or less same for both SI and CI engine with small difference.

4 Compression Ratio
The compression ratio is the ratio of the volume of the cylinder and the combustion
chamber when the piston is at the bottom, and the volume of the combustion chamber when
the piston is at the top. The compression ratio in a gasoline or petrol-powered engine will
usually not be much higher than 10:1 due to potential engine knocking (detonation) and not
lower than 6:1. Though there is limitation on highest CR, todays technology pushed this limit
further for gasoline engine. Mazda released new petrol engines under the brand name
SkyActiv with a 14:1 compression ratio to be used in all Mazda vehicles by 2015. In a
turbocharged or supercharged gasoline engine, the CR is customarily built at 10.5:1 or lower.
This is due to the turbocharger/supercharger already having compressed the air considerably
before it enters the cylinders. Port fuel injected engines typically run lower boost than direct
fuel injected engines because port fuel injection allows the air/fuel mixture to be heated
together which leads to detonation. Conversely, directly injected engines can run higher boost
because heated air will not detonate without a fuel being present.
In CI engines the heat of compression raises the temperature of the mixture to its autoignition point. The CR will customarily exceed 14:1 and ratios over 22:1 are common.
Different methods to obtain different compression ratios are changing the cylinder head cavity
volume, variation of combustion chamber height and variation of piston height.
1. Cylinder head cavity volume: The cylinder head cavity volume is plays major role in
variation of compression ratio. This cylinder head cavity volume is measured separately for
calculating the clearance volume. If cylinder head cavity volume is at higher side then
compression ratio is at lower side and when cylinder head cavity volume is at lower side then
compression ratio is at higher side. So every researcher aims to that keep compression ratio at
higher side for better engine performance by using lower cavity volume cylinder head.


Top dead center volume the top dead center volume is also important parameter which
affecting on variation of compression ratio. This volume is measured when piston is rest at top
dead center and this volume measured for calculating the clearance volume with the addition
of cylinder head cavity volume. If TDC volume is at higher side then compression ratio is at
lower side and when TDC volume is at lower side then compression ratio is at higher side.
This top dead center volume always keeps at lower side for better engine performance.

3. Head gasket thickness: Head gasket thickness is little affecting on the variation in
compression ratio. This gasket thickness measured for the calculating the clearance volume
with the addition of cylinder head cavity volume and top dead center volume. For better
engine performance the gasket thickness keep at lower side.
4. Piston Height from piston pin to crown: The piston height is little affecting on the variation
in compression ratio. This piston height from piston pin to piston crown is helpful for the
lowering clearance volume. If piston height is at higher side the TDC volume is at lower side
and when piston height is lower side the TDC volume is higher side. For better engine
performance keep piston height at higher side.
The process of compressing a constant mass of gas into a much smaller space enables
many more molecules to impinge per unit area on to the piston. When burning of the gas
occurs, the chemical energy of combustion is rapidly transformed into heat energy which
considerably increases the kinetic energy of the closely packed gas molecules. Therefore the
extremely large number of molecules squeezed together will thus bombard the piston crown at
much higher speeds. This then means that a very large number of repeated blows of
considerable magnitude will strike the piston.

4.1 SI Engine Performance

Theoretically, increasing the compression ratio of an engine can improve the thermal
efficiency of the engine by producing more power output. The ideal theoretical cycle, the Otto
cycle, upon which spark ignition (SI) engines are based, has a thermal efficiency, , which
increases with compression ratio, and is given by


Where, is ratio of specific heats (for air = 1.4)

The ideal cycle analysis shows that indicated fuel conversion efficiency increases
continuously with compression ratio. However, in an actual engine other processes which
influence engine performance and efficiency vary with changes in compression ratio: namely,
combustion rate and stability, heat transfer, and friction. Over the load and speed range, the
relative impact that these processes have on power and efficiency varies also. Of course ability
to increase the compression ratio is limited by the octane quality of available fuels and knock.
Only a few studies have examined the effect of compression ratio on spark ignition engine
performance and efficiency over a wide range of compression ratios.

Figure 4.3 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Thermal Efficiency

Figure 4.1 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Thermal Efficiency

Figure 4.4 Effect of Variation of CR on IMEP and Thermal Efficiency

Brake Mean effective pressures are shown for higher compression ratios efficiency and
mep decrease slightly. This trend can be explained as being due to increasing surface/volume
ratio and slower combustion, and is also due to the increasing importance of crevice volumes:
at the higher compression ratios studied the combustion chamber height became very small. it
is seen that the engine brake power increases as the compression ratio increases. This is due to
the increase in brake torque at high compression ratios. Increase in compression ratio induces
greater turning effect on the cylinder crank. That means that the engine is giving more push on
the piston, and more torque is generated.

Figure 4.5 Effect of Variation of CR on IMEP and Thermal Efficiency

IMEP was achieved at higher compression ratios. As we increase the compression ratio
more negative compression work must be done, but the IMEP still tends to increase. The
increase in work-out at higher compression ratios overrides the additional required
compression work. This is a result of the properties of the fluid and is best seen in examining
thermal efficiency and the ideal Otto cycle. Thermal efficiency is work out divided by energyin. The energy-in (the product of mass of fuel and lower heating value) was held constant, and
thus increasing thermal efficiency means the net work out must have increase as is seen by an
increasing IMEP. It is expected that IMEP would tend to decrease after reaching a maximum
due to increasing heat losses through the cylinder walls. As the surface area-to-volume ratio
increases, greater amount of heat are conducted out of the cylinder. The loss of this thermal
energy decreases the amount of work that can be extracted from the system.

There is no significant effect of increase in compression ratio on emission

characteristic of SI engine. Compression ratio variation affects NOx emission little bit. The
exhaust temperature decreases as compression ratio and efficiency increase until the
compression ratio corresponding to maximum efficiency is reached. It has also been shown
that heat losses to the combustion chamber walls, as a fraction of the fuel's chemical energy,
also decrease as the compression ratio and efficiency both increase. The effect of compression
ratio changes on NO emissions is small. Some studies show a modest increase in specific NO
emissions as the compression ratio increases at constant load and speed; other studies show a
slight decrease. Increasing the compression ratio increases exhaust hydrocarbon emissions.
Several trends could contribute: increased importance of crevice volumes at high CR and
lower gas temperatures during the latter part of the expansion stroke, thus producing less HC
oxidation in the cylinder; decreasing residual gas fraction, thus increasing the fraction of in-

cylinder HC exhausted; lower exhaust temperatures, hence less oxidation in the exhaust

4.2 CI Engine Performance

Figure 4.6 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Thermal Efficiency

The maximum brake thermal efficiency is obtained at a compression ratio of 14.8. The
least brake thermal efficiency is obtained at a compression ratio 20.2. Hence with respect to
brake thermal efficiency, 14.8 can be treated as optimum. This can be attributed to the better
combustion and better intermixing of the fuel and air at this compression ratio.

