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VARANASI .V.S.H.RAMA RAO
civil engineer dicipline

VARANASI .V.S.H.RAMA RAO
civil engineer dicipline

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PRACTICING STRUCTURAL

ENGINEERS

BY

VARANASI .V.S.H.RAMA RAO

DISCIPLINE PROJECT MANAGER ( CIVIL AND STRUTURAL)

LINEAR ANALYSIS

CONTENTS

Frequency Analysis

Linear Dynamic Analysis

Modal Time History Analysis

Harmonic Analysis

Random Vibration Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis

Linearized Buckling Analysis

Solution procedures

Introduction to Non-Linear dynamic analysis

When loads are applied to a body the body deforms and the effects of loads are

transmitted throughout the body

The external forces induce internal forces and reactions to render the body into a state of

equilibrium

What are the assumptions for Linear Static Analysis?

All loads are applied gradually and slowly until they reach their full magnitude

After reaching full magnitude the loads remain constant

Inertial and damping forces to small velocities and accelerations are neglected

All material in the model comply with Hookes Law

The induced displacements are so small that they cause negligible change in the

geometric and material properties and hence the stiffness

The structure subjected to loading has negligibly small Accelerations and

Velocities

Time variant loads that induce considerable inertial and damping forces may

warrant Dynamic Analysis

It calculates the displacements, stresses, strains and reaction forces under the affect of

applied loads.

General Equation of motion

Since static analysis ignores time dependent effects i.e acceleration

and velocities due to relatively small magnitude, the above

equation shrinks to

[K] x = F

In the above equation x is independent of time.

External Load

Linearity

Non Linearity

Displacement

Linear Elastic : The curve is the linear and holds the same equation for both loading

and un loading

Non Linear Elastic: The curve is non linear and holds the same equation for both

loading and unloading ( not true for structural steels but can be true for materials

like rubber)

will learn the following :

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

Every structure has a tendency to vibrate at a certain frequency

known as natural frequency or resonant frequency

Each natural frequency is associated with a particular deflection

pattern of the structure and this pattern is known as mode

shape

Mode shapes

frequency that coincides with natural frequency of the structure,

it undergoes large displacements and stresses. In such cases

Static Analysis cannot be used.

Static studies cannot be used to evaluate the response

Frequency studies:

can help us to design a structure which has natural frequencies considerably away

from the frequency for the loading.

help us to design vibration isolation systems

Form the basis for evaluating the response of linear dynamic systems where the

response of a system to dynamic environment is assumed to be summation of the

responses of various modes considered in the analysis.

Static analysis assumes that the loads are constant or applied very slowly until

they reach their full values. Because of this assumption, the velocity and

acceleration of each particle of the model is assumed to be zero. As a result, static

studies neglect inertial and damping forces.

For many practical cases, loads are not applied slowly or they change with time or

frequency. For such cases, use a dynamic analysis. Generally if the frequency of a

load is larger than 1/3 of the lowest (fundamental) frequency, a dynamic study

should be used

Design structural and mechanical systems to perform without failure in dynamic

environments.

Modify system's characteristics (i.e., geometry, damping mechanisms, material

properties, etc.) to reduce vibration effects.

[M] x(t) + [C] x ( t) + [K] x(t) = F(t)

neglected.

Where as , In dynamic analysis the above are considered and also force

is time dependent.

In dynamic analysis the response is give in terms of time history (

response vs time or in terms of peak response vs frequency)

In Linear Dynamic Analysis the basic assumption is Mass, Damping and

stiffness matrices in the above equation remain unchanged during the

duration of loading and un loading.

Dynamic loads

Deterministic loads are well defined functions of time and can be predicted precisely.

They can be harmonic, periodic or non periodic- Example :centrifugal machine loading

Non deterministic loads cannot be defined explicitly as functions of time and they are

best described by statistical parameters- Example :earthquake loading

Damping effects

If you apply some force and leave a system to vibrate, it will come to rest after

some time. This phenomenon is called damping

Damping is a physical phenomenon that dissipates energy by various

mechanisms like internal and external friction, air resistance etc

It is difficult to represent damping mathematically as it happens through

several mechanisms

For many cases damping effects are represented by equivalent viscous dampers

A viscous damper generates a force that is proportional to velocity .

Harmonic Analysis

Random Vibration Analysis

Use modal time history analysis when the variation of each load with time is

known explicitly, and you are interested in the response as a function of time.

shock (or pulse) loads

general time-varying loads (periodic or non-periodic)

uniform base motion (displacement, velocity, or acceleration applied to all

supports)

support motions (displacement, velocity, or acceleration applied to selected

supports non-uniformly)

initial conditions (a finite displacement, velocity, or acceleration applied to a

part or the whole model at time t =0)

[M] x(t) + [C] x ( t) + [K] x = F(t)

equations with constant coefficients.

