Describe the perspective clothing that should be worn for the lab staff working in a lab with radioactive elements.
Radioactive elements can come from variety of source in laboratory and hospitals. The chemical, instruments and natural occurring radioactive elements always present in our daily lives. The types of radiation can either be x -ray, gamma ray, alpha particles, beta particles and neutron. Therefore, it is important to wear a protective gear when handling all this radiation to prevent dam age or mutation on our cell that can cause diseases. Use of radiation shielding is highly effective in intercepting and reducing exposure from scattered radiation. The staff should realize radiation exposure reductions of more than 90 percent through the c orrect use of any of the following shielding options. Shields are most effective when placed as near to the radiation scatter source as possible. One of the personal protective equipments is lead aprons. The lead aprons should be wearing when using x -ray on patient. It contains lead and often other materials such as tin, tungsten, antimony or barium that protect the body from radiation. These metals are homogeneously mixed with synthetic rubber or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Between two and five thin sheets o f metalimpregnated rubber/PVC are placed between sheets of nylon fabric coated with urethane on the side against the lead -impregnated rubber/vinyl. The materials are cut into a pattern and sewn together to form the protective garment. The manufacturers of these garments vary the number of sheets, the percentage of metal, the grade of rubber or PVC, and the mixture of metals to affect flexibility, durability, radiation ab sorption efficiency, and weight (cited from Reducing Radiation Exposure). Although it is useful, the apron does not protect all the radiation. At least 80% reduction is obtained when wearing the apron. The most common and new apron suggested for lab workers are two piece lead apron system because it provides wrap-around protection and distri bute the weight more evenly on the user.

The face also required protection from the radiation. A safety helmet (bump cap) may be worn when wearing enclosed suits or hoods. Other part of face necessary for protection is a respiratory. There are 2 categories of Respiratory Protective Equipment with several subdivisions in each category I. Respirators purify the air by filtering out particulate materials such as dust or low concentrations of gas or vapour. The most common types are: (A) filtering face piece respirators; (B) half mask respirators; (C) full face mask respirators; and (D) powered respirators fitted with a fan and filter(s) to supply air to a half mask, full face mask, visor, hood or helmet, blouse, half suit or full suit. II. Breathing equipment provides clean air or oxygen from an independent, uncontaminated source. The most common types are: (A) fresh air hose equipment, (B) constant flow compressed air equipment, and (C) breathing apparatus which includes full face masks and full suits supplied either from compressed air lines or self contained cylinders of compressed air.

The eye also requires protection by wearing the Optically clear lead glasses that can reduce the operator's eye exposure by 85-90% (Siefert 1996). However, due to the relatively high threshold for cataract development, leaded glasses are only recommended for personnel with very high fluoroscopy workloads (e.g., busy Radiology and Cardiology Interventionists). If there is any potential for the eyes and face to be exposed to UV radiation, a polycarbonate face shield stamped with the ANSI Z87.1-1989 UV certification must be worn to protect the eyes and face. Ordinary prescription eyeglasses may not block UV radiation. Gloves should be selected to provide the necessary protection while allowing sufficient dexterity. A lightweight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or thin natural rubber latex (NRL) surgeon¶s glove may be suitable for laboratory use where maximum sensitivity and flexibility and a good grip are necessary for accurate work. Wear disposable nitrile gloves to protect exposed skin on the hands. The latex leaded gloves also can be used to protect the hand. Standard (0.5 mm lead equivalent) leaded gloves provide useful protection to the user¶s hands. However, the disadvantages of using

