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283288

ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615

Probabilities of a Bulk-Arrival Bulk-Service Queue

J. Leo Cordeau

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000 Station Forces,

Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4, e-mail: cordeau@rmc.ca

Mohan L. Chaudhry

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000 Station Forces,

Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4, e-mail: chaudhry-ml@rmc.ca

AbstractA complete solution for the stationary queue-length distribution of a bulk-arrival, bulkservice (GI X/M Y/1) queue is presented. Beginning with a known expression for the probability

generating function of the stationary pre-arrival-epoch queue-length distribution, the roots method

is used to invert it and determine all probabilities. Next, using level crossing arguments,

theoretical relationships between pre-arrival and arbitrary-epoch probabilities are developed. These

relationships are then used to directly determine a complete set of probabilities for the arbitraryepoch queue-length distribution. Finally, selected examples are presented. These demonstrate how,

given arbitrary arrival time, arrival group size and service batch size probability distributions, a

complete solution for the stationary queue-length probabilities can be readily determined.

Keywords Queueing theory, bulk queues, queue-length, level crossing, roots method, operations

research.

1. INTRODUCTION

Bulk arrival/bulk service queues represent an important, yet

challenging area of research. One of the fundamental and

studied problems in this area is the determination of queuelength probabilities at various epochs. Throughout the years,

various methods and schemes have been used in order to

estimate many queue-length performance measurements,

however these estimates typically resort to restrictive assumptions, such as high traffic intensity, or only apply in special

cases. Ideally, we would like to eliminate the need for such

restrictions and be able to provide highly accurate performance

measures for the most general cases. One step towards this ideal

is to find the complete queue-length probability distribution of

a particular bulk arrival/bulk service queueing system.

An established method of determining such distributions is

through numerical inversion of probability generating functions, via the roots method. This method has been used successfully to find the steady-state queue-length probabilities of both

bulk-arrival/single-service and single-arrival/bulk-service

probability generating function, in order to obtain a simple,

yet elegant expression. This expression is framed in terms of

roots of a function within a given area, and therefore requires

us to determine these roots in order to use the function for

numerical work. For a comprehensive review of analytic

methods involving roots, and a background on bulk queues,

one should refer to Chaudhry and Templeton [4]. One of the

historic criticisms of this method is that it was difficult to

find the roots of a high degree polynomials [9] or that coincidental or close roots may lead to inaccuracies [12]. However,

with the widespread availability of powerful and accurate software packages, such as Mathematicaw, and Maplew, this is no

longer the case. In fact, using such software packages, one can

now reliably determine locations of roots (even repeated roots)

to a high degree of accuracy. In this context, one may also see

the root-finding algorithm developed by Brie`re and Chaudhry

[3]. So, given that a probability generating function is available,

we can often numerically invert it using this method.

Recently, Economou and Fakinos [5] have presented a generating function, albeit with unknown parameters, for the prearrival steady-state queue-length probabilities of a GI X =M Y =1

queue. In this paper, we will use this expression in order to

283

284

CORDEAU, CHAUDHRY

probabilities. First we will show that we can use the roots

method to determine an accurate and complete distribution

for the pre-arrival epoch probabilities. Next, we will use level

crossing arguments to develop the arbitrary-epoch probabilities. We will then formulate a method that can be used to

obtain a complete solution for the steady-state queue-length

probabilities of a GI X =M Y =1 queue. Lastly, we provide selected

numerical results in order to demonstrate the power of this

method.

One of the challenges to conducting numerical work in queueing theory is the wide varieties of assumptions that can be made

about how the queue operates. These assumptions, although

practically valid or mathematically necessary, make it difficult

to build on or combine much previous work. Therefore, given

the varied queueing paradigms presented throughout the literature, it is important that all assumptions and notation be defined

clearly. This is of particular importance for numerical work.

Although the queueing model used here is the same as that

described in [5], for the aforementioned reasons and to maintain notational consistency, it will be briefly reiterated.

