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You are on page 1of 26

Mat Hunt

October 10, 2011

Abstract

This set of notes provides an introduction to integration, what it is

and some of the techniques that are used. The numerical evaluation

of the integral via the trapezium rule. The level of material will cover

up to A-level.

1

1.1

Basic Theory

Suppose we have a curve y = f (x) and we want to find the area under the

graph from a point x = a to a point x = b. One way that we can possibly

find the area is to split the area up into strips and then the area of the strips

1

can be calculated. The thinner the strip then the more accurate the answer

for the area. Say we split up the interval [a, b] into n pieces each of length

(b a)/n, the points of the interval are

ba

xi = a +

i

(1)

n

The set of points a = x0 < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn1 < xn = b is called a

partition of the interval [a, b]. To compute the area choose strips that lie

completely within the area: Mathematically we are choosing the minimum

of f (xi ) and f (xi+1 ) for the strip starting at the point xi . Hopefully when a

larger and larger values of n is chosen then the area of the strips will converge

to the area under the graph. The area under the curve can then be estimated

as the following:

n1

X

n1

baX

min(f (xi ), f (xi+1 ))

n

i=0

i=0

(2)

This will be called the lower sum for the area. Note that the term xi+1 xi is

used for the interval (b a)/n because in general the partition can be uneven

in the widths of the strips xi+1 xi , we have made then even for convenience

only. Likewise we can overestimate the area under the curve by choosing the

maximum of f (xi ) and f (xi+1 ) for a strip starting at xi The area under the

AL (n) =

n1

n1

X

baX

max(f (xi ), f (xi+1 ))

AU (n) =

max(f (xi ), f (xi+1 ))(xi+1 xi ) =

n

i=0

i=0

(3)

This will be called the upper sum for the area. The approximations will be

valid if we can find an n > N for which |AU (n) AL (n)| < , this is called

the Riemann criterion. The Riemann criterion basically states that if the

difference of the upper and lower limits is vanishingly small as n gets larger

and larger, then the approximations we made are valid for computing the

area under the curve. Once we know that the Riemann criterion holds then

we can take the limit as n in either the upper or lower limits to obtain

the area.

Example. Take the equation y = x and we will compute the area under

the curve from the point x = 0 to x = a. The interval [0, a] would be split

up into n different points, each of length a/n, the points in the partition are

ai/n. Then computing the lower limit of the area shows that:

n1

n1

a X ai

a2 X

AL (n) =

i

= 2

n i=0 n

n i=0

Now:

n1

X

i=0

i=

n(n 1)

2

(4)

Then:

a2

AL (n) =

2

1

1

n

n

n

a X ai

a2

1

a2 X

AU (n) =

i=

1+

=

n i=1 n

2 i=1

2

n

(5)

(6)

Now geometrically AU (n) > AL (n) and so |AU (n)AL (n)| = AU (n)AL (n),

so computing this condition shows that:

1

a2

1

a2

a2

1+

1

=

AU (n) AL (n) =

2

n

2

n

n

So taking N > a2 / will ensure that the the Riemann criterion will hold and

the approximations for the area under the curve is valid and we may take the

limit as n to obtain the exact area under the curve to obtain the area

to be a2 /2 which is geometrically intuitive because we computed the area of

a right angled triangle which is just half the area of a square with length of

sides a.

Example. Take the function y = x2 and as before we will compute the area

under the graph from x = 0 to x = a. The partition of the interval [0, a] will

be divided equally into n pieces, each of length a/n and the points of the

partition will be ai/n. Computing the lower sum shows that:

n1

aX

AL (n) =

n i=0

ai

n

2

n1

a3 X 2

i

= 3

n i=0

(7)

n1

X

i=0

i2 =

n(n 1)(2n 1)

6

shows that:

a3 n(n 1)(2n 1)

a3

AL (n) = 3

=

n

6

6

3

1

2 + 2

n n

2

n

3

a X ai

1

a3

2+ + 2

AU (n) =

=

n i=1 n

6

n n

4

(8)

(9)

a3

3

3

1

a3

1

a3

AU (n) AL (n) =

2+ + 2

2 + 2 = .

6

n n

6

n n

n

(10)

So this can be made less that any given by taking N > a3 /. So the

Riemann criterion is satisfied and we may take the limit as n to obtain

the area as a3 /3.

