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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING . . . . . 2-1
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
DRILLING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
DRILLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

DRILLING COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
FEED (pulldown) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
ROTATION (torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Percussive Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
Rotary Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

PERCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Down the Hole Hammer (DTH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2

FLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Bailing Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3

SURFACE DRILLING METHODS & APPLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

BLAST HOLE DRILLING . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PATTERNS . . . . . 5-1
Bench Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Hole Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Burden and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Movement/Throw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Blast Damage to New Highwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Environmental Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Vertical and Angled Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
Standoff (Coal Mining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5

RIG COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


MAST ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROTARY HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DRILL STRING TOOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3

Power Wrench (breakout system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3


Holding Wrench (deck wrench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4
Bit Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4

WINCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POWER UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNDERCARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MACHINERY DECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-4
6-4
6-5
6-5

RIG SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Reservoir Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
Pump Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2
Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3

Hydraulic Track Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4


Disc Brake Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Levelling Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5

AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5


DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS (option) . . . . . 7-8
WATER INJECTION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . 7-9

CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING


EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER (EDC option) 8-1
The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS option) . .


TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option) . . . . . . . . . . .
LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTERLOCK (option)
ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option) . . . . . . . . .
REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option) . . . . . . .
LUBRICATOR (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM (option) . . . . . .
AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTO THREAD LUBE (option) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option) . . . . . . . . . . . .
MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-7

Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Machine Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Drill Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Cabin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Special Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8

DRILL STRING COMPONENTS. . . . . . 9-1


DRILL STRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Drill Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Stabilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Subs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Drill Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH) . . . . . . . . 9-4


Hammer Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Size of Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Hammer Air Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Hammerdril Rigid Valve Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Recommended Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Bit Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6

TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8

DRILL SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . 10-1


DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Engine Oils (CH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Lubricating Grease (MPGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Compressor Oils (COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Hydraulic Oils (HYDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Table of Contents

Page i

Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL) . . . . . . . . 10-2


Refrigeration Oil (REF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HYDRAULIC OILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6


AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7

GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Page ii

Section 1

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the first series of the new generation training manuals offered by one of the
worlds leaders in earth drilling equipment.
The purpose of this manual is to introduce
blasthole drilling techniques and components
to our customer. Successive manuals will give
specific system, operating, maintenance,
troubleshooting, and repair procedure.
Driltech Mission, LLC serves the worlds drilling industry for rotary, DTH, blasthole and
waterwell products. With manufacturing
plants located in Florida and Texas in the
United States, and Mexico and India, Driltech
Mission offers a complete drill package.

The manufacturing plant in Alachua is also


home for the product marketing, testing, engineering research and development, service
and training departments on a 68 acre property, with over 168,775 square feet of work
space.
We are proud to provide a quality product
based on customer requirements.
Please visit us at our scheduled Drill Schools.
Contact the product service secretary for
details. (904) 462-4100.

Rotary, blasthole and waterwell drills are


manufactured in the Alachua, Florida facility.
DTH products are manufactured in Mansfield,
Texas - Mexico City, Mexico, Poona, India
and Sandviken, Sweden.

bh81

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 1

REFERENCE MATERIAL:
Sandvik Rock Tools - SD and XL hammer
operation manuals
Sandvik Roller bit manual
Sandvik Tamrock - Rock excavation for civil
engineers handbook
Denison Hydraulic - Application manual
Mills Machine Co. Inc. - Drill accessory manual
Driltech Mission - Technical publication and
service training departments
Sullair Corporation

Published by Driltech Mission, LLC - USA


All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without prior written consent from Driltech Mission,
LLC.

Part No. 023501-012

Page 2

Section 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF DRILLING
DESCRIPTION
TWISTING/TEARING

Drilling is all about making a hole in the


ground. The two fundamental components of
making blastholes are:
Chip making
Chip clearing
CUT SURFACE

CHIP, SWEEP,
CHIP, SWEEP!

SKID
DISTANCE

GRINDING/ABRADING
THRUST

GRINDING

TORQUE

One or more of the following processes can


produce chips:
Cutting/tearing
Twisting/tearing
Grinding/abrading
Crushing

GRINDINGS

CUTTING/TEARING

CRUSHING

ANGLE OF
CUTTING

PERCUSSION
IMPACT
BUTTON INDENTION
DEPTH PER BLOW

(a)
CRUSHING
TO FINE

CRUSHED ROCK
POWER

FREE SURFACE

(b)
ACCUMULATION
OF FINE

CHIPPING
ROCK

(c)

POTENTIAL CHIP
LOOSENING CRACK

CRACKED FORMATION ZONE


Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 2

The four main components of drilling are::


Feed
Rotation
Percussion
Flushing

PERCUSSION
ROTATION
AND
FEED

COMPRESSED
AIR

FEED FORCE
FLUSHING

FLUSHING
CUTTINGS
ROTATION

DRILL
BIT

ROTARY DRILLING

PERCUSSION DRILLING

DRILLING METHODS
Blasthole drilling has been performed by two
different methods:

Percussive drilling, made up of:


Top hammer tools
Down-the-hole (DTH) tools
Rotary drilling
The choice of drilling method is mainly dependent upon the physical and geological properties of the rock to be drilled. Hard formations
generally require percussive drilling, while soft
or non-consolidated rock may need only
rotary drilling.
Percussive drilling utilizes all four components, feed, rotation, percussion and flushing.
Rotary drilling does not use percussion, but
compensates by having increased feed force
and rotation torque. Rotation speeds and feed
forces will vary according to ground conditions. Each drilling application requires moderate changes in the rotary drilling technique.

Page 2

Hardness and mineral composition of the rock


will also be major factors in wear of the drill
string components.

DRILLING EQUIPMENT
There are many types of surface drills, which
can be grouped according to their operating
principles mentioned above:
Top hammer drilling
DTH drilling
Rotary drilling
Auger drilling
Core drilling
Driltech Mission, LLC manufactures a range
of drill rigs suitable for both DTH and rotary
drilling. Driltech Mission does not manufacture top hammer drills.
Drill rigs use drill steel equipment (when connected these are called a 'drill string') to drill
the hole. The drill steel equipment includes
components such as drill pipes, adapter subs,
DTH hammers and drill bits.

Section 2

DRILL PIPES

DTH HAMMER
DRILL BIT

DTH DRILLING

The choice of drill steel equipment should be


carefully selected to meet the needs of the
machine it is intended to be fitted to. Other
factors may be ground condition and hole
depth of rock to be excavated.
Section 9 gives details to the drill string components utilized for rotary and down the hole
percussion drilling.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 3

DRILLING COMPONENTS
GENERAL
The four components of drilling are:
1. Feed
2. Rotation
3. Pecussion
4. Flushing

FEED (pulldown)
Feed force is required in order to press the
drill bit against the rock. This in itself will only
produce minor crushing of the rock immediately under the drill bit. Combined with the
forces of rotation and/or percussion, the feed
force enables the processes of cuffing, tearing, grinding and abrading to occur. As the bit
cuts, it must be fed down to keep the drill bit in
constant contact with the rock surface.

Every formation requires a minimum feed


force before the drill bit will penetrate, as the
tooth pressure must exceed the rock strength.
Soft rock such as shale will require a lower
feed force than hard rock such as granite.
Rotary drilling will be more efficient, if the feed
force is greater than the minimum needed, as
the bit will break out rock chips, rather than
abrading fine grindings.
In practice, a 'pulldown' system is needed on
a drill machine, so that feed force additional to
that exerted by the weight of the drill string
can be placed onto the bit. Effectively, part of
the rig weight is added to the drill string
weight. The feed force must be capable of
being varied. Control valves allow adjustments to be made to suit drilling conditions.

TOO MUCH!!!

NOT ENOUGH!!!

TOP SPROCKET
HOIST CHAIN

ROTARY
HEAD

FEED
CHAIN

SPROCKET
CARRIER

MAST
CHORD
Excessive feed force will cause
stress, high wear and damage
to drill string components.
WORK
DECK

Insufficient feed force will


cause a low drill penetration
rate, stress and damage to
drill string components.

FEED (PULLDOWN)
CYLINDER

ROTATION (torque)
The pulldown cylinder moves the rotary head up and down
via an arrangement of chains and sprockets.

PULLDOWN SYSTEM

Rotation components are adjustable to suit


drilling conditions. Single and twin motor
arrangements are available for the many
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 3

different drilling applications. Single motor


applications are applicable for DTH percussion drilling, whereas two motors may be
required to turn large drill pipe and rotary bits.
Percussive Drilling
Percussion energy is generated by a moving
piston. With each piston impact from the hammer, the tungsten carbide buttons in the bit
body penetrate the rock surface. The function
of rotation is to turn the drill bit to a new position between percussive impacts, so that the
drill bit carbides strike fresh rock surfaces.
Slow to medium rotation speeds assist the bit
buttons to penetrate new rock with each piston impact. Hammer manufacturers specify
applicable rotation speeds.
Rotary Drilling
Rotation is torque, used to roll the bit around
while the feed force holds it firmly against the
ground. Rotary bit manufacturers specify
maximum rotation speeds and maximum pulldown ratings.
The combination of rotary torque and feedforce enables the bit to produce chips by
crushing and cutting.

ROTARY DRILL BITS


Page 2

A 'rotary' system is required to turn the drill


string and drill bit. The rotation speed must
also be variable, so it can be adjusted to produce the largest cuttings possible (to optimize
penetration rates), as well as suit either rotary
or DTH hammer drilling applications.

PERCUSSION
In general, percussion drilling produces more
efficient drilling in medium to hard formations.
Rocks that are not easily abraded by drag
force of rotary drilling alone may be more efficiently drilled with percussive blows.
Two types of percussion methods are the
pneumatic or hydraulic top hammers, or a
pneumatic down the hole hammer.
Down the Hole Hammer (DTH)
Down the hole hammer drilling requires highpressure compressed air. Use light to medium
feed force for best results. Air pressure is proportional to penetrate rates. In harder rock formations it is essential to maintain the highest
recommended air pressure. Specific care
should be given to drill bit selection according
to the rock material being excavated.

DOWN THE HOLE


HAMMERS

Section 3

A DTH hammer provides drilling energy right


at the bit. It is highly efficient because piston
energy is transmitted directly to the bit at the
rock surface. DTH hammers are best suited
for medium to hard rock materials.

FLUSHING
Flushing is necessary to remove cuttings from
the drill hole. Flushing should be sufficient to
clear chips away from the bit immediately.
Otherwise the chips will be reground, increasing bit wear and reducing the penetration rate.

1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Flushing (Bailing Air)


Drill Steel Air Passage
Drill Bit
Bit Flushing Ports
Cuttings Removal

Bailing Air
Compressed air is the most common medium
used with blasthole drills to clear chips from
the hole. It is referred to as 'bailing air', as it
bails the chips from the hole.
The annular air velocity or 'up-hole velocity'
(UHV) determines whether or not there is sufficient bailing air to ensure effective removal
of rock cuttings from the hole. Theoretically
UHV will depend on these factors;

The capacity of the compressor

The diameter of the drill bit in the hole

The outside diameter of the drill pipe

The last two factors together determine the


volume of the drill hole that needs to be
bailed. If the drill pipe diameter is small compared to the hole diameter, then there will be
a large volume to be bailed and the UHV will
be low. If on the other hand, the diameters are
fairly close, there is a small volume to be
bailed and the UHV will be greater. If rock is
abrassive, rapid drill string wear will occur
with the higher UHV.
Water, foam or polymer may be injected into
the air stream to aid in dust suppression, chip
removal or to improve hole stability.