Figure 4.7 Effect of Variation of CR on Fuel Consumption

The better fuel consumption was obtained at a compression ratio of 14.8. The high and
low compression ratios than 14.8 result in high fuel consumptions. The fuel consumption at a
compression ratio of 18.1 and 20.2 was almost the same. The high fuel consumption at higher
compression ratios can be attributed to the effect of charge dilution. At the lower sides of the
compression ratios, the fuel consumption is high due to incomplete combustion of the fuel.

The brake thermal efficiency of the engine working cycle is improved when CR rises, and
firmly depends on the mechanical efficiency, which de creases when CR rises. However, in
view of that fact, it is clear that the brake the mal efficiency depends on both the rate of i
crease of indicated thermal efficiency and the rate of the de crease of mechanical efficiency. It
is verified from the above that the brake the mal efficiency first rises at the beginning, then
reaches the max i mal value for optimal CR value and then sub sequent declines. The CR
value when the brake thermal efficiency reaches the max i mal value is the optimal value of
CR for this load regime in engine operation.

BSFC (g/kWh)
CR 17.5
CR 19

Figure 4.8 Effect of Variation of CR on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

Figure 4.6 shows that the variation of BSFC with injection timing for two different
CRs. For given CR, BSFC reduces as injection timing is advanced before TDC. This is due to
increase in heat release rate at TDC which generate maximum power without substantial
pressure loss. For given injection timing, higher CR gives even more reduced BSFC than for
lower CR. This is due to reason explained before.

Figure 4.9 Effect of Variation of CR on NOx

In the case of the largest value of the CR (17.5) under all loads, largest temperature occurs
inside the engine cylinder. Large amount of free oxygen under low-loads in spite of relatively
low maximal temperature with respect to full load, leads to formation of the largest amount of
NOx. Amount of NOx for that CR de creases with load increase. In the case of the lowest
value of the CR (12.1) under low-loads, we have the lowest maximal temperature within the
working cycle. This leads to formation of the lowest amount of NOx. With an increase in load,
temperature increases as well and the amount of free oxygen decreases. Thus, at the beginning
of the process, the amount of produced NOx increases, but, when the amount of free oxygen
decreases, a decrease in the amount of produced NOx would occur with load increase.

Figure 4.10 Effect of Variation of CR on PM, CO, HC

With the increase of CR and engine load, under the same injection timing (18.5 CAD
BTDC), maximal cylinder pressure is increasing. This undesirable increase in maximal
pressure is followed by a relatively improved atomizing of larger amount of fuel in cylinder
under higher pressure and engine temperature. Because of improved conditions for

combustion process, the en tire working process is improved. Moreover, when the CR is
increased, the temperature of exhaust gas is decreased. Leaner air-fuel mixture is used in
engine operation under low-loads. Therefore, the amount of heat released during the
combustion process is decreased. A consequence of this is certain decrease in temperature of
the engine parts and decrease in cylinder temperature in the first phase of fuel injection.
Under very low-loads, the degree of emission of PM is somewhat larger. The major
reason for this is a relatively low injection pressure of the small amount of fuel that does not
atomize so well. As the amount of fuel increases with a load increase, this effect is attenuated
and a certain decrease in PM emission occurs, so that, under large loads, it would begin to
increase again. Emission of PM increases under all loads with increase in the CR. The
combustion chamber volume increases if the CR decreases. Thus, the amount of air in the
cylinder increases, and it is the cause of decreasing of PM emission when the CR decreases.
Poor fuel atomizing under low-loads leads to increase in the emission of CO, which is
significantly decreased under the increased CR. On the other hand, the emission of CO is
reduced under the improved quality of fuel atomizing, which improves with the increase in the
amount of injected fuel. A similar case is with a change of the amount of HC.

5 Valve Timing and Valve Overlap

Figure 5.11 Standard Valve Timing for SI and CI engine

5.1 Effect of changes to Intake Valve Opening Timing

IVO The opening of the intake valve allows air/fuel mixture to enter the cylinder from
the intake manifold. (In the case of direct injection engines, only air enters the cylinder
through the intake valve). The timing of IVO is the second parameter that defines the valve
overlap and this is normally the dominant factor when considering which timing is appropriate
for a given engine. Overlap will be discussed in more detail later in this paper. Opening the
intake valve before TDC can result in exhaust gasses flowing into the intake manifold instead
of leaving the cylinder through the exhaust valve. The resulting EGR will be detrimental to
full load performance as it takes up space that could otherwise be taken by fresh charge. EGR
may be beneficial at part load conditions in terms of efficiency and emissions as discussed
above. Later intake valve opening can restrict the entry of air/fuel from the manifold and cause
in-cylinder pressure to drop as the piston starts to descend after TDC. This can result in EGR
if the exhaust valve is still open as gasses may be drawn back into the cylinder with the same
implications discussed above. If the exhaust valve is closed, the delay of IVO tends not to be
particularly significant, as it does not directly influence the amount of fresh charge trapped in
the cylinder. Typical IVO timing is around 0-10 before TDC which results in the valve
overlap being fairly symmetrical around TDC. This timing is generally set by full load
optimization and, as such, is intended to avoid internal EGR.

Figure 5.12 Effect of IVO on Brake Power

For the engine geometry and running conditions shown above, all parameters were
kept constant except the IVO angle and the valve lift value. The IVO was varied from the
original value 54o IVO angle BTDC opening down to 0o at TDC in steps for three valve lift
values. As shown in Figure (1) the brake power is drawn versus the IVO angle opening BTDC
for different valve lifts from (8.5,9 ,9.5,10 and 10.5 mm) at the engine design speed ( N =
2500 rpm). It showed an increase in power with the IVO angle reduction but this increase in
power was small for values of IVO angle BTDC less than 25 o for all engine running speeds
considered. The increase in power may be due to the reduction of residual gases and backflow
of exhaust into the inlet manifold. The reduction of valve lift show a considerable reduction in
power may be due to the restriction on charge gas inflow to the cylinder, may be due to the
viscous effect of the attached jet formed by the low lift valve which is Reynolds number
dependent, while the increase of valve lift shows an increase in power over the original 9.5
mm lift as they produce a larger effective area.

Figure 5.3 Effect of IVO on BSFC

The variation of BSFC versus IVO angle BTDC; this showed that BSFC is hardly
affected by IVO angle BTDC higher than 20 o for different valve lifts. But it shows an increase
in BSFC for all valve lifts at IVO angles less than 20o.

