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ABSTRACT:
A RESEARCH PROJECT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES IN COLLABORATION WITH OTHER
PARTNERING LABORATORIES ON THE THEME OF THE COMBINED ACTION OF DISTINCT ADDITIVES WITH
MICRO-EXPANSIVE AND COMPACTING ACTION, AS WELL AS FINE POWDERS WITH POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY
AND FILLERS WITH SUPER-PLASTICIZING ACTION FOR THE PACKAGING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE,
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (HAVING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY), AT CONTROLLED
VOLUMETRIC STABILITY WITH MODULATED INITIAL MICRO-EXPANSION. THE RESEARCH PROJECT
CONCENTRATED ON MAINTAINING LOW COSTS FOR A GREATER COMPETITIVENESS IN THE
PREFABRICATION INDUSTRY AND THE C.A.P. THE CEMENT UTILIZED IN THE FIRST PHASE OF THE RESEARCH
WAS CEM I 52,5 R, AND WITHIN THE FOLLOWING MONTHS THE PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF THE
RESEARCH FOR THE PACKAGING OF CLS WITH CEM II 42,5 R WILL BE PROVIDED.
M. de Gennaro (*), P. Cappelletti (*), M. DAmore (*), M. Felitti (**), P. Marone (**) F. Gagliardini (**)
(*) FACULTY AND RESEARCHERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES
(**) PROFESSIONAL CONSULTANTS OF ISIM AND CHEMICAL CONSTRUCTION
REV. 6: DATE- JULY 2012. REV. 0-1-2: DATE- JANUARY 26, 2012

THE PACKAGING OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE WITH CONTROLLED VOLUMETRIC STABILITY:


SYNERGISTIC ACTIONS OF MICRO-EXPANSIVE/COMPACTING ADDITIVES AND ADDED FINE MINERALS WITH
POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY (FOR THE PREFABRICATION INDUSTRY AND THE C.A.P.)

Primo report su ricerca DRY e altri additivi/aggiuntivi 20 gennaio 2012 Bozza interna di Paolo Check Mat +Ric+Ma

In the year 2011, the Chimica Edile Company stipulated an agreement with the Department of
Earth Sciences, University of Naples Federico II for the implementation of a technical-scientific research
project. The objectives consisted in the study of micro-expansive action additives in the sector of the
Concrete-Cement Industry. The research activities of the Department were conducted in collaboration with
external researchers and specialists (DAmore, Felitti, Marone, Alfano, Gagliardini, etc.).
The primary objective of the research is the specific study of a line of additives with microexpansive properties produced by Chimica Edile to verify the action in the setting and hardening phases of
concrete.
Throughout the course of the research, the possibility of using this additive in a mixture with other
materials with pozzolanic activity was also experimented.
These considerations were emphasized in order to manufacture concrete possessing essential
performance characteristics (high performance according to project requirements), while maintaining
competitive, low costs (the technical-economic performance concept of the research project involves
creating a modern, innovative and competitive concrete, with an elevated chemical-mechanical resistance
and controlled volumetric stability).
The research project recently extended the collaboration to involve other technology specialists,
producers and private businesses in the sector in order to reach additional scientific and field-related
findings. This report describes and discusses the first results of the research in relation to its initial stages.
Moreover, it will be subject to updating and follow-up in order to (1) expand the range of tests and (2)
further optimize the performance of the "MIX DESIGN of the concrete lined steel (cls) to achieve controlled
volumetric stability at a high performance level.
Materials
The additives and additional active minerals studied and utilized to achieve the Mix Design
Optimization were as follows:
a) A rapid and immediate micro-expansive/compacting additive (in powder form) DRY D1 Rapido (UNI
EN 206, UNI EN 196-2, UNI EN 196-3,UNI 196-6, UNI EN 197-1, UNI 8146, UNI 8147, UNI 8148, UNI
6555, UNI 7086), an addition consisting in a dual action, non-metallic oxide with: (1) immediate and
brief initial micro-expansive action (1 ora48 ore) and (2) a subsequent compacting action that
increases compression resistance fck/Rck.1 day e fck/Rck.3 days. This occurs in short time
intervals, thereby decreasing the porosity of the fresh/plastic concrete (self-compressing -> selfcompacting). This product is derived by using special cooking processes of granules of calcium
carbonate in ovens at particular temperatures; it is entirely free of chlorides, and obtained by
means of micronization and screening processes. It was used with a dosage of less than 1% of the
cement (note: a dosage of ~1% is defined as low when compared to a dosage of approximately
48% used in other research projects (see Bibliographical notes)).
b) A Broad spectrum, anti-shrinking, compacting Additive with the added property of an acting
accelerant of pozzolanic activity, (in powder form) DRY D1 Normale (UNI EN 206, UNI EN 196-2,
UNI EN 196-3, UNI 196-6, UNI EN 197-1, UNI 8146, UNI 8147, UNI 8148, UNI 6555, UNI 7086). It is
characterized by the addition of a non-metallic oxide of modulated micro-expansive action; it
serves to counteract the hygrometric shrinking of the first seven days (approximately). Other
actions include a significant increase in compression resistance (fck/Rck. 3 days and fck/Rck. 14
days), a decrease in the porosity of concrete lined steel during the first hardening phase (selfcompressing>self-compacting), prevention of the phenomena of shrinkage-cracking and a
significant reduction in autogenous shrinkage (see in the bibliographical notes Argos Tests of
the expansion/shrinkage of cement pastes, Colombia). The presence of additives with pozzolanic

