H. f. SANDHAM
1. We sum eight
general
infinite
series
[l],
particular
which are
Is
33
cosh (x/2)
cosh (3x/2)
cosh (5x/2)
73
. . . = 0,
+
53
cosh (7x/2)
l6cosh(x/2)
36cosh(3x/2)
56 cosh (5x/2)
x6
1.21
"
l6
35
56
er + 1
e3* + 1
eiT + 1
76
31
+H=
e7 + 1
1 22
~ 768 '
tanh (x/2)
tanh (3x/2)
l3
33
504
tanh (5x/2)
53
tanh (7x/2)
x3
+1=
>
73
1.31
32
sinh x
sinh 2x
sinh 3x
+
...=
sinh 4x
1.32
l6 sinh x
25 sinh 2x
35 sinh 3x
x3
46sinh4x
1.41
4x
Z=
w13
i e2  1
" 360'
1
'
24
430
cases of
1.42
431
"
coth xw
19tt7
56700
E
Noting that
e + 1
=tanh
>
=
llxl
coth,
e*  1
it will readily be seen that each of the above four pairs of series
contains one of the hyperbolic functions: sech, tanh, cosech, coth,
multiplied by a positive and by a negative power. If we include the
remaining
two functions:
sinh and cosh, we have of course two
pairs of series diverging to infinity.
The general series are (3.22), (3.32); (4.22), (4.32); (5.22), (5.32);
(6.222), (6.32).
2. The bases of the proofs are the partial
e2TX 1
2xx
2.11
=+
2.12
=
e2rx _
e2rax
1
i
1 
"
x2 + n2
(* cos 2nira
+ El\
x i ( x2 +
2tx
expansions
E '
x
fraction
n sin 2nira)
n2
x2 +
n2 )
2.21
=
certain
12*1
e*x + 1
+ E''
2
sinh irax
2.22
;
sinh 7rx
erax + eT(la)x
2.23 
other partial
=2i
4
"
fraction
*
(2n + l)2 
x2
( \)nn
sm
lran
x2 + n2
(2w +
ir
1)
= Esin
e" + 1
expansions
ira(2n + 1)
x2 + (2 + l)2
x2 + (2w + l)2

cos (wax/2)
4n
(2 + l)4  x4
= E '
432
H. F. SANDHAM
Multiplying
[June
An and find
cosh (rax/2)
cos (rax/2)
cosh (xx/2)
cos (xx/2)
8 (1)(2
x
(2 + l)4  x4
(1
Putting x = 0 yields
8
x
therefore,
(l)n
o 2w + 1
equating
coefficients
3.22
of aim,
il)n(2n+
l)4m+3
22
=0
(w h 0).
Putting a = 0 yields
1
cosh (xx/2)
3 31
cos (xx/2)
_8_ 
(1)(2+
'no
(2n+
l)3
1_
'
Writing
1
cosh x
1!
EnlEia
we have, on equating
3 32
x2
x3
= 1 + Ei + E2 + Ez + ,
2!
3!
that
coefficients
(1)"
+ ),
of x4m,
1
V_._=_(_)
o (2m + 1)4OT+1cosh (x(2 + l)/2)
x/x\4m
iE + Ei)im
8 V2 /
(m > 0).
The case m = \ is series (1.12).
i954]
433
4. Similarly, we have
gTax
I gir(la)x
giraxi
e" + 1
4.1
(e*a(2n+l)
__ g*(la)xi
e*xi +1
__ gT(lo)(2n+l)\(gTo(2n+l)i