The GI X =M Y =1 model considered is a single server

queueing system with infinite queue-length capacity. The interarrival time between successive groups of customers is governed by the continuous distribution function A(t). The size

of an arriving group, X, is arbitrary with probability defined

by fPX j gj jjeNg and the associated probability generating function G(z). It must be noted that we will later need to

impose the condition that G(z) be of finite order in order to

implement the roots method. When a group arrives, the customers join the queue and wait for the server to become available.

The times between any two successive service commencements are independent identically distributed exponential

random variables with mean 1/m. At each service commencement, the server has a random service capacity of Y customers,

governed by the distribution fPY j fj jjeNg with its

associated probability generating function F(z). So, at service

commencement, the server will take up to j customers. That

is: if there are j or more customers in the queue at service commencement time, then the server will take j customers; if there

are less than j customers, then the server will empty the queue

and begin service without utilizing the surplus capacity.

Customers arriving after service commencement will need to

wait in queue until the next service commencement. If a

service commencement occurs when there are no customers

in the queue, the server does not wait and the entire service

capacity is forfeit.

We consider only the steady state of the queuing system, and

the case where the traffic intensity r lg=m f , 1, where g

and f are the mean arrival group size and the mean server

ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615

arriving group sees j customers in the queue ( pre-arrival-epoch

probabilities) will be denoted as f p

j jj 0; 1; 2; . . .g, and the

arbitrary-epoch steady-state queue-length probabilities will be

denoted by the set f pj jj 0; 1; 2; . . .g. The probability generating functions of these distributions will be denoted by P 2(z)

and P(z) respectively.

3. PRE-ARRIVAL-EPOCH PROBABILITIES

The probability generating function for the pre-arrival epoch

stationary queue-length probabilities developed by Economou

and Fakinos [5] can be expressed in the following form:

P z

P1

hn zn

1 GzBz1

n0

e m1 Fz, As

e

where Bz ; A

is the LaplaceStieltjes

transform of A(t) and fhn jneNg are unknowns.

If r , 1, then the system is stable, and so P z must be analytic on jzj 1. Therefore, any roots of the denominator of (1)

within and on the unit circle, jzj 1, must coincide with those

of the numerator. Furthermore, it can be shown that the denominator of (1) has exactly N roots, fgj jj 1; 2; ::; Ng, on jzj . 1,

where N, is the order of the arrival group size probability generating function, G(z). This can be shown by expanding on the

benchmark work done for the GI X =M=1 queue by Chaudhry

and Templeton [4]. Obviously, in order to do numerical work,

it becomes necessary to restrict G(z) to a finite polynomial of

order N, as would be the case in any practical application.

This condition is not too restrictive since there is no theoretical

limit on the size of N, simply that it needs to be a finite integer.

If we define

Rz ; P z

N

Y

z gj

j1

denominator outside the circle jzj 1, now coincide with

those that we just placed in the numerator. In addition, it is

easily verified that lim Rz exists, so, as a result of

z!1

Using the normalization condition, P 1 1, and making

the substitution z z1 , we can rearrange (2) to get a simplified

expression for the steady-state pre-arrival-epoch probabilities:

P z

N

Y

1 rj

1

zrj

j1

of the equation:

Gz1 Bz 1

DOI 10.3138/infor.47.4.283

Copyright # 2009 INFOR Journal

Once the roots of (4) within the unit circle are found, the

pre-arrival-epoch queue-length probabilities, f p

n g, can then

be determined directly from the coefficients of P z when

expressed in the following form:

P z

1

X

n

p

n z

n0

Since equation (3) is simply a product of N geometric distributions, we can calculate these coefficients in a number of

ways. One way is to use partial fraction expansion of (3). If

the N roots of (4) are distinct, then (3) can be expressed as a

linear combination of N geometric distributions:

P z

N

X

Cj

1 zrj

j1

where fCj g are scalars. Then we simply need add the respective

coefficients of these distributions when they are experessed as

power series to get

p

0

N

Y

1 rk

k1

p

n p0

N

X

riNn1

i1

N

Y

j1

j=i

1

;

ri rj

n 1; 2; 3 . . .