5.2 Effect of changes to Intake Valve Closing Timing

IVC The volumetric efficiency of any engine is heavily dependent on the timing of
IVC at any given speed. The amount of fresh charge trapped in the cylinder is largely dictated
by IVC and this will significantly affect engine performance and economy. For maximum
torque, the intake valve should close at the point where the greatest mass of fresh air/fuel
mixture can be trapped in the cylinder. Pressure waves in the intake system normally result in
airflow into the cylinder after BDC and consequently, the optimum IVC timing changes
considerably with engine speed. As engine speed increases, the optimum IVC timing moves
further after BDC to gain maximum benefit from the intake pressure waves. Closing the intake
valve either before or after the optimum timing for maximum torque results in a lower mass of
air being trapped in the cylinder. Early intake closing reduces the mass of air able to flow into
the cylinder whereas late intake closing allows air inside the cylinder to flow back into the
intake manifold. In both cases, the part load efficiency can be improved due to a reduction in
intake pumping losses. A typical timing for IVC is in the range of 50 0-60 after BDC and
results from a compromise between high and low speed requirements. At low engine speeds,
there will tend to be some flow back into the intake manifold just prior to IVC whereas at
higher speeds, there may still be a positive airflow into the cylinder as the intake valve closes.

Figure 5.4 Effect of IVC on Brake Power

Figure show the brake power drawn versus the IVC angle closing ABDC for valve lifts
(8.5 ,9,9.5,10 and 10.5 mm) at the engine design speed ( N = 2500 rpm). It showed a decrease
in power with the IVC angle reduction for all valve lifts considered. But it is less sever at
higher valve lift. Late IVC reduce the volumetric efficiency. In contrast early IVC leads to
greater reduction in volumetric efficiency, and this limits the output power. Late closing of the
intake valve, long after the BDC, leads to a higher cylinder charge.

Figure 5.5 Effect of IVC on BSFC

Figure shows the variation of BSFC versus IVC angle ABDC; this showed that BSFC
is slightly affected by IVC angle ABDC, as it is increased slightly by reducing IVC angle

5.3 Effects of Changes to Exhaust Valve Opening Timing

EVO As the exhaust valve opens the pressure inside the cylinder resulting from
combustion is allowed to escape into the exhaust system. In order to extract the maximum
amount of work (hence efficiency) from the expansion of the gas in the cylinder, it would be
desirable not to open the exhaust valve before the piston reaches Bottom Dead Centre (BDC).
Unfortunately, it is also desirable for the pressure in the cylinder to drop to the lowest possible
value, i.e. exhaust back pressure, before the piston starts to rise. This minimizes the work done
by the piston in expelling the products of combustion (often referred to as blow down
pumping work) prior to the intake of a fresh charge. These are two conflicting requirements,
the first requiring EVO to be after BDC, the second requiring EVO to be before BDC. The
choice of EVO timing is therefore a trade-off between the work lost by allowing the
combusted gas to escape before it is fully expanded, and the work required raising the piston
whilst the cylinder pressure is still above the exhaust back-pressure. With a conventional valve
train, the valve lifts from its seat relatively slowly and provides a significant flow restriction
for some time after it begins to lift and so valve lift tends to start some time before BDC. A
typical EVO timing is in the region of 50 0-60 before BDC for a production engine. The ideal
timing of EVO to optimize these effects changes with engine speed and load as does the
pressure of the gasses inside the cylinder. At part load conditions, it is generally beneficial if
EVO moves closer to BDC as the cylinder pressure is much closer to the exhaust back
pressure and takes less time to escape through the valve. Conversely, full load operation tends
to result in an earlier EVO requirement because of the time taken for the cylinder pressure to
drop to the exhaust back-pressure.

Figure 5.6 Effect of EVO on Brake Power

Figure shows the brake power versus the (EVO) angle opening BBDC for different
engine speeds between (1000 - 5000 rpm). It shows a decrease in power with the (EVO) angle
reduction for all engine running speeds. But it is less sever at lower engine speed (less than
1500 rpm), at low speeds, a late (EVO) reduce the volumetric efficiency vol. In contrast at
high engine speeds early (EVO) leads to greater reduction in volumetric efficiency, and this
limits the output power.

Figure 3.7 Effect of EVO on BSFC

The effect on BSFC is the opposite as shown in Figure. It shows the variation of BSFC
versus (EVO) angle that BSFC is highly affected by (EVO) angle at high engine speeds, while
it is increased slightly by reducing (EVO) angle at low engine speeds emissions.

5.4 Effects of Changes to Exhaust Valve Closing Timing

EVC The timing of EVC has a very significant affect on how much of the Exhaust gas
is left in the cylinder at the start of the engines intake stroke. EVC is also one of the
parameters defining the valve overlap, which can also have a considerable affect on the
contents of the cylinder at the start of the intake stroke. For full load operation, it is desirable
for the minimum possible quantity of exhaust gas to be retained in the cylinder as this allows
the maximum volume of fresh air & fuel to enter during the Intake stroke. This requires EVC
to be at, or shortly after TDC. In engines where the exhaust system is fairly active (i.e.
Pressure waves are generated by exhaust gas flow from the different cylinders), the timing of
EVC influences whether pressure waves in the exhaust are acting to draw gas out of the
cylinder or push gas back into the cylinder. The timing of any pressure waves changes with
engine speed and so a fixed EVC timing tends to be optimized for one speed and can be a
liability at others. For part load operation, it may be beneficial to retain some of the exhaust
gasses, as this will tend to reduce the ability for the cylinder to intake fresh air & fuel.
Retained exhaust gas thus reduces the need for the throttle plate to restrict the intake and
results in lower pumping losses (see Appendix A) in the intake stroke. Moving EVC Timing
further after TDC increases the level of internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) with a
corresponding reduction in exhaust emissions. There is a limit to how much EGR the cylinder
can tolerate before combustion becomes unstable and this limit tends to become lower as
engine load and hence charge density reduces. The rate of combustion becomes increasingly
slow as the EGR level increases, up to the point where the process is no longer stable. Whilst
the ratio of fuel to oxygen may remain constant, EGR reduces the proportion of the cylinder
contents as a whole that is made up of these two constituents. It is this reduction in the ratio of
combustible to inert cylinder contents which causes combustion instability.

Figure 5.8 Effect of EVC on Brake Power

As shown in Figure 5.8 the brake power is drawn versus the EVC angle for different
engine speeds between (1000 - 5000 rpm). It shows an increase in power with the (EVC) angle

reduction but this increase in power was small for values of (EVC) less than 25 for all engine
running speeds considered. This effect is more recognized at higher engine speeds (2500
-5000 rpm). The increase in power may be due to the reduction of residual gases and backflow
of exhaust into the inlet manifold, but a late (EVC) closing causes the high pressure exhaust
gas reducing the amount of inlet mixture incoming through the inlet manifold. Retarded valve
close angles induce a considerable reverse flow and results in the reduction of vol and internal
exhaust gas recirculation.

Figure 5.9 Effect of EVC on BSFC

The BSFC is hardly affected by EVC angle higher than 25 for low engine speeds (less
than 1500 rpm). But it was sensitive to (EVC) angle ATDC variation for higher engine speeds.

