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1.

Introduction
Milling is a machining process to remove the material from the work piece by

using the rotary cutter in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. After the
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) was introduced, milling machine was involved
into a machining centre that come with automatic tool changers, coolant system, and
enclosures. It also known as vertical machining centres (VMCs) and horizontal
machining centres (HMCs).
High speed milling has assumed as importance and become a versatile
industry application in fulfilling the requirements of high productivity and better quality
due to increased demand and cost reduction in manufacturing. It is typically refers to
making light milling passes at high spindle speed and feed rate to achieve a high
metal removal rate. High geometrical accuracy, low cutting forces are among the
advantages of high speed machining that finds applications mainly in aerospace and
die & mould industry.

Figure 1: High Speed Milling Machine


1.1

Advantages

Below show the advantages in conducting the experiment by using a high


speed milling machine.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
2.0

Cutting the edge of the work piece with a extremely short in time.
Low cutting force gives a small and consistent tool deflection.
Allow for a productive cutting process in small sized components.
Possible to achieve extremely good surface finishing.

Comparison

2.1 Below show the difference between variety types of machinery operation.
Table 1: Comparison of machinery operation.
Type
Drilling

Picture

Meaning
Drilling
is

Description
a Used for last

economical way removal of stock


of

removing on preparation for

large amount of other

operation

metal to create like


semi-precision
round

hole

reaming,

or

or tapping.

cavity.
Grinding is an

Grinding

boring,

operation

The

abrasive

in grains are formed

which the cutting into

grinding

is done by the wheel.


use of abrasive
particles.

Very

smooth

surface can be

Remove very accomplished by


small

chips

very

in the use of the

large proper

numbers

grinding

by wheel.

cutting the action


of

many small

individual
abrasive grains.
Uses of rotating The spindle is

Milling

tool to produce mounted on a


flat surfaces.

horizontal

Used for heavy position.


stock removal.

Available in
different size

High
Milling

Speed

Achieving
metal

tables.
high Include automatic

removal tool

changers,

rates with quick coolant


milling passes.

3.0

system,

and enclosures.

Material Use
There are some critical parameters for HSM, as for instance the depth of cut.

The cutting tool manufacturers provide recommendations regarding the machining


parameters that should be used. Those parameters are usually one of many
operating windows (applicable sets of parameters). Below there is a comparison of
speeds used during machining some selected materials using conventional and
HSM methods (Tab. 2).

Table 2 Conventional vs. High Speed Milling


Solid Tools (end mills, Indexable Tools (shell mills,
drills) WC, coated WC,

face mills) WC, ceramic,

Work

PCD, ceramic
slalon, CBN, PCD
Typical
High cutting Typical
High

Material

cutting

speed

cutting

speed

speed

[m/min]

speed

[m/min]

[m/min]
>610

>3658

366

PCD)
1219 (sialon,

Aluminum

[m/min]
>305 (WC, >3050

Cast Iron

PCD)
152

soft

steel

(WC, PCD)
366

cutting

(WC,

ductile
107
free match 107

244
366

244
366

ceramic)
914 (ceramic)
610

steel
alloy
stainless
hardness

244
152
122

213
152
30(WC),

366
274
46(WC),

91(CBN,

183(CBN,

ceramic)
46
84(WC),

ceramic)
91
366(sialon,

213(sialon)

ceramic)

76
107
24

HRC65
Titanium
Super alloy

38
46

61
76

As it was pointed out before HSM is mainly used in die mould industry. Below some
typical cutting data for machining of die are selected in Tables 3 and 4.
Table 3 Typical cutting data for solid carbide end mills with Ti(C,N) or TiAlN coating
in hardened steel: (HRC 54 58).
Type
processing

of vc
[m/min]

Roughing
Semi

100
- 150

finishing
Finishing

200
and 200

Super-finishing 250

ap [%] *

ae [%]*

6-8

35 - 40

fz
[mm/tooth]
0, 05 - 0,
1
0, 05 - 0,

3-4
20 - 40
15
- 0, 1 - 0, 0, 1 - 0, 0, 02 - 0,
2**

2**

* % of the cutter diameter, ** [mm]


Table 4 HSM cutting data by experience (R roughing, F finishing).
vc [m/min]
HSM HSM
Material*
Steel

Hardness

Conv.

01.2
Steel

150 HB

<300

>400

<900

02.1/2
Steel

330 HB

<200

>250

<600

03.11
Steel

300 HB
<100
39 - 48

>200

<400

03.11

HRC
<80
48 - 58

>150

<350

Steel 04
GCI 08.1

HRC
<40
180 HB
<300
60 - 75 <100

>100
>500

<250
<3000

Aluminum HB
0
>2000
Non - ferr. 100 HB
<300 >1000
* according to Coromant Material Classification (CMC)
4.0

<5000
<2000

Methods
4.1

Machining methods for the die and mould manufacturing


Practically, HSM is used to reduce the costs of work piece production.