3
4

FLUSHING SYSTEM
TYPICAL UP-HOLE VELOCITY
(UHV) CHARTS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 3

BIT
SIZE
Inch
5 5/8
5 5/8
6 1/4
6 1/4
6 3/4
6 3/4
7 3/8
7 3/8
7 7/8
7 7/8
8 1/2
8 1/2
8 1/2
8 1/2
9
9
9
9 7/8
9 7/8
9 7/8
9 7/8
9 7/8

mm
143
143
159
159
171
171
187
187
200
200
216
216
216
216
229
229
229
251
251
251
251
251

PIPE
SIZE
Inch
2 7/8
2 7/8
3 1/2
3 1/2
4
4 1/2
4 1/2
4 1/2
5 1/2
5 1/2
6
6
6 5/8
6 5/8
6 5/8
6 5/8
6 5/8
7 3/4
7 3/4
7 3/4
8 5/8
8 5/8

mm
73
73
89
89
102
114
114
114
140
140
152
152
168
168
168
168
168
178
178
178
219
219

COMPRESSOR
OUTPUT
cfm cu m/min
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
1,100
31.2
900
25.5
1,000
28.3
1,100
31.2
1,000
28.3
1,100
31.2

UPHOLE
VELOCITY
fpm
7,046
7,829
6,143
6,825
5,571
7,230
4,824
5,360
5,185
5,761
4,543
5,048
5,808
6,453
4,438
4,931
5,425
4,397
4,886
5,375
7,914
8,705

m/sec
36
40
31
35
29
37
25
27
27
30
23
26
29
33
22
25
27
17
19
21
40
44

UP-HOLE VELOCITY
(UHV) TABLE

Insufficient flushing leads to low penetration


(increased recutting), decreased drill pipe life
(bit wear and jamming of drill string) and high
bit wear. Optimum drilling occures when dry
air flushing up-hole velocity factors can be
maintained between 4000 to 9000 FPM
depending on rotary or DTH drilling methods.
Higher UHV may be acceptable for drilling
depending on ground conditions such as consistent and solid low abrassive formations.
Select higher UHV when drilling occures in
bad fractured ground, with voids or caverns,
high rock density or long hole depths.

Page 4

Section 4

SURFACE DRILLING METHODS AND APPLICATIONS


GENERAL
Selection of the appropriate drill method will depend on factors such as the rock strength, diameter and depth of hole required. Typical applications are shown below.

TONS

TONS

ROLLER BIT ROTARY


6.
7.
8.

4.5 - 15 (114,3 - 381mm) HOLE DIAMETER


15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103.35-413.4 MPa) ROCK
ROTARY APPLICATION ROLLER BITS

6.
7.
8.

1 - 6 (25.4 - 152.4mm) HOLE DIAMETER


10,000 - 60,000 PSI (68,9-413,4 MPa) ROCK
BUTTON BITS

DRAG BIT ROTARY


6.
7.
8.

TOP HAMMER PERCUSSIVE

1 - 5 (25,4 - 127mm) HOLE DIAMETER


5,000 - 22,000 PSI (34.45-151.58 MPa) ROCK
ROTARY APPLICATION DRAG BIT

DOWN - THE - HOLE


6.
7.
8.

3.5 - 40 (89 - 1016mm) HOLE DIAMETER


15,000 - 60,000 PSI (103,35-413,4 MPa) ROCK
BUTTON BITS

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 4

RELATIVE
HARDNESS

MOHS
HARDNESS

Extremely soft
Soft
Medium
Medium hard
Hard
Extremely hard

RELATIVE
HARDNESS
Extremely soft
Soft
Medium
Medium hard
Hard
Extremely hard

1-2
2-3
3 - 4.5
4.5 - 6
6-7
>7

COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH - PSI

INDEX
NUMBER

< 2,000
2,000 - 5,000
5,000 - 10,000
10,000 - 20,000
20,000 - 30,000
> 30,000

MOHS
HARDNESS

COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH - MPa

1-2
2-3
3 - 4.5
4.5 - 6
6-7
>7

< 14
14 - 35
35 - 70
70 - 140
140 - 210
> 210

ROCK

TALC

GYPSUM

CALCITE

FLUORITE

APATITE

ORTHOCLASE

QUARTZ

TOPAZ

CORUNDUM

10

DIAMOND

MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS

ROCK HARDNESS & COMPREHENSIVE


STRENGTH TABLE

ROCK TYPE
IGNEOUS
Andesite
IGNEOUS
Basalt
SEDIMENTARY
Congomerate
IGNEOUS
Diorite
SEDIMENTARY
Dolomite
IGNEOUS
Gabbro
METAMORPHIC
Gneiss
IGNEOUS
Granite
SEDIMENTARY
Limerock
SEDIMENTARY
Limestone
METAMORPHIC
Marble
METAMORPHIC
Quartzite
IGNEOUS
Rhyolite
SEDIMENTARY
Sandstone
METAMORPHIC
Schist
METAMORPHIC
Serpentine
SEDIMENTARY
Shale
METAMORPHIC
Slate
IGNEOUS
Trachyte

Compressive Strength
Mpa
psi
300
400
42,660 56,880
250
400
35,550 56,880
140
19,908
170
300
24,174 42,660
150
21,330
260
350
36,972 49,770
140
300
19,908 42,660
200
350
28,440 49,770
30
100
4,266
14,220
120
17,064
100
200
14,220 28,440
160
220
22,752 31,284
120
17,064
160
255
22,752 36,261
60
400
8,532
56,880
30
150
4,266
21,330
70
9,954
150
21,330
330
46,926

ROCK COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Page 2

Section 5

BLAST HOLE DRILLING


GENERAL
Blast hole drilling is used in the extraction of
rock products and minerals from surface
mines and quarries. A blast hole drill produces holes to a predetermined plan. The
holes are then charged with explosive and the
rock is blasted and broken.
A typical drilling sequence involves:
Driving or tramming the machine to the
required location.
Raising the machine on the leveling jacks
to provide a stable drilling platform.
Raising the mast (from the horizontal) to
the desired drilling position.
Lock the mast into position.
Commence rotation, feed and air flushing,
air percussion for DTH applications.
Drilling to the required depth. A 'single
pass' operation, is a hole depth no more
than one drill pipe length. A 'multi-pass'
operation, is where drill pipes must be
added as the hole is drilled.
Retracting the drill string.
Lowering the mast (to horizontal if necessary), prior to tramming.
Always lower the mast to horizontal with
truck mounted drilling equipment prior to
moving the machine.
28%
4%

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

DRILLING
LEVELING
PIPE HANDLING
TRAMMING

A
66%

TYPICAL DRILLING CYCLE

The type of blasted product or 'fragmentation'


required from the blast will determine the way
in which a blast hole drill will be used.
For example:
In a quarry, most of the material broken
out will be given further treatment. The
rock will need to be broken into fragments
which are easily dug, fill haulage units to
capacity, cause few interruptions to the
primary crusher feed and are free from
excess fines.
Open pit or surface mines differ from quarries in that large quantities of overburden
or waste rock may need to be moved
quickly and will have no further treatment.
Therefore rock may be broken to a lesser
degree than quarry rock.
Both examples move material by large
machinery such as front-end loaders, shovels
and/or draglines.

BLAST DESIGN AND DRILL PATTERNS


Take the example of an open cut coal mining
operation. The engineer will need to design a
'drill pattern', mark it, so the machine operator
can drill it. To produce the desired fragmentation, a number of factors must be taken into
account, including:
Type of rock or formation
Degree of blast movement / 'throw'
required
Explosive selection
Terrain conditions
Environmental conditions
Damage to the product
Factors, which can be varied by the engineer
designing the blast, may include:
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 5

APPARENT BURDEN

APPARENT SPACING
HOLE-TO-CREST

HOLE DIAMETER
BACKBREAK
NEW CREST
(AFTER MUCKING)
STEM HEIGHT

SIDE BREAK

CREST

HOLE
DEPTH
FLOOR OR FINAL GRADE

EXPLOSIVE
COLUMN
HEIGHT

FRONT BURDEN
BANK FACE

BANK ANGLE

BOTTOM-HOLE
BURDEN

SUBGRADE
(SUB DRILLING)

TOE

*NOTE! TRUE burden and spacing may differ from APPARENT burden and spacing due to
the delay between firing adjacent lines.

BLAST DESIGN TERMINOLOGY

Bench height
Hole diameter
Type/quantity of explosive
Burden
Spacing
Vertical or angled holes
Standoff

0.5 1% face height. Mine location, production rates, rock density, explosive factors for
air and ground vibration monitoring may play
an important role in what type of machine and
related hole diameter best suits the specific
mine.
Burden and Spacing

These factors are interrelated in their effects.


Some of these are discussed below.
Bench Height
When rock is drilled and blasted to create
steps, it is known as bench drilling. The bench
height may be determined by factors such as
the stability of the rock, the type of drilling
equipment available, or the access available.

Burden and spacing are terms used to


describe the dimensions of a drill pattern.
Burden is the distance between each row.
Spacing is the distance between the holes
along a row.

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Spacing
en
rd
Bu

Hole Diameter
HIGHWALL

Hole diameter is closely related to bench


height and burden, and should be between
Page 2

Section 5

Movement/Throw
Drill patterns are designed to obtain a suitable
blast profile for loading equipment like shovels or draglines. The most critical factor controlling the movement of a shot is the burden.
A throw shot in a coal application may utilize
approximately 23ft (7m) of burden for 10 5/8
holes. Likewise a shot to be stood up may
utilize approximately 33ft (10m) of burden for
the same hole. The selection of burden will
also depend on the width of the bench.

COAL
A. SECTION OF STOOD UP SHOT

Blast Damage to New Highwall

COAL
B. SECTION OF THROWN SHOT
MOVEMENT/THROW

Fragmentation
Fragmentation is a general term that
describes the size of individual rocks after
blasting. Once the burden has been selected,
the spacing must be selected to provide sufficient fragmentation. Spacing is calculated
using the volume of rock to be blasted and the
tonnage of explosives to be put in each hole.

Often the row of holes that create the new


highwall will be spaced more closely together.
This allows weaker explosives to be used and
creates a better highwall.
When the row has half the spacing of the rest
of the pattern, it is said to be a staggered pattern.

Row 4
Row 3
Row 2
Row 1

HIGHWALL

EN
RD
BU

)
(B

SPACING (SP)

ROCK VOLUME PER


BLAST HOLE =

VOL = B x SP x BH

HOLE DEPTH = BENCH HEIGHT + SUBDRILLING

TONNAGE
CALCULATION

BENCH HEIGHT. (BH)

STAGGERED PATTERN
WITH PRE-SPLIT LINE (ROW 4)

Environmental Controls
Most mines have limits for noise and vibration
produced by blasting, imposed by an environment protection agency. Noise is increased if
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 5

holes blow out because the charge is unconfined. The burden on the highwall row is
selected with this in consideration.
Small burden on the highwall row
will cause the explosive to blowout and result in high noise.

BLOW-OUT

Vertical and Angled Holes


Inclined or angled holes, result in more productive blasting than vertical holes however
each have advantages and disadvantages.

VERTICAL:
Movement of the drill is quicker.
Less wear to the drill accessories.
Easier machine set-up for operators.
Greater disturbance to the new highwall.

It is not possible to drill this hole angled,


without special tooling, because of the
bench behind it.

VERTICAL HOLES

Toe

Burden with angled holes


reduces the toe compared
to vertical holes, resulting
in better floor surfaces.

ANGLED HOLES
Page 4

Angled burden
Vertical burden

ANGLED:
Better burden is produced on the highwall
row.
Machine can be set-up away from the
highwall.
Used where the burden on the highwall
row may be too large for vertical holes.
Angle drilling may hinder dust suppression
systems.
Operation set-up time and techniques are
affected.