5.5 Effect of Overlap angle (IVO EVC)

Valve overlap is the time when both intake and exhaust valves are open. In simple
terms, this provides an opportunity for the exhaust gas flow and intake flow to influence each
other. Overlap can only be meaningfully assessed in conjunction with the pressure waves
present in the intake and exhaust systems at any particular engine speed and load. In an ideal
situation, the valve overlap should allow the departing exhaust gas to draw the fresh intake
charge into the cylinder without any of the intake gas passing straight into the exhaust system.
This allows the exhaust gas in the combustion chamber at TDC to be replaced and therefore
the amount of intake charge to exceed that which could be drawn into the cylinder by the
swept volume of the piston alone. A given amount of overlap unfortunately tends to be ideal
for only a portion of engine speed and load conditions. Generally, the torque at higher engine
speeds and loads can benefit from increased overlap due to pressure waves in the exhaust
manifold aiding the intake of fresh charge. Large amounts of overlap tend to result in poor
emissions at lower speeds as fuel from the intake charge can flow directly into the exhaust.
High overlap can also result in EGR which, although beneficial to part load economy, reduces
full load torque and can cause poor combustion stability especially under low load conditions
such as idle. Poor idle quality can therefore result from too much overlap.

The valve overlap tends to be fairly symmetrical about TDC on most engines. The
further away from TDC that valve overlap is present, the more effect the piston motion will
have on the airflow. Early overlap may result in exhaust gasses being expelled into the intake
manifold and late overlap may result in exhaust gasses being drawn back into the cylinder.
Both of these situations result in internal EGR that can be beneficial to part load emissions and
efficiency. As discussed earlier, internal EGR tends to be avoided due to the detrimental effect
it has on full load torque

Figure 5.10 Effect of Valve Overlap on Brake Power

For the engine geometry and running conditions shown above, all parameters were
kept constant except the overlap angle between IVO and EVC at TDC and valve lifts. The
former was varied from the original value 108o overlap angle at TDC down to 0o at TDC in
steps while for the later three values were considered (8.5, 9,9.5,10 and 10.5 mm) . For the
brake power drawn versus the overlap angle at TDC, for all valve lifts the power showed an
increase with reducing overlap angle till about 60o angle then it starts a considerable decrease
to lower values at 0o overlap. It has a larger reduction for less valve lifts.

Figure 5.11 Effect of EVO on Brake Power

The variation of BSFC versus overlap angle at TDC, this showed that BSFC decreases
to a minimum at lower overlap angles at TDC then an increase toward the 0 o overlap angle.
This is quite noticeable at low valve lifts while it approaches a minimum at around overlap
angle around 60o.

6 Air-Fuel Ratio
In spark ignition engine air and fuel is mixed before induction in cylinder. Mixing is
done with the help of either carburetor or fuel injector. For complete combustion the amount
of air required and corresponding Air- Fuel ratio is denoted by Stoichiometric A/F ratio. Often
the A/F ratio is represented relative to stoichiometric A/F or in terms of Fuel-Air ratio
represented by Equivalence ratio (). A/F ratio determines whether mixture is fuel rich or lean
according to which performance of engine varies.

Figure 6.1 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on IMEP

Power (kW)

Figure 6.2 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on Power output

Equivalence ratio (relative F/A ratio) affects IMEP and as represented by above fig.
General trend shows that indicated fuel conversion efficiency and mean effective pressure are

function of equivalence ratio. The IMEP peaks slightly rich of stoichiometric, about = 1.1.
Due to dissociation at the high temperature following combustion, molecular oxygen is
present in the burned gases under stoichiometric condition, so some additional fuel can be
added and partially burned. This increases the temperature and the number of moles of burned
gases in cylinder. These effects increase the pressure to give increased power and IMEP. Fuel
conversion efficiency decreases with increase in equivalence ratio, as the mixture is richened
above stoichiometric due to the decreasing combustion efficiency associated with the
richening mixture. For mixtures lean of stoichiometric, the theoretical fuel conversion
efficiency increases linearly as equivalence ratio decreases below 1.0. Combustion of mixtures
leaner than stoichiometric produces products at lower temperature, and with less dissociation
of the tri-atomic molecules CO2 and H2O. Thus the fraction of the chemical energy of the fuel
which is released as sensible energy near TC is greater; hence a greater fraction of the fuel's
energy is transferred as work to the piston during expansion, and the fraction of the fuel's
available energy rejected to the exhaust system decreases.

Figure 6.3 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on Thermal Efficiency and ISFC

BSFC (g/kWh)

Figure 6.4 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on BSFC

Figure 6.4 illustrates the Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) for this engine. The
bsfc decreases as the mixture becomes leaner until the low supply of fuel energy creates poor
combustion and misfire which Causes the bsfc to Increase. Interestingly, the bsfc reaches a
minimum at 331g/kWh at =0.93 and then rapidly increases as is further decreased. This
particular point is of interest when the emissions results are considered. On the other hand,
since the efficiency is inversely proportional to the bsfc, brake thermal efficiency initially
increases as the mixture becomes leaner.
The fuel/air equivalence ratio is an important parameter controlling spark-ignition
engine emissions. The critical factors affecting emissions that are governed by the equivalence
ratio are the oxygen concentration and the temperature of the burned gases. Excess oxygen is
available in the burned gases lean of stoichiometric. The maximum burned gas temperatures
occur slightly rich of stoichiometric at the start of the expansion stroke, and at the
stoichiometric composition at the end of expansion and during the exhaust process.

HC (ppm)

Figure 6.5 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on HC emission

HC Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines Unburned hydrocarbon levels in the

exhaust of a spark-ignition engine under normal operating conditions are typically in the range
1000 to 3000 ppm. When combustion quality deteriorates, e.g. with very lean mixtures, HC
emissions can rise rapidly due to incomplete combustion or misfire in a fraction of the engine's
operating cycles. There are several mechanisms that contribute to total HC emissions. Also,
any HC escaping the primary combustion process may oxidize in the expansion and exhaust
processes. Four possible HC emissions formation mechanisms for spark-ignition engines
(where the fuel-air mixture is essentially premixed) have been proposed: (1) flame quenching

at the combustion chamber walls, leaving a layer of unburned fuel-air mixture adjacent to the
wall; (2) the filling of crevice volumes with unburned mixture which, since the flame
quenches at the crevice entrance, escapes the primary combustion process; (3) absorption of
fuel vapor into oil layers on the cylinder wall during intake and compression, followed by
desorption of fuel vapor into the cylinder during expansion and exhaust; (4) incomplete
combustion in a fraction of the engine's operating cycles (either partial burning or complete
Figure 6.5 shows the effect of variations in equivalence ratio on hydrocarbon
emissions in ppm. For rich mixtures, emissions of HC are high. This is primarily due to the
lack of oxygen for afterburning of any unburned NC that escapes the primary combustion
process within the cylinder and the exhaust system. The leaner: mixtures, which increase the
oxygen concentration and yet produce adequate internal gas temperatures result in lower HC
and provide lower until the lean operation limit is approached. The minimum of HC emission
occurs at =0.8. Then HC emission rise again as combustion quality becomes poor.

bsCO (g/kWh)

Figure 6.6 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on bsCO

Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from internal combustion engines are con-trolled
primarily by the fuel/air equivalence ratio. For fuel-rich mixtures CO concentrations in the
exhaust increase steadily with increasing equivalence ratio as the amount of excess fuel
increases. For fuel-lean mixtures, CO concentrations in the exhaust vary little with
equivalence ratio. Since spark-ignition engines often operate close to stoichiometric at part
load and fuel rich at full load, CO emissions arc significant and must be controlled.