N

X

j1 1

r j1

N

X

j2 j1

r j2

N

X

r jn ;

n 1; 2; 3 . . .

jn jn1

where p

0 is determined from equation (7). Yet another numerical approach to the evaluation of the coefficients in (3) is via a

PanjerAdelson-type of recursive scheme as is essentially done

in Willmot and Woo [13].

Alternatively, the pre-arrival-epoch probabilities may be

determined directly from the MacLaurin series expansion of

equation (3). We found that this can be done very effectively

using commercially available software packages, such as

those described in Section 1. In our experience, these are

capable of determining these coefficients to any reasonable

desired degree of accuracy, regardless of whether or not the

roots are repeated.

ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615

to solve equation (4), f p

n g can be completely determined. In

fact, even if the inter-arrival time distribution does not have a

LaplaceStieltjes transform, as required to solve equation (4),

one can accurately estimate its transform [7], which can then

be used for the calculation.

A noteworthy revelation from equation (3) is that a

GI=M Y =1 will have a geometric pre-arrival-epoch queuelength distribution. This is because, as is evident from equation

(4), the number of roots depends only on the order of the arrival

group size distribution, with the service group size only impacting the location of these roots. Therefore, we would expect the

single-arrival, bulk-service model, GI=M Y =1, to have queuelength distribution governed by the one single real root of

(4). Then, since equation (3) will only have one term, then

the entire distribution will be geometric. The nature of the

service batch distribution would impact only the shape parameter of this geometric distribution.

Equation (3) agrees with [4], p. 120, when it is reduced to the

GI X =M=1 case. In addition, although there were no theoretical

results with which to compare, we obtained exact numerical

matches to those of Banik et al. [1] for the GI=M Y =1 case.

Note that, although [1] deals specifically with a

GI=MSPY =1=N queue, the parameters were adjusted to

approach the GI=M Y =1 queue, and thus represents a valid

comparison.

as in Wilmot and Woo [13]. If there are repeated roots, one

would need to alter equation (8) appropriately, in a manner

well described by Li and Garrido [10].

Another approach to finding the coefficients of (5) is to calculate them directly from the convolution of the N geometric

series expansion. This yields an expression that can be used

whether or not roots are repeated:

p

n p0

285

4. ARBITRARY-EPOCH PROBABILITIES

Some significant work has been done relating the stationary

queue-length probabilities between the various epochs. For

example Hebuterne and Rosenberg [8] present an expression

linking pre-arrival and post-departure epoch probabilities for

a bulk service queue, and Yao et al. [14] relate pre-arrival

and random probabilities for a bulk arrival/multi-server

queue (GI X =M=c). More closely related work includes

Mokaddis [11], who related pre-arrival-epoch probabilities to

arbitrary-epoch probabilities for bulk-arrival/bulk service

queues. However, since there are some differences between

our model and these, we develop a new model based on a

level crossing argument that leads to an explicit relationship

between the distributions involved.

Consider Figure 1, where k represents the number of customers in the queue. For a stable system, in steady state, the rate of

crossing upward, to and through any level, k, must be equal to

the rate of downward crossing, from and through any such

level. The rate of transition upward from the level k-j to and

through level k . 0 is the product of: the probability that the

queue has k-j customers, just prior to an arrival; the probability

that there are at least j customers in the arriving group; and the

arrival rate. If we sum these rates over all possible queuelengths,

then theX

total rate upward to and through any level k

X

k1

1

p

g . In a similar manner, one can

is l

j0 j

ikj i

DOI 10.3138/infor.47.4.283

Copyright # 2009 INFOR Journal

286

CORDEAU, CHAUDHRY

largest root will predominate so the distribution is asymptotically geometric. Thus for a given a required accuracy and n

sufficiently large

p

n1 rl pn

11

where rl is the largest root of (4) inside the unit circle. So, for all

j sufficiently

large f p

Xn

j g is monotonically decreasing and

lim

p

1.