leaded gloves include loss in tactile feel, increased encumbrance and sterility. Ensure wrists and forearms are covered between the tops of gloves and the bottom of the lab coat sleeves. Wrist also can be protected to wards radiation by wearing Elasticated sleeves that can be pull down over the gloves to prevent radiation to exposed area. If contaminated, skin should be wash immediately. Other parts of body that require protection is foot. Always wear a closed footware when handling radioactive materials. The footware can either be overshoes, µbooties¶, shoes and boots. Overshoes footware allow personal footwear to be worn in areas where there is a risk of a minor spill or drips contaminating the floor. The advantages of overshoes is disposable, single size, foot shaped plastic bags with elasticised openings. More expensive and durable but possibly less effective are outsized plastic shoes. These do not fully cover the personal footwear and may not provide a tight fit over it, especially over heels. Fabric overshoes with hard soles and booties and fabric overshoes with legging supported at the knee by elastic or drawstrings provide further inexpensive options. Rubber, rather than leather, safety boots may be preferred to facilitate decontamination or to carry out wet work.

2. Describe the procedure taken when there is radioactive spillage in your lab.
The procedure of radioactive spillage is different based on the quantity of the spillage. Minor Spillage (less than 0.05 micr ocuries/2kBq) A minor spill involves the spill of radioactive material in such quantities or under such circumstances that a significant internal or external radiation hazard is not created, and which will not produce significant airborne contamination. If a minor spill occurs: 1. Notify all other persons in the room at once. 2. Confine the spillage area 3. Limit the number of person in the area to those needed to deal with the spill. 4. Wear a Personal Protective Equipment including safety goggles, disposable gloves, shoe covers, and long-sleeve lab coat 5. Take immediate steps to confine the spill. For liquid spills drop absorbent paper (eg. Kimwipe) on the spill. For dry spills, dampen thoroughly or place damp absorbent materials over the spill, taking care not to spread the contamination. Water may generally be used except where chemical reaction with water would generate an air contaminant. Oil may then be a reasonable substitute. 6. Dispose of all materials contaminated by the spill and it¶s cleanup in a radioactive disposal trashcan or clearly label plastic bag. 7. Mark the area of spills and label with the type of radioactivity (eg. C -14,H-3). 8. Delineate and block off the contaminated area to insure that others will not walk through the area. 9. Do not allow anyone to leave the contaminated area without being monitored. Make note of the names of all persons involved with the spill.

Major Spillage (over 1 mCi (37 MBq) A major spill of radioactive material occurs in such quantities or under such circumstances that a significant internal or external radiation hazard to personnel, including those outside the immediate vicinity of the spill, exists, but which does not produce significant airborne contamination. If a major spill occurs: 1. Notify all persons not involved in the spill to vacate the room at once. 2. If the spill is liquid, and the hands are protected, right the container. 3. If the spill is on the skin, flush thoroughly. 4. If the spill is on clothing, discard outer or protective clothing at once. 5. Do not attempt to clean the spill. Wait for the Radioactive officers to come and clean the space. 6. Vacate and secure the room to prevent re -entry. Keep the area clear of spectators. 7. Limit the movement of persons involved in the spill to a specified area of assembly to prevent the spread of contamination. Do not allow anyone to leave the area of assembly without being monitored. Make note of the names of all persons involved in the spill.

Possibility of Airborne Contamination An airborne release of radioactive material may occur due to evaporation; vaporization; explosion; combustion; formation of a smoke, dust or spray; gas escape, etc. If an airborne release occurs: 1. Evacuate all persons from the room or area immediately. 2. Shut all doors to the room or area. 3. Post guards, as needed, to insure that no one re -enters the room or area and to keep the general area clear of spectators. 4. Assemble all persons who were present in the room or area at the time of the incident. The place of assembly should be near the conta minated area to minimize the spread of contamination, but far enough removed to prevent continued involvement. Do not permit these persons, except in instances of clear medical emergency, to leave the place of assembly until after the "Health Physicist" has arrived. 5. If contamination of the skin or clothing is known or suspected, begin personal decontamination as follows: 6. Remove all contaminated clothing. 7. Wash contaminated areas of skin with mild soap and water. 8. Do not allow anyone to remain in or re -enter the area in which airborne contamination occurred unless it is certain that the person has adequate respiratory and personal protection. .