NO (ppm)

Figure 6.7 Effect of Equivalence ratio variation on NO emission

Effect of variation in the Fuel-Air equivalence ratio on NOx formation is as follows.
Maximum burned gas temperature occurs at 1.1; however, at this equivalence ratio oxygen
concentrations are low. As the mixture is enriched, burned gas temperatures fall, As the
mixture is leaned out, increasing oxygen concentration initially offsets the falling gas
temperatures and NO emissions peak at =0.9. Detailed predictions of NO concentrations in
the burned gases suggest that the concentration versus time histories under fuel-lean
conditions are different in character from those for fuel-rich conditions. In lean mixtures NO
concentrations freeze early in the expansion process and little NO decomposition occurs. In
rich mixtures, substantial NO decomposition occurs from the peak concentrations present
when the cylinder pressure is a maximum. Thus in lean mixtures, gas conditions at the time of
peak pressure are especially significant. The formation rate of NO strongly depends on the gas
temperature and oxygen concentration. The maximum exhaust gas temperature occurs = 0.9,
and at this equivalence ratio the oxygen concentrations are also high. This combination
maximizes NO emissions.
As the mixture is leaned out with an increase in oxygen concentration, the decrease in
burned gas temperature dominates the reaction. This effect results in lower NOx emissions
throughout when the equivalence ratio is below 0.98. On the other hand as the mixture
becomes richer even though the burned gas temperature is high the oxygen concentrations are
lower which decreases NOx emissions.

7 Ignition Timing
Ignition timing in a spark ignition engine is the process of setting the time that an ignition will
occur in the combustion chamber (during the compression stroke) relative to piston position
and crankshaft angular velocity. Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the
performance and exhaust emissions of an engine.

Figure 7.1 Maximum Braking Torque (MBT)

If combustion starts too early in the cycle, the work transfer from the piston to the
gases in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke is too large: if combustion starts too
late, the peak cylinder pressure is reduced and the expansion stroke work transfer from the gas
to the piston decreases. There exists a particular spark timing which gives maximum engine
torque at fixed speed, and mixture composition and flow rate. It is referred to as MBT
maximum brake torquetiming. This timing also gives maximum brake power and minimum
brake specific fuel consumption. Fig .1 shows that at MBT, maximum torque is generated if
ignition timing deviate from MBT timing significant reduction in torque occurs.

Figure 7.2 Effect of ignition timing advance on BMEP and IMEP

Fig. 7.2 show that BMEP and IMEP tends to increase with ignition timing advance till
31 Before Top Dead Centre (BTDC) and then drop off. Best performance will be achieved
with greatest ignition advance of 31 BTDC. It is expected that IMEP should increase with
timing angle advance to a point, and thendrop off. Best performance will be achieved when
the greatest portion of the combustion takes place near top dead center. If the ignition timing is
not advanced enough, the piston will already be moving down when much of the combustion
takes place. In this case we lose the ability to expand this portion of the gas through the full
range, decreasing performance. If the ignition timing is too advanced, too much of the gas will
burn while the piston is still rising. The work that must be done to compress this gas will
decrease the net work produced. These competing effects cause there to be a maximum in the
IMEP as a function of ignition timing advance The maximum BMEP is at an ignition timing
31BTDC minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) is defined as the smallest
advance that achieves 99 % of the maximum power.

Figure 7.3 Effect of ignition timing advance on BSFC

Figure 7.4 Effect of ignition timing advance on Heat Release Rate

Figure 7.5 Effect of ignition timing advance on Efficiency

BSFC and Heat release curves can be analysed as follow. It can be seen that as ignition
timing advanced from TDC the BSFC curve giving lower fuel consumption for same power
output. One of the best advantage of optimum ignition timing is that as it gives maximum
heat release rate at top dead centre which gives rise to maximum tempreture and pressure
increasing power output. For figure 7.4 The blue curve is for maximum possible spark
advance for effective performance and the spark timing retards towards TDC upto yellow
curve. As a result the efficiency of the engine decreases with spark retard.

Figure 7.6 Effect of ignition timing advance on HC emission

In the process of obtaining MBT spark timing the prssure inside the combution
chamber rises rapidly at TDC. Higher pressure gives rise to more charge going in crevices and
also more leakage from piston rings forming absorption and adsorption of it. Combustion
tempressure later in power stroke decreases rapidly leads to incomplete combution and
incresed HC emission at MBT.

Figure 7.7 Effect of ignition timing advance on Pressure variation

Figure 7.8 Effect of ignition timing advance on NOx emission

Spark timing significantly affects NO emission levels. Fig. 7.7 shows peak cylinder
pressure variation with spark timing. Advancing the timing so that combustion occurs earlier
in the cycle increases the peak cylinder pressure as more fuel is burned before TC and the
peak pressure moves closer to TC where the cylinder volume is smaller; retarding the timing
decreases the peak cylinder pressure. Higher peak cylinder pressure and temperature gives
higher NOx formation. Retarding ignition timing helps to reduce HC and NOx formation as
the peak cylinder pressure and temperature decreases lowering NOx and post combustion
temperature is increases gives rise to late oxidation of unburned HC. Though this reduces
performance it is effective in emission control.

8 Load and Speed

`Load and Speed One common way to present the operating characteristics of an
internal combustion engine over its full load and speed range is to plot brake specific fuel
consumption contours on a graph of brake mean effective pressure versus engine speed.
Operation of the engine coupled to a dynamometer on a test stand, over its load and speed
range, generates the torque and fuel flow-rate data from which such a performance map is
derived. The upper envelope of the map is the wide-open-throttle performance curve. Points
below this curve define the part-load operating characteristics, While details differ from one
engine to another, the overall shapes of these maps for spark-ignition engines are remarkably
similar. When mean piston speed Sp is used instead of crankshaft speed for the abscissa, the
quantitative similarity of such maps over a wide range of engine sizes is more apparent.
Maximum bmep occurs in the mid-speed range; the minimum bsfc island is located at a
slightly lower speed and at part load. These map characteristics can be understood in terms of
variations in volumetric efficiency, gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and mechanical

Figure 8.1 Effect of Engine speed on Performance

Figure 8.2 Torque and Power trade off

Figure 8.3 Engine Performance Characteristics

Figure 8.4 Effect of Speed and Load on BP, BSFC and Efficiency
Increasing load at constant speed from the minimum bsfc point increases bsfc due to
the mixture enrichment required to increase torque as the engine becomes increasingly airflow limited, Decreasing load at constant speed increases bsfc due to the increased magnitude
of friction (due to increased pumping work), the increased relative importance of friction, and
increasing importance of heat transfer.
The effect of speed and load variation on NO and HC emission are can be elaborated
as follows. NO concentration increase moderately with increasing speed at constant load. At
lower loads, the proportional increase in NO is greater than at higher loads. The residual gas
fraction decreases as speed increases, this effect being greater at lower inlet manifold
pressures (lighter loads). Also, the relative importance of heat transfer per cycle is less as
speed increases , which would also be expected to increase NO concentration. With increasing
load (at constant speed), NO concentrations also increase. Again, as inlet manifold pressure
and load increase, the residual gas fraction decreases also, the relative importance of heat
transfer per cycle decreases with increasing load.