Introduction

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d) The addition of other materials with pozzolanic activity such as fly ash, metakaolin, silica fume and
ground volcanic tuffs; whereas, the Fly Ash utilized in the project came from centers for the
production of electric energy from fossil fuels (UNI EN 206, UNI EN 450/2005). As noted in the
bibliography, these additives have pozzolanic action (favoring the ulterior formation of C-S-H)
fillers because of the dimensions of the spherical particles (1200 m). Utilized in the second
phase of the project, the dosage was equal to 33% of the cement and approximately 10-12% of the
sand. The principal beneficial effects of the pozzolanic behavior were recorded from the twentieth
to the ninetieth day after the date of the casting (pozzolanic activity index, UNI EN 196-1, EN 4501). The combined presence of these additions together with some micro-expansive agents
potentiated the "filler" effect. Until now, they seem to have substantially accelerated the index of
pozzolanic activity of the fly ash before 28 days, resulting in a significant increase of the mechanical
resistance and the control of most of the phenomena of shrinkage / viscosity that characterize the
concrete, rich in fine particles and SCC. The research was validated by applications not only in a
laboratory, but in industrial situations, as well.
e) Super-plasticization Additive (UNI EN 206, UNI EN 934-2) made from water-soluble polymers with a
traditional dosage of about 1% of the weight of the cement (equivalent) and having efficiency and
proven compatibility with respect to the MIX DESIGN as a whole and in respect to the individual
components illustrated in the following points.
f) A hardening accelerant Additive (UNI EN 206, etc.) used in cold climates (temperatures below
108C). It was utilized with a dosage significantly superior to 1% and in any case, in function with
the outside temperature and the minimal number of hours assigned for the removal of formwork
(for example for an Rck>30 MPa at 16 hours). The accelerating additive was tested to preserve and
secure, even in winter, the performance standards of the MIX DESIGN (Rck) in the 12 to 24 hours
required for precast concrete in the sector of prefabrication.
The super-plasticizing additive (sf) point a), and the accelerating admixture (HBE), points f) have
a fluid-based consistency, and according to their formulations may significantly vary the effectiveness and
performance of the other additives as demonstrated and detailed in the state of the art research of
additives based on polymers for concrete. The other inorganic additives, points a), b), c) and d), to be mixed
in the paste, all have the consistency of a fine dry powder, (generally from 1 micron to 500 microns)
insoluble and / or packable in water-soluble /airtight and/or steam packaging. It is believed that for the first
time their specific synergistic combination was studied and refined, and that for one of the compositions
(DRY D1 Slow) - its particular formulation and production.
Regarding the definition of added elements and/or additives in relation to the standard regulations
in force, it would be legitimate to define a fluid or powder material as an additive, in the case of its addition

activity favors and accelerates the pozzolanic activity within 28 days. This additive is derived from
limestone extracts from the Argentine Andes and involves special cooking processes for prolonged
times at a high temperature. The additive was utilized in the present research with a dosage, also in
this situation, definable as low (approximately 1%).
c) A Slow reaction, anti-shrinkage Additive (in powder form) DRY D1 Lento (UNI EN 206, UNI EN 196-2,
UNI EN 196-3, UNI 196-6, UNI EN 197-1, UNI 8146, UNI 8147, UNI 8148, UNI 6555, UNI 7086). This is a
non-metallic oxide with micro-expansive action, which serves to counteract the hygrometric shrinking
over prolonged times (up to 28 days). It eventually, significantly reduces the coefficient of the viscosity
of the loaded down, hardened concrete (the research is in the development and verification phase).
This additive is derived from special cooking processes for prolonged times at a high temperature. The
process involves select granules of limestone extracts from the Argentine Andes with additions of
siliceous materials such as active adjuvants, which are free from chlorides, and subject to processes of
mixing, grinding and sifting in order to obtain an optimal granulometric curve and low reactivity. It was
utilized in the second phase of the present research with a low dosage, close to 11.4% of the
cement (note: this is a new generation additive specially formulated by Chimica Edile in 2011 for the
research project, and it is currently produced at the company facilities).

