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7.

ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

Before a material can safely be used in the making of structural parts


or members, a number of its properties must be known. In the case of
metals such as steel, cast iron, bronze, aluminum and others which are
widely used as structural members and machine parts, we must have
reliable information concerning such properties as strength, elasticity,
stiffness, ductility, malleability, toughness, etc.

Prije nego to se materijal moze sigurno koristiti u


sastavnim dijelovima ili masinskim elementima,neke
od ovih osobina moraju biti poznate.U slucaju kada
se radi o metalima kao sto je celik,liveno gvoe,
bronza,aluminijum i drugi koji se siroko koriste kao
konstrukcioni elementi i masinski dijelovi mi
moramo imati pouzdane informacije koje se ticu
takvih osobina kao sto
su:vrstoa.elastinost,krutost,duktilnost,kovnost,il
avost itd.
STRENGTH is the ability of a material to resist stress without
failure. Several materials, such as structural steel, wrought iron,
aluminum, and copper, have approximately equal strength in tension
and compression, while their strength in shear is about two-thirds of
that in tension. The measure of the strength of a material is its
ULTIMATE STRESS, or the greatest force per unit area it can
withstand without rupture.

VRSTOA je sposobnost opiranja naponu bez


loma.Nekoliko materijala kao sto je konstrukcioni
celik ,meko eljezo,aluminijum i bakar imaju
apraksimativno istu snagu u istezanju i pritisku, dok
je njihova vrstoa pri smicanju oko 2/3 otpornosti
na istezanje .Mjera snage materijala je zatezna
vrstoa ili najvea sila po jedinici povrsine koju
materijal moze izracunati bez kodanja.
ELASTICITY is that property of a material whereby a body, when
deformed, automatically recovers its original size and shape after
removal of a deforming force. This property is important in all
structures subjected to varying loads and is exceedingly important in
precision tools and machines.

ELASTINOST je takva osobina materijala pomocu


koje se kada se tijelo deformise, automatski vraa u
prvobitnu veliinu i oblik nakon uklanjanja
deformacione sile .Ova osobina je vana u svim
strukturama koje su podvrgnute promjenjivim
optereenjima i veoma je vana kod preciznih alata i
masina

STIFFNESS is the property by virtue of which a material can resist


deformation. This property is desirable in materials used in beams,
columns, machines and machine tools. The measure of the stiffness of
a material is its MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, obtained by dividing
the unit stress by the unit deformation caused by that stress.

KRUTOST je svojstvo materijala koje se moe oduprjeti


deformaciji.Ova osobina je poeljna kod materijala koji se
koriste za grede,stubove,masinu i masinske alate.Mjera
krutosti materijala je njegov modul elasticnosti koji se
dobije dijeljenjem jedinicnog napona po jedinici
deformacije koju uzrokuje taj napon.
DUCTILITY is a measure of the ability of metal to plastically
deform without fracturing. Ductility is generally associated with
tensile properties or the ability to be cold drawn, as in wire drawing.
Copper, aluminum, and wrought iron are among the ductile metals.
Percent elongation and reduction of area in the tension test are the
usual measure of ductility. Ductility is desirable in a member or part
which may be subjected to sudden and severe loads, since evident
excessive deformation would give a warning of impending failure.

DUKTILNOST je mjera sposobnosti materijala da se


plasticno deformise bez nastajanja loma.Duktilnost je
opcenito povezana zateznim osobinamaili sposobnosti za
hladno vuenje, kao sto je vuenje ice.Bakar ,aluminijum
i liveno gvoe su najpoznatiji duktilni
materijali.Procentualno istezanje i sabijanje povrine u
testovima.Istezanja su obino mjere duktilnosti .Duktilnost
je poeljna u masinskim elementima ili dijelovima koji su
podloni iznenadnim i tekim optereenjima ,dok

evidentna prekomjerna sila deformacije daje upozorenje o


predstojeem lomu

BRITTLENESS is the opposite of ductility. Brittle materials fail suddenly


without warning when stressed beyond their strength.

KRTOST je sposonost od duktilnosti.Krti materijali otkazuju


iznenada bez upozorenja.Kada su optereeni preko svoje snage

MALLEABILITY can be defined as the same as ductility, except


that it is applied to compression. Thus, this property enables a material
to undergo great change in shape without rupture under compressive
stress, as for example, copper, aluminum, or wrought iron being
hammered into various shapes or steel being rolled into structural
shapes or sheets.
KOVNOST se moe definisati kao duktilnost izuzev to se ona
odnosi na kompresiju.Iako ova osobina materijala omoguuje
materijalu da izdri veliku promjenu oblika bez pucanja pod
pritiskom naponima kao npr.kada se bakar,aluminijum, ili meko
gvoe kuje u razliite oblike ili kada se elik valja u
konstrukcioni elik ili tanke limove.