The hydrocarbon concentration trends with speed and load changes are the opposite of
the NO concentration trends. As indicated, speed and load are likely to affect several of the
HC formation mechanisms, the in-cylinder mixing of unburned hydrocarbons which escape
combustion with the bulk gases, and the fraction of the in-cylinder HC which escape into the
exhaust. However, not enough is yet known about the details of these processes to make these
dependencies explicit. If oxygen is available, oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons both within
the cylinder and in the exhaust system will be significantly enhanced by increases in speed
since the expansion stroke and exhaust process gas temperatures increase substantially, due to
the reduced significance of heat transfer per cycle with increasing speed. This more than
offsets the reduced residence time in the cylinder and in the exhaust. As load increases at
constant speed, expansion and exhaust stroke temperatures increase, and the in-cylinder
oxidation rate, if oxygen is available, will increase. However, as the exhaust gas flow rate
increases, the residence time in critical sections of the exhaust system decreases and a
reduction in exhaust port HC oxidation occurs. The net trend is for HC concentration to
decrease modestly as load is increased.

9 Injection Timing and Injection Pressure

Fuel-injection timing essentially controls the crank angle at which combustion starts. While
the state of the air into which the fuel is injected changes as injection timing is varied, and thus
ignition delay will vary. The fuel-injection rate, fuel nozzle design (including number of
holes), and fuel-injection pressure all affect the characteristics of the diesel fuel spray and its
mixing with air in the combustion chamber. At normal engine conditions (low to medium
speed, fully warmed engine) the minimum delay occurs with the start of injection at about 10
to 15 BTDC. The increase in the delay with earlier or later injection timing occurs because
the air temperature and pressure change significantly close to TDC. If injection starts earlier,
the initial air temperature and pressure are lower so the delay will increase. If injection starts
later (closer to TDC) the temperature and pressure are initially slightly higher but then
decrease as the delay proceeds.

IP-1040 bar
IP-1215 bar
IP- 1683 bar

Figure 9.1 Effect of injection Timing and Pressure on BSFC

Figure 9.1 and 9.2 shows effect of injection timing and pressure on BSFC. For given
injection pressure BSFC decreases with advanced injection timing because as injection timing
is advanced, time span for complete mixing and atomization of fuel increases and charge
burns at high pressure and temperature closer to TDC position hence work transfer increases.
For given injection timing increase in injection pressure gives lower BSFC due to formation of
small liquid droplets increasing surface area giving instant atomization of fuel giving complete

BSFC (g/kWh)

Figure 9.2 Effect of injection Timing and Pressure on BSFC

Nox (g/kWh)

Figure 9.3 Effect of injection Timing on NOx

Figure 9.3 shows effect of injection timing on NOx emission. As injection timing is
advanced NOx formation increases. As explained earlier advanced injection gives peak
pressure and temperature at TDC which is favorable condition for NOx formation. Retarded
injection reduces peak temperature and hence NOx.

PM (g/kWh)

Figure 9.4 Effect of injection Timing on PM

Figure 9.4 shows effect of injection timing on particulate matter emission. Advancing
injection decreases PM due to complete atomization and mixing giving complete combustion
reducing PM.

NOx (g/kWh)

Figure 9.5 Effect of injection Timing and Pressure on NOx

Figure 9.5 shows effect of injection pressure on NOx. Higher injection pressure
reduces time required for atomization and hence giving favorable condition for NOx

PM (g/kWh)

Figure 9.6 Effect of injection Timing and Pressure on PM

Injection timing variations have a strong effect on NOx emissions for DI engines.
Retarded injection is commonly used to help control NOx emissions. It gives substantial
reductions, initially with only modest bsfc penalty.
Retarding timing generally increases smoke, though trends vary significantly between
different types and designs of diesel engine. Mass particulate emissions increase as injection is
retarded. The injection rate depends on injection pressure. Higher injection rates result in
higher fuel-air mixing rates, and hence higher heat-release rates for a given amount of fuel
injected per cylinder per cycle, as the injection pressure is increased the optimum injection
timing moves closer to TDC. The effects of injection pressure and timing on bsfc in a natural
aspirated DI diesel engine are shown. The higher heat-release rates and shorter overall
combustion process that result from the increased injection rate decrease the minimum bsfc at
optimum injection timing: however, a limit to these benefits is eventually reached. Increasing

the injection rate increases NOx emissions and decreases smoke or particulate emissions. The
engine designer's goal is obviously to achieve the best bsfc possible.

10 EGR
In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx)
emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by
recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. This dilutes the
O2 in the incoming air stream and provides gases inert to combustion to act as absorbents of
combustion heat to reduce peak in-cylinder temperatures. NOx is produced in a narrow band
of high cylinder temperatures and pressures. EGR acts as diluents to the combustion mixture.
Introduction of EGR is to reduce oxygen concentration. Increase specific heat of incoming
charge which ultimately reduces peak combustion temperature and hence NOx reduction.

10.1SI Engine Performance

Figure 10.1 Effect of EGR on Performance

The effect of exhaust gas recycle on engine performance and efficiency, for mixtures
with <1, is similar to the addition of excess air. Both EGR and excess air dilute the unburned
mixture. In practice since EGR is only used at part-throttle conditions, <1, is the region of
interest. Because three-way catalysts are now used where NOx emission constraints are
severe, greatest attention has focused on dilution with EGR at =1. At constant burn duration,
bsfc and exhaust temperature decrease with increasing EGR. Only for very long combustion
processes is the burn rate especially significant_ This improvement in fuel consumption with
increasing EGR is due to three factors :(1) reduced pumping work as EGR is increased at
constant brake load (fuel and air flows remain almost constant; hence intake pressure
increases); (2) reduced heat loss to the walls because the burned gas temperature is decreased
significantly; and (3) a reduction in the degree of dissociation in the high-temperature burned

gases which allows more of the fuel's chemical energy to be converted to sensible energy near

Figure 10.2 Effect of EGR on Emission

These burned gases are comprised of both residual gas from the previous cycle and
exhaust gas. Since the burned gases dilute the unburned mixture, the absolute temperature
reached after combustion varies inversely with the burned gas mass fraction. Hence increasing
the burned gas fraction reduces the rate of formation of NOx emissions. Effect on NOx
emissions of increasing the burned gas fraction by recycling exhaust gases to the intake
system substantial reductions in NOx concentrations are achieved with 10 to 25 percent EGR.
The amount of EGR a particular combustion chamber design will tolerate depends on its
combustion characteristics, the speed and load, and the equivalence ratio. Faster-burning
engines will tolerate more EGR than slower-burning engines Because of the decrease in burn
rate and increase in cycle-by-cycle combustion variations, Hydrocarbon emissions increase
with increasing EGR. At first the increase in HG is modest and is due primarily to decreased
HC burn up due to lower expansion and exhaust stroke temperatures. The HC increase
becomes more rapid as slow combustion, partial burning, and even misfire, in turn, occur with
increasing frequency EGR has no significant effect on engine CO emissions.

