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Cryptographicprotocol

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Asecurityprotocol(cryptographicprotocolorencryptionprotocol)isanabstractorconcreteprotocol
thatperformsasecurityrelatedfunctionandappliescryptographicmethods,oftenassequencesof
cryptographicprimitives.Aprotocoldescribeshowthealgorithmsshouldbeused.Asufficientlydetailed
protocolincludesdetailsaboutdatastructuresandrepresentations,atwhichpointitcanbeusedtoimplement
multiple,interoperableversionsofaprogram.[1]
Cryptographicprotocolsarewidelyusedforsecureapplicationleveldatatransport.Acryptographicprotocol
usuallyincorporatesatleastsomeoftheseaspects:
Keyagreementorestablishment
Entityauthentication
Symmetricencryptionandmessageauthenticationmaterialconstruction
Securedapplicationleveldatatransport
Nonrepudiationmethods
Secretsharingmethods
Securemultipartycomputation
Forexample,TransportLayerSecurity(TLS)isacryptographicprotocolthatisusedtosecureweb
(HTTP/HTTPS)connections.Ithasanentityauthenticationmechanism,basedontheX.509systemakey
setupphase,whereasymmetricencryptionkeyisformedbyemployingpublickeycryptographyandan
applicationleveldatatransportfunction.Thesethreeaspectshaveimportantinterconnections.StandardTLS
doesnothavenonrepudiationsupport.
Thereareothertypesofcryptographicprotocolsaswell,andeventhetermitselfhasvariousreadings
Cryptographicapplicationprotocolsoftenuseoneormoreunderlyingkeyagreementmethods,whicharealso
sometimesthemselvesreferredtoas"cryptographicprotocols".Forinstance,TLSemployswhatisknownas
theDiffieHellmankeyexchange,whichalthoughitisonlyapartofTLSperse,DiffieHellmanmaybeseenas
acompletecryptographicprotocolinitselfforotherapplications.
Cryptographicprotocolscansometimesbeverifiedformallyonanabstractlevel.Whenitisdone,thereisa
necessitytoformalizetheenvironmentinwhichtheprotocoloperateinordertoidentifythreats.Thisis
frequentlydonethroughtheDolevYaomodel.

Contents
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Advancedcryptographicprotocols
Examples
Seealso
References
Externallinks

Advancedcryptographicprotocols

Awidevarietyofcryptographicprotocolsgobeyondthetraditionalgoalsofdataconfidentiality,integrity,and
authenticationtoalsosecureavarietyofotherdesiredcharacteristicsofcomputermediatedcollaboration.Blind
signaturescanbeusedfordigitalcashanddigitalcredentialstoprovethatapersonholdsanattributeorright
withoutrevealingthatperson'sidentityortheidentitiesofpartiesthatpersontransactedwith.Securedigital
timestampingcanbeusedtoprovethatdata(evenifconfidential)existedatacertaintime.Securemultiparty
computationcanbeusedtocomputeanswers(suchasdeterminingthehighestbidinanauction)basedon
confidentialdata(suchasprivatebids),sothatwhentheprotocoliscompletetheparticipantsknowonlytheir
owninputandtheanswer.Endtoendauditablevotingsystemsprovidesetsofdesirableprivacyand
auditabilitypropertiesforconductingevoting.Undeniablesignaturesincludeinteractiveprotocolsthatallowthe
signertoproveaforgeryandlimitwhocanverifythesignature.Deniableencryptionaugmentsstandard
encryptionbymakingitimpossibleforanattackertomathematicallyprovetheexistenceofaplaintextmessage.
Digitalmixescreatehardtotracecommunications.

Examples
InternetKeyExchange
IPsec
Kerberos
PointtoPointProtocol
OfftheRecordMessaging
TransportLayerSecurity
ZRTP

Seealso
Securechannel
SecurityProtocolsOpenRepository

References
1."CryptographicProtocolOverview"(pdf).20151023.

Externallinks
Secureprotocolsopenrepository(http://www.lsv.enscachan.fr/spore/)
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Categories: Cryptographicprotocols
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