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LAB # 4

SPRING 07

DISCRETE TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (DTFT)

-Frequency Response

Objective: The function freqz can be used to compute the values of the DTFT of a

sequence, described as a rational function in e jw at a prescribed set of discrete frequency

points.

b1 b2 e j bM 1e jM

Y e j

H e j

X e j

a1 a 2 e j a N 1e jN

N 1

M 1

k 1

k 1

ak yn k 1 bk xn k 1

Commands:

FREQZ: Compute the frequency response of digital filters.

When N is an integer, [H,W] = FREQZ(B,A,N) returns the N-point frequency

vector W in radians and the N-point complex frequency response vector H

of the filter B/A:

Y e jw

b1 b2e jw bm 1e jmw

jw

He

X e jw

a1 a2e jw an 1e jnw

given numerator and denominator coefficients in vectors B and A. The frequency

response is evaluated at N points equally spaced around the upper half of the unit

circle. If N isn't specified, it defaults to 512.

H = FREQZ(B,A,W) returns the frequency response at frequencies designated in

vector W, in [radians/sample] (normally between 0 and pi).

See also FILTER, FFT, INVFREQZ, FREQS and GRPDELAY.

REAL: Complex real part.

REAL(X) is the real part of X.

See I or J to enter complex numbers.

IMAG: Complex imaginary part.

IMAG(X) is the imaginary part of X.

See I or J to enter complex numbers.

ABS: Absolute value.

ABS(X) is the absolute value of the elements of X. When X is complex, ABS(X) is the

complex modulus (magnitude) of the elements of X.

ANGLE(H) returns the phase angles, in radians, of a matrix with complex elements.

GTEXT: Place text with mouse.

GTEXT('string') displays the graph window, puts up a cross-hair, and waits for a

mouse button or keyboard key to be pressed. The cross-hair can be positioned with the

mouse (or with the arrow keys on some computers). Pressing a mouse button or any

key writes the text string onto the graph at the selected location.

Note: Frequency response H (e jw ) is complex so we can not plot it. So we plot real

part, imaginary part, magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum of H (e jw ) with

respect to frequency or normalized frequency.

Normalized frequency is a dimensionless quantity, obtained by taking the ratio between

an actual frequency and a reference value, or a nominal value. In this exercise , reference

value is pi.

Exercise:

1. Plot the following DTFT with respect to normalized frequency. You need to plot 4

graphs (the real part, the imaginary part, the magnitude spectrum, and the phase

spectrum) on a sheet of paper. (Use subplot, plot, title and gtext commands.) Given

W=0:pi/N:pi; N=256.

He

1 2.37e j 2.7e j 2 1.6e j 3 0.41e j 4

2. Find the N-point frequency vector (W) and plot the frequency response of the

following system with respect to normalized frequency. You need to plot 4 graphs (the

real part, the imaginary part, the magnitude spectrum, and the phase spectrum) on a sheet

of paper. (Use subplot, plot, title and gtext commands.) Take N=512.

0.8xn 0.44 xn 1 0.36 xn 2 0.02 xn 3

Note:

Submit MATLAB code and 4 graphs for Exercise 1 and 2.

No discussions with your friends.

Dont look into others screens.

Please delete your programs in the computer where you work. You will be responsible if

anyone copies your program. Zero points will be given to all similar programs, No matter

who copied.

Appendix

x[n]e

jwn

Impulse response

x[n]

h(n)

Therefore H e jw

Y e jw

X e jw

N 1

M 1

k 1

k 1

ak yn k 1 bk xn k 1

a1 y[n] a2 y[n 1] ...... a N 1 y[n N ] b1 x[n] b2 x[n 1] ... bM 1 x[n M ]

Apply Fourier transform both sides

a1Y [e jw ] a2Y [e jw ]e jw1 ...... a N 1Y [e jw ]e jwN b1 X [e jw ] b2 X [e jw ]e jw1 ... bM 1 X [e jw ]e jwM

jw

jw

Make Y [e ] common on left hand side and X [e ] on right hand side

b1 b2 e j bM 1e jM

Y e jw

F h[n] H e jw

X e jw

a1 a 2 e j a N 1e jN

0.03

Exercise 1

0.015

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.005

0.5

Normalized frequency

Magnitude spectrum of H

1.5

0.02

0.5

Normalized frequency

Phase spectrum of H

0.5

Normalized frequency

Ph(H)

0.03

0.01

0.5

0.5

Normalized frequency

real part of H

1

Exercise 2

6

2

0

-2

2

0

0.5

Normalized frequency

magnitude spectrum of H

-2

Ph(H)

Mag(H)

imaginary part of H

Im(H)

Re(H)

Mag(H)

Imaginary part of H

Im(H)

Re(H)

Real part of H

4

2

0

0.5

Normalized frequency

Phase spectrum of H

0.5

Normalized frequency

1

0

0.5

Normalized frequency

-1

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