HARDNESS is the ability of a material to resist indentation or abrasion. It is


most commonly measured by the Brinell test, in which a test specimen by a
force of 3,000 kg. The force divided by the surface area of the spherical
indentation is called the BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBER.
Some other properties are:

TVRDOA je sposobnost maaterijala da se opire urezivanju ili


abraziji.Najee se mjeri Brinelovim restom u kojem kuglic
OTVRDNUTOG ELIKA PRENIKA 10 MM DJELUJE NA
RAVNU POVRINU TESTNOG UZORKA (
)povrsine sferninog otiska se naziva Brinelov broj tvrdoe.

RESILIENCE- the property which enables a material to absorb,


without being permanently deformed, the energy produced by the
impact of a suddenly applied load or blow. This property is essential in
steel used for all types of springs, as in automobiles, watches, etc.,
where energy must be absorbed quickly without causing permanent
deformation.
GIPKOST osobina koja omoguava materijalu da absorbuje, bez
da se trajno deformie ,energiju koja se proizvodi udarom
iznenadno primjenje sile ili udara.Ova osobina je esencijalna za
sve elike koji se koriste za opruge kao sto su opruge u
automobilu,satovima itd, gdje energija mora biti absorbovana
brzo bez nastanka trajne deformacije.

TOUGHNESS the ability of a material to absorb energy at high stress


without fracture, usually above the elastic limit. Being above the
elastic limit, the stress will cause permanent deformation. Wrought
iron, for example is tough because it can be bent into almost any shape
without fracture.
ILAVOST je sposobnost materijala da absorbuje energiju pri
velikim naponima bez loma,obino iznad granice
elastinosti.Posto je iznad granice elasticnosti napon ce uzrokovati
trajnu deformaciju.Meko eljezo je npr,ilavo zato to se moe
saviti u bilo koji oblik bez pucanja

CREEP- the property which causes some materials under constant


stress to deform slowly but progressively over a period of time.
PUZANJE osobina koja uzrokuje da se neki materijal pod
konstantnim naponom deformiu polako ali progresivno tokom
vremena.

MACHINABILITY the readiness with which a material yields to


shaping with cutting tools.
MAINSKA OBRADIVOST sposobnost s kojom se materijal
obrauje sa alatima za rezanje

8. IRON AND STEEL


The first step in the production of steel is to refine the iron ore
containing many unwanted impurities, into cast or pig iron. The
refinement of iron ore is usually done in the reducing atmosphere of a
blast furnace.
Prvi korak u proizvodnji celika je izdvajanje zeljezne rude koja
sadrzi mnoge nezeljene necistoce,u liveno ili sirovo gvoe
.Izdvajanje eljezne rude se obino vrsi u reduciranoj armosferi
visoke peci.
The modern BLAST FURNACE is a huge tubular furnace made of steel and
lined with firebrick. Around the bottom of the furnace are openings (tuyeres)
through which hot air may be forced. An opening near the top allows gases to
escape- The charge, consisting of alternate layers of coke and ore into which a
flux, usually limestone, is mixed, is fed into the furnace at the top through a
bell-shaped opening (hopper), beginning with a layer of coke.

MODERNA visoka pec je ogromna cjevasta pec napravljena od


elika,obloenim amatnom ciglom.Oko dna peci nalaze se otvori
kroz koje se moe tjerati vruci zrak.Otvor blizu vrha dozvoljava
plinovima da izau .ara koja se sastoji od naizmjeninih slojeva
koksa i rude u koje je umijean topitelj,najcesce krenjak se
ubacuje u pec pri vrhu kroz zvonasti otvor (ljevak)poevi sa
slojem koksa.
The coke burns and produces enough heat to melt the iron. The excess carbon
from the coke unites with the iron and lowers its melting temperature. The
melted iron forms at the bottom of the furnace where it is draw off when a
sufficient quantity has collected. The flux melts and collects the impurities. It
floats on top of the molten iron where it can be drawn off the furnace through an
opening higher than the one through which the iron is take out. The operation of
the furnace is continuous and the right proportions of ore, limestone, and coke
are regularly dumped in at the top of the furnace. Every few hours a batch of
blast furnace iron ( pig iron) is drawn off from the bottom of the furnace. The
iron coming out of the blast furnace is called pig iron because it was formerly

cast into bars called pigs. As it contains some impurities and a relatively large
amount of carbon, this pig iron cannot be used directly but requires additional
processing and refining before it becomes cast iron, wrought iron or steel,