Definition The upper integral from a point x = a and x = b of a function

y = f (x) is denoted as:

Z b

f (x)dx

(11)

a

Z b

n1

X

f (x)dx = lim

max(f (xi ), f (xi+1 ))(xi+1 xi ).

a

(12)

i=0

denoted as:

Z b

f (x)dx

(13)

a

Z b

n1

X

f (x)dx = lim

min(f (xi ), f (xi+1 ))(xi+1 xi ).

a

(14)

i=0

If the Riemann criterion holds then the upper integral is the same as lower

integral and we simply call it the integral and we write it as:

Z b

f (x)dx

(15)

a

Geometrically the integral represents the area under the curve from the points

x = a to the point x = b. The point a is called the lower limit and the point

b is called the upper limit. Functions which can be integrated are called

integrable. The function f (x) inside the integral is called the integrand. It

should be noted that x in the integral is what is known as a dummy variable

and any variable can be used. It is good practice to use a different letter to

represent the dummy variable than what appears in the limits.

Integration is the act of performing an integral and along with differentiation

makes up a subject called calculus. Integration is sometimes called integral

calculus

5

1.2

Basic Properties

Z a

f (x)dx = 0

a

Z b

Z c

Z b

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx +

f (x)dx a < c < b

a

a

c

Z b

Z a

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx

a

(16)

(17)

(18)

It is easy to see why the first of these properties holds. The geometric

interpretation of an integral is the area under the graph, so the first of the

properties ask about the area under the graph from x = a to x = a and

this is 0. For the second statement, known as the domain splitting property,

consider the following illustration: From the above diagram it can be seen

quite intuitively that the integrals from a to c is just the area under the graph

from a to c and the integral from c to b is just the area under the graph from

c to b. However when you look at the whole, this is just the area under the

graph of f (x) from a to b and it is clear why we can split up the integral in

the way we did. This property is very useful on occasion. The last property

follows from the first two because:

Z a

0 =

f (x)dx

a

Z b

Z a

=

f (x)dx +

f (x)dx,

a

and so:

b

a

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx

b

Although the above properties may at first sight seem somewhat useless, they

are however a very useful set of properties.

2

2.1

The Main Result

a very close way in that one in the reverse of the other. To see this define

let f (x) be some function which can be integrable and define F (x) by the

equation:

Z

x

F (x) =

f (u)dx

(19)

The geometric picture for the fundamental theorem of calculus is given by:

The quotient for the derivative is given by:

F (y) F (x)

=

yx

=

=

f (u)du

f (u)du

yx

Z

f (u)du +

1

yx

7

yx

f (u)du

f (u)du

Now the task is to compute the integral. The way to compute the integral

is to go back to the definition, we find the upper and lower sums for the

integral. As we are seeking to differentiate, which means to take the limit,

we can suppose that the points x and y are close together the we can suppose

that the integral can be approximated as shown in figure 6. It could be the

case that the function is decreasing on the interval [x, y], in which case the

roles of f (x) and f (y) swap. It is always possible to arrange it so the function

in question is always either increasing or decreasing on the interval [x, y].

Suppose there is a stationary point in the interval [a, x] at a point c, where

a < c < x then the property of domain splitting can be used. Split up the

domain as:

Z x

Z c

Z x

f (u)du =

f (u)du +

f (u)du

a

So the function will either be increasing or decreasing on the interval [x, y].

The lower sum is simply given by:

AL = f (x)(y x)

AU = f (y)(y x)

So the integral is bounded between:

Z y

AL

1

AU

6

,

f (u)du 6

yx

yx x

yx

which shows that:

1

f (x) 6

yx

f (u)du 6 f (y).

x

(20)

f (x) 6

F (y) F (x)

6 f (y).

yx

(21)

F (x) = f (x).