The objective of the modal analysis is to transform the coupled system into a set

of independent equations by using modal matrix as transformation matrix

The normal modes and eigenvalues of the system are derived from the solution of

the eigenvalue problem:

For linear systems, the system of n equations of motion can be de-coupled into

n single-degree-of-freedom equations in terms of the modal displacement

vector {x}:

[x]= {}u

Substituting this in the main equation of motion and pre multiplying {} T with

we get

{} T[M] {} u(t) + {} T [C] {} u ( t) + {} T [K] {} u = {} T F(t)

The normal modes satisfy the orthogonality property, and the modal matrix is

normalized to satisfy the following equations:

{} T[M] {} =1

{} T [C] {} = 2 [] []

{} T [K] {}= [2]

u + u2 [] [] + [2] u = {} T F(t)

solved by step by step integration methods like wilson theta

HARMONIC ANALYSIS

This analysis is used to calculate steady state peak response due to harmonic

loading or base excitations.

Although you can create a modal time history study and define loads as functions of

time, you may not be interested in the transient variation of the response with

time. In such cases, you save time and resources by solving for the steady-state

peak response at the desired operational frequency range using harmonic analysis.

Use a random vibration study to calculate the response due to non-deterministic

loads.

Examples of non-deterministic loads include:

loads generated on a wheel of a car traveling on a rough road

base accelerations generated by earthquakes

pressure generated by air turbulence

pressure from sea waves or strong wind

In a random vibration study, loads are described statistically by power spectral density

(psd) functions. The units of psd are the units of the load squared over frequency as a

function of frequency.

The solution of random vibration problems is formulated in the frequency domain.

After running the analysis, you can plot root-mean-square (RMS) values, or psd results

of stresses, displacements, velocities, etc.

What is response spectrum?

Response spectrum is a plot of peak response vs modal frequency ( for a given

damping)of various single degree freedom systems ( representing various modes of

vibration of the structure) subjected to same dynamic loading.

The normal modes are calculated first to decouple the equations of motion with the use of

generalized modal coordinates. The maximum modal responses are determined from the base

excitation response spectrum. With the use of modal combination techniques, the maximum

structural response is calculated by summing the contributions from each mode

Slender structural members tend to buckle under axial loading.

Buckling is a sudden deformation which occurs when stored axial energy is converted

in to bending energy without change in the externally applied load

Mathematically when buckling occurs the stiffness matrix becomes singular

The linearized buckling model solves an eigen value problem to determine the critical

buckling factors and the associated mode shapes

A model can buckle in different shapes under different levels of loading. The shape the

model takes while buckling is called buckling mode shape and the corresponding

loading is called the critical buckling load

Engineers are interested in the lowest buckling mode because it is associated with

the lowest critical buckling load

All structures behave non linearly in one way or other beyond a particular level

of loading.

In some cases linear analysis may be adequate but in many cases the linear

analysis may produce an erroneous results as the assumptions on which linear

analysis is done may be violated in real time structure.

Non linear analysis is the most generalized form of analysis and linear analysis is

a sub-set of it.

Non linear analysis is needed if the loading produces a significant changes in the

stiffness

Geometrical Non Linearity

Large displacements change geometry

Non linear relationship between stress and strain

Contact Non linearity

E.g. gear-tooth contacts, fitting problems, threaded connections, and impact

bodies

becomes nonlinear.

The challenge is to calculate the nonlinear displacement response using a linear

set of equations.

External Load

Linear Response

Nonlinear Response

Displacement

increments and adjusting the stiffness matrix at the end of each increment.

The problem with this approach is that errors accumulate with each load

increment, causing the final results to be out of equilibrium.

External Load

Calculated

Response

Error

Nonlinear Response

Displacement

Also performs equilibrium iterations at each load increment to drive the incremental

solution to equilibrium.

[KT]

Solves the equation [KT]{Du} = {F} - {Fnr}

[KT] = tangent stiffness matrix

Fnr

{F}

(difference between external and internal

loads) is within a tolerance.

4 equilibrium

iterations

Du

Displacement

Some nonlinear analyses have trouble converging. Advanced analysis techniques are

available in such cases.

In this analysis ,unlike linear dynamic analysis the mass , damping and stiffness matrix

are varying and get updated during each iteration.

time step, t+t, are:

[M] t+ t {U '' } (i) + [C] t+ t {U ' } (i) + t+ t [K] (i) t+ t [ D U] (i) = t+ t {R} - t+ t {F} (i-1)

Thank you

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