KOKS sagorijeva i proizvodi dovoljno toplote da istopi


eljezo.Visak ugljika iz koksa se vee sa eljezom i sniava
njegovu temperaturu topljenja.Istopljeno eljezo se formira na
dnu peci gdje se ispusta kada se skupi dovoljna kolicina.Topitelj se
topi i prikuplja neistoe,On pluta na povrsini istopljenog
eljeza ,odakle se moe izvaditi iz pei kroz otvore koji se nalaze
vise od onih kroz koje se vadi eljezo.Rad pei je neprekidan i
odgovarajuci omjer rude krenjaka i koksa ubacuje se u
pravilnim razmacima kroz vrh pei.Svakui nekoliko sati ara
eljeza iz visoke peci (sivo gvoe)se ispusta na dnu peci.eljezo
koje izlazi iz visoke peci naziva se sivo gvoe,jer e prethodno
izljevana u ipke koje nazivaju kalupi za sivo gvoe .Poto ono
sadri neke neistoe i relativno visok sadraj ugljika ovo sirovo
gvoe se ne moe koristiti direktno nego zahtjeva dodatnu
obradu i preiavanje prije nego postane ljevano gvoe, kovano
eljezo ili elik.
CAST IRON is usually made by remelting pig iron and scrape with or without
additions of alloying elements in a cupola or induction furnace, where the pig
iron is refined to eliminate some of the excess carbon and other impurities. Cast
irons usually contain 2-4% C. They fall into three main groups: 1. Gray cast
iron; 2. Malleable iron, and 3. Nodular cast iron.

LIVENO GVOE se obino pravi ponovnim topljenjem sivog


liva i troske sa ili bez dodataka legirajuih elemenata u kupolastoj
ili indukovanoj peci,gdje se sivo gvoe proiava kako bi se
eliminisao viak ugljika i ostale neistoe .Liveno gvoe obino
sadri 2-4%.Dijeli se na tri osnovne grupe i to :1.sivi liv , 2.tmper
liv , 3.nodularni

WROUGHT IRON contains the least amount of carbon of any of the ferrous
metals used commercially. It is manufactured in a puddling furnace. To make
wrought iron, pig iron is melted on the hearth of the reverberatory or puddling
furnace which is lined with iron oxide. This process brings about the almost
complete removal of the carbon, silicon, and manganese. As the carbon is
removed, the fusion temperature of the iron rises it becomes pasty and can be
rolled up in balls and removed from the furnace. It is then squeezed through
rollers to remove most of the excess slag. The wrought iron is rolled into muck
bars and finally into commercial forms. Wrought iron is soft, tough and
malleable. It is ideal for ornamental work, as it is rust resisting, easily shaped,
and may be easily welded.

KOVANO ELJEZO sadri najmanju koliinu ugljikaod bilo


kojih eljeznih metala koji se komercijalno koriste.Proizvodi se u
peima za pudlovanje,koje su obloene sa eljeznim oksidom.Da
bi se napravilo meko (kovano) eljezo sirovo gvoe se topi na
jezgri plamena ili peci za pudlovanje koja je obloena eljeznim
oksidom.Ovaj proces dovodi do skoro potpunog uklanjanja
ugljika,silicija i magnezija.Poto je ugljik ostranjen temperaturom
topljenja eljeza raste i on postaje tjestast te se moe valjati u
kuglice i

vaditi iz pei.Tada se gnjei kroz valjke kako bi se

uklonila veina troske.Kovano eljezo se valja u ipke od


pudlovanog elika i konano u komwrcijalne oblike.Kovano
eljezo je mekano,ilavo i kovano.Idealno je za dekorativne
radove poto je (
lako zavarivati.

),lako se oblikuje i moe se

STEEL may be defined as iron combined with 0.03 to 1.7 % of carbon. It is


produced by reducing cast iron and scrap steel in one of several types of
furnaces. The furnaces and processes used to produce steel and alloy steel are
discussed in the following unit.

ELIK se moe definisati kao eljezo sa 0,03 do 7 %


ugljika.Proizvodi se redukovanjem livenog gvoa
otpadaka elika

i metalnih

u jednoj od nekoliko vrsta pei.Opeima i

procesima koji se koriste za dobijanje elika i legiranog elika se


govori u sljedeoj lekciji.

9. STEEL-MAKING PROCESSES

Steel is made by some of the following processes:


THE BESSEMER PROCESS. In this process, liquid iron is refined in a bottomair-blown converter, which is, actually, a refractory-lined tilted pear-shaped
vessel open at the top to permit charging of materials and to allow escape of
gases. Hot metal from the blast furnace is poured into the converter while it is
tipped on its side. When it is turned upright, air under pressure is forced through
holes in the bottom of the converter. The oxygen of the air, blown into the
molten iron oxidizes most of the silicon, manganese, and carbon. To this purified
iron are added carefully proportioned amounts of carbon, manganese, or other
elements.