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Work phases, research sectors, timing and results


A reliable research program requires long implementation times and meticulous follow up, (several
years) as it addresses and develops broad, articulate themes. This research requires the execution and
monitoring of tests on a long-term basis, up to 90 days in a laboratory, with subsequent optimization in the
formulations and dosages of the additives/added elements of the various Mix Designs of the concrete with
thorough repetitions in the various testing and monitoring campaigns, both in the laboratory and on an
industrial level. The general research program divided the research into distinct timeframes, and then
subdivided the research into specific sectors of interest for the market and technicians.
SECTOR 1: PREFABRICATION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (June 2011-July 2012)
The initial materials and tests performed were as follows: Cement dosed concrete 52, 5 R Type I and
resistance f.ck.cube > 3035 MPa after 1 day and f.ck.cube> 7080 MPa after 28 days (EN12390). They
indicated low water absorption for immersion (UNI 7699/UNI EN 13755), shrinkage close to zero, and if
requested < 50 m after 28 days (Expansion/shrinkage Test counteracted according to UNI 8148 type B ).
Results indicated high performance of durability and resistance to water washout as a function of the
environmental characteristics and the class of the structure (class 2 > 100 years, UNI EN 2062006 and UNI
11104-2004). The workability/consistency index of at least S 4, and the final economic competitiveness
(analysis of the appropriateness of the cost of materials) were also analyzed.
NOTE: The research was predominantly oriented in the world of the prefabrication of structural elements,
of structurally performing concrete and of the c.a.p.
The concrete was dosed with 52, 5 R Type I cements. The performed tests provided for the determination
of the following: the f.ck.cube after 1 and 28 days, the water absorption for immersion (UNI 7699/UNI EN
13755), the counteracted expansion/shrinking according to UNI 8148 type B and the ultrasonic velocity.
Other considerations included resistance to water washout as a function of the environmental
characteristics and the class of the structure, the workability/consistency index and the analysis of the
adequacy of the cost of materials.

in relatively minimal quantities: eg. close to 1% of the cement. However, one would consider added
elements as being additions in percentages far greater than 1% of the cement. The 3 products described
with an expansive function (DRY D1 Quick , DRY D1 Normal, DRY D1 Slow and the pozzolanic additions,
points a), b), c) e d)) may be packaged and added individually, as a mix of expansive agents and/or as a
unique formulated blend.
The additives/added elements used in the research are easily available on the market, in particular,
those classified as micro-expansive/anti-shrinkage and compacting (the DRY D1 Line of products), which
were made available and reformulated ad hoc for the research by the CHIMICA EDILE group.
The other additives utilized, points a) and f) with a base of polymers and plasticizing substances, are
produced and marketed by different primary leaders in the sector. ENEL/General Admixture generously
supplied the fly ash.

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1
SECTOR 2: Concrete at controlled volumetric stability for industrial pavements. (May 2012-October 2012)
NOTE: Technology oriented research for industrial flooring.

CONTINUOUS INDUSTRIAL FLOORING IN THE ABSENCE OF SEALS

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NOTE: The research was essentially oriented in the sector of the prefabrication of structural elements and
of the c.a.p. >C45/55 - D16 - S4 XA3/XC4 WASHOUT RESISTANCE SHRINKAGE close to 0
CONCRETE BATCHING PLANTS

SECTOR 4: Distinctly expansive pozzolanic concrete for use in land and rocks.
NOTE: the research will be oriented towards geotechnical engineering and for the geo-compacting of the
land in contact with foundation poles, root poles, micro-poles, tie-rods, anchors, underpinnings, etc., where
advantageous phenomena of significant concrete expansion is admissible.
SECTOR 5: Industrial and pozzolanic mortar utilized for restoration.
SECTOR 6: Light, structural concrete.

SECTOR 3: CONCRETE (July 2012-June 2013)


FIELD OF RESEARCH: Concrete dosed with 42, 5 R and N e 32, 5 R and N cements.