Section 5

Drilled to Coal

Row 4
Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

HIGHWALL

STANDOFF DRILL PATTERN

Standoff (Coal Mining)


If holes are drilled to or into coal, the explosives will damage the coal product. Blast
damage reduces recovery and increases dilution of the coal. With smaller coal seams a
standoff drill pattern may be used to prevent
product damage.
With this system, not all holes are drilled to
the coal. The engineers drill plan may indicate
to drill every third hole to the coal. Other holes
standoff the coal product 5 feet (1.5 m). In this
situation a hole is drilled to find the depth of
the coal seam and the next two holes are 5
feet (1.5 m) shallower.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 6

RIG COMPONENTS

MODEL D90KS SHOWN

1.

Mast Crown

10. Mast Rest

19. Crawler Frame

2.

Mast

11. Air Cleaners

20. Idler

3.

Mast Raising Cylinders

12. Cooler

21. Boarding Ladder

4.

Hydraulic Tank

13. Front Levelling Jacks

22. Rear Levelling Jack

5.

Hydraulic Pump Gearbox

14. Main Frame

23. Dust Hood

6.

Water Injection Pump

15. Machinery Deck

24. Operators Cab

7.

Water Tank

16. Final Drive Sprocket

25. Air Conditioner

8.

Engine

17. Track

26. Hydraulic Lines to Rotary Head

9.

Compressor

18. Crawler Axle


Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 6

MAST ASSEMBLY
CAROUSEL

The mast supports the rotary drive and drilling


accessories. It may be constructed to allow
the machine to drill vertical and/or angle
holes.

The mast assembly pivots upon a mast


pedestal frame. The pedestal is fabricated
to the machinery deck.

Two hydraulic cylinders are used to raise


and lower the mast. Vertical or angle drill
positions and horizontal travel position are
normal positions.

TOP
PLATE

ROTARY
HEAD

FEED
CHAIN

ROD
POCKETS

DRILL
PIPE
MAST
RAISING
CYLINDERS
SWING
CYLINDER

Hydraulic cylinder(s) with sprockets and


chains provides the necessary force to
raise and lower the rotary head and drill
string.

INDEXING
SYSTEM

MAST & LOADER COMPONENTS

LOADER
A loader carries a number of drill pipes, which
allows for a multi-pass drilling operation.
When the drill rig is equipped with a loader,
the operator can change pipes quickly and
efficiently from inside the cab.
A loader consists of:

Page 2

WORK
DECK
MAST
PIVOT
BEARING

A loader on the mast structure provides


drill pipe storage. It can be indexed
(rotated) for drill pipe loading/unloading to/
from the rotary head.

The bottom end of the mast supports a


table and work deck. Drilling tools to assist
in pipe connections are available from the
work deck.

AIR
HOSE

HANGER

Hydraulic motor(s) and planetary gears


mounted to a rotary head provides the
drilling torque necessary to rotate the drill
string.

Compressed air from the air receiver tank


is piped up the mast. The air swivel on the
rotary head allows air through the drill
string to the drill bit. Compressed air is
used to bail cuttings from the hole during
drilling.

WINCH
CABLE

Hanger - typical hanger arrangements are


pivoted, and the carousel is swung in and
out of position by operator controlled
hydraulic valves and cylinders. Optional
sliding hanger arrangements may be fitted
for larger drill pipe configurations.

Section 6

Carousel - A top latch plate and bottom


pods hold up to 6 pieces of drill pipe.
Mounted below the bottom pods is an
index lock plate which has locating holes
used for indexing the pipe position.

DRILL STRING TOOLING

Indexing System - A hydraulic locking pin


moves in and out of the locking plate. A
hydraulic cylinder rotates the assembly.
When the pin is in the unlock position,
only the indexing assembly is rotated.
When the pin is in the lock position the
hydraulic cylinder rotates the carousel.

Power Wrench (breakout system)

Tooling is necessary to enable joints (connections) in the drill string to be made (tightened)
or broken (loosened).

The power wrench, is used to break tight


pipe joints and drill bit accessories which cannot be broken by reversing the rotation of the
drill string. This tool is a hydraulic powered,
jaw-type breakout wrench mounted below the
pipe loader. The wrench is controlled by the
operator from inside the cab.

ROTARY HEAD
Piston-type hydraulic motor(s) provide
mechanical torque to reduction gears
mounted to the rotary head housing. A large
bullgear and shaft transmit rotation directly to
the top sub and drill pipe. The bull shaft is hollow to permit compressed air to be passed
down the drill pipe to the blast hole. Mounted
on top of the bull shaft is an air swivel assembly with seals. This swivel allows oil to remain
in the rotary head and air to be supplied to the
drill string.
Hydraulic cylinders and roller chains raise and
lower the rotary head, which is secured to the
mast with adjustable wear pieces (guide
shoes). The replaceable wear pieces are
made of a nylatron fiber. This material protects the sliding areas of the mast.
MOTOR
GUIDE
SHOES

POWER WRENCH

A tong wrench may be supplied. This is a


hydraulic actuated cylinder with a Stilson
type wrench. The tong wrench is manually
placed onto the pipe during joint breaking.

PLANETARY

GEARBOX

TONG WRENCH
ROTARY HEAD
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 6

Holding Wrench (deck wrench)


This sliding wrench is used to hold the drill
pipe, while the joint above it is broken (loosened) or pipe-changing procedures take
place. The jaw of the wrench is shaped to
engage the top flats of the drill pipe, and it is
mounted on the mast table. The operator controls the engage and disengage positions of
the wrench from inside the cab.

When the drill bit is lowered into the bit


wrench it is held securely and cannot turn.
Reverse rotation or the power wrench can
assist thread breaking.

WINCH

(TABLE BUSHING REMOVED)

WINCH

HOLDING WRENCH

Bit Wrench
A special wrench shape is required to hold the
drill bit during bit changing procedures. Precut
wrenches and blank wrenches are available.
The bit wrench tool is put into the mast table
in place of the table bushing. It can be held in
place with the holding wrench.
.

The winch is controlled by the operator from


inside the cab and is used to lift accessories
such as hammers, bits, and subs, to and from
the work deck. The winch can also be used to
change drill pipes when the mast is in a vertical position. From the spool, a wire rope with
a lifting hook attached runs up and over the
top of the mast, via a set of sheaves.

POWER UNIT

BIT BASKET

Page 4

The engine is the prime source of mechanical


power for the entire drill. Driltech Mission
blasthole drills use Caterpillar or Cummins
diesel engines running at high idle speed of
1800 rpm. Engine power is transmitted to
hydraulic pumps via drive shafts and gearboxes. A rotary screw compressor is driven
from the engine flywheel. Engines are water
cooled with radiator(s) and are temperature
protected with safety switches. Caterpillar E

Section 6

series engines also utilize air-to-air aftercoolers (ATAAC). A hydraulically driven cooling
system provides airflow through the radiator(s) and oil coolers.
COMPRESSOR
3

CFM (m /min) PSI (bar)


750 (21.1)
100 (6.9)
750 (21.1)
100 (6.9)
900 (25.5)
100 (6.9)
900 (25.5)
100 (6.9)
1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9)
1,050 (29.7) 100 (6.9)
1,300 (36.8) 100 (6.9)
1,300 36.8) 100 (6.9)
900 (25.5)
350 (24.1)
900 (25.5)
350 (24.1)
1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1)
1,000 (28.3) 350 (24.1)

ENGINE
MODEL
3406E DITA
QSK 19C
3406E
QSK 19C
3406E
QSK 19C
3408E
QSK 19C
3406E
QSK 19C
3406E
QSK 19C

HP (Kw)
450 (336)
500 (373)
450 (336)
500 (373)
450 (336)
500 (373)
500 (373)
500 (373)
450 (336)
500 (373)
521 (373)
(389)
500
500 (373)

RPM
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800

motor drive torque is transmitted to planetary


reduction gears in the final drive assembly.
Control of these drive motors can provide an
infinite range of steering maneuvers, from
gradual to radical cornering, by varying the
control lever positions in the forward and
reverse ranges. Counter steering is possible if
one track is placed in forward while the other
is placed in reverse.

UPPER
ROLLER
IDLER

SHOES
(PADS)

TYPICAL D40KS, D45KS & D50KS MODEL


HORSEPOWER CHART

FINAL
DRIVE
CHAIN

ROCK
GUARD

FRAME

Each track chain, fitted with triple-lug grouser


plates, is supported and guided by track rollers, a front idler and carrier rollers. Large coil
springs counter the recoil of the front idler to
cushion shocks and maintain track tension.
CATERPILLAR
3408E

Pre-cleaners treat incoming air prior to final filtration through paper elements. An electronic
metered ether injection system assists in cold
starts.

An adjustable cylinder provides track chain


slack adjustment. Track guides protect bottom
rollers from rocks. Both track frames are pivoted on an axle and equalizer beam to provide some degree of track oscillation. Both
undercarriage members are fitted with
hydraulic multi-disc brakes to prevent track
movement while the drill is not propelling.

UNDERCARRIAGE
Track undercarriages, manufactured by Caterpillar are the most common track drive systems (Badger and American undercarriages
have also been used). Two independently
operated crawler units, are driven by bent axis
axial piston type hydraulic motors. Hydraulic

MACHINERY DECK
The machinery deck (frame) is steel fabrications which mount and support most machine
operating components such as: diesel engine,
radiators and oil coolers, mast rest, compresIntroduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 6

sor, air receiver, air/oil separator, hydraulic


tank and oil filters, fuel tank, batteries, hydraulic pump drives, water system, mast support
structure and cab. Access ladders and railed
walkways extend around the deck to facilitate
access to machinery for inspection and servicing, while the cab access is ladder or deck.
All leveling jacks are mounted securely to the
frame.

2
3

24
5
23

22
7
21
8
20

9
10

19

11
12

18

17

13
16
REAR

15
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

14

FRONT WALKWAY
FRONT JACK CYLINDER
COOLER
COMPRESSOR
AIR INLET
ENGINE
BATTERIES
DRIVESHAFT
PROPEL PUMP DRIVE
HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE
AIR LUBRICATOR TANK
HYDRAULIC TANK

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

OPERATORS STATION
CAB
WORKDECK
DUSTHOOD CYLINDER
REAR JACK CYLINDER
DUST COLLECTOR
MAST RAISING CYLINDER
WATER INJECTION PUMP
WATER INJECTION TANK
MUFFLER
RECEIVER TANK
AIR CLEANER

D55SP MACHINERY DECK


Page 6

Section 7

RIG SYSTEMS
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Reservoir Tank

The track drive and rotation systems are fully


hydrostatic with independent pumps for each
circuit. The result is a system that is much
cleaner and easier to troubleshoot. These
systems are closed loop and equipped with
three-micron filtration. Seamless steel tubing
is utilized wherever possible to enhance system cooling and decrease the maintenance
cost.

The hydraulic reservoir tank performs the following functions:

The hydraulic system has a supercharge supply to assist the rotation and feed pump circuits. This auxiliary replenishment is
pressurized to 125-175 psi (8,6-12 bar). The
primary function is to keep the feed pump full
during cylinder actuations. The secondary is
to protect the rotation system from high shock
loads during the drilling sequence.

Takes up the variations in oil volume,


which occur through the operation of actuators.

Assists in the cooling of the oil before


being recirculated through the system.

Serves as a storage vessel for hydraulic


oil. Oil is filtered before returning to tank.

The D40KS through the D75KS use a two


reservoir system, the second being a
supercharge manifold.

The reservoir tank supplies oil for the following pumps; propel pumps, rotation pump, feed
pump, cooling fan and accessory pumps. Oil
returned to the reservoir passes through 10micron return filter(s).
The hydrostatic systems use 3-micron loop filtration fitted with service indicators, which
warn if the filter becomes clogged.

3 MICRON
FILTERS

HYDRAULIC
TEST STATION

An optional on-board hydraulic monitoring


system allows rapid diagnosis of hydraulic
systems.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 7

PROPEL PUMPS
10 MICRON
FILTERS

Variable displacement pumps supply oil to


propel motors on the undercarriage. The
operator may vary the speed at which the
machine is propelled by moving the propel
control levers. Propel pump volumes vary
from machine models. Output flows range
from 0 to 65 GPM (246 LPM). Maximum system pressures also vary between models and
range from 3000 psi (204 bar) up to 4200 psi
(285 bar).