ELIK se pravi nekim od sljedecih procesa:BESEMEROV


PROCES U ovom procesu teno zeljezo se proiava u
konvertoru sa duvnicama na dnu koje je ustvari nagnuta posuda
u obliku kruke oblozena vatrostalnom opekom,otvorena pri vrhu
kako bi omoguila punjenje materijala i kako bi omoguila
izlazak plinova.Vruci materijal iz visoke peci se izljeva u
konverter,dok se on okrece na svoju stranu kada se uspravi,zrak
pod pritiskom se gura kroz rupe na dnu konvertora.Kisik u zraku
koji se duva u istopljeno eljezo oksidira vecinu
silicijuma,mangana i ugljika.U ovo isto eljezo paljivo se dodaju
proporcionalne koliine ugljika,mangana ili drugih elemenata..
The Bessemer process is more rapid than the open-hearth and the electric
furnace processes, but this rapidity makes control of the chemical properties
more difficult. Besides, the Bessemer process has little use in modern steel
making and is primarily of interest for historical reasons

BESEMEROV proces je brzi od simens martinovog procesa i


elektrolunog procesa,ali ova brzina oteava kontrolu hemijskih
osobina.Pored toga, Besemerovproces ima malu upotrebu u
modernoj proizvodnji elika i primarno je u interesu iz
historijskih razloga.
THE OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS. The hearth of the open-hearth furnace
resembles a large rectangular basin or dish holding 50 to 175 tons of furnace. In

operation, a charge of limestone and scrap is placed in the one end near top of
the furnace, ignites, and directed downward and over the metal. After the scrap
metal is nearly melted down- this usually takes about two hours hot metal (pig
iron) from the blast furnace is added, and the refinement of the metal continues.
Most of the silicon and the greater part of the manganese are oxidized and
combine with the limestone and other nonmetallic elements to form a slag,
which floats on top, thus protecting the metal from the direct action of the flame.
The carbon is gradually removed in the form of gas, which combines with the
air of the furnace.
This process is much slower than the Bessemer process, requiring about 10
hours for each charge, but the slowness of the process makes possible a high
degree of control of the quality of the steel.

SIMENS MARTINOV PROCES.-Gnijezdo simens martinove


peci predstavlja veliki pravougli bazen ili posudu koja drzi 50175 tona metala.U radu punjenje krenjaka i metalnog otpada se
stavlja u pe.
Gorivo obino vrui plin i zrak pod pritiskom ulazi na jednom
kraju blizu vrha peci,pali se, pa se tu usmjerava prema dole preko
metala.Nakon sto se metalni otpiljci skoro istope za ovo je skoro
potrebno oko dva sata-vruci metal(sirovo gvoe )iz visoke pei se
dodaje, te se proiavanjem (rafinacija) metala nastavlja.
Krenjakom i ostalim nemetalnim elementima kako bi formirao
trosku ,koja pluta na povrsini ,ime titi metal od direktnog
uticaja plamena.Ugljik se postepeno uklanja u obliku plina,koji
se vee sa zrakom iz pei.
OVAJ proces je mnogo sporiji od Besemerovog procesa,
zahtjevajuci oko 10 sati za svaku aru,ali sporost procesa
omoguava visok stepen kontrole kvaliteta elika.

THE ELECTRIC ARC PROCESS. The electric furnace is a cylindrical bowlshaped hearth usually built to tilt to make loading and unloading easy. Generally,

steel from an open-hearth furnace is used to charge the electric furnace.


Chemical analysis of the steel placed in it is made and all necessary alloying
elements are placed in the furnace before it is closed to the atmosphere. The
heat required in this process is generated by electric arcs struck between large
diameter movable carbon electrodes and the metal bath. As the electrodes are
consumed, they are moved down to a given distance above the molten metal.
The carbon electrodes may be changed as required from the top of the furnace.
Usually, a charge of graded steel scrap is melted under an oxidizing basic slag to
remove the phosphorus. The impure slag is removed by tilting the furnace. A
second limey slag is used to remove sulphurand to deoxidize the metal in the
furnace. This results in a high degree of purification and high quality steel can
be made, so long as gas absorption due excessively high temperatures is
avoided.
This process permits a high degree of control of the steel product and is used
extensively for making highly alloyed steel such as stainless, heat-resisting and
high-speed steels.

ELEKTROLUCNI PROCES Elektricna pec je cilindrino


ognjite u obliku zdjele,koje se obino pravi sa mogunou
zakretanja,kako bi se olakalo utovaranje i istovaranje.Openito
elik iz pei sa otvorenim ognjitem koristi se za punjenje
elektrolunepei.Hemijska analiza elikakoji se stavlja u pe, se
vri te se dodaju svi neophodni legirajuci elementi u pe prije
nego se ona zatvori za atmosferu.
Toplota koja je potrebna u ovom procesu,stvara se pomou
elektrinog luka koji nastaje izmeu pokretnih karbonskih
elektroda velikog prenika i metalne kupke.Kako se elektrode
troe one se pomjeraju prema doel na zadatku udaljenost iznad
istopljenog po potrebi savrha pei.Obino, punjenje stepenovanih
elinih otpiljaka se topi pod oksidirajucom bazinom troskom
kako bi se uklonio fosfor.Oneiena troska se uklanja
naginjanjem pei.Druga kreasta troska se koristi da se ukloni
sumpor i da se deoksiduje metal upei.