(22)

of f (x). All antiderivatives of a particular function differ by a constant only,

to show this let F1 (x) and F2 (x) be antiderivatives for a function f (x), so

F1 (x) = f (x) and F2 (x) = f (x) and suppose the difference of the antiderivatives is another function g(x), so:

F1 (x) F2 (x) = g(x)

(23)

g (x) = 0

and so g(x) is constant. Suppose that F (x) and G(x) are antiderivatives for

f (x), so F (x) = G(x) + C and F (x) is defined as:

Z x

F (x) =

f (x)dx

a

Z a

f (x)dx = 0 = G(a) + C

(24)

a

G(b) + C = G(b) G(a), and so:

Z

(25)

Z x

h(x) =

f (x)dx,

a

so h(x) and f (x) will differ by a constant (as both h(x) and f (x) are antiderivatives for f (x)), h(x) f (x) = C, evaluating this at x = a shows that

9

and so h(b) = f (b) f (a), which implies:

Z

b

a

(26)

The square brackets is just notation for taking the difference. So what we

have shown here is that differentiation and integration are truly inverse processes of each other, this very important result is known as the fundamental

theorem of calculus. The fundamental theorem of calculus allows is to

immediately write down a whole load of integrals without having to resort to

computing the upper and lower sums. It is common practice to call integrals

of the form:

Z b

F (x) =

f (x)dx

(27)

a

Z

F (x) = f (x)dx + C,

(28)

where C is an arbitrary constant (remember antiderivatives of the same function differ by a constant). As an example examine the function:

f (x) =

1

xn+1

n+1

Z

1

xn dx =

xn+1 + C

n+1

2.2

(29)

Given two functions f (x) and g(x) with primitives F (x) and G(x) respectively and let and be two numbers, then the following result holds for

the integral:

Z

f (x) + g(x)dx =

f (x) +

a

g(x)dx

(30)

This very important property is called linearity. to show this define H(x) =

F (x) + G(x), differentiate this to obtain:

H (x) = f (x) + g(x)

10

Z b

Z b

f (x) + g(x)dx =

H (x)dx

a

(31)

Z b

H (x)dx = [H(x)]ba

a

= H(b) H(a)

= F (b) + G(b) F (a) G(a)

= (F (b) F (b)) + (G(b) G(a))

Z b

Z b

=

f (x)dx +

g(x)dx

a

Combining these results give the result sought after. Although this doesnt

seem all that useful at first sight, it is indeed one of the most important

properties that the integral has, for example we can evaluate the following

integral:

Z

Z

Z

x3

2

3

2

x + 4x dx = x dx + 4 x3 dx =

+ x4 + C

3

There are numerous examples of when linearity is useful in calculus.

2.3

Negative Area

4 0

Z 0

x

04 (a)4

a4

3

x dx =

=

=

4 a

4

4

4

a

This gives a negative result, which is odd as previously we have given the

geometrical interpretation as the area below the graph and the y = 0 axis

which is positive. However when we pot the graph of y = x3 we notice that

the the values of f (x) = x3 are negative. As f (x) = x3 is an odd function, it

is possible to find the area under the graph between x = 0 and x = a as:

4 a

Z a

a4 04

a4

x

3

x dx =

=

=

4 0

4

4

4

0

So from this calculation we can see that this represents the area under the

graph as it gives a positive result. So the geometrical interpretation of the

11

negative result is the area above the graph to the y-axis. So we can write

down the general rule that if f (x) is an odd function:

Z

f (x)dx = 0

(32)

Z

f (x)dx = 2

3.1

f (x)dx

(33)

Polynomials

This section we show how the standard results for integration may be obtained, one was covered earlier:

Z

xn dx =

xn+1

+ C,

n+1

of the integrals are found.

12

3.2

Trigonometric Functions

The integral of trigonometric functions are found this way, note that:

d 1

1

d

cos ax = sin ax

sin ax = cos ax

dx a

dx

a

and so we can say:

Z

1

sin axdx = cos ax + C

a

cos axdx =

1

sin ax + C.

a

(34)

d

tan x = sec2 x

dx

3.2.1

(35)

d

cosn+1 x = (n + 1) cosn x sin x

dx

d

sinn+1 x = (n + 1) sinn x cos x,

dx

and therefore:

Z

Z

1

sinn+1 x + C ,

n+1

1

cosn+1 x + C

n+1

The above results are useful for computing the integrals of odd powers of sin x

and cos x. As an example of the method lets integrate f (x) = sin3 x. now

sin3 x = sin2 x sin x and using the trigonometric identity sin2 x + cos2 x 1

in the form of sin2 x = 1 cos2 x shows that sin3 x = (1 cos2 x) sin x and

so:

Z

Z

3

sin xdx =

(1 cos2 x) sin xdx

Z

Z

=

sin xdx cos2 x sin xdx

= cos x +

1

cos3 x + C

3

The same idea can be used for integrating odd powers of cos x.