Then,

for any desired precision, 1, there

j0 j

XM1

n!1

p . 1 1, for all

will be some integer M such that

j0 j

Figure 1.

of downward

X1crossing from and across level

1

k (Figure 2) is m

p

f . Here, the memoryless

jk j

ijk1 i

property of the Poisson queue departures allow us to consider

the probabilities that k customers are in the queue at any arbitrary time, pk. Equating upward and downward crossing rates

yields:

size of the pre-arrival epoch queue-length is effectively

reduced to M, where M is a function of the desired numerical

accuracy. Since the pre-arrival-epoch queue-length is now

effectively restricted, then the arbitrary-epoch queue-length

distribution must also be restricted in size to M N. So,

given a desired precision, we can define an appropriate

choice of M, and use this to reduce equation (10) to a system

of N M 1 equations:

l

k1

X

j0

l

k1

X

j0

p

j

1

X

ikj

gi m

1

X

jk

1

X

pj

fi

10

1

kj1

X

!

gi

m

i1

the results of Yao et al. [14] and can be shown to agree with the

relationships derived by Mokaddis [11].

In order to render equation (10) into a form conducive to

numerical calculation, we first need to exploit the property

that the stationary pre-arrival-epoch queue-length probabilities

have a geometric tail. This is because the largest root inside the

unit circle is real and distinct. A conclusive proof of this may be

found in Economou and Fakinos [5]. So, as n grows large, this

ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615

MN

X

jk

pj 1

jk

X

i1

!

fi ;

12

k 1; 2; 3 . . . ; N

ijk1

Figure 2.

p

j

p0 1

MN

X

pj

13

j1

j j j 0; 1; ::; Mg, we can

then solve for the N M 1 unknowns in order to determine

the probabilities f pj jj 0; 1; ::; M Ng. Again, with current

software packages, such systems of simultaneous equations

can be solved accurately, even for large values of M and N [2].

The method for determining the complete solution to the

stationary queue-length probabilities of the given GI X =M Y =1

queue is succinctly described by the following algorithm:

(1) Determine the roots of equation (4).

(2) Determine the MacLaurin series expansion of equation (3),

or otherwise find the coefficients

Xof (5) which are f pj g.

(3) Determine some M such that

p , 1, where 1 is

j.M j

determined by the desired precision.

(4) Find the arbitrary-epoch stationary-queue-length probabilities by solving the system described by equations (12)

and (13).

6. RESULTS

The first bulk arrival/bulk service queue we examine is a

queue with an Erlang inter-arrival time distribution with a

with shape parameter 2 (E2) and a traffic intensity of 0.9. In

this case, we took Gz 0:2z 0:2z2 0:1z5 0:5z8 and

Fz 0:2z 0:2z2 0:4z3 0:2z4 . Intuitively, one would

expect, for n . 0 to be a relatively flat distribution. In addition,

DOI 10.3138/infor.47.4.283

Copyright # 2009 INFOR Journal

287

TABLE 1.

Results set 1

Number in queue

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

..

.

107

108

109

110

111

..

.

TABLE 2.

Results set 2

p2

n

pn

2

p2

n1/p n

0.107649295

0.019732291

0.021029029

0.016900450

0.019052916

0.023061367

0.019482465

0.019447419

0.029051481

0.019397120

0.019401877

..

.

0.001260855

0.001225578

0.001191287

0.001157956

0.001125557

..

.

0.080129799

0.019684864

0.021419873

0.015154204

0.017393720

0.022938975

0.018470890

0.018565914

0.034733599

0.019904096

0.020091969

..

.

0.001309452

0.001272814

0.001237202

0.001202586

0.001168939

..

.

0.183301637

1.065716469

0.803672432

1.127361442

1.210385163

0.844809639

0.998201119

1.493847671

0.667680927

1.000245234

0.931551134

..