Such a case takes place when machining press dies or moulds. As it is known
dies consist of cavities in various shapes, with the dimensions and numerous
radii sizes of corners. As an example methods for machining of a cavity below
are described.
Based on experience, or other production information, the surface
machined, can be split up in segments. Each segment can be machined with
one set of insert edges. This technique can be used both for roughing and
finishing. It gives several benefits, namely :
-

better machine tool utilization less interruptions, less manual tool

changing, higher productivity, i.e. easier to optimize cutting data,


better cost efficiency optimization vs. real machine tool cost per hour,

higher die or mould geometrical accuracy, which means the finishing tools
can be changed before getting excessive wear.

4.2

Methods for machining a cavity


There are several methods used for machining the cavity.

One of them is to pre-drill of a starting hole. Corners can be pre-drilled as


well. This method is not recommendable, because a special tool is needed.
When the cutter breaks through the predrilled holes in the corner, the
variations in the cutting forces and temperature appear negative from a
cutting point of view. When using pre-drilled holes the re-cutting of chips also
increases, (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Example of machining a cavity with


predrill a starting hole.

Fig. 2 Example of machining


with a ball nose endmill.

In the second method a ball nose end mill is applied. Thus it is common to use a
peck-drilling cycle to reach full axial depth of the cut and then mill the first layer of the
cavity. This is repeated until the cavity is finished as shown in Fig. 2
One of the best methods is linear ramping in X/Y and Z to reach a full axial depth of
the cut. The inclination can start both from in to out or from out to in. It depends on
the geometry of the die or mould. The main problem is how to evacuate of the chips
in the best way. Down milling should be done with a continuous movement and
continuous cutting. It is important to approach with ramping movement or even better
with even circular interpolation, during changing to a new radial depth of cut. (Fig. 3)

Fig. 3.Example of machining witch


linear ramping .

Fig. 4. Example of machining


witch ramping capacity.

The last method is effective when using round insert cutters or end mills with a
ramping capacity. The best choice it is to take the first axial depth of cut using
circular interpolation in helix the rest of machining goes as in the previous point. (Fig.
4)

5.0

Conclusion
Hard competition causes rapid development of the machining technology and

design of new solutions. HSM ensures high metal removal rates, boost productivity,
improve surface finish and eliminates the need of coolant. In spite of high
requirements of machining tools, HSM gives numerous benefits. It allows to shorten
the production.
Significant advantages can be achieved by using high-speed milling in
manufacturing of the products made of advanced materials. Very often high-speed
machining is considered just a way to improve productivity resulted from faster
cutting speeds than used conventionally. Seldom is emphasized that the product
quality can be improved as a consequence of increased accuracy and better surface
finish. Advantages of HSM can be reached only if interactions between the
workpiece and the tool are taken into consideration, the machine tool have been
selected in a right way, NC programs have been made correctly, right cutting
parameters are used and, the last but not least, the safety aspects have been
considered.

Most of the materials can be machined by high-speed milling. A good result is


obtained by the appropriate selection of cutting parameters. The empirical selection
of cutting parameters is seldom possible in industrial production, therefore results
derived from laboratory experiments are needed. In this presentation the high-speed
milling of steels, aluminium alloys, graphite and polymer-matrix composites is
discussed. The tools applied in high-speed milling are solid end mills and multipart
mills. Owing to high spindle speeds, the tool holder and the tool must be dynamically
balanced at a sufficient level.
Polymer-matrix composites such as carbon and glass-fibre have been highspeed milled by using advanced carbide and diamond tools. The most interesting
application field of high-speed milling is the finishing operations of tool steels.
Products made of hardened tool steel and comprising three dimensional surfaces
are successfully milled with CBN end mills without any significant tool wear.
The high-speed milling of materials with low machinability is a tool material
selection dependent question. With the appearance of super hard tools, the
possibility of high speed machining has significantly widened. Sometimes classic
material have their status in the machining of such kinds of workpiece materials
causing rapid tool wear. When machining with these tools, the optimal choice of
cutting process parameters is important, as the requirements concerning the parts
can often only be satisfied by cutting under extreme conditions small chip crosssection and high cutting speed.
The conclusion obtained is that in high-speed milling, the tool life with a goal
oriented milling tool material, machined cutting parameter combination is acceptable
and the machining result is satisfactory. When tools are not selected goal-orientedly,
the rate of tool wear is rapid.