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SECTOR 1 THE PREFABRICATION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The MIX DESIGN of the concrete developed (MD.cls) for sector 1, enabled a study regarding the
optimization of the technical and economical performance. The composition of the cls is made up of the
combination of constitutive elements based on the following schematic and classical formulation:
MD.cls = (c + a + i) + (sf) + (e.r + e.n + e.L) + (cv / rmv) + (heb)
Whereas:
c = cement (Portland)
c.eq = cement equivalent (Portland cement + k.1 x minerals with pozzolanic activity = c + k.1 cv)
a = effective water of mixture
i = aggregates (large, medium, fine)
i.eq = aggregate material equivalent (inert materials+ (1-k.1) x phases of pozzolanic activity)
i.TOT = total aggregate materials (inert materials + phases of pozzolanic activity)
sf = super-plasticizing additive (different types such as modified ether- based polystearici/ polycarboxylic,
poli-acrilato/poli-etere, etc.)
e.r = agent DRY D1 Rapid compacting and micro-expansive additive with quick and immediate action (2
hours 48 hours).
e.n = agent DRY D1 Broad spectrum, mid-term action, normal compacting and micro-expansive reducer
of hygrometric/chemical shrinkage (after approximately 1 week), with an accelerating function of
pozzolanic activity in the case of added elements with pozzolanic activity.
e.L = agent DRY D1 Lento Slow action, prolonged term, compacting, micro-expansive and reducer of
hygrometric shrinkage (after 28 days).
cv = Fly ash with pozzolanic and filler activities.
rmv = residues of the milling of zeolithized volcanic rocks with pozzolanic activity.
heb = an eventual accelerant in cold climates (<810C) and rapid castings (less than 1224 hours)

General considerations regarding the Mix Design of Concrete

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Considerations regarding the Mix Design of the basic cement pastes
Taking into account the difficulties involved in the analysis of concrete in respect to the complexity of
the mixture containing predominant percentages of aggregates, it was considered opportune to begin by
analyzing the individual components (Table 1) and subsequently, by analyzing the reaction products of
simple mixtures of cement pastes (Table 2).
In order to verify the mineralogical composition of the raw materials and mixtures, researchers
performed qualitative X-ray diffraction analyses of the powders of the samples packaged.
The preparation of the samples provided for both the dry micronization, to avoid the loss of soluble
phases, and the micronization in deionized water. The latter procedure was performed using a Mc Crone
apparatus with cylinders of Agate for 15 minute times, to obtain a particle size <5m. This condition, as
reported in literature (Bish and Chipera, 1988; Klug and Alexander, 1974), allows one to overcome many
problems in the acquisition phase of the RX spectra (particle statistics, primary extinction, micro-absorption
and above all, phases of the feldspathic type and phenomena of preferential orientation).
The powders thus obtained were analyzed using an automatic diffractometer, PANalytical X'Pert PRO
PW 3040/60 (CuK radiation, 40kV, 40mA) with an XCerlerator RTMS detector, managed by a PC using the
PANalytical X'Pert program.
All components were individually characterized in order to note their mineralogical composition (Table 1).
Table 1: Mineralogical phases identified in the individual components of the mix design of the cls.
COMPONENT
MINERALOGICAL PHASE
OBSERVATIONS
Cement I 52,5 R
Tricalcium silicate (Hatrurite), Brownmillerite,
Gypsum.
Sand
Dolomite
With traces of quartz
Rice husk
Dolomite
Debris
Dolomite
DRY D1 RAPIDO
Lime, Hatrurite, Portlandite, Periclasio
DRY D1 NORMALE Lime, Hatrurite, Portlandite
DRY D1 LENTO
Lime, Hatrurite, Portlandite
With traces of amorphous
FLY ASH
Quartz, Mullite
CEMENT PASTES were then prepared with the following compositions:
MD. paste = (c + a) + (sf) + active component
Whereas:
c = cement
a = effective water of the mixture
sf = super-plasticizer additive
active component= the individual additive a/o the individual added element a/o a combination of the
active components representing the object of specific analysis.
The Mix Design related to the diverse CEMENT PASTES is reported in Table 2.

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Table 2: Concrete MIX DESIGN


MIX
Concrete
Cement paste
0
AS IS
Cement paste
1
AS IS+DRY
Cement paste
2
AS IS+CV
Cement paste
3
AS IS+DRY+CV

CONCRET
E
[Kg/m3]

WATER
[Kg/m3]

A/C

SUPERPLASTICIZER
[Kg/m3]

320

128

0.4

1.6

320

128

0.4

1.6

320

128

0.4

1.6

320

128

0.4

1.6

DRY
[Kg/m3]

CV
[Kg/m3]

RMV
[Kg/m3]

HEB
[Kg/m3]

7
100
7

100

Table 3 indicates the results of the analyses XRPD carried out subsequently to the hardening of the mixtures
in Table 2.
Table 3: Mineral phases in CEMENT PASTE.
MIX
BASIC PASTE
Cement paste 0
AS IS
Cement paste 1
AS IS+DRY
Cement paste 2
AS IS +CV
Cement paste 3
AS IS+DRY+CV

MINERALOGICAL PHASES
Portlandite, Ettringite, Hatrurite, Brownmillerite, Amorphous.
Portlandite, Ettringite, Hatrurite, Brownmillerite, Amorphous.
Portlandite., Ettringite, Hatrurite, Brownmillerite, Quartz, Mullite, Amorphous.
Portlandite, Ettringite, Hatrurite, Brownmillerite, Quartz, Mullite, Amorphous.