.

0.972020842

0.972020842

0.972020842

0.972020842

0.972020842

..

.

slight oscillations, until the distribution settles down into a geometric tail. As can be seen from the results (Table 1), the data

agrees. In addition, as predicted in [5], the tail is geometric with

the geometric parameter, p

n1 =pn , approaching the largest root

of equation (4) inside the unit circle.

Next, we examine the M 5/M 5/1 queue, by letting

Gz Fz z5 , so that there are Poisson group arrivals

and each arriving group consists of 5 customers and these customers are served in batches of up to 5. This yields positive

probabilities of the stationary pre-arrival queue-length distribution only at queue-lengths that are multiples of 5.

Furthermore, since inter-arrival times are exponential, this

forms an equivalent M/M/1 system, and so we would expect

that the values at these multiples of 5 will form a geometric

sequence, and that p

n pn for all n that are multiples of 5.

The second result set was generated using a traffic intensity

of r 0:5, and as can be seen from Table 2, the results agree

with our predictions. The resulting probabilities for those

queue-lengths which are not multiples of 5 are buried well

below our acceptable error level.

The final result set shows a more complex and general

example. In this case, the inter-arrival time distribution was a

Erlang distribution with a shape parameter of 3 (E3) and a

mean inter-arrival time 1.6, and a traffic intensity of r :5.

The arrival and service group size probability generating functions were Gz z0:3z 0:710 and Fz 0:2z=1 0:8z.

Note that the service group size probability has no upper bound,

nor did it need to be truncated in order to determine the probabilities f p

j g, via the roots method. The choice of this particular example, although arbitrary, was made to demonstrate the

ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615

p2

n

pn

0.5000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.2500000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.125000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0625000000

..

.

0.0312500000

0.0156250000

0.0078125000

0.0039062500

0.0019531250

..

.

0.5000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.2500000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.1250000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0000000000

0.0625000000

..

.

0.0312500000

0.0156250000

0.0078125000

0.0039062500

0.0019531250

..

.

Number in queue

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

..

.

20

25

30

35

40

..

.

TABLE 3.

Results set 3

Number in queue

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

..

.

40

41

42

43

44

45

..

.

p2

n

pn

2

p2

n1/p n

0.418073762

0.041755584

0.052548647

0.063465182

0.065032346

0.056409029

0.045185561

0.036990895

0.031786637

0.027651928

0.02374543

0.020183008

0.017153774

0.014633753

0.012506289

0.01068235

..

.

0.000203349

0.000173554

0.000148124

0.00012642

0.000107896

9.21E-05

..

.

0.290963119

0.037286203

0.055624074

0.07643892

0.083223909

0.073051921

0.057687052

0.046578593

0.040024711

0.035005196

0.030131676

0.025590583

0.021722389

0.018525742

0.015837665

0.013531449

..

.

0.000257558

0.000219819

0.00018761

0.000160121

0.000136659

0.000116635

..

.

0.099876118

1.258481904

1.207741506

1.024693288

0.867399571

0.801034194

0.818644136

0.859309753

0.869923054

0.858726025

0.849974398

0.849911664

0.85309234

0.854619401

0.854158208

0.853373779

..

.

0.853475559

0.853475558

0.853475557

0.853475557

0.853475557

0.853475557

..

.

DOI 10.3138/infor.47.4.283

Copyright # 2009 INFOR Journal

288

CORDEAU, CHAUDHRY

packages to deal with these complexities. The resulting probability distribution is shown in Table 3. Again, note that the

tail probabilities of f p

n g tend to a geometric distribution,

with parameter equal to the largest root inside the unit circle

of (4).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Professor David Stanford as

well as the anonymous referees for their insightful and constructive comments. These comments helped to enhance this

paper. In addition, we would like to express our gratitude to

the Department of National Defence, for its contribution to

this research.

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3 Brie`re, G. and Chaudhry, M. L. (1989), Computational analysis of

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