SHOE RETAINER
PLATE

HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR

ROCKER CRADLE

BARREL BRONZE
BEARING SLEEVE
PISTON
SHOE

ROCKER
CAM

The reservoir is pressurized by air pressure


via a regulator valve to maintain 20 to 33 CPA
(3 - 5 psi), which decreases ingress of contaminants and provides pump inlet supercharging.

CYLINDER
BARREL

AUXILIARY
DRIVESHAFT
INPUT
SHAFT

PORT A
DUAL GEROTER
PUMPS IN 11 & 14

STROKING
VANE
PISTON
CONTROL
FLOW
CHANNELS

Pump Drives
All pumps are direct drive by fixed ratio gearboxes. Engine derivations inputs connect to
the first gearbox. Most model machines have
a speed increase ratio input gear in the first
gearbox. For cold weather conditions a gearbox fitted with disconnecting input shaft may
be ordered. This option will allow engine starting without the hydraulic system loads.

MAIN (PROPEL)
PUMP DRIVE

Page 2

PORT
PLATE PORT B

ROTATION PUMP
A variable displacement pump supplies oil to
rotation motor(s) positioned on planetary drive
gears and the rotary head assembly. The
operator controls allow pump volume and system pressure changes for different drilling
conditions.

160000
140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
0

PUMP DRIVE
GEARBOXES

CONTROL
COVER

AXIAL PISTON PUMP

TORQUE (IN LBS)

AUXILIARY
PUMP DRIVE

FACE
PLATE

500

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4200


HYDRAULIC PRESSURE (PSI)

D75KS TORQUE CURVE @ 190 HP

Section 7

Rotation pump volumes will vary from


machine model. Output flows range from 0 up
to 113 GPM (428 LPN) and pressures are
adjustable from 200 up to a range between
3000 - 4200 psi (206.9-289.6 bar).
FEED PUMP
A variable displacement pump supplies oil
through the hydraulic pulldown system. The
amount of (pulldown pressure) which is developed in the circuit is operator controlled by the
feed pressure control valve.
Feed pump systems will have output flows
from 0 to 102 GPM (387 lpm) with working
pressure of up to 3000 psi (204 bar). All feed
systems use a circuit protection called lift-off.
This protection limits the machine capacity. In
design it will keep the feed force below
machine weight limits, protecting the machine
from accidental lift-off.

serve the return system and provide a supercharge pressure for the main drilling pumps,
(feed and rotation).
Some machine applications will use a flow
divider to allow multiple use of one vane
pump output.
OTHER PUMPS

Variable displacement pump/motor for


system cooling.

Fixed displacement vane pump for 240volt generator.

Vane pumps for dust collector and water


injection options.

Mast Raising and Locking Cylinders


Two double acting hydraulic cylinders are
pinned and supported to the rear mast chord
and machinery deck structure. Operators control the raise and lower mast sequence. Refer
to mast locking feature to position the mast for
drilling and tram modes.
In order to ensure the cylinders actuate
together and at the same speed, counterbalance valves are fitted. Should hose failure
occur during mast positioning, these same
valves prevent the mast from falling.

D40KS FEED PERFORMANCE CURVE

MAST RAISING
CYLINDERS

(BASED @ 81% EFFICIENCY)

ACCESSORY PUMP
These are fixed displacement vane type
pumps. One stage delivers oil to a hydraulic
motor, fixed size fan, thermostat and oil
cooler. This may be one of two designed cooling systems for engine, compressor and
hydraulic fluid cooling. A second stage supplies oil to accessory valve banks for the
operator selected features such as drill pipe
loader controls, dust control, angle drilling
accessories to name a few. These pumps

COUNTERBALANCE
VALVE
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 7

Hydraulic actuated controls allow mast-locking pins to secure the mast in a vertical or
angled position for drilling.

All track drive motors have a manifold


mounted on the motor ports (hot oil shuttle
valve) with a spool valve and relief valve fitted. This shuttle allows additional cooled and
filtered oil into the closed loop drive circuit.
Disc Brake Units

CYLINDER

PIN
OUTPUT
SHAFT
INPUT
SHAFT

BRAKE
DISCS

L.H. MAST LOCKING PIN

Hydraulic Track Motors


Track drive motors convert hydraulic flow and
pressure into rotational speed and torque,
which is then, modified by the final drive
reduction gears.

MOTOR
HOT OIL
SHUTTLE

L.H. TRACK MOTOR ASSEMBLY

Page 4

SPRINGS

CRAWLER BRAKE UNIT

Each final drive unit is provided with a multidisc brake unit connected directly to the
hydraulic motor output shaft extension.
This spring applied, hydraulically released
brake will securely hold the final drive input
pinion when the machine is not tramming acting as a park brake. When tram is selected,
hydraulic fluid from the propel pump servo
system will compress the belville springs,
which engage the brake, to release the pack
of discs.
Optional electronic interlock switches/solenoids may be added to the propel pump circuits. Interlocks will disable tramming until
operators have all conditions ready for moving the machine. Refer to jack brake and head
interlock options

Section 7

Levelling Jacks

The hydraulic cylinders are protected inside


two wear pieces called the jack boot and jack
hanger. A jack pad is attached to the end of
the jack-boot to provide firm footing for the
machine on stable ground surfaces.

AIR SYSTEM
The rotary screw compressor is driven by a
coupling to engine flywheel connection. High
volume compressed air provides receiver and
working air, which is available for drilling and
accessories. Working air is piped up the mast
to an air swivel, then into the drill string. The
air has two functions; one is to cool the drill bit
and bit bearings; the other is to bail the drill
cuttings out of the hole.

Hydraulic cylinders are operator controlled to


take the machine weight from the undercarriage, level and stabilize the machine during
drilling operations. Pilot operated check
valves are fitted to the cylinders to prevent
cylinder movement in the event of hose failure, and prevent the cylinder from drifting
down during drill operation.
SINGLE STAGE AIR END
(LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)

HANGER
1st
STAGE
CYLINDER

2nd
STAGE
PAD

BOOT

LEVELLING JACK

2-STAGE AIR END


(HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSORS)
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 7

Filtered air drawn into the compressor intake


system compress by means of a matched set
of male and female rotor screws. Oil is
injected into the compressor mixing with the
air to lubricate loaded components, seal the
rotor screws and act as a coolant.
Air/oil mixture discharges from the compressor into the receiver tank where the majority
of the oil is separated from the air. The air
receiver tank serves as the compressor oil
sump. refer to diagram on page 7.
Oil in the receiver tank flows under air pressure to thermal and bypass valve(s), to oil
coolers and main filters back to the compressor. Oil separated in the air/oil separator
returns to the compressor via scavenge lines,
each fitted with a strainer and a sight-glass.

air inlet valve (cylinder type, poppet type or


diaphragm) and the compressor inlet will
close (unload), reducing the volume of air
being compressed. Blow-down valves vent a
portion of air from the receiver tank during the
run - unloaded mode. A relief valve determines the maximum air pressure in the system. All receiver air pressure will vent to
atmosphere through a final (shutdown) blowdown valve when the machine is stopped.
The main valves and controls in the air system are:

Oil Stop Valve* - Stops the back flow of


oil into the compressor at shutdown. (Not
used on poppet style inlet valves).

Discharge Check Valve* - Stops the


reverse flow of air/fluid mixture through the
compressor system at compressor shutdown. (Not used on poppet style inlet
valves).

Thermal Valve Used to regulate flow of


fluid to the coolers. Designed to maintain
minimum operating temperatures. Various thermostats are available for different
ambient and operating conditions. Thermal manifolds have bypass valves fitted to
protect the compressor oil cooler.

Minimum Pressure Valve - Maintains a


minimum receiver air pressure of 60 psi
(4.14 bar) for low pressure, and 140 psi
(9.65 bar) for high pressure units. This
pressure is necessary to ensure proper oil
circulation and oil cooling.

Pressure Relief Valve - Opens the


receiver pressure to the atmosphere
should pressure inside the tank become
too high. Low pressure machines use (140
psi), high pressure machines use (400 psi)
safety valves.

Check Valve - Prevents working line pressure back flow into the sump during
unload conditions and after shutdown.

A service indicator will show red if there is an


abnormal pressure drop through the separator element. When this occurs, the element(s)
should be replaced.

POPPET VALVE
(AIR INLET)

LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR

A closed inlet system relieves the compressor


load, during machine start-up.
When sufficient pressure(s) accumulates in
the receiver tank, air pressure will signal the

Page 6

Section 7

AIR FILTER

AIR INLET
CONTROL
VALVE

AIR
AIR/OIL
OIL

*(May not be used on poppet style inlet valves)

COMPRESSOR
STOP
* OILVALVE

DISCHARGE CHECK VALVE

MINIMUM
PRESSURE
VALVE

AIR CONTROL
VALVE

MAIN OIL FILTER

WORKING
AIR
THERMOSTATS
SEPARATOR
ELEMENT

OIL COOLING
MANIFOLD

AIR/OIL
SEPARATOR
TANK

PRESSURE
BYPASS
OIL COOLER

TYPICAL COMPRESSOR OIL LUBRICATION CIRCUIT


(HIGH OR LOW PRESSURE APPLICATIONS)

Control Regulators - Opens a pressure


line between the receiver tank and the air
inlet, cylinder, poppet or sullicon control
diaphragm. Regulators control compressor loads according to air demand.

High Discharge Temperature Switch - A


fast acting temperature switch will shutdown the machine if the air discharge temperatures raise above the switch value.
SHUTDOWN SAFETY SWITCHES

Pilot Valve - Bypasses the control regulator. The poppet inlet valve will open, loading the compressor allowing pressure to
build in the receiver tank. This feature is
used with low pressure poppet inlet valves
only.

LOW PRESSURE
COMPRESSORS

HIGH PRESSURE
COMPRESSORS

230F (110C) FINAL


240F (115C) FINAL

250F (121C) INTERSTAGE


265F (129C) FINAL

Blow-down Valves - Vents receiver tank


pressure to the atmosphere during unload
conditions, and after machine shutdown.
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 7

DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS


(option)
When drilling is performed without water, bailing air from the blast hole will be dust laden.
This section describes a typical dry dust suppression system. Dust collectors do not perform when contaminated with any means of
moisture or ground water.
Operator controlled, hydraulic motor driven,
exhauster fan draws bailing air from the area

within the dust curtain surrounding the top of


the blast hole. The dust laden air passes
through numerous dry dust filters within the
dust collector housing. Large particulate matter and coarse dust are collected within the
dust collector assembly.

Periodic impulse air blasts dislodge the fine


trapped dust and enable this material to exit
the dropout cone and curtain.

DRIVE MOTOR
(HYDRAULIC)
BLOWER
FILTER
BACKFLUSHING
MODULE

CLEAN AIR
DISCHARGE

WORKING AIR
FROM COMPRESSOR

BACKFLUSHING
PRESSURE
REGULATOR

DUST LADEN AIR

BURST
of
FLUSHING
AIR
FILTER

TABLE
BUSHING
CUTTING
DEFLECTOR

245-56

Page 8

TABLE
DUST CURTAIN
ROCK
CHIPS

DUST

Section 7

A dust hood and/or curtain may be lowered


and raised by operator controls. Raising the
curtain allows ground clearance from drill cuttings prior to tramming machine away from
blast holes.

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM


(option)
A piston type, positive displacement water
pump injects water under pressure into the
compressed air system to provide a means of
dust suppression. Water tanks are available
in 150 to 1000 gallon (568 to 3785 l) capacities. The pump shown, is belt driven by a
hydraulic motor.