3. Explain how a person working in a lab would know how much exposure he gets from the radiation.
When handling radiation substances, the exposure is essential to prevent harmful effects on the usage. The common radiation detectors are known as Dosimeter. Dosimeter provides a measurement on how many radiations is present in a given time. There are seve ral types of Dosimeter: A. Quartz fiber dosimeter B. Film badge dosimeter C. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) D. Solid state (MOSFET or silicon diode) dosimeter The simplest form of knowing the radiation exposure is by using TLD badges. TLD badges are used to monitor personnel for exposure of the body to penetrating ionizing radiation such as gamma and x -rays, and exposure of the skin to less penetrating radiation such as beta particles. For most individuals results of the TLD badge readings are also used as estima tes for the exposure of the lens of the eye. TLD badges must be worn by personnel working with most sources of ionizing radiation. Film badges will be worn at all times when gamma emitters such as Cr -51, Co-60, Cs-137, I-125, and I-131 are used and by any X-ray machine operators. When not in use, film badges are to be kept in a cool dry non -exposed area. Ring dosimetry device are used to monitor for radiation exposure to the hands and are issued to personnel handling millicurie quantities of 32P or other "hard" beta emitters, and to personnel handling large gamma -emitting sources. Ring badges must be worn under gloves with the sensitive portion of the ring toward the source. The ring dosimeter contains a small radiation -sensitive lithium fluoride crystal. When atoms in the crystal are exposed to radiation, electrons are trapped in an excited state until the crystal is heated to a very high temperature. The released energy of excitation, which is given off as visible light, is mea sured to determine radiation dose. This phenomenon is called thermoluminescence and dosimeters that use this principle are often referred to as TLDs. Both the body and ring badges do not detect

radiation from beta emitters with energies less than 250 keV. Consequently, dosimetry is not issued for persons using H-3, C-14, P-33 and S-35. (cited from Princeton University, Environmental Health & safety). Some work spaces are issued with a single whole body badge. This whole body dosimeter should be worn on the collar outside of any protective equipment worn or lead apron. Readings from this position provide an estimate of the radiation exposure to the eyes. Another badge of Dosimeter is Film Badge. It is worn on the outside surface of lab coat around chest or torso. This location monitors exposure of most vital organs and represents the bulk of body mass. If protective clothing is worn then the badge is worn underneath the protection to monitor the dose actually received by the operator. The advantages of Film Badge are: A. Permanent record of exposure: The developed film is physical evidence of the radiation exposure. The film can be stored after developing and reading, and could be reviewed at a later date if there is a query over exposure. B. Exposure pattern discrimination: A film badge offers limited

discrimination between different patterns of exposure. A single exposure tends to leave sharp shadows on the film from the filters, whereas multiple small exposures at different angles will leave a rim of blurring around the filters. This may allow the linking of a dose with a specific incident and provides a degree of protection against tampering (e.g. deliberate exposure to a radiation source). C. Radiation type detection: Use of multiple filters allows separate measurement of beta and gamma exposure, and estimation of energy spectra. Additional filters can be added to detect neutron radiation (e.g. cadmium). The sensitivity of film to low energy (< 20 keV) gamma or x radiation can be better than electronic dosimeters.

References: 1. http://web.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/radsafeguide/rsg_sec_17.htm 2. http://risk.arizona.edu/emergencyprocedures/radiationspill.shtml 3. http://www.wsu.edu/manuals_forms/HTML/SPPM/S90_Radiation_Safety/ S90 .55_Laboratory_Radiation_Safety_Practices.htm 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosimeter 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_badge_dosimeter 6. http://web.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/dosimeter/dosimetryinfo.htm#10 7. www.esf.edu/radsaf/m2000.pdf 8. sw.org/web/... /MRBLabProcedureManualforRadioactive Materials2006.pdf 9. www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/ PDF/PRTM-5_web.pdf 10. www.mun.ca/health_safety/ procedures/S -011_Lab_Safety.pdf

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