gT(2n+l)
00
(2n
l)3
(2w + l)4 
_J_ gx(l<i)
x4
(2n+l)i\
_L. J
Putting x = 0 yields
4
2+l
"iri
/gira(2n+l)
__ gir(la)
(2n+l))
(gira(2n+l)
i __ gir(la)
(2n+l)i)
e2x(+i) + !
with respect
"
sinh xa(2w+l)
"
to a, this becomes
cos xa(2w+l)+cosh
g(2n+l)
xa(2+l)
sin xa(2+l)
+ 1
4.21
1/
= ()
1i
1+t
Ai \gir(1*)_gira(li)
^xafl+i)_gto
(0<a<l).
(1+0 /
Writing
/y
<V*
V"
WV
_rT=1
V"
*v
VV
+ BlTi + A_ + B.+...,
then
1i
gB(li)
1+ i
g(l)
2i/
gK(l+i)
y2
= (2732(2
1)
y \
gy(.l+i)
237J6(25
y6
y10
6!
10!
1) + 267310(29 1)
2!
),
and since
y
y5
1!
5!
y9
25
91
therefore

4.22
(2n +
E ^r
l)4m+1
*(**+
+ 1
7i4OT+2
=t
2 (4w + 2)!
(24M+1 1)
(w ^ 0)
v 
434
H. F. SANDHAM
(_J__iV_L__l')
\e*x +1
4.31
2 / \6'
[June
+1
2/
2i
x2(2m + 1)
=  Z TTV^:tanh (<2
+ lWx
(2w + l)4 
x4
Writing

x2
x3
1!
2!
3!
= 1 + Di + D2 + D3 + ,
ex+l
so that
Pn+l
Z)n = (2 
2+2) _,
M+ 1
then
"
4.32
V=
x4'"+3 (D + Di)im+2
(2m + 1)4M+3
8i
(4m+
2)!
(m 5: 0).
5. Again, from
sinh rax sin xax
5.1:=
sinh xx sin xx
we have,
on letting
5.21
 Z V^

x4 w4
sinh xw
(Ka<
1),
x+0,
4
"
m sinh xm
a2 =Z(l)n
(l<a<l).
Since
<y2
<y6
y10
2!
6!
10!
therefore
M
(_
l)n/J4m+1
Z r:=
i
Equating
Dividing
sinh xm
o,
(m > 0).
"
(1)"M6
sinh xx sin xx
x4 m4 sinh xm
1954]
435
Writing
X
sinh x
1!
=i+c1
X2
+ c,
2!
X3
+ c,+...
3!
5.32
(1)
n4"11 sinh x
E ""
x4'"1
(C + Ci)im
(4w)!
="
( > 0).
6. Lastly, we have
o2irai
2x(la)x
g2raii
e2xx 1
g2x(la)xi
e2Txi 1
xi
4*3
x4 
6.1
fg2ran
a2r{\a)
n\(p2v
a ni
n(e2 
g2ir(la)
7ii\
1)
oo
(pivan
g2x(l
Differentiating
a) n\ fnlsani
n(e2rn
with respect
"
4(2a  1) =  16E
g2x(la)ni\
(0<a<
1)
1).
to a, this becomes
6.21
,,L
e2 
/
1+ i
+ 4 I)
\g2xa(li)
1 i
I
g2xo(l+>)
y5
\
\J
Since
sin y cosh y + cos y sinh y = 223125
1!
51
v9
9!
and
1+ i
g(li)
1 i
1
g(l+i) _
 
therefore
1+
2 /
y2
y \
2!
[27i8 
y6
y10
6!
10!
23756 + 267310
),
436
h. f. sandham
6.221
Am
=,
11
6.222
23 =1
i e2  1
"
24
8x
Bim+2
nim+1
i e2  1
(m > 0).
2 4w + 2
Ve2 
2 / \e2rxi 
2/
6.31
= 
4x2x2i
H;
1 "
xi
2^ i
cth XM,
x4 m4
therefore
6.32
"
coth xm
m4"1
Z 
(2X)4"1 (B + Bi)im
=A^^
2
(4w)!
(>0).
References
1. S. Ramanujan,
series (1.41), (1.42),
(3.22), (6.221) are questions 358, 387, page 326. Although he only stated some particular cases there is no doubt that all the general formulae of this paper were known
to Ramanujan.
Those familiar with his work will recall his preference for stating
most interesting particular cases rather than writing out general formulae.
Other proofs of some of these series have been given:
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