Figures 1, 2, and 3 report electron microscopy micrographs (SEM) of fragments of the samples taken of the
various CEMENT PASTE MIXES.

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Figures 1.a and 1.b: Comparative SEM micrographs (Magnification x200): Mix of the Basic Paste As Is (0)
on the left and the Mix of the cement Paste As Is + DRY D1 R/N al 2,2 % on the right (1). The matrix of the
second Mix, the same in terms of crystalline phases identified (table 3), is present with a greater quantity of
cement gels and is significantly more compact.

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Figures 2.a and 2.b: Comparative micrographs to the SEM (magnification x1500) of the Mix of the cement
Pastes: As Is (0) on the left and As Is + DRY D1 R/N 2, 2 % on the right (1) after the flattening. The
difference of the matrix between the two masses is evident, the first appears more discontinuous and
porous, the second more continuous and closed. Other differences are also noticeable between the
systems of fractures created by the crushing, in the first case, they are more diffused and articulated
Among the more porous zones, in the second MIX, they are more localized.

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Figure 3: SEM micrograph (magnification x1500) of the Basic Paste Mix As Is + DRY D1 R/N 2, 2 % +CV 30%
(3). The paste / cementitious matrix completely wraps around the microspheres of the fly ash and is
compact (continuous mass of the gel). The system of fracturing of the material is further evident after the
crushing test in which the fractures are localized.
The test of compression resistance by crushing, performed on the samples of cement pastes of dimensions
10x10x10 cm (UNI12390-3), revealed values ranging from 53.1 MPa (cement paste 0
ASIS) and 58.8 MPa (cement paste + 3 AS IS DRY + HP), or about 10% more resistance after 28 days.

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Considerations specific to the Mix Design of concrete cement

The active components were studied, verifying their combined action in the CONCRETE MIX, comparing,
wherever possible, the results obtained with those in the literature and in the latest state of the art
research on concrete:
MIX DESIGN
CLS
MD.1 AS IS
MD.CLS 2
MD.CLS 3
MD.CLS 4
MD.CLS 5
MD.CLS 6
Others

MIX DESIGN
CLS
MD.0 AS IS
MD.CLS A1
MD.CLS A2
MD.CLS A3
Others

CEM
[Kg/m3]
410
410
380
350
320
290

CEM
[Kg/m3]
320
320
320
320
290410

TABLE 5.I: CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Phase 1


H2O/c
SF
DRY
CV
SAND
[Kg/m3] [Kg/m3] R-N-L [Kg/m3] [Kg/m3]
0.38
4.1
7
X
0.38
4.1
7
X
0.38
3.8
7
X
0.40
3.5
7
X
0.42
3.2
7
X
0.44
3.2
7
X

TABLE 5.II: CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Phase 2


DRY
H2O
SF
CV
SAND
R-N[Kg/m3] [Kg/m3]
[Kg/m3] [Kg/m3]
L
135
2.7-3.2
1145
135
2.7-3.2
7
1145
151
2.7-3.2
100
1045
151
2.7-3.2
7
100
1045

RICE
[Kg/m3]
X
X
X
X
X
X

DEBRIS
[Kg/m3]
X
X
X
X
X
X

HEB
[Kg/m3]

RICE
[Kg/m3]

DEBRIS
[Kg/m3]

HEB
[Kg/m3]

550
550
550
550

350
350
350
350

Slump tests were performed for the fresh mixes; for the specimens after 24 hours and after 28 days of
density, non-destructive ultrasonic investigations, crush tests, SEM micrographs, fine sections under a
polarized microscope, x-ray analyses, measurements of porosity, shrinkage-expanding tests, water
absorption at atmospheric pressure and flexural tests were performed, as well.
Cement (c)
Binder: Portland Cement Class I 52, 5 R
As illustrated, the BASIC MIXES of CEMENT PASTE class I 52,5 R, water and plasticizing, were studied,
subsequently adding, the expansive/anti-shrinkage/compacting agents and the added elements of
pozzolanic minerals both alone and in combination with different doses of the other additions.
The first research phase (June 2011-October 2011)
Specific CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS were studied and monitored, (AS IS PASTES WITH SUPER-PLASTICIZING
ADDITIVES and WITH EXPANSIVE AGENTS DRY D1 type Rapido and type Normale, before the generation of
micro-expansive additives) using varying dosages of Portland Cement I 52,5 R UNI EN 197-1 and UNI EN
11104 from 290 kg/m3 to 410 kg/m3 with incremental steps of 30 kg/m3 and with a constant dosage of the
two expansive agents (approximately 0,81,2% of the cement for each typology):
Cem Dosages: 290->320->350->380->410 kg/m3