13

3.2.2

There is no general formula for this but there is a general method, the method

us based upon the expression for cos 2x, as:

cos 2x = 2 cos2 x 1

So, integrate f (x) = cos4 x. Note cos4 x = (cos2 x)2 = ((1 + cos 2x)/2)2 ,

expanding this out completely shows that:

cos4 x =

1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x

4

cos4 x =

1 cos 2x 1 + cos 4x

+

+

4

2

8

The result can now be integrated using the standard rules given before.

For even powers of sin x, turn sin2 x into 1 cos2 x any apply the technique

above.

3.2.3

Integration of tann x

d

(tann x) = n tann1 x sec2 x,

dx

so we can conclude that:

Z

tann x sec2 xdx =

1

tann+1 x + C.

n+1

Use tann x = tan2 x tann2 x = tann2 x(sec2 x 1) and we are lead to the

relation:

Z

Z

1

n1

n

tan

x tann2 xdx

tan xdx =

(36)

n1

Equations of type (36) are called recurrence relations. When n = 2 we have:

Z

Z

2

tan xdx = sec2 x 1dx = tan x x + C

This completes all the integration for tann x.

14

3.3

d

dx

so:

Z

Likewise:

1 ax

e

a

= eax

1

eax dx = eax + C.

a

d

dx

and so:

1 x

a

ln a

ax dx =

(37)

= ax

1 x

a +C

ln a

(38)

Z

1

dx = ln x + C, x > 0

(39)

x

However for x < 0, we have the following picture: As was discussed earlier,

15

1

dx

a x

should have a value as the area above the curve us well defined geometrically,

to get a way around this multiple both denominator and numerator by 1

to get:

Z b

Z b

1

1

dx =

d(x) = [ln(x)]ba ,

a x

a x

for values of x < 0. So we can see that in general that:

Z

1

dx = ln |x| + C

(40)

x

Z

Generalising this result slightly, note that if f (x) = ln(f (x)), then:

f (x) =

f (x)

,

f (x)

(41)

and so:

Z

f (x)

dx = ln |f (x)| + C.

f (x)

(42)

for example integrating f (x) = x/(1 + x2 )

Z

Z

x

2x

1

dx

=

dx,

1 + x2

2

1 + x2

and this can be seen to be in the correct form for f (x) = 1 + x2 and so:

Z

1

x

= ln |1 + x2 | + C.

2

1+x

2

In this case the modulus signs can be dropped as 1 + x2 > 0 for all x and we

simply write:

Z

x

1

dx = ln(1 + x2 ) + C

2

1+x

2

Example, integrate the function f (x) = x/(1 + x). Some manipulation has

to be done in order to get this into a suitable form.

Z

Z

x+11

x

dx =

This is the trick of the integral

1+x

1+x

Z

1+x

1

=

dx

1+x 1+x

Z

1

dx

=

1

1+x

= x ln |1 + x| + C.

16

The trick here was to add and subtract 1 in the numerator. Another application of this in integrating tan x, note that cos x = sin x and so:

Z

tan xdx = ln | cos x| + C.

Integration by Parts

d

du

dv

(uv) = v

+u

dx

dx

dx

(43)

Z

d

(uv)dx =

dx

b

a

du

v dx +

dx

dv

dx

dx

(44)

Using the fundamental theorem of calculus on the LHS of (44) shows that:

Z

d

(uv)dx = [u(x)v(x)]ba

dx

(45)

[u(x)v(x)]ba

du

v dx +

dx

u

a

dv

dx.

dx

(46)

Taking the first term in the RHS over to the LHS gives the equation:

Z

dv

u dx = [u(x)v(x)]ba

dx

v

a

du

dx

dx

(47)

This is the expression for integration by parts. The indefinite integral version

of this expression is:

Z

dv

u dx = u(x)v(x)

dx

du

dx

dx

Z

xex dx

17

(48)

du

= 1,

dx

v = ex

Z

Z

x

x

xe dx = xe 1 ex dx = xex + ex + C

As can be seen, some care is needed in correctly choosing the values for u

and v. If we had chosen dv/dx = x and u = x then we would be left with

the integral:

Z

Z

x2 ex 1

x

xe dx =

x2 ex dx

2

2

which is a more complicated than the original integral.