10.2CI Engine Performance

CI engine subjected to high pressure and temperature combustion and also CI engine mostly
run in lean condition its favorable condition hence NOx formation is considerable in this
process. One possible method to reduce is reduce combustion temperature by recirculating
exhaust gas diluting charge. But in this process formation of PM in CI engine increases.
Figure 10.3 shows how NOx and PM trade occurs with EGR rate. At about 20% EGR the NOx
and PM are at lowest possible in tradeoff. Increased PM can be filtered out with PM trap
hence EGR is most effective method for NOx control.

Figure 10.3 NOx-Soot Tradeoff for different EGR rate

Figure 10.4 Effect of EGR on Indicated Power

Figure 10.4 shows effect of EGR on Indicated Power. It can be seen that for part load
15% EGR is superior to 10 or 20% EGR rate.

Figure 10.5 Effect of EGR on SFC

Figure 10.5 shows effect of EGR on specific fuel consumption. It indicates the
variations of brake specific fuel consumption with increasing EGR rate. There is remarkable
improvement in fuel consumption with increasing EGR. One of the main reason for that
effects is due to the reduction of pumping work as the amount of EGR rate is increased(with

fuel and air flow rate remains constant),the pump work get reduced and hence the entire inlet
charge needing to come passed the throttle. Again due to the reduction in heat loss to the wall
of cylinder the significant reduction in burnt gas reduction, improve the fuel consumption
trends. The reductions in degree of dissociation in high temperature burn gases also improve
specific fuel consumption.

Figure 10.6 Variation of NOx with Hot and Cold EGR

NOx emission from hot EGR is comparatively higher than without EGR. Cold EGR of
higher rates shows much effective in reducing NOx emission. at 10% cold EGR percentages is
very high than that of higher EGR rates.CO emissions with EGR was increased in part loads
and decreases with higher loads as compared without EGR.

11 Swirl
Changes in swirl rate change the fuel evaporation and fuel air mixing processes. They
also affect wall heat transfer during compression and, hence, the charge temperature at
injection. At normal operating engine speeds, the effect of swirl rate change on the delay is
small. Under engine starting conditions (low engine speeds and compression temperatures) the
effect is much more important presumably due to the higher rates of evaporation and mixing
obtained with swirl.
There are different methods for swirl generation. Modification of manifold is one such
method to produce swirl in combustion chamber. Making manifold spiral, helical and
combination of both produces induced swirl, which affect the combustion characteristic as

Figure 11.1 Effect of Swirl on BSFC

The bsfc is a measure of engine efficiency. In fact, bsfc and engine efficiency are
inversely related, so that the lower the bsfc the better the engine. Engineers use the bsfc rather
than thermal efficiency because a more are less universally accepted definition of thermal
efficiency does not exist. The variation of brake specific fuel consumption at different load for
normal, spiral, helical and helical-spiral inlet manifolds is shown in figure. 4 Brake specific
fuel consumption of different inlet manifolds are very similar to normal manifold. BSFC
increases with load up to 0.5kW, however as load further increases from 0.5 to 3 kW. It can be
observed from the Figure.4 that brake specific fuel consumption for all new technique
manifolds is less compared to normal manifold. It is significant to note that 32.03% of reduced
in bsfc is observed at 2.5kW load for helical-spiral inlet manifold compared to normal inlet

Figure 11.2 Effect of Swirl on BMEP

Figure 11.2 depicts the variation of Brake mean effective pressure with respect to at
different loads .The brake mean effective pressure is the indication of external shaft work per
unit displacement volume done by the engine. Brake mean effective pressures were higher for
new intake manifold technique than normal intake manifold
The increase in brake mean effective pressure may increase the power output and
decrease the exhaust emissions. It is significant to note that 81.17kN/m2 of incresed in Brake
Mean Effective Pressure observed at 2.5kW load for helical-spiral inlet manifold compared to
normal inlet manifold.

Figure 11.3 Effect of Swirl on CO emission

The variation of carbon monoxide with respect to load can be observed that as the load
increases the CO emission is increased.CO emissions are low at low load and high at full load
for normal manifold compared to other manifolds. It can be observed that CO emissions are
decreased in case of helical-spiral manifold up to a load of 2kW. The reason behind increased

CO emission may be incomplete combustion. The maximum CO emission was observed at the
full load 3kW.

Figure 11.4 Effect of Swirl on HC emission

Figure 11.4 depicts the variation of hydrocarbons with respect to load for tested
different inlet manifold. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions are caused by incomplete
combustion of fuel air mixture. HC emissions varies from no load to full load Unburned
hydrocarbons are higher in case of spiral manifold compared to normal manifold but in case of
helical and helical-spiral manifold will be less. The values of unburned hydrocarbons of spiral,
helical and helical-spiral manifolds for constant speed at 2.5kw load are 46, 24 and 22 ppm as
compared to 27 ppm of normal manifold. The probable reason for emission may be some
portion of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber comes into direct contact with
combustion chamber wall and get quenched and some of this quenched fuel-air mixture is
forced out during the exhaust which contributes to the high HC emission.

Figure 11.5 Effect of Swirl on NOx emission

Figure 11.5 depicts the Oxide of nitrogen from the engine exhaust at different loads.
NOx results from reaction of nitrogen and oxides at relatively high temperature. No is major
component in the NOx emission .As the load increases the oxides of nitrogen emission
increases .The oxides of nitrogen were higher for spiral and helical manifold at lower loads, as
the load increases the emissions were less for all new technique inlet manifold compared to
normal manifold.

