You are on page 1of 1

Document Type:PrenticeHall

Author:ThomasE.Kissell
Book:IndustrialElectronics,SecondEdition
Copyright:2000
ISBN:0-13-012697-7
NI Supported:No
Publish Date:Sep6,2006

DC Motor Operation
Table of Contents
1.ElectricalDiagramofaDCMotor
2.TypesofDCMotors
3.BuytheBook
Electrical Diagram of a DC Motor
TheDCmotoryouwillfindinmodemindustrialapplicationsoperatesverysimilarlytothesimpleDCmotordescribedearlierinthischapter.Figure12-9showsanelectricaldiagramofasimpleDC
motor.NoticethattheDCvoltageisapplieddirectlytothefieldwindingandthebrushes.Thearmatureandthefieldarebothshownasacoilofwire.Inlaterdiagrams,afieldresistorwillbeaddedin
serieswiththefieldtocontrolthemotorspeed.
Whenvoltageisappliedtothemotor,currentbeginstoflowthroughthefieldcoilfromthenegativeterminaltothepositiveterminal.Thissetsupastrongmagneticfieldinthefieldwinding.Current
alsobeginstoflowthroughthebrushesintoacommutatorsegmentandthenthroughanarmaturecoil.Thecurrentcontinuestoflowthroughthecoilbacktothebrushthatisattachedtootherendof
thecoilandreturnstotheDCpowersource.Thecurrentflowinginthearmaturecoilsetsupastrongmagneticfieldinthearmature.

FIGURE 12-9 Simple electrical diagram of DC shunt motor. This diagram shows the electrical relationship between the field coil and armature.
Themagneticfieldinthearmatureandfieldcoilcausesthearmaturetobegintorotate.Thisoccursbytheunlikemagneticpolesattractingeachotherandthelikemagneticpolesrepellingeach
other.Asthearmaturebeginstorotate,thecommutatorsegmentswillalsobegintomoveunderthebrushes.Asanindividualcommutatorsegmentmovesunderthebrushconnectedtopositive
voltage,itwillbecomepositive,andwhenitmovesunderabrushconnectedtonegativevoltageitwillbecomenegative.Inthisway,thecommutatorsegmentscontinuallychangepolarityfrom
positivetonegative.Sincethecommutatorsegmentsareconnectedtotheendsofthewiresthatmakeupthefieldwindinginthearmature,itcausesthemagneticfieldinthearmaturetochange
polaritycontinuallyfromnorthpoletosouthpole.Thecommutatorsegmentsandbrushesarealignedinsuchawaythattheswitchinpolarityofthearmaturecoincideswiththelocationofthe
armature'smagneticfieldandthefieldwinding'smagneticfield.Theswitchingactionistimedsothatthearmaturewillnotlockupmagneticallywiththefield.Insteadthemagneticfieldstendtobuild
oneachotherandprovideadditionaltorquetokeepthemotorshaftrotating.
Whenthevoltageisde-energizedtothemotor,themagneticfieldsinthearmatureandthefieldwindingwillquicklydiminishandthearmatureshaft'sspeedwillbegintodroptozero.Ifvoltageis
appliedtothemotoragain,themagneticfieldswillstrengthenandthearmaturewillbegintorotateagain.
Types of DC Motors
ThreebasictypesofDCmotorsareusedinindustrytoday:theseriesmotor,theshuntmotor,andthecompoundmotor.Theseriesmotoriscapableofstartingwithaverylargeloadattached,such
asliftingapplications.Theshuntmotorisabletooperatewithrpmcontrolwhileitisathighspeed.Thecompoundmotor,acombinationoftheseriesmotorandtheshuntmotor,isabletostartwith
fairlylargeloadsandhavesomerpmcontrolathigherspeeds.Intheremainingsectionsofthischapterweshowadiagramforeachofthesemotorsanddiscusstheiroperationalcharacteristics.As
atechnicianyoushouldunderstandmethodsofcontrollingtheirspeedandwaystochangethedirectionofrotationbecausethesearethetwoparametersofaDCmotoryouwillbeaskedtochange
asapplicationschangeonthefactoryfloor.Itisalsoimportanttounderstandthebasictheoryofoperationofthesemotorsbecauseyouwillbecontrollingthemwithsolid-stateelectroniccircuits.You
willneedtoknowifproblemsthatarisearethefaultofthemotororthesolid-statecircuit.
Buy the Book

PurchaseIndustrialElectronicsfromPrenticeHall.
Related Links:
DCSeriesMotors
DCShuntMotors
CompoundMotors
DCMotorTheory
DCMotorComponents

Legal
ExcerptfromthebookpublishedbyPrenticeHallProfessional( http://www.phptr.com).
CopyrightPrenticeHallInc.,APearsonEducationCompany,UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458.
ThismaterialisprotectedunderthecopyrightlawsoftheU.S.andothercountriesandanyusesnotinconformitywiththecopyrightlawsareprohibited,includingbutnotlimitedtoreproduction,
DOWNLOADING,duplication,adaptationandtransmissionorbroadcastbyanymedia,devicesorprocesses.

1/1

www.ni.com