Example. Find the indefinite integral of f (x) = ex sin x, so we compute:

Z

ex sin xdx

For this let u(x) = ex and dv/dx = sin x, then:

du

= ex ,

dx

v(x) = cos x

Z

Z

x

x

e sin xdx = e cos x + ex cos xdx

So now we have to find:

(49)

ex cos xdx

du

= ex ,

dx

v = sin x

Z

Z

x

x

e cos xdx = e sin x ex sin xdx

Inserting (50) into (49) shows that:

Z

Z

x

x

x

e sin xdx = e cos x + e sin x ex sin xdx.

18

(50)

Upon re-arranging

Z

ex sin xdx =

ex

(sin x cos x) + C

2

Z

Z

ln xdx = 1 ln xdx

Using u = ln x and dv/dx = 1, so:

du

1

= ,

dx

x

v=x

Z

Z

Z

1

ln xdx = x ln x

xdx = x ln x 1dx = x ln x x + C

x

Integration by Substitution

5.1

Basic Idea

Define:

F (x) =

f (u)du.

The next step is to examine (F (g(x))) which by the chain rule is:

(F (g(x))) = F (g(x))g (x) = f (g(x))g (x)

(51)

Z b

(F (g(x))) dx = F (g(b)) F (g(a)).

(52)

Now:

F (g(b)) F (g(a)) =

g(b)

c

f (u)du

g(a)

f (u)du =

g(b)

f (u)du

Z b

Z g(b)

f (g(x))g (x)dx =

f (u)du

a

(53)

g(a)

(54)

g(a)

The way that integration by substitution usually works is that we are given

an integral usually1 in the form of the RHS of (54) and our task to to come

up with a substitution u = g(x) that will simplify the integration.

1

19

5.2

Examples

Z x

du

2

0 1+u

Define u(v) = tan v, then u (v) = sec2 v The limits transform as u = 0

v = 0 and likewise u = x v = tan1 x. Inserting this into (54) shows that:

Z

x

0

du

=

1 + u2

tan1 x

0

sec2 v

dv =

1 + tan2 v

Example. Evaluate:

tan1 x

1dv = [v]0tan

= tan1 x

2x

dx

1 + x2

Use g(x)

= 1 + x , then g (x) = 2x, the limits transform as x = 0 g = 0

and x = 3 g = 4, then inserting these values in (54) shows that:

Z

2x

dx =

1 + x2

4

dg

dg = [2 g]0 = 2 4 2 0 = 4

g

Example. Evaluate:

du

b2 u2

1/b cos x. The limits become u = 0 x = 0 and u = b x = sin1 (a/b)

inserting this into the LHS of (54) shows that:

du

=

2

b u2

sin1 (a/b)

0

b cos x

dx =

b cos x

Example. Evaluate:

Z

dx

1+ x

20

sin1 (a/b)

dx = sin1 (a/b)

Let x = u2 then

x (u) = 2u and the limits become x = 0 u = 0 and

x = a u = a, then inserting the values into the LHS of (54) shows that:

Z a

Z a

u

dx

= 2

du

1+u

x

0

0 1+

Z a

1+u1

du

= 2

1+u

0

Z a

Z a

du

du

= 2

1+u

0

0

= [u ln |1 + u|]0 a

a ln(1 + a)

=

Example. Evaluate:

Z

x2 x3 + 1dx

Let g(x) = x + 1 then g (x) = 3x2 , with the limits g(0) = 1 and g(1) = 2,

The integral becomes transformed as:

Z

Z 1

1 2

2

2

3

udu = (2 2 1)

x x + 1dx =

3 1

9

0

This section is all about the one off techniques which can be useful in certain

situations

6.1

dx

a (x + )(x + )

The idea is to use partial fractions to decompose into a simpler integrand.

So using partial fractions the integral becomes:

1

1

1

1

=

(x + )(x + )

x+ x+

Z

b

Z b

Z b

dx

x+

1

1

1

1

ln

=

dx =

a x+ x+

x+ a

a (x + )(x + )

21

of integration of ratios of polynomials.

6.2

Z

can be easily integrated by the use of a specific substitution. The trick here

is to use the substitution:

x

t = tan

2

or in the notation that we are used to:

x = 2 tan1 t

Using the double angle formula for tan(x/2) we see that:

tan x =

2 tan(x/2)

2t

=

.