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Note:
Max rep.a/c
Min Resistance
Min Cement
Min Air Cont.
Other
Note:
Max rep.a/c
Min Resistance
Min Cement
Min Air Cont.
Other

(1)
X0

MPa
Kg/m3
%

MPa
Kg/m3
%

Note:
Max rep.a/c
Min Resistance
Min Cement
Min Air Cont.
Other

MPa
Kg/m3
%

(2)
(2)
(2)
XC1
XC2
XC3
0,60
0,60
0,55
C12/15 C25/30 C25/30 C28/35
300
300
320

(2)
XC4
0,50
C32/40
340

(3)
XS1
0,50
C32/40
340

(3)
XS2
0,45
C35/45
360

(4)
(4)
(4)
(5)
XD1
XD2
XD3
XF1
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.55
C28/35 C32/40 C35/45 C32/40
320
340
360
320

(5)
XF2
0.50
C25/30
340
3

(5)
XF3
0.50
C25/30
340
3

(5)
XF4
0.45
C28/35
360
3

(6)
(6)
XA1
XA2
0.55
0.50
C28/35 C32/40
320
340

(6)
XA3
0.45
C35/45
360

Cem resistant to sulfates

TABLE UNI 11104 (2): carbonatazione (4): cloruri - (5): freeze-thaw - (6): chemical attachment
Results of the first phase of the project compared to the resistance characteristics of crushing cubes
15x15x15 cm.

XS3
0,45
C35/45
360

The first phase of the research made it possible to deduce and validate that the optimal concrete from the
technical and economic perspective (cost-benefit analysis) was the concrete with a dosage of 350 kg/m3
(note: this was initially packaged in total absence of pozzolanic charges and of slow expansive/antishrinkage/compacting of the latest generation. There was however, the presence of expansive additives of
short and mid-term action, currently produced by Chimica Edile: DRY D1 Rapido e DRY D1 Normale). It is
noted that from the perspective of the continual control of volumetric stability, the first generation
expansive agents of Chimica Edile and other companies in the sector externalize their action in the first
week! Some oxide-based additives on the market even terminate their action in the first week and in a few
days, when in the presence of high temperatures.
The cost-benefit analysis of the estimated costs of the MIXES raw materials indicated that MIX 1 (AS IS with
410 kg/m3 of CEM I 52, 5 R) is approximately equal to, or considerably higher in cost, compared to the cost
of MIX 4 (with 350 kg/m3 of cement CEM I 52, 5 R and DRY D1 Quick and Normal additives, equal to about
1% +1% or 3.5 kg + 3.5 kg = 7 kg/m3). Nevertheless, MIX 4 has similar mechanical performances with
respect to MIX 1, but offers the advantage of controlled volumetric stability (shrinkage near 200 microns
m / m or 50-micron m / m of the initial expansion in the first 2 days and subsequent shrinkage after 28
days). For the purposes of the display classes (UNI 11104 and NTC-Technical Standards for Construction),
the dosage of the cement equivalent of MIX 4 (350 kg of Portland CEM I 52.5 R) assumed, exceeds the
minimum amount required by the regulations for XA2 / chemical attachment, XD2/cloruri, XF2-XF3/freezethaw, XC4/carbonatazione.

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1
The use of the micro-expansive and compacting agents led to an increase in compression resistance of
between 1015%
15x15X15 cm CUBES AFTER THE CRUSHING WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED ELEMENTS/ADDITIVIES

The second phase of research (November 2011 June 2012)


The second phase of the research, benefitting from the state of the art knowledge and the results, that is
to say, the summaries of the advantages and limitations of modern expansive agents, was characterized by
the formulation of new MIX DESIGNS and by the production of new expansive agents synergistically
combined with pozzolanic added elements and fillers. The analyses by microscope allowed the observation
that the expansive agent, with a compacting function, emphasized the filler capability (filling) of the fine
sands and above all of the spherical micro-sands ( < 200 m) more likely to move during the
expansion/compacting processes. It should also be noted and further emphasized that the formation of an
additional, small percentage of "expanded Portlandite derived from lime oxide" not only acts as another
"alkaline reserve", in addition to the noted "Portlandite derived from the concrete" (see alite and belite )
and adequate "water molecules", but it also offers the beneficial addition of materials with pozzolanic
activity to capitalize on this obvious potential.
Photo of the counter
face of the fine