Ovo rezultira da se mogu praviti elici sa velikim stepenomistoe


i elici vosokog kvaliteta, sve dok se izbjegava absorpcija plina
zbog pretjerano visokih temperatura.
OVAJ proces dozvoljava visok stepen kontrole elinog proizvoda,
te se siroko upotrebljava za pravljenje visoko legiranih elika kao
to su: nehtajui, vatrootporni i visokobrzinski elici.

10. THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY STEELS THE


INDUCTION HEATING PROCESS
Induction heating is defined as raising of the temperature of a
material by means of electrical generation of heat within the material
and not by any other heating method such as convection, condusction,
or radiation. The material being heated is not part of a closed
electrical circuit as it would be in resistance welding or as it is in the
electric furnace.
Indukciono zagrijavanje je definisano kao podizanje temperature
materiala pomocu elektricnog stvaranja toplote unutar
materijala,a ne preko bilo kojeg drugog nacina zagrijavanja,kao
sto je konvekcija,kondukcija ili radijacija.Materijal koji se
zagrijava nije dio zatvorenog elektricnog luka kao to bi bio u
otpornom zavarivanju ili kao to je u elektrinoj peci.

Induction heating is a phenomen caused by an alternating magnetic field created


in electrical conductors whenever alternating current flows through them.

Magnetic materials, such as iron and steel, when placed within the area of an
alternating magnetic field, are heated by both hysteresis and eddy current losses.
Hysteresis loss is caused by friction among the molecules of the material as they
move within the metal in the magnetic field. The magnitude of this hysteresis
loss and the heat created by it, is proportional to the frequency of the magnetic
field.

Indukciono zagrijavanje je fenomen uzrokovan naizmjeninim


magnetnim poljem stvorenim u elektricnim provodnicima kad god
naizmjenina struja tee kroz njih.
Magnetni materijali kao to su eljezo i elik kada se posatave unutar
podruja naizmjeninog magnetnog polja se griju preko histereznih
gubitaka i preko gubitaka usljed vrtlonih struja.
Histerezni gubici su uzrokovani trenjem
izmeu molekula
materijala , kada se one krecu unutar metala u magnetnom
polju.Intenzitet ovog histereznog gubitka i toplote koji on stvara
proporcionalan je ferkvenciji magnetnog polja.
Eddy current losses are losses caused by resistance resulting from small
circulating currenzs within a material placed in an alternating magnetic field.
These resistance losses cause heat which is absorbed by the metal being heated.
The amount of heat created by eddy currents is proportional to the square of the
alternating frequency of the current, and the square of amperage flowing in the
conductor which produces the magnetic field.
In the electric-induction furnace, the chargeis placed in a refractory crucible
encircled by a water-cooled copper coil through which a high-frequency
alternating current varying from 60 to 60 000 cycles per second is placed. This
induces secondary eddy currents in the iron and heats it by virtue of its
resistance to the passage of these currents.

Gubici usljed vrtlonih struja su gubici koji su uzrokovani


otporom koji nastaje iz malih krunih struja unutar materijala,

koji je postavljen u naizmjeninom magnetnom polju.Ovi gubici


usljed otpora stvaraju toplotu koja se absorbuje od strane
molekula koje su zagrijane.Koliina toplote uzrokovana vrtlonim
strujama proporcionalan je kvadratu naizmjenine frekvencije
struje i kvadratu jaine struje koja tee u provodniku koji stvara
magnetno polje.
U ELEKTRO indukcionoj peci ara se stavlja u vatrostalni
lanac sa bakrenim kalemima koji se hladi vodom kroz koji
prolazi naizmjenina struja visoke frekvencije koja varira od 6060000 ciklusa po sekundi.Ovo indukuje sekundarne vrtlone
struje u eljezu i zagrijava ga usljed njegovog otpora dolasku
ovih struja.
The furnace is primarily a remelting furnace, very little refining or purifying of
the metallic charge being accomplished. Close control of compositions is
accomplished by selection of raw materials , the speed of melting being such
that control by chemical methods is impractical. In addition it is possible to
accurately control the temperature of the metal being heated by accurately
controlling the frequency and amperage of the alternating current passing
though the induction coil.

Pe je primarna za ponovno topljenje gdje se izvrsi veoma malo


rafinacije ili proiavanja metalne are .Tana kontrola sastava
se vri izborom sirovih materijala brzinom topljenja koja je takva
da je kontrola hemijskim metodama ne praktina .Dodatno,
mogue je precizno kontrolisati frekvenciju i jainu naizmjenine
struje koja prolazi kroz indukcionu zavojnicu.

Violent stirring of the molten charge, as indicated by the arrows in Fig 10-2, is
produced by the interaction of the eddy currents with the high-frequency field.