PUMP

MOTOR

WATER INJECTION PUMP & MOTOR

Water injection can be used for collaring holes


in bad, broken ground conditions. Foam injection can be added to the water to stabilize the
blast hole and assist in drill cutting removal.
Additional attachments can allow for a
machine wash option.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 9

Section 8

CONTROLS, OPTIONS AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT


INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Drills will have different arrangements of the
instruments and controls; however, they will
generally be grouped as follows:
25. Drilling controls actuate all drill and tooling
functions.
26. Air and hydraulic pressure gauges monitor
drilling system pressures to allow the most
efficient machine operation.
27. Engine and compressor temperature
gauges monitor and control these major
components.
28. Tram, Mast and Jack hydraulic controls
enable these functions.

ELECTRONIC DEPTH COUNTER


(EDC option)
The electronic depth counter has been
designed to assist the operator in drilling blast
holes.

20.00

NOTE! Hydraulics may be direct, cable and


linkage or electronic controlled.
2
3

The function of the EDC is to supply the operator with information on:

Bit Position (6) position

Distance From Bottom of hole (7) position

Accumulated Depth (8) position

Penetration Rate (9) position

A push button panel is used to program the


EDC and the readings are displayed on the
LED screen. Input to the EDC comes from an
ENCODER that is mounted on the pulldown
sprocket shaft. Input signals from the encoder
are measuring distance moved. From these
signals, the EDC computes the depth and rate
of penetration.

OPERATOR CONTROLS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 8

A PROXIMITY SWITCH mounted on the holding wrench is used to stop the counting
sequence when a drill pipe is being held. Contact terminals inside the EDC open to stop the
counting, and close to start the counting
sequence.
Stopping the EDC from counting the head distance moved while the pipe changing
sequence takes place is essential for accurate hole depth measurements.
A preset hole depth indicator light on the front
of the EDC cover panel will illuminated when
the drill bit reaches or is greater than the programmed depth. Position 1 on the EDC panel
can be programmed for drilling depths to suit
specific bench heights.

are operated, the pipe-in-hole alarm (indicator


light and buzzer) will be activated. Stop operation to verify fault.

DRILL MONITORING SYSTEM (DMS


option)
The Drill Monitor System provides a warning
signal to the operator and/or shuts down the
machine (for critical out-of-limit conditions) in
the event that the monitored operating conditions are not within safe limits.

The Pipe-In-Hole Alarm


This alarm is designed to prevent the operator
from propelling the machine away from a hole
when drill pipe is in the hole. This system
uses the holding wrench proximity switch, a
proximity switch mounted on the mast at the
rotary head top position, and a pressure
switch mounted on the hydraulic valves for the
leveling jacks.

5.35

DRILL
MONITOR
SYSTEM

The system is provided with a thirty second


delay for start up, a system test push button,
audible alarm, and a first out indication for
shutdowns.
There are three different levels of fault sensing:
Level 1 - Flashing amber light.
Level 2 - Flashing amber light and audible
alarm.
Level 3 - Flashing red light, audible alarm,
and machine shut down.
The audible alarm can be silenced at any time
by means of a silence push button.

When the head is not fully raised, or the holding wrench is out, and the mast or jack valves
Page 2

The light will continue to flash until the fault


condition is cleared. Only one level three fault
will be indicated at any one time (first out).

Section 8

This will allow the cause of the shut down to


be easily determined.

All leveling jacks are not fully retracted.

The rotary head is not retracted to the top


of the mast. This allows proper clearance
with the drill pipe, drill bit to the ground.

The tram foot switch is not depressed.

The items monitored are:


Level 1

Compressor air filter pressure

Engine air filter pressure

Fuel level

Alternator charging

Engine radiator coolant level

Air/oil separator pressure differential

Level 2

Hydraulic oil level

Hydraulic oil temperature

Hydraulic oil filter pressure

Engine oil temperature

Level 3

Compressor discharge temperature

Compressor interstage temperature (high


pressure only)

Compressor oil pressure

Engine oil pressure (prior to 1996 electronic engines)

Engine coolant temperature (prior to 1996


electronic engines)

Engine coolant flow

An additional switch for dust hood may be


added in this system.
The switch for the rotary head may be part of
the electronic depth counter (EDC) system.
An indicator lamp will be lit, and a warning
buzzer will sound when the operator tries to
operate any jack control lever or mast control
lever if a drill pipe is still in the ground. (Pipein-hole alarm)
If any above systems are not in the proper
position to allow the machine to be moved, a
visual indicator lamp will not light until the
conditions are corrected. Once these systems
are corrected, the indicator light will illuminate, indicating the tramming circuit is powered and the machine can be moved.
In an emergency case, the tram interlock circuit can be bypassed. A by-pass switch is
inside the tram junction box located directly
underneath the operator control panel.

LOADER/ROTARY HEAD INTERLOCK (option)

NOTE! 1996 and later model engines do not


have DMS connected Engine Oil Pressure
and Engine Coolant Temperature shutdown
switches. Engines manufactured with an
ECM and Select computers, monitor these
functions and are programmed to shutdown
the engine.

This system is designed to prevent the rotary


head from placing excessive feed force on the
loader assembly when making up drill pipe.

TRAMMING INTERLOCK (option)

ANGLE DRILLING GROUP (option)

Several tram interlock systems may be built


into the wiring system. The tram circuit for
both left and right crawler assemblies will not
operate if any of the following conditions exist:

Blast hole drills may be fitted with attachments to give them the ability to drill holes up
to 30 from vertical, 20 for most machines.

When the loader is out from its stowed position, proximity switches will cause the feed
pump to vent feed pressure as the rotary
head approaches the drill pipe in the loader.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 8

Mast position locks are:

Mast or frame mounted

Holes at the bottom of the mast table are


spaced at 5 increments. Hydraulic cylinders with lock pins engage these holes to
support the mast at the required angle, or
vertical position. Operators select the mast
raise position and mast locking sequence.

Pipe guide mechanism: This swing arm


will hold drill pipe during the pipe changing
sequence. One hydraulic cylinder swings
the support arm across the mast; a second
cylinder clamps a support around the drill
pipe. A sequence valve allows one operator control for this feature.

REMOTE SERVICE CENTER (option)


Diesel fuel, engine coolant, engine crankcase
oil and hydraulic oil may be pumped on board
the machine via the 'Wiggins' quick-fill couplings. This system provides fast, efficient
transfer of fluids and minimizes the risk of
contamination. The result is less downtime
when servicing equipment in the field.

FRAME MOUNTED MAST LOCKS

Pivoted work deck: The deck is pinned


and pivoted under the mast table. Adjustable chains support the position. The work
deck can be raised or lowered for angle
drilling to maintain a horizontal workspace.

Drilling angle indicator: A pendulum


pointer pivots on a flat plate positioned on
the left side of the mast. As the mast is
tilted, the pointer indicates the vertical
position in 5 increments, up to 30.

LUBRICATOR (option)

PIPE POSITIONER/
CENTRALIZER

Page 4

Oil reservoirs in 10 and 30 gallon (38 and


133.5 l) capacities are available for DTH and/
or rotary applications. The lubricator system
uses an air regulator, an air assisted pump
and manual controls or electronic controls to
move oil into the flushing air to lubricate a
DTH and drill bit. Use the grade of rock drill oil
that is proper for the climactic and operating
condition at the machine site.

Section 8

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM (option)


30 GALLON LUBRICATOR

PUMP

This option is required for all DTH applications, and is preferred by rotary bit manufacturers.

FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM


(option)
A manually actuated (shown) or an electrically
sensed system delivers a dry chemical extinguishing agent through hoses to pre-set nozzles in fire prone areas and surfaces.

FIRE SUPPRESSION
ACTUATOR

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM

This is a centralized lube system designed to


deliver lubricant automatically to various
grease points around the machine. The system uses control air regulation with airline
lube, control via central timer assembly to an
air operated pump, to deliver lubricant grease
at timed intervals. Distribution lines and various sized grease injectors lubricate fixed pins,
bearings and bushings only.
The cycle is started by the electrical timer,
which turns the pump on. The pump builds up
pressure in the supply line until the injectors
discharge the lubricant. The pump keeps
building pressure until the back pressure in
the line opens an electrical pressure switch
circuit and stops the pump.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 8

THREAD LUBE NOZZLE

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM INJECTORS

A bleed valve opens to allow the pressure in


the lines to vent back to the lubricant container. When pressure decreases in the line,
the injectors reset ready for the next timed
cycle.

When the foot pedal is depressed, the pump


is activated and pumps grease directly to the
discharge nozzle. The pedal also opens an air
valve, which injects air into the distribution
tube directly behind the discharge nozzle.
This injected air helps to spray the grease
directly onto the pipe thread.

The reservoir may be as illustrated (30 lb/13.5


kg) grease containers.

ARTIC COLD HEATERS (option)

AUTO THREAD LUBE (option)

Hydraulic tank

The automatic thread lube system is designed


to spray thread grease directly on to the male
thread of a drill rod held in the holding wrench
tool. This system allows the operator to apply
as much thread lubricant as needed. The system consists of an air operated pump, foot
pedal or toggle switch, distribution tube, nozzle and a reservoir for the pumpable threadgrease.

Water injection tank

Pump drive gearbox(es)

Batteries

Air receiver tank

Engine oil, fuel and coolant

Use premium quality thread compounds only.


Consult a local supplier of lubricating oils and
grease for a pumpable drill pipe thread compound.

Page 6

The arctic cold heater system is designed to


heat the following system fluids:

Section 8

Electrical

RECEIVER TANK
HEATER

Remote start group


Battery disconnect group
High ambient engine switch group
Ground level shut-off group
Remote tram group
Tram control (deadman)
Tram/jack/head interlock group
Rotary head/loader interlock group
Variable speed throttle control
Engine timer group (5 minute idle)
Strobe light roof mounted (amber, blue or red)
Electronic depth counter (EDC)
Stratologger 2 data recorder
Drill monitor system (DMS
Rotation hour meter group
CE certification group
Premium lighting package
Under deck lighting group

Hydraulic
Holdback kit for deep holes
Hydraulic test station
Anti-jam group feed and rotation

Compressor
Air cleaning hose
Compressor air volume control Electric operated
Manual operated
High pressure compressor oil recovery group (tropical)

Tools
WATER INJECTION
TANK HEATERS

FLUID HEATERS

Items shown are not the full compliment of


arctic weather accessories.

Barber cushion connector


Drilco shock sub
Foremost cushion connector
Barber table bushings
Subs
Drill pipe
DTH hammers
Drill bits
Break-out tools

Machine Accessories

MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
When placing a machine order, consider
optional equipment carefully.
Group numbers are assigned to each of the
options. Some of these items may not be
available for all products and options mentioned herein are subject to change without
notice.

Machine wash group (requires water injection system)


Self-retracting hose reel - Wash/with wand
Self-retracting hose reel - Air cleaning
Fluid sampling group (engine, compressor, hydraulic)
Magnetic drain plug group
Tow bar
Shipping lift kit
Dry chemical fire extinguishers
Fire suppression systems
Pin style feed chain adjuster w/port-a-power
Larger OD jack pads
Ground level service center w/wiggins connections
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 8
Auxiliary fuel tank group
Rearview mirror group
Front walkway group
Right walkway group cab to deck

Drill Accessories
Power-tong breakout group
Automatic thread lube system
Hammer lubricator tank standard or heated (10 or 30
gallon capacity)
Angle drill group
Angle drill workdeck
Dust hood with spotting door
Dry dust collection system - Drilplex
Dry dust collection system - Tipton
Extended mast lengths
Hammer holder
Bit storage boxes at workdeck

Cabin
2-way radio
Lap belt
Auxiliary heater
Nameplate groups for operator controls

Page 8

Special Applications
Hydraulic generator (19kv, 220vac, 50hz)
Cold weather group
Arctic machinery house - insulated
Fabric cold weather curtain
Heated water injection tank
Insulated/heated water injection tank
Insulated water injection pump
Centrifugal engine oil filter - Caterpillar engines
Prelube engine starter kit
Fourth leveling jack
Mast ladder assembly
Mesabi cooler
Auto drill controls
Foam injection - used with water injection
Australian electrical code group
Hydraulic welder 200 amp
Vandal cover groups
Swing cab - T40KS

Section 9

DRILL STRING COMPONENTS


DRILL STRING

The diameter of the pipe must be smaller than


the bit diameter to allow the cuttings to pass
to the top of the hole.

