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Induction Machines Starting Methods

Jos Tipantaxi
Electric Machines, Department of Electric Energy, National Polytechnic School
GR 1
Quito, Ecuador

There are a number of different types of starter including:

Start Delta Starter

Direct on Line Starting Method
Autotransformer Start
Additional Resistance
Stator Voltage Control

The motor in Y is:

The schematic and equivalent circuit are shown in

document development, and the performance of each


A. Star Delta starter

This is the most common form of starter used for three
phase induction motors.
This starting method an effective reduction of starting
current by initially connecting the stator windings in star

Disadvantage in this is if the phase currents are reduced

by 1/3, the torque will also be reduced by one third.
C. Direct on Line Starting Method
The DOL starter switches the supply directly on to the
contacts of the motor. The motor at the time of starting
draws very high starting current for the very short
duration. The DOL starter is typically only used for
motors with a rating of less than 5kW.

The motor in delta is:

The expression for torque of induction motor is:

Ws as synchronous speed of the motor
D. Autotransformer Start
This method of starting reduces the start current by
reducing the voltage at start up. The autotransformer
approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to
access the terminals of the motor windings, the control
can be applied remotely to the motor.
After the motor reaches to its normal operating speed,
the autotransformer is disconnected and then full line
voltage is applied.

We have assumed that the rotor resistance is constant and

it does not vary with the frequency of the rotor current.

E. Additional Resistance
If it is necessary to start a three phase induction motor on
load then a wound rotor machine will normally be
selected. Such a machine allows an external resistance to
be connected to the rotor of the machine through slip
rings and brushes.
In this method we add resistor or a reactor in each phase
as shown in the diagram

We can directly write the expression for torque of the

induction motor as:

It can be seen from the plots that a high rotor resistance

will provide a high starting torque, leading to rapid
acceleration of the mechanical system.

F. Stator Voltage Control

The torque developed by an induction motor is
proportional to the square of the applied voltage. This
method of trying to control the speed is best suited for
loads that require very little starting torque

Diferents methods :

The different methods for the starting induction motors in
general permit decreases the current and voltage
in the motor circuit for failing to have a high
initial torque that will alter the normal
operation of the network system in which the
induction motor is connected.

Gordon R. Slemon, Electric Machines and drives, University

of Toronto, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.1992

Stephen J. Chapman. Electric Machines, 3 edition, M c Graw
Hill, British Aerospace Australia.

A.E. Ftzgerald, Electric Machinery, Sixth Edition, Mc Graw

Hill, 2003.