Since lower frequencies are most efficient for stirring, many modern furnaces
have two frequencies applied to the coil, a high frequency for rapid melting, and
a low frequency for rapid stirring. The stirring action keeps the slag on the
surface agitated, providing openings in the slag layer through which entrapped
gases may escape. These electric furnaces are being used to produce high
quality steels, such as ball bearing , stainless, magnet and tool steels.

Snano mijeanje rastopljenje are kako je prikazano strelicama


na slici 10-2, stvara se putem interakcije krunih struja sa poljem
visoke frekvencije.Poto su nie frekvencije najefikasnije za
mijeanje, mnoge moderne pei imaju dvije frekvencije koje se
primjenjuju na zavojnicu, visoku frekvenciju za brzo topljenje i
nisku frekvenciju za brzo mijesanje.Operacija mijeanja dri
trosku otvore u troski kroz koje zarboljeni plinovi mogu izaci.Ove
elektrine pei se koriste za proizvodnju elika visokog kvaliteta
kao to su elici za kugline leaje,nehrajui, magnetni i alatni
elici

11. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES - PRIMARY AND


SECONDARY

Manufacturing processes can be classified into two general groups known as


primary and secondary processes.
PRIMARY MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. The primary processes namely
CASTING, FORGING, ROLLING, DEEP DRAWING, EXTRUSION, ans so
on, are those that convert raw materials into shapes. These forming methods
include both hot and cold working processes and, in general, will still require
further finishing operations in order to obtain an end products.

Procesi proizvodnje se mogu podijeliti u dvije opte grupe,poznati


kao primarni i sekundarni procesi.
PRIMARNI PROCESI proizvodnje.Primarni proces
tj,livenje,kovanje, valjanje, duboko izvlacenje, istiskivanje,itd , su
ti koji pretvaraju sirov materijal u obliove metode oblikovanja
ukljuuju i tople i hladne procese obrade i openito e i dalje
zahtjevati dalje operacije zavrne obrade kako bi se dobio
konaan proizvod.
CASTINGis a primary manufecturing process in which the products, referred to
as CASTINGS, are made by pouring molten metal into a mold or die. As the
metal cools, it takes the shape of the cavity. There are many casting methods,
such as sand casting, die casting, permanent mold casting, investment casting, to
mention only some of the most prominent techniques.

LIVENJE je primarni proces proizvodnje, u kojem se proizvod


koji se nazivaju odliva proizvodi se sipanjem istopljenog metala u
kalup ili matricu.Kako se metal hladi, poprima oblik
upljine.Postoji mnogo metoda livenja kao sto je livenje u
pjeane kalupe, livenje pod pritiskom, livenje u permanentni
(trajni) kalup , precizno livenje itd, gdje smo spomenuli samo
neke od najpoznatijih tehnika.

FORGING is a production method whereby steel or non-ferrous metals are


shaped to a desired form by hammering or pressing. For the former, steam and
pneumatic hammers, drop hammers and horizontally operating machines are
used. For pressing hydraulic presses are used, and these give a squeeze to the
metal instead of blow, producting a considerably greater reduction in one stroke
than is possible in one stroke of a hammer. Machine forgings, which may be of
various shapes and sizes, are formed between dies, one being movable and the
other stationary. For relatively simple shapes open dies can be used (Open Die
Forging) but for more complex shapes conforming to the contours and
dimensions of the finished product, two or more sets of dies may be required ,
and are known as closed dies (Closed Die Forging). The process of forging is
usually confined to shapes that cannot be produced by rolling.

KOVANJE je proizvodni metod kojim se elik ili nemetalni


materijali oblikuju u eljeni oblik hladnim kovanjem ili
presovanjem .Za prvi od pomenuta dva koriste se parni i
pneumatski ekii,padajuci ekii i maine koje rade u
horizontalnim smjerima .
Za presovanje se koriste hidraulicne prese koje pritiu metal
umjesto udara dajui znatno veu redukciju u jednom taktu nego
to je mogue u jednom taktu hladnog kovanja.Mainski otkovci
koji mogu biti razliiti oblika i veliina , nastaju izmeu matrica,
gdje je jedna pokretna a druga stacionarna.
Za relativno jednostavne oblike mogu se koristit otvorene matrice
(slobodno kovanje), ali za kompleksnije oblike koji se u skladu sa
dimenzijama i konturama konanog proizvoda, mogu se
zahtjevati dva ili vie setova matrica koje su poznate kao
zatvorena matrica)zatvoreno matrino kovanje).Proces kovanja je
obino ogranien na oblike koji se ne mogu proizvesti valjanjem.

ROLLING is the process of plastic working of metal between two or more


rotating rolls in which, in addition to the main operation, the grain structure, the
mechanical properties and the surface finish may be improved. Rolling can be
effected by various methods which differ from one another in:
a
b
c
d

the direction of rolling (lengthwise, transverse and screw rolling)


the mode of rolling mill operation (continuous or reversing)
the state of the metal (hot,warm and cold rolling)
the shape of rolled product (sheet, solid or hollow sections).