Another positive side effect (significant) involves the compacting effect for autocompression (self- compressing) and the increase in the contacts (wall effect) of the
expansive agents that push and press the masses of the cement conglomerate
(concrete). The expansionary effect, if properly modulated, leads to a decrease in the
porosity of the concrete (with improvements of the critical aspects of the transition
zone), the bleeding phenomenon, and internal discontinuity in the concrete setting
and hardening phase. These elements consequently enhance the triggering of pozzolanic reactions
between the residual water, the Portlandite (from cement and the expansive agent) and the micro-silicon

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In philological dialectics, and taking into account the formerly summarized observations, the new mix
designs have been studied and monitored with different combinations of additives, micro-expansive agents
and active pozzolanic minerals in cement pastes (MD. paste), in specific environmental conditions
(temperature, humidity, formwork). It was therefore necessary to come to an agreement with CHIMICA
EDILE to formulate and test new expansive agents with slower, more modulated action (DRY D1 Lento).
These agents would be used in conjunction with the other line of expansive agents in production (DRY D1
Rapido and DRY D1 Normale) to more effectively control the micro-expansive phase of the new concrete.
Also considered, was the complex evolution of its contraction phases, (hygrometric shrinkage,
autogenous shrinkage, thermal shrinkage for temperature reduction, viscous deformation based on
compression/traction, etc.) in conjunction with the experience acquired from the expansive agents
(Rapido and Normale).
In the second research phase, the new CLS MIX, which had resulted as optimal for the prefabrication
industry, consisted in a dosage of 320 kg/m3 of Portland Cement I 52, 5 R. It also had an a/c ranging from
0,400,45 more than the addition from 25 to 100 kg/m 3 of materials with pozzolanic activity (Ground
Volcanic Rock a/o Fly Ash a/o Silica Fume a/o Metacaolino). This served to obtain a total dosage of
equivalent cements close to or greater than 330350 kg/m 3 (equivalent performance concrete UNI EN
206 par. 5.2.5.3) with super-plastifying additives (~1%) and rapid action micro-expansive agents (~0,6% DRY
D1 Rapido), both with normal (~0,6% DRY D1 Normale) and slow, prolonged action (~11,2 % DRY D1
Lento). The cements included integrative and balanced expansive agents in respect to the complex
phenomena of shrinkage/expansion listed.
70
56
38

For the purposes of the exposition classes (UNI 11104 and NTC-Technical Standards for Construction), the
dosage of the cement equivalent of the FINAL MIX / IDEAL utilized, (320 kg and 100 kg of Portland Cem fly
ash in addition to Portland cement) exceeds the minimum levels required by the regulations for XA2/
chemical attachment (353> = 320 C.Min), XD2/cloruri (353> = 340 c.mim), XF2-XF3/freeze-thaw (353> = 340
C.Min) XC4/carbonatazione (c = 320 + 0.33 x 100 = 353> 340 kg/m3).

(silicon reactive dioxide) materials of the pozzolanic materials (especially in the first 28 days where the
concrete still contains sufficient residual water), assisting the primary pozzolanic C-S-H processes.
Therefore, the expansive additive may not only be formulated to contrast the shrinkage, but also to favor
the pozzolanic activity of the fly ash and in general, of the pozzolanic materials in contact with the available
Portlandite.

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1
7
5
3

Water
In respect to the UNI EN 1008, the w/c relationship was on an average equal to 0.400.45, and in any
case, also occurred with variable parameters between 0.375 and 0.45 (UNI EN 206-1 e UNI 8981-2). The
experimental points (graphs of the Rck and tables of consistency/slump) are plotted on the graph in
function with different w/c for the optimal MIX DESIGN (MIX n A4) and indicate appropriate tolerance
levels (note: the study may influence errors in water dosage of average w/c= 0.410.42 in reference to
the variability of both the Rck of hardened cls and the workability/slump of the fresh cls).
Further additions of water were calculated in respect to the same dosage w/c, (0.410.42) but reduced
by a coefficient K equal to 0.40 for the fly ash (see UNI) and for the milled volcanic rock (note: the latter
being very water hungry and with a thermal zeolite effect in function of the water absorption).
The pragmatic criteria to determine the best water dosage adhered to State of the Art technology and the
science of concrete (Abrams, Bolomey, Collepardi, Fuller, Lyse, etc.). The many parameters of the MIX
(aggregate dosages and sizes) were significantly and expertly varied for the purpose, also, of
reducing/optimizing the water dosage in respect to the cement and the active minerals, (pozzolanic)
while maintaining the adequate classes of consistency/slump (S4 o S5):hh.
CLASS OF CONSISTENCY:
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5

SLUMP (mm):
1040
5090
100150
160210
>220

DENOMINATION:
Wet Earth
Plastic
Semi-fluid
Fluid
Super-fluid

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1
For the purposes of the exposure classes (UNI 11104 and NTC-Technical Standards for Construction), the
dosage employed for the FINAL MIX / IDEAL (MIX n A4) exceeds the minimum quantity required by the
regulations in force for chemical XA2/water attachment, XD2 / chlorides, XF2-XF3/freeze-thaw,
XC4/carbonatazione (w / c = 0.42 <0.45 <0.50).
The optimal MIX DESIGN must guarantee a class of consistency between S4 and S5 and the prevention of
the segregation phenomena.