Drill Pipe
A drill pipe is a steel pipe through which air is
passed to the bit. It has a female thread (box)
at the bottom and a male thread (pin) at the
top. Machined flats at the top of the pipe are
used to hold the pipe while threads are being
made. Typical DTH drilling threads are API regular and API IF - internal flushing. RH right hand or Beco are most common for
rotary drilling (refer to the thread tables at the
end of this section).

Stabilizers
Because of the feed forces exerted on the drill
string during rotary drilling drill pipe may tend
to bend under compression. This will cause
the drill bit to tilt slightly, placing unequal
stress on the cones of a rotary type drill bit.
Stabilizing the bit will improve performance
and service life by preventing misalignment of
the bit to the surface.

PIN THREAD
TOOL JOINT

FLAT

PIPE

DRILL PIPE

STRAIGHT
BLADE

SPIRAL
BLADE

REPLACEABLE
ROLLER

STABILIZERS
A stabilizer resembles a short length of heavy
pipe. Male (pin) or female (box) thread may be
cut for either end. This tool may be hard surfaced to resist wear.
BOX THREAD
TOOL JOINT

On the outside diameter of the stabilizer,


straight, spiral blades, or rollers, project to
match the circumference of the bit. These
blades or rollers wear or roll on the sides of
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 9

the hole and keep the drill bit aligned with in


the hole.

DRILLING TOOLS

Subs
Subs are drill string connectors, available in a
variety of length, OD, and threads to suit different purposes. Some examples are:

LIFTING
PLUG

TOP SUB

DRILL PIPE

TOP SUBS (saver sub) are connected to


the rotary head. Thread type and overall
length are factors in selecting a top sub. It
is preferred for the sub thread to wear
verses the rotary head API threads.
BYPASS TOP SUB (not shown) is a special sub used with a DTH in bad ground
conditions. It allows a restricted amount of
air to bypass the hammer case. The
unused air will be directed upwards to
assist in hole cleaning. This is a special
order sub.

STABILIZER
SUB

BIT
SUB
STABILIZER

BIT SUBS adapter subs in various lengths


and cross over subs with differing thread
configurations are used to connect rotary
bits, and DTH hammers that have API
thread to drill pipes. The short sub is a
wear item and is easier to replace than a
full-length drill pipe.
SHOCK SUBS are an after market tool,
designed to absorb shock and vibration
from the drilling application. A resilient rubber element(s) prevents metal to metal
contact from the drill string to the rotary
head. Rotation speed, bit weight and
ground formation can cause unexpected
uphole vibration frequencies from the bottom of the hole to a rotary head. When
adequate down pressure cannot be maintained to the drill bit, or when rotation
torque is high due to ground conditions a
shock sub will be required.

BUSHING

HAMMER

BIT

BIT

BIT
BASKET

DTH

ROTARY

TONG WRENCH
J WRENCH

LIFTING PLUGS screw onto drill string


components so that a winch may be used
to maneuver them.

PETOL WRENCH

PIPE & BIT BREAKERS


Page 2

Section 9

Carbide inserts are distributed over the three


rollers in such a manner that the entire bottom
of the hole is worked on when the drill bit is
rotated. Roller bits for hard and abrasive rock
have spherical cemented carbide inserts
closely spaced. Roller bits for softer rock may
have the chisel cemented carbide teeth or
quality milled steel teeth as the cutters.

API
REGULAR
THREAD

Three types of cemented carbide inserts used


for roller type drill bits are shown.

CHISEL

CONICAL

HEMISHPERICAL

CEMENTED CARBIDE INSERT SHAPES

SHOCK SUB

Drill Bits
ROLLER BITS
A roller bit consists of a bit body with three
moveable conical rollers equipped with
cemented carbide inserts or steel teeth.
The idea is to crush the rock by rolling the
inserts against the rock with appropriate rotation speed and feed force.
SCREEN TUBE
BIT LEG
NOZZLE

A roller bit will utilize nozzles from which the


compressed air escapes to lift cuttings from
the bottom of the hole. Nozzle dimensions
need to be selected carefully with production
rates and drill string wear being the concerns.
Additional air passages in the bit allow air to
pass through to the bearings for cooling and
lubricating purposes.
DRAG BITS
A drag bit is used in clay or very soft material
where a roller bit will tend to clog or bind.
These bits have good flushing characteristics
and are economical, but they are limited in
size and carbide inserts are not designed for
hardrock material.

COOLING AIR
CHANNEL

SHIRT TAIL
PROTECTION

BALL PLUG

ROLLER
BEARING
BALL BEARING
GAUGE
PROTECTION
THRUST
BUTTON

CONE

REAR AXIAL
BEARING
TOP
BEARING

3 - WAY

4 - WAY

DRAG BITS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 9

CLAW BITS
A claw bit is used in soft to medium material
where the driller may encounter alternating
layers of soft clay then sand rock or hard
shale formations that would cause a a drag bit
to over-torque and stall. These bits have a
design which allows drilling as fast as a drag
bit while being as tough as a roller bit. They
feature inexpensive replaceable conical
shaped self-sharpening cutters which rotate in
their blocks.

8
1
5
9

10

Claw bits range in size from 3-1/2 to 24 in


diameter.

3
11

4
12

CLAW BIT

DOWN THE HOLE HAMMERS (DTH)


NOTE! High pressure compressed air is
required.
Hammer Selection
There are many factors involved in selecting
the right hammer for the job. These factors
include the size of the hammer, the hammer's
air consumption and, with the Driltech Mission
Hammerdril series, the correct rigid valve.
Size of Hammer
A hammer size should be selected as close to
the intended size of the hole drilled. The bigger the hammer diameter, the bigger the pisPage 4

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

TOP SUB
DART
SPRING
RIGID VALVE
PISTON
PISTON CASE

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

RETAINER RING
GUIDE SLEEVE
BIT RETAINER
DRIVER SUB
FOOT VALVE
HAMMERBIT

HAMMERDRIL XL

ton diameter, the bigger the performance. It is


important to keep the hammer diameter and
bit diameter as close as possible, while still
maintaining enough clearance around the
hammer for cuttings to pass. For example, an
XL 6 hammer should be chosen when drilling
a 6 1/2" hole rather than an XL 4 with a 6 1/2"
bit. An oversized bit on a small hammer drops
hammer performance. A larger diameter hammer allows a larger bit shank, better energy
transfer resulting in greater strength and
lower stresses, more reliability and a lower
operating cost per foot.

Section 9

Hammer Air Consumption


It is best to select a hammer nearest the maximum operating conditions of the compressor.
The higher the hammer operating pressure,
the better the performance. Use the following
altitude correction chart for applications above
4000 ft (1200 m) to assist in calculating the
proper compressor output and hammer selection.
Feet

Meters

4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000

1,200
1,500
1,800
2,100
2,400
2,700
3,000
3,400
3,700

Correction Factor
.86
.82
.79
.76
.73
.70
.68
.65
.63

mer to run at the highest operating pressure


and use all of the available air.
-BC rigid valve for low volumes of air. This
rigid valve option can be used to increase
operating pressure and performance with
small compressors.
Although each rigid valve option comes with 3
integral chokes (1/8", 1/4" and 3/8"), it will
always be more efficient to select the next
higher volume rigid valve rather than use
chokes to increase air consumption.
Recommended Lubrication
Correct lubrication during drilling operation is
extremely important. Inadequate lubrication is
a major cause of hammer wear and failure.

900 CFM @ 5,000 Feet


Compressor Output = 900 x .82 = 738 SCFM
850 CFM @ 8,000 Feet
Compressor Output = 850 x .73 = 620 SCFM

ALTITUDE CORRECTION TABLE

Hammerdril Rigid Valve Selection


The Hammerdril series hammers can be customized to a particular air compressor by a
simple change of the rigid valve. The descriptions below provide a guide for the selection
of rigid valves.
-BA rigid valve for maximum air, maximum
flushing. The BA rigid valve should be used
with a large capacity compressor. This rigid
valve/ hammer combination requires maximum air to run efficiently. This is the rigid
valve to select if you need to efficiently pass
maximum air to flush the hole or to obtain
maximum penetration rates with low pressure,
high volume compressors.
-BB rigid valve for average air. In most
cases, this rigid valve is designed for the most
popular size of compressor allowing the ham-

BA

BB

BC

RIGID VALVES

Rock drill oil is the only lubricant recommended by Driltech Mission for use in the
Hammerdril XL. Use the grade of rock drill
oil that is proper for the climactic and operatIntroduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 9

ing conditions at the drill site. Use the chart


below as a guide for selecting the proper
grade rock drill oil to use.
When using new drill pipe or pipe that has not
previously been coated with oil, pour a quart/
liter of rock drill oil down the drill pipe each
time a new joint of drill pipe is added.
The recommended amount of rock drill oil for
efficient operation of the hammers is shown
below.
An alternative method is to calculate the oil
requirements using the general rule .15 -.25
quarts of oil per hour divided by 100 CFM".
Example: XL 6/BA with a 3/8" choke uses
1335 SCFM.
1335 X .2
100

= 2.7 qts/hr

Bit Design
Choosing a percussive bit is not a simple matter of requesting a bit with a particular shank
and head diameter. Many options are available and some of these options can have a
dramatic effect on how a bit performs. If you
are not sure about which particular bit is
suited for an application, Driltech Mission recommends testing that bit at the application
site before commitments are made for large
project purchases.
Several of the options of the bit design are:

Bit face design

Carbide button shape and hardness grade

Wing design

Number of flushing air holes

This method is more accurate, especially


when using chokes or high/low operating
pressures.

Check oil levels each shift. Monitor the oil


delivery to the hammer by looking at oil dripping from the bit after each hole is drilled.

Good in hard and abrasive


formations
May cause hole deviation in
broken formations
Large bits not collaring
friendly
Easy to sharpen buttons

FLAT

NOTE! When drilling with water injection, use


the next higher grade of Rock Drill oil.
The hammer will not be damaged by too
much oil, but it will be damaged by not
enough oil.