2

1 tan (x/2)

1 t2

Upon using the identities 1 + tan2 z = sec2 x and 1 + cot2 = cosec2 x we can

write:

1 t2

2t

cos x =

, sin x =

2

1+t

1 + t2

Differentiating the original substitution shows that:

x (t) =

2

1 + t2

Example. Evaluate:

Z

dx

2 + sin x

1 + t2

1

=

2 + sin x

2(t2 + t + 1)

22

into the LHS of (54) shows that:

Z

dx

=

2 + sin x

=

=

=

=

=

=

2

1 + t2

dt

2

2

0 2(t + t + 1) 1 + t

Z 1

dt

2

0 t +t+1

Z 1

dt

1 2

0

t + 2 + 43

1

2t + 1

2

1

tan

3

3

0

2

1

1

1

(tan

3 tan

3

3

2

6

3 3

3 3

Z

Trapezium Rule

There is a refinement on how the area under the graph or area above the

graph, that is computing the integral:

Z b

f (x)dx.

a

xn = b but instead of having a rectangular block as an approximation to the

area a trapezium is used, as is seen in figure 9. The area of the trapezium

between points xi and xi+1 is given by Ai = (xi+1 xi )(f (xi ) + f (xi+1 ))/2,

clearly:

n

X

AL (n) 6

Ai 6 AU (n)

i=1

P the upper and lower

integrals tend to the same number as n then ni=1 Ai must also tend

to the same number. The trapezium rule is meant to be an approximation

to the area under (or over) the graph and we can choose the accuracy as we

like. For simplicity all the widths of the trapeziums are taken to be the same

23

Z

f (x)dx

n

X

Ai

i=0

1X

(f (xi ) + f (xi+1 ))(xi+1 xi )

2 i=0

n

hX

(f (xi ) + f (xi+1 ))

2 i=0

h

(f (x0 ) + f (x1 ) + f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + + f (xn2 ) +

2

+ f (xn1 ) + f (xn1 ) + f (xn )

!

n1

X

h

f (a) + f (b) + 2

f (xi )

2

i=1

This is the basis of the approximation for the integral. As an example take:

Z 1

x2 dx.

0

The value of this integral is 1/3. Let us take 10 strips in our numerical

scheme, so the partition will be 0 < 0.1 < 0.2 < < 0.9 < 1.0 with

24

Z 1

0.1

x2 dx

(0 + 1 + 2 (0.12 + 0.22 + 0.32 + 0.42 + 0.52 +

2

0

+ 0.62 + 0.72 + 0.82 + 0.92 )) = 0.335

This answer is accurate to within 0.5% which isnt a bad approximation.

The larger the value of n the better the approximation, taking n = 100 for

example yields h = 0.01 and the answer to be 0.33335 which is accurate to

within 0.005%

g(x)u(x) = f (x) +

b(x)

K(x, t)u(t)dt

(55)

a(x)

The function K(x, t) is called the kernel of the integral equation. In general

integral equations are rather difficult to solve but there are certain cases

where solutions can be found. We take the case where a(x) and b(x) are

constant, g(x) = 1 and K(x, t) = (x)(t). With this (55) becomes:

u(x) = f (x) + (x)

(t)u(t)dt

(56)

Z b

(t)u(t)dt = = constant

(57)

u(x) = f (x) + (x)

(58)

So this is the solution, all that needs to be done how is to compute the

constant , This is done by inserting (58) into (56) and obtaining an equation

for which can be solved. Doing this shows that:

Z b

u(x) = f (x) + (x)

(t)(f (t) + (t))dt

(59)

a

25

Example. Solve the equation:

Z

u(x) = cos x + 2x +

xtu(t)dt

0

We recognise that f (x) = cos x + 2x, (x) = x and (t) = t and that is

given by:

Z

tu(t)dt

u(x) = cos x + (2 + )x

So calculating shows that:

Z

=

t(cos t + (2 + )t)dt

0

Z

Z

=

t cos tdt + (2 + )

t2 dt

0

0

Z

1

= [t sin t]0

sin tdt + (2 + ) t3

3 0

0

3

3

3

= 2 + (2 + )

3

Re-arranging shows that = 2 and the solution is u(x) = cos x.

26

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