Working rolls may be either smooth (for sheet rolling) or grooved (for sections
of various shapes).

VALJANJE je proces plastinog oblikovanja materijala izmeu


dva ili vie rotirajuih valjaka u kojim se kao dodatak osnovnoj
operaciji mogu poboljsati struktura zrna,mehanike osobine i
povrinska obrada.Valjanje se moe postici raznim metodama
koje se razlikuju jedna od druge po :
a)the direction of rolling (lengthwise, transverse and screw rolling)
- pravcu valjanja (duina,poprecno i valjanje vijaka
b)the mode of rolling mill operation (continuous or reversing),
- nainu rada postrojenja za valjanje (neprekiano ili povratno )
bsp;
c)the state of the metal(hot, warm
and cold rolling)
- stanju metala (vrue, toplo ili hladno valjanje )
d) the shape of rolled procuct (sheet,solid or hollow sections)
sp;
- obliku proizvoda koji se valja
(lim, vrsta tijela i uplji profili)
RADNI valjci mogu biti glatki (za valjanje limova) ili olebljeni
(za profile razliitih oblika

DEEP DRAWING is a cold-working process, involving considerable plastic


deformation of metals in which sheet or strip metal is drawn into the desired
shape by means of dies.
EXTRUSION is a fabrication process for producting rods, tubes, and various
shapes of solid and hollow sections from the billet or blank of solid metal. There
are basically three types of extrusion, known respectively as DIRECT,
INVERSE (or INDIRECT) and IMPACT (or COLD) EXTRUSION.
SECONDARY MANUFACTURING PROCESSES are those that bring the part
to the dimensions and surface finish specified. One may also include in the
secondary processes such operations as heat treating and surface treatments for
corrosion resistance, hardness and appearance. Secondary processes are
PLANING, SHAPING, TURNING, MILLING, DRILLING, BORING,
GRINDING, POLISHING, etc., as well as special methods of metal removal
such as ELECTRODISCHARGE MACHINING and
ELECTROMECHANICAL MACHINING. Operations like SCREW
CUTTING, TAPPING, THREAD MILLING, GEAR CUTTING, and so on, are
secondary processes that are merely adaptations of one of the aforementioned
processes.

DUBOKO IZVLAENJE je proces hladne obrade koji ukljuuje


znatnu plasticnu deformaciju metala kojom se lim ili metal u traci
izvlai u eljeni oblik pomou matrice.
ISTISKIVANJE je proizvodni proces za proizvodnjuod gredica ili
komada vrstog metala.Postoje osnovne tri vrste istiskivanja
poznate redom kao : direktno istiskivanje, inverzno )
suprotnosmjerno) i udarno (hladno ) istiskivanje.
SEKUNDARNI PROCESI proizvodnje su oni koji dovode dio na
odreene dimenzije i povrinsku obradu.Takoer u sekundarne
procese mogu se svrstati operacije kao to su: termika obrada,
povrinska obrada za zastiti od korozije ,otvrdnjavanje i
izgled.Sekundarni procesi su:rendisanje,
profilisanje,struganje,glodanje,busenje,buenje tokarskim noem,

bruenje,poliranje itd kao i posebne metode otklanjanja metala


kao to su mainska obrada. Operacije kao to su narezivanje
vijaka,odsjecanje,glodanje navoja,rezanje zupanika itd su
sekundarni procesi koji su samo adaptacija jednog od gore
spomenutih procesa.

12. MACHINE MEMBERS


SHAFTS. A shaft is a rotating member used for the purpose of transmitting
power. It should be distinguished from an AXLE, which is a stationary member
used as a support for rotating elements such as wheels. Shafts are used in
various ways and for various purposes in all kinds of mechanical equipment.
As a machine element, a shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads produced by the
following:
1. weight of the shaft and its gears, sprockets, rotors, clutches, or other
attached parts,
2. the centrifugal force of revolving parts, especially if they are unbalanced,
3. belt and chain tension
4. torque of gears and sprockets.