Most resistant to steel wash


Collars well
Reduces load and wear on
gauge buttons
May need faster rotation to
run smoothly

CONVEX

RECOMMENDED ROCK DRILL OIL

Most popular design


Good in soft to medium hard
formations
Often drills the straightest
holes
More difficult to resharpen

CONCAVE

BIT FACE SHAPES


Page 6

Section 9

CARBIDE BUTTON SELECTION


BUTTON
SHAPE &
GRADE

DRILLING
APPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

AVAILABILITY

SPHERICAL

All applications

Easy to sharpen
Strong and wear resistant

Slower than ballistic


penetration rate

All grades and sizes

BALLISTIC

All applications except


fractured formations

Higher penetration rate


Straighter holes

More sensitive to
breakage in broken
ground

Only DP55, 11-18mm

All applications where


GRADE
long button life is
40
expected

Higher wear resistance


than competitors standard grades

Can develop snakeskinning in soft, nonabrasive formations

Spherical, 10-18mm

40

Good wear resistance,


similar to Grade 40
Superior toughness
Longer life

Higher purchase price


than Grade 40

Spherical, 12-26mm
Ballistic, 11-18mm

55

Any application where


good wear resistance
and extra toughness
are needed

GRADE Highly abrasive formaDP65 tions

Good toughness, similar to Grade 40


Superior wear resistance

More expensive than


Grade 50
Susceptible to snake
skinning in non-abrasive formations

Spherical, 12-26mm

Practically infinite wear


resistance

Eventually fails from


fatigue
Expensive

Spherical, 18-22mm

55

GRADE DP55
65

Diamond

Special applications
requiring exceptional
wear resistance

Long Wing Length


Preferable in most applications

Increases bit life in unstable ground


(back reaming)

Short Wing Length


May reduce steel wash on hammer

TWO AIR-HOLES

Increases risk of getting stuck only in


solid ground formations

Wear Protection
Very effective when back reaming is
severe
Protects the steel holding the gauge
buttons in place (back reaming)
Only available with long wing length

Fishing Thread
Commonly selected when deep drilling
Makes it possible to recover a
shanked bit and save the hole
Available for 152 mm bits & up
Available only with long wing length

Works well in most applications


Allows for good layout of face buttons
Normally has 8 gauge buttons; 7
gauge buttons in smaller bit sizes
More difficult to resharpen face

THREE AIR-HOLES

Preferable in soft rock conditions


Reduces steel wash on bit
Improves hole cleaning
May increase penetration rate
More difficult to measure bit diameter
Normally has 9 gauge buttons or
12 buttons in larger bit sizes

BIT AIR-HOLES

WING DESIGN

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 9

TOOL JOINT THREAD CHARTS


PIN DIMENSIONS
MATERIAL
BASE
MAKE O.D LENGTH DIAMETER
O.D.

BOX DIMENSIONS
THREAD
LENGTH MAX. O.D. TAPER PER IN.

CHART COURTESY OF MILLS MACHINE CO., INC.

Page 8

FORM

Section 10

DRILL SPECIFICATIONS
MACHINE SPECIFIC DATA:
C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crawler mounted

DESCRIPTION

T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck mounted

Driltech Mission, LLC blasthole drills are identified by an alphanumeric name. Each element of which provides information on the drill
specifications.

L . . . . . . . . . . . . Low pressure compressor


H. . . . . . . . . . . . High pressure compressor
E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Electric motor drive

Driltech machines are defined by pulldown


pressure of which they are capable. The
numeric part of the name relates to this. The
D40KS has a pulldown pressure capable of
40,000 lbs (18144 kg). Letters in the name
have the following meaning:

SP. . . . . . . . Single-pass(cylinderandmotor
applications)
W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water well
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration

MARKETING DESCRIPTION: example D40KS

The relationship between pulldown pressure


and hole diameter is shown in the table
below.

D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Driltech
D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . 1000X numeric name
D40KS . . . . . . . . . . . . S series (after 1988)

Pulldown
-Pounds-

HOLE DIAMETER (mm)


3-3/4
(95)

4-3/4
(121)

5-1/2
(140)

6
(152)

10,000

GATOR

25,000

D25KS

40,000
Crawler
Mounted
Drills

45,000

6-3/4
(171)

9
(230)

10-5/8
(270)

9-7/8
(251)

D245S

D50KS
D55SP

60,000

D60KS

75,000

D75KS

90,000

D90KS

110,000

40,000
60,000

15
(381)

D45KS

UP TO 7-7/8

50,000

30,000

12-1/4
(311)

D40KS

55,000

Truck
Mounted
Drills

7-7/8
(200)

1190D&E
T35KS
T40KS
T60KS
Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 10

LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS

General

SHC-624. Beginning May 1, 1999 the


machine was filled with SHC-1024 unless the
decal on the receiver tank specifies otherwise.

The classifications listed below follow S.A.E.


J183 classifications. The MIL specifications
are USA Military Specifications. The following
definitions will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. The specific classifications for this
machine are found on the Lubricant Chart.

NOTE!
Compressor oil change intervals will change
depending on the type of oil used. The oil
manufacturers recommendations supersede
the recommended interval suggested in this
manual.

Engine Oils (CH)

Hydraulic Oils (HYDO)

Only use oils that meet Engine Service Classification CH (MIL-L-2104D).

Use Engine Service Classification CC (MIL-L2104B), CC/SF (MIL-L-46152B), CD (MIL-L2104D) or industrial-type hydraulic oils that
are certified by the oil supplier to have antiwear,-foam, -rust, and -oxidation additive
properties for heavy duty usage.

At the factory, this machine was filled with BP


15W - 40. Consult the Caterpillar form
SEBU5939 for a listing of CH oil brands.

NOTE!
The engine oil and filter should be changed
after the first 50 hours of service on new and
reconditioned engines.

At the time of shipment this machine was


filled with Citgo 32 AW hydraulic oil.

Multipurpose - Type Gear Lubricant (MPL)


Lubricating Grease (MPGM)
Use only multi-purpose grease (MPGM)
which contains 3 to 5% molybdenum disuphide. NLGI No, 2 Grade is suitable for most
temperatures. Use NLGI No. 1 or No. 0 Grade
for extremely low temperatures.

Use Gear Lubricant Classification GL-5 (MILL-2105B) EP140. Use SHC 75 x 90 in cold
ambient conditions and SHC 5 x 90 in arctic
conditions.

Refrigeration Oil (REF)


Use an ISO 100 refrigeration oil.

Compressor Oils (COMP)


As with any oil Do not mix different types of
oils. Contamination of synthetic oils with
traces of AFT may lead to foaming or plugging
of orifices.
When operating between 80 and 100F (27
and 38C) and with relative humidity above
80%, a synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid is recommended. If your machine was shipped
prior to May 1, 1999 it was filled with Mobil
Page 2

Section 10

RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT VISCOSITIES


OUTSIDE
TEMPERATURE

F
C

-22
-30

-4
-20

+14
-10

+50
+10

+32
0

+86
+30

+68
+20

+104
+40

+122
+50

SAE 5W -20(SPC)
SAE 5W-20
SAE 10W

ENGINE CRANKCASE
CH

SAE 10W-30
SAE 15W-40
SAE 30
SAE 40
MOBIL SHC-624, 924, 1024 (1000 HOURS)

COMPRESSOR

-40F

SHELL MADRELA AS (1000 HOURS)


DEXRON II ATF (250 HOURS)
SYNCON & CETUS (32) (1000 HOURS)
CETUS (46) (1000 HOURS)

COMP
Note oil change intervals

MOBIL SHC-626 (1000 HRS)


MOBIL SHC-926 (1000 HRS)
MOBIL SHC-1026 (1000 HRS)

*
*
*

CD SAE 10W

UNDERCARRIAGE,
FINAL DRIVE GEARBOX
MPL

CD SAE 30
CD SAE 40W
CD SAE 50W

32AW
46AW

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDO

68AW
100AW

WATER INJ. PUMP - CH


ROTARY HEAD, WINCH and
PUMP DRIVE GEARBOXES
MPL

SAE 30
SAE 10W-30
GL-5 EP 90
SHC 75W-90
SHC 5W-90

AUTOLUBE PUMP CH

SAE 10W

* Contact Driltech Mission Service Department Before Filling

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 10

EQUIVALENT HYDRAULIC OILS

LUBRICANT
BRAND NAME

Page 4

MANUFACTURER

ISO
22

ISO
32-46-68

ISO
100
X

ACCITE HIDRAULICO MH

PETROLEOS MEXICANOS

AMOCO AW OIL

AMOCO OIL CO.

AMOCO RYDON OIL MV

AMOCO OIL CO.

ANTECH

EXXON/ESSO

ASHLAND VG

ASHLAND OIL CO.

32

BARTRAN HV

BP OIL CO.

BRESLUBE VG

BRESLUBE LTD.-CANADA

CANADIAN OIL MOXY T

OIL CANADA

CANVIS AW

BP OIL CO.

CHAMPION SUPER GRADE

LOWE OIL

CHEVRON AW

CHEVRON

CITGO AW

CITGO

D-A WEAR GUARD II VG

D-A LUBRICANT CO.-USA

DECOL ANTI-WEAR

SHELL CANADA

DTE 24-25-26

MOBIL OIL CORP.

DURO AW

ARCO

EAL SYNDRAULIC

MOBIL OIL CO.

ELF OLNA DS

ELF/ANTAR

ENERGOL HLP-HD SERIES

BP OIL CO.

EPPCO UNIVIVERSAL GP

EPPERT OIL CO.

GULF HARMONY AW

GULF R&D

GULF SYNFLUID SL H__AW

GULF USA

HIDRALUB EP

MARAVAN S.A.

HARMONY AW

GULF CANADA LTD.

HYDRAFLOW

PETRO CANADA

HYDRALUBE AW

LUSCON IND.

HYDRELF DS

ELF

HYSPIN AWS-AD

CASTROL INC.

HYTAC

DISTAC LUBRICANTS

KENOIL R&O AW

KENDALL REFINING CO.

LUSCON HD

LUSCON IND.

MARATHON MULTI. VG

MARATHON PETROLEUM

MOBIL HYD. OIL NZ

MOBIL OIL CO.

MOBIL HYD. OIL ZF

MOBIL OIL CO.

MYSTIK AW/AL

CATO OIL & GREASE CO.

NERVOL FLUID SH2

NERVOL

ISO
150

46 & 68

46 & 68

Section 10
LUBRICANT
BRAND NAME

MANUFACTURER

ISO
22

ISO
32-46-68

ISO
100

ISO
150

NUTO-H

EXXON/ESSO

NUTO-HP

EXXON/ESSO

32 & 46

NUTO-H PLUS

EXXON/ESSO

NYCO HYD. OIL

NYCO LUBRICANT CORP.

ORLY AGENA

ORLY INTERNATIONAL

ORLY GALA

ORLY INTERNATIONAL

ORLY HYDRO

ORLY INTERNATIONAL

PACER POWER V

PACER LUBRICANT INC.

PARADENE ANTI-WEAR AW

DRYDEN OIL CO. - USA

PEAK HYDRA AW SERIES

PEAK OIL CO.

46 & 68

PEN PREMIUM EP

PENTAGON CORP.

32 & 68

PENNZBELL AW

PENNZOIL PROD. CO.

PENNZOIL AW

PENNZOIL PROD. CO.

PENNZOIL AWX

PENNZOIL PROD. CO.

RANDO OIL HD

TEXACO INC. - USA

ROL ANTELITTERAM HVI

ROL RAFFINERIA

ROYAL AW

EPPERT OIL CO.

ROYAL PREMIUM VG

EPPERT OIL CO.

RYKON OIL

AMOCO OIL CO.

SELCO SF 330

SELCO

SHARLU HYDROFLUIDS AW

SHARJAH NATIONAL LUBE OIL


CO. LTD.

SHOSEKI W-R

SHOWA OIL LTD.-JAPAN

STAR PREMIUM VG

EPPERT OIL CO.

SUNVIS 8__ WR

SUNCOR or SUNTECK

SUPER BLUE HYD. OIL

AUTOLINE OIL CO.

SUPER HYD. OIL VG

CONOCO

TELLUS

SHELL CANADA LTD.

TELLUS

SHELL CO. - USA

TERRAPIN IND. OIL

AUTOLINE OIL CO.

TOTAL AZOLI A ZS

J.W.LANE

46 & 68

TRC HYD. OILS VG

TEXACO REFINERY

UNION UNAX AW VG

UNION OIL - USA

UNIVIS N

32, 46 & 56

X
32 & 46

EXXON/ESSO

UNIVIS N PLUS

EXXON/ESSO

UNIVIS SHP

EXXON/ESSO

32 & 46

YUKONG SUPERVIS

YUKONG LTD.

(Page 2 of 2)

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 5

Section 10

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HYDRAULIC OILS


The following are typical properties of hydraulic oils for use in severe duty applications of axial
piston and vane pumps. Any oil which meets these or similar properties or which is listed in the
approved list of Equivalent Hydraulic Oils may be used.
32
(32AW)

46
(46AW)

68
(68AW)

100
(100AW)

ASTM Viscosity Grade No.