12 Cetane Number
Cetane number (CN) is a measure of the ignition quality of the diesel fuel and is
determined by a standard engine test as specified by ASTM. The ignition quality is quantified
by measuring the ignition delay, which is the period between the time of injection and the start
of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. A fuel with a high CN has a short ignition delay period
and starts to combust shortly after it is injected into an engine. Ignition delay is the time
interval between the start of fuel injection and the beginning of the oxidation reaction. Ignition
delay period starts with the injection of fuel and consists of physical and chemical delay
periods until the auto ignition occurs. Fuels with a high CN have a very short ignition delay
time; that is, ignition occurs in a very brief interval of time after injection begins. Conversely,
the longer the ignition delay time the lower the CN. The ignition delay time of diesel cycle
engines is a fundamental parameter to effectively control the combustion process, allowing for
high thermal efficiency through maximum pressures close to 15 after reaching the top dead
center (TDC), with which the maximum torque characteristic of Diesel cycle engines is

Figure 12.1 Effect of CN on BSFC

Figure represents the effect of CN on brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) for the
four tested fuels. Increasing fuel CN reduces bsfc, although it is still high at low loads.
Increasing fuels CN improves combustion and raises combustion chamber temperatures.
Increasing combustion chamber temperatures gives low fuel delay period, and gives better
ignition. Reducing the load reduces temperatures inside combustion chamber, and increases
fuel delay period, resulting in bad combustion that needs more fuel to compensate the lost

Figure 12.2 Effect of CN on Brake Power

Brake power (BP) increased with increasing engine speed, as Fig. 6 illustrates.
Increasing CN increases BP also. Brake power increased by 1.1, 3.88 and 5.6% for CN 50, 52
and 55 respectively compared with baseline diesel fuel (CN=48.5).

Figure 12.3 Effect of CN on NOx

Exhaust gas temperatures are increased by increasing load, while increasing CN
reduces these temperatures, as shown in Fig. 5. Increasing load needs more fuel to be burned
which rises exhaust temperatures. On the other hand, increasing CN improves delay period,
making the burning process to be completed at top dead given the operating conditions, it is
easy to see why cetane level is important. In addition to improving fuel combustion,
increasing cetane level also tends to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). These
emissions tend to be more pronounced when working with lower cetane number fuels as
Figure shows. The decrease in CN caused an increase in NO, because of the long ignition

Figure 12.4 Effect of CN on CO

Fig.12.4 shows the variation of the CO concentration in exhaust gas with variable
engine loads, when the engine was operated on commercial diesel fuel of 48.5 CN, and
modified fuel of 50, 52 and 55 CN diesel fuels. Carbon monoxide is the primary intermediate
product in the hydrocarbon oxidation. The presence of CO in lean fuel- air mixtures exhaust is
an indication that some of the CO produced through the oxidation reactions could not be
oxidized further to carbon dioxide. With very lean engine operation and small load within the
partial motoring region, the CO concentrations recorded imply that they also partially
originate from the incomplete combustion. These emissions are reduced with increasing CN in
the fuel by 11.79, 31.2 and 56.34 for CN 50, 52 and 55 respectively compared with baseline
diesel fuel (CN=48.5).

Figure 12.5 Effect of CN on HC

At higher loads, when the diesel concentration in the cylinder charge is high enough,
the UBHC tend to reduce. Diesel fuel with CN= 55 improved the utilization of the fuel up to
20% compared with baseline diesel. Also, it reduced the UBHC concentration in the exhaust,

as compared to the 48.5 CN fuel. The CN 50 fuel had a slightly adverse effect. Little
differences were found at very light loads, as well as at full load.

13 Future Scope
In this seminar report we have studied several parameters that affect performance of IC
engines. Future demand of emission reduction and improvement in fuel consumption leads to
more in depth study with the help of some software assistance is going to be of much
importance. Following are the some topics on which further research can be done.

Modeling of different processes with the help of computer.

Modeling the performance to match real-time conditions
Study of multiple parameters simultaneously theoretically and experimentally.
Optimization of parameters for better performance using different methods e.g.
Taguchi Method, Neural network method.

14 Conclusion
1. Several parameters have been studied and effect of them on IC engine performance
and cause of performance variation is discussed.
2. Bore to Stroke ratio as surface to volume ratio should be taken considering optimum
between heat loss effect and volumetric efficiency due to valve size.
3. Though higher compression ratio enhances performance by improving efficiency with
little expense of increase of Nox emission, knocking phenomenon limit the large CR
4. Valve opening and Closing and also valve overlap is critical for volumetric efficiency
and hence performance and emission.
5. Air-Fuel ratio is very crucial in performance and emission as it affects every parameter,
little lean mixture gives better performance.
6. In SI engine 200 to 300 advance of ignition timing BTDC gives lower emission and
Max Brake Torque.
7. In CI engine optimum injection timing (100 to 150 BTDC) and high injection pressure
gives high BSFC and low emission.
8. Use of EGR is better option for NOx control. Increased swirl rate improves
combustion characteristic and hence improved performance. Higher Cetane Number
reduces delay period and gives better combustion property.

15 References
1. John B. Heywood Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, 1988, (New York:
Mc-Graw Hill).
2. Ferran A. Ayala, Micheal D. Gerty and Joan B. Heywood Effect of combustion
Phasing, relative Air-Fuel ratio, Compression Ratio and load on SI engine Efficiency,
SAE 2006-01-0229.
3. N. Suwanchotchoung and J. W. Williamson The effect of fuel manifold injection and
injection Timing on Performance and emission for spark ignition engine, SAE 200332-0023.
4. D.T. Hountalas, D. A. Kouremenos, Schwarz and Mavropoulos Effect of injection
pressure on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine,
SAE 2003-01-0340.
5. F. Mallamo, M. Badami and F. Millo Effect of compression ratio and injection
pressure on emission and fuel consumption of a small displacement common rail diesel
engine, SAE 2005-01-0379.
6. Joseph Kermani, Gaentano De Paola and Vincent Knop An experimental
investigation of effect of Bore-Stroke ratio on a diesel engine, SAE 2013-24-0065.
7. Javad Zareei, Study and the effects of ignition timing on gasoline engine performance
and emissions, (June 2013), European Transport Research Review.
8. Kutaeba J.M. AL-Khishali, Yousef S.H. Najjar

Effect of valve lift at different IVO ,IVC

and OVERLAP angles on SI Engine performance, (2010), The 7th Jordanian

International Mechanical Engineering Conference.
9. R.Senthilkumar , K.Ramadoss & R.Manimaran, Experimental investigation of performance
and emission characteristics by different exhaust gas recirculation methods used in diesel
10. Osama H. M. Ghazal, Yousef S. H. Najjar, Kutaeba J. M. Al-Khishali, Modeling

the effect of

variable timing of the exhaust valves on si engine emissions for greener vehicles,
Energy and Power Engineering, 2013, 5, 181-189.
11. Ratnakara Rao, V. Ramachandra Rajuand, M. Muralidhara Rao, Optimising


compression ratio of diesel fuelled CI engine, ARPN Journal of Engineering and

Applied Sciences VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008.


Eric Tribbett, Ed Froehlich, Lex Bayer, Effects of Ignition Timing, Equivalence Ratio
and Compression Ratio on RDH Engine Performance.

13. M. S. Shehata and S. M. Abdel Razek, Engine performance parametres and emissions
reduction methods for spark ignition engine, Engineering Research Journal 120, (December
2008) M32 M57.

Aina T., Folayan C. O. and Pam G. Y., Influence of compression ratio on the
performance characteristics of a spark ignition engine, Advances in Applied Science
Research, 2012, 3 (4):1915-1922.