VRATILA vratilo je rotirajuci mainski element koji se koristi u


svrhu prenosa snage.Treba se razlikovati od osovine koji je
stacionarni mainski element koji se koristi kao oslonac za
rotirajuce elemente kao to su tokovi.Vratila se koriste na razne
naine i u razne svrhe u svim vrstama mainske opreme.
Kao mainski element, vratilo je podvrgnuto varirajucim
optereenjima koji nastaju iz sljedeeg:
1.teine vratila i njegovih zupanika, lananikarotora, spojnica ili
drugih spojenih dijelova
2.centrifugalne sile obrtnih dijelova, posebno ako su nebalansirani
3.zatezanjem remena i lanca

4. obrtnog momenta zupanika i lananika zbog toga


koncentracija napona ,izdrljivost, kao i krutost i vrstoa vratila
e igrati znaajnu ulogu u njegovom dizajnu.
Therefore, stress concentration, endurance as well as rigidity and strength of a
shaft will play a significant role in its design.
COUPLINGS. Two shafts can be connected by shaft couplings of which there
are many varieties. The angle between two shafts, transmitted power, torsional
and lateral vibrations, shock loads, and so on, are all parameters that must be
considered in selecting a coupling to connect the shafts. Couplings used to join
the shaft of an electric motor to the line shaft of a machine or a hydraulic turbine
to an electric generator are examples of PERMANENT COUPLINGS, because
their connections would only be broken for repairs and/or general maintenance.
Permanent couplings are classified into two groups:
1. rigid couplings and
2. flexible couplings

SPOJNICE- Dva vratila mogu biti spojena spojnicama za vratila


kojih ima razliitih vrsta .Ugao izmeu dva vratila, preneena
snaga , torzione i aksijalne vibracije , udarna optereenja itd su
svi parametri koji se moraju uzeti u obzir pri odabiru spojnice za
spajanje vratila.Spojnice koje se koriste za spajanje elektrinog
motora na transmisiano vratilo maine ili hidraulinih turbina na
elektrini generator su primjeri nerazdvojive spojnice, jer bi se
njihove veze kidale samo pri popravkama ili opem odravanju.
NERAZDVOJIVE spojnice se klafificiraju u dvije grupe:
1.krute spojnice i
2. zglobne spojnice

UNIVERSAL JOINTS. For very large angular or offset misalignment between


two shafts, a universal joint must be employed. The simplest type of universal

joint consists of a yoke on each shaft connected by a central bar. Almost always
universal joints are used in pairs with equal angles in the two joints. The use of
equal angles provides uniform angular velocity in the driven shaft.
KEYS. Keys are used to prevent relative motion between a shaft and machine
elements such as gears, pulleys, sprockets, cams, levers, flywheels, impellers,
and so on. The particular type of key specified will depend upon the magnitude
of the torque transmitted, type of loading (that is, steady, varying, or oscillatory),
fit required, limiting shaft stress, and cost.

ZGLOBNE spojnice se koriste za spajanje vratila koja su izloena


jednoj ili vie vrsta nepodeenja i kako bi se smanjio efekat udara
ili udarnih optereenja koja bi se mogla prenjeti izmeu vratila.
KARDANOVE SPOJNICE-Za vrlo velika ugaona ili pomina
nepodeenja izmeu dva vratila mora se koristiti kardanova
spojnica.Najjednostavnija vrsta kardanove spojnice sastoji se od
privrsnog remena na oba vrtatila koji su spojeni sa centralnom
ipkom.Univerzalne spojnice se skoro uvijek koriste u paru s
jednakim uglovima na obe spojnice.Koritenjem jednakih uglova
omoguava stalnu ugaonu brzinu u gonjenom vratilu.
KLINOVI- Klinovi se koriste da sprijee relativno kretanje
izmeu vratila i mainski elemenata kao to su
zupanici,lananici, zavojci, propeleri itd.Postoje brojne vrste
klinova za razne zahtjeve dizajna.Odreena vrsta specificiranog
klina e zavisit od intenziteta prenesenog obrtnog momenta, vrste
optereenja(tj. umjereno, rotirajue ili oscilatora), zahtjevanog
nalijeganja, graninog napona vratila i cijene.

The simplest key shape is the square key. Half the height of the key lies in the
shaft and the other half in the hub of the machine element. In addition to the

square key, the round-end key, the taper key, and rhe Woodruff key of Fig 12-2
are also used.
SPLINES. Splines are a series of teeth cut into the surface of a shaft in the axial
direction which mate with a series of keyways cut into the hub of the mounted
part. Splines are used instead of keys when a sliding connection is required and
when heavy torque loads, especially reversing loads, are present, as in power
takeoffs. To ensure sliding under load, the bearing stress against the slides of the
splines is usually limited to 100 psi.

Najjednostavniji oblik klina je kvadratni klin .Pola visine klina


lei u vratilu, a druga polovina u ljebu mainskog
elementa.Pored kvadratnog klina, takoer se koriste klinovi sa
zaobljenim krajevima, konusni klinovi, woodnefor klin (slika 122).
LJEBOVI ljebovi su nizovi zubaca urezanih na povrinu
vratila u aksijalnom smjeru koji se spree sa nizovima urezanih
ljebova za klin u sreditu montiranog dijela.ljebovi se koriste
umjesto klinova kada je potrebna klizna veza i kada su prisutna
teka obrtna optereenja, posebno povratna veza, kao pri prekidu
snage.Da bi se osiguralo klizanje pod optereenjem ,povrsinski
napon leaja nasuprot strane ljebova je obino ogranien na 100
psi .