(Saybolt)

150

215

315

465

Gravity: API

31.1

30.3

29.5

28.9

Viscosity, Kinematic: cSt


104F (40.0C)
212F (100.0C)

30.04
5.26

42.70
6.57

62.9
8.43

96
11.03

Viscosity, SSU
100F (37.8C)
210F (98.9C)

155
43.9

220
48.2

325
54.6

500
64

Viscosity Index,
ASTM D 2270

106

105

104

99

Interfacial Tension,
D 971
77F:dyn/cm

31

31

31

32

Flash, P-M: F (C)

400 (205)

405 (208)

450 (233)

465 (241)

Flash, OC: F (C)

425 (219)

430 (222)

470 (244)

490 (255)

Fire, OC: F (C)

455 (235)

470 (244)

500 (260)

545 (285)

Pour: F (C)

-25 (-32)

-25 (-32)

-20 (-29)

+5 (+15)

Color, ASTM D 1500

L0.5

L0.5

L1.0

L1.5

Carbon Residue,
Ramsbottom: %

0.30

0.30

0.36

0.37

Passes
Passes

Passes
Passes

Passes
Passes

Passes
Passes

0.68

0.68

0.68

0.68

Oxidation Test, ASTM D 943


Time Oxidized
Hr. to 2.0 Acid No.

2000+

2000+

2000+

1500+

Emulsion, FTMS 791 3201,


180F
Dist. Water: Minutes

40-40-0 (3)

40-40-0 (3)

40-40-0 (4)

40-40-0 (6)

217 (103)

220 (105)

228 (109)

234 (113)

ISO VISCOSITY GRADE

Rust Preventive Test,


ASTM D 665
Procedure A, 24 hr
Procedure B, 24 hr
Neutralization No.
ASTM D 974
Total Acid No.

Aniline Point, ASTM


D 611: F (C)

Page 6

Section 10

AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS


Driltech Mission encourages the user to participate in an oil analysis program with the oil supplier. This could result in an oil change interval differing from what is stated in these tables.

NOTE!
Mixing synthetic oils with an ATF may lead to operational problems, foaming, or plugging of orifices. Do not mix different types of fluids.

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE

CHANGE
INTERVAL

ISO

-40F to +95F
(-40C to +35C)

1000 Hours

32

Mobil SHC-624, 924 & 1024

-40F to +100F
(-40C to +38C)

1000 Hours

32

Shell Madrela AS

-20F to +120F
(-29C to +49C)

500 Hours

+20F to +100F
(-7C to +38C)

250 Hours

32

Dexron II ATF

+30F to +100F
(-1C to +38C)

1000 Hours

32

Conoco Syncon R&O

+30F to +100F
(-1C to +38C)

1000 Hours

32

Texaco Cetus PAO

+30F to +100F
(-1C to +38C)

1000 Hours

32

Petro-Canada Super Compressor Fluid SCF32

+80F to +120F
(27C to +49C)

1000 Hours

46

Texaco Cetus PAO

+80F to +120F
(+27C to +49C)

1000 Hours

68

Mobil SHC-626, 926 & 1026

LUBRICANT
DESCRIPTION

Sullair AWF

Low and High Pressure Compressors


When operating between +80 and 100F (+27 and 38C) with a relative humidity above 80%,
synthetic hydrocarbon type fluid Mobil SHC or equivalent as recommended above should be
used.
All lubricant recommendations are based on 1200 rpm maximum WARM-UP speed.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 7

Section 11

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Air Swivel

Box Thread

The joint between the fixed air pipe from the compressor and the rotating drill head.

The female side of API, IF, Beco or RH thread.

Carbide Bit
Annulus

A steel bit which contains inserts of tungsten carbide.

The clearance in the drill hole between the drill pipe


and the walls of the hole.

Carousel
The rotating components of a loader.

API
American Petroleum Institute.

Centralizer

Auxiliary Pump Drive

A device to assist in alignment of drill steel in the mast.


Primarily used for angle drilling applications or single
pass machines.

The gearbox second in line from the engine. It transfers


drive to pumps for feed and rotation, cooling fan, and
machine accessories such as water injection.

Balling Air
Is compressed air, which has passed down inside the
drill string to lift drill cuttings to the surface.

Choke
An adjustable restrictor for a DTH that sets the division
of air flows between the hammer mechanism and the
bailing air.

Collaring
Bit
The part of a drill which cuts the rock or soil.
Carbide
A bit having inserts of tungsten carbide.

Starting a drill hole. When the hole is deep and solid


enough to hold the bit from moving about, it is said to
be collared.

Deck Bushing

Coring
A bit that grinds the outside ring of the hole, leaving an
inner core intact for sampling.

See Table Bushing.

Roller
A drill bit consisting of a pin shank, pin shoulder, bit leg
including shirttail, three separate cones with cutter
teeth, nozzles, and a stamped description.
The three cones with rotating cutters roll as the bit is
rotated.

See Holding Wrench.

Deck Wrench
Diamond Drill
A light rotary drill, most often used for exploratory work.

Drill Bit

See Bit Wrench.

One of a number of different types of detachable cutting tools used to cut a circular hole in rock, wood,
metal, etc.

Bit Wrench

Drill

A plate used to hold a drill bit while it is being joined to


or removed from other drill string components.

A vertical drill hole 4 or more inches in diameter, used


for a charge of explosives.

Blast Hole
A machine capable of drilling holes 4 inches or more in
diameter to a depth of 100 or more feet.
Percussion
A pneumatic or hydraulic powered device used to break
rock.

Box

Drill Collar

The female end of a drill pipe.

Thick walled drill pipe used immediately above a rotary


bit to provide extra weight on top of the drill bit

Bit Break-Out

Blast Hole

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 1

Section 11

Drill Pipe

J Wrench

The sections of a rotary drilling string used to advance


the drill bit or DTH into the ground.

A stilson type wrench used to loosen tight drill pipe


joints. This tool is manually placed.

Drill Steel

Kelly

Hollow steel connecting a percussion drill with the bit.


May be referred to as drill rods

A stationary rotary table turns a square and/or round


pipe with flutes and kelley drive pins. The kelley is free
to move up and down through the rotary table.

Drill String
All rotating components connected together between
the rotary head and drill bit.

Drilling
Rock drilling is used in many applications and is carried
out in many different ways. Within such a wide sphere
of activity, an extensive range of equipment has been
developed and many special expressions and terms
have come into use.

Lift Plug
Lifting plugs are used to handle heavy equipment such
as hammers, stabilizers, and subs. Lifting plugs are
manufactured with box or pin type connections.

Loader
A rotating rack designed to hold drill pipes, positioned
inside or outside the mast.

Main Pump Drive


Bench Drilling
Is drilling of blast holes for bench blasting, which is the
simplest form of blasting. Characteristic for a bench is
that it has a free surface at the front towards which the
rock is blasted. Bench drilling can be carried out both
over and under ground and drilling can be directed
upwards, downwards or horizontally.

Down-The-Hole-Hammer (DTH)
Pneumatic powered rock drill. A chuck driver, drill bit,
retaining rings and a foot valve for this type of rock tool
make a very efficient drilling method.

The pump drive gearbox first in line from the engine. It


normally drives the propel pumps plus sometimes the
feed and rotation pumps.

Mud
Additives to water for making a drilling fluid to improve
performance in hole cutting, hole cleaning, hole stability and productivity.
Trade names: Bentonite, Slurry, and Grout.

Multi Pass Drilling


Drilling to such depth as requires the use of more than
one drill pipe.

Feed Cylinders
Hydraulic cylinder(s) used to feed and retract the drill
string by means of a chain and sprocket or cable and
sheave arrangement.

Flushing Medium

Pin
The male end of a drill pipe.

Pin Thread
The male side of API, IF, Beco and RH tapered thread.

Water, mud, air or foam used to flush drilled-out material out of the hole.

Pipe Support

Holding Wrench

Mechanisms to support drill pipe in the mast during


pipe changing operations when angle drilling.

A wrench tool fixed to the drill platform and used to


hold drill pipe and subs to prevent them from turning
when making and breaking joints.

Power Tong

Jacks
A three-piece assembly used to support a blast hole
drill. A typical blast hole machine has three leveling
jacks. Optional fourth jack available for unstable
ground conditions. Four leveling jacks are standard on
Water well and D90KS machines.

Page 2

The hydraulic tool fixed at the bottom of a drill mast,


used to clamp and turn tight drill string components.

Power Wrench
See Power Tong.

Propel Gearbox
See Main Pump Drive

Section 11

Propelling
The act of driving a crawler mounted drill in either
direction. Also may be referred to as tramming.

Pulldown
The force used to press the drill string and bit against
the bottom of the hole. It is controlled by the hydraulic
pressure in the feed cylinders (up to the relief valve setting), and is related to the overall weight of the drill rig.
The pressure at the bit will be the sum of the pulldown
force plus the force exerted by the weight of the drill
string. The term is also used to specify the pulldown
force, which is available from a particular drill. A D90KS
can produce 90,000-lbs. pulldown.

Pulldown Cylinders
See Feed Cylinders.

Receiver

Sub
Bit Subs
Used to connect bits, which have an API thread, to the
drill pipes, which may have API, IF, RH, Beco threads.
Bypass Top Sub
Is an option sub and will bypass compressed air from a
DTH. Used when bad ground conditions warrant extra
flushing.
Saver Subs
Connectors between drill pipes, drill bits and the rotary
head that save the thread of these components from
the effects of constant use.
Shock Subs
Tools that absorb shock and vibration with a resilient
rubber element, preventing metal to metal contact in
the drill string.

The air tank or reservoir in a compressor system.

Top Sub
A saver sub used on the rotary head.

Rotary Head

Swivel Head

The hydraulically driven gearbox that turns the drill


string.

Allows compressed air to be delivered to a drill bit on a


diamond drill, reverse circulation, and kelly drive system.

Rotary Table
The part of a rotary drill which turns a square or round
kelly bar.

Round Trip
The process of pulling the drill string from a borehole,
performing an operation on the string (such as changing bit, emptying core barrel, etc.) and then returning
the drill string into the borehole.

Table Bushing
A replaceable bushing located in the mast table. A
fixed bushing for vertical drilling and a bearing type for
angle drilling. This bushing centralizes the drill pipes as
they passing through it.

Thread Protectors
Threaded covers which prevent damage and contamination of the threads on drill string components.

Single Pass Drilling


Drilling which is completed using only one drill pipe.

Tooling

Stabilizers

Tools used to make and break drill string joints, e.g.


auto tong, holding wrench.

A device to assist centering the bit in the hole, preventing hole deviation and providing equal weight distribution to each rotary cone. It is normally placed
immediately behind the bit. Several stabilizers may be
used in a long drill string.

Top Hammer
A rock drill which works on a feed slide. As the top
hammer cannot enter into the hole, the distance
between it and the drill bit increase, as the hole
becomes deeper.

Stacker Valves
This is a slang term for hydraulic spool valves. One
inlet section, three sections up to eight sections and an
outlet section may be used. The inlet section will have
a relief valve for circuit protection.

Torque

Stroke

Travelling Carrier

Total rotary head travel.

Is a support for the feed and hoist chains. Sprockets


slide up and down by the feed (pulldown) cylinder(s)
motion.

A hydraulic motor and planetary reduction gears


mounted on a rotary head develop rotary torque. The
torque is specified in inch-pounds.

Introduction to Blasthole Drilling

Page 3

Section 11

UHV Up-Hole Velocity


The upward speed of the bailing air in the annulus of
the drill hole.
Refer to air water velocity charts.

Water Injection
Addition of a small quantity of water to the bailing air in
order to suppress dust.

Work Deck
A deck at the base of the mast which gives access to
components in the drilling area.

Page 4