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1
Aggregates
In compliance with the EN 206-1, UNI EN 932-3, UNI 8520, limestone aggregates from Italian
quarries were used and consisted in 3 groups:
gravel: 8 16 mm
rice husk ash: 4 10 mm
sand: 0 5 mm
The granulometric curve designed was developed by controlling the ideal curve of Bolomey. The maximum
aggregate size is 16 mm.
The absorption degree of the limestone aggregates was monitored, (range of admissible absorption) so
as not to influence or distort the effective water dosage of the mix.
The relationships employed of "i / c" respected the optimal values indicated in technical literature to obtain
optimal performance concrete (even for shrinkage and viscosity under load). Of course it is admissible, in
performing the calculations, to consider a dosage of a cement equivalent (c.eq) as including up to a
maximum of 33% of fly ash/ pozzolanic aggregates, as well as the total part of the aggregates (100% of the
limestone aggregates are derived from the fly ash, which is to say the remaining quota of the aggregates
and pozzolanic added elements).
For concrete with fly ash or milled volcanic rocks, the calculation of the equivalent aggregates and of the
relationship i/c was conducted as follows:
i.eq = gravel + rice husk ash + sand + (1-k) fly ash or milled volcanic rock
Whereas:
k = 0.33 (UNI) for the fly ash (1-k = 1- 0.33 = 0.67)

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Kg/m3
350 (385)
550 (600)
1,050 (900)
1,950 (1,885)
100

x (1-K)
350 (385)
550 (600)
1,050 (900)
1,950 (1,885)
67

x K = cement equivalent
1

Aggregates (inert and active


minerals):
GRAVEL
RICE HUSK ASH
SAND
First Total (aggregates)
FLY ASH
MILLED VOLCANIC ROCK
Second Total (aggregate eq.)
Portland Cement I 52,5 R
Third Total (cement eq.)

33

2,017
320
2,370 (2.305)

2,370 (2,305)

320
353

Calculations of possible relationships i/c , i.eq/c.eq, (i+cv)/c e i/(i+cv)


k.1 =k.cv = 0.33 (UNI)
i/c = 1,950/320 = 6.24
i.eq /c.eq= (1,950+67)/(320+33) = 2,017/353 = 5.71
(i+cv)/c=(1,950+100)/320)=2,050/320=6.40
i/(c+cv)= 1,950/(320+100)=4.64
Possible values of relationships between cement and aggregates range between 4.6 and 6.4, (average 5.5)
and are to be considered relatively high. As a consequence, this implicates the controllable phenomena of
hygrometric shrinkage, chemical shrinkage and viscosity under load (note: in the SCC, generally speaking,
the relationships i/c are lower and concentrated between 4.0 e 4.5, resulting in more elevated
phenomena of shrinkage and above all viscosity). For the pre-compressed concrete, the hygrometric and
viscosity phenomena under load are certainly discriminating factors for the evaluation of the quality of
concrete and for the final cost of work performed.
Super-Plastification ( sf )
In adherence to the UNI 934-2 (3.1, 3.2, 11.1,11.2) and UNI 12350, the added super-plasticizer (sf) with a
water-soluble polymer base was the minimum amount possible (sf/c). Concerning pozzolanic added
elements, (fly ash or milled rock) it was 0. 85%, in respect to the effective or equivalent cement, c.eq =c + k 1
x cv/rvm with k1 equal to 0.33 for the fly ash. It was, in any case, "just enough" to ensure sufficient
workability of the mixture (reference: consistency class S4/S5 UNI 206-1 - Slump Loss Controlling Agent)
and to prevent segregation phenomena (due to over dosage of super-plasticizer): minimum dosage of
super-plasticizer equal to ~ 0.7 1% considering both the cement and the quota (33%) of the pozzolanic
minerals.
The super-plasticizing additive utilized in the various MIXES that gave valid results, has a base of modified
polistearici esters with a pH of approximately 4, and is free of formaldehyde and chlorides. The minimum %
of plasticizing additive as noted, does not affect the final pH of the concrete. The additive was added after
the insertion (for a few minutes of mixing) of the water to hydrate the mix, and was then stirred for well
over 5 minutes.
As evidenced by the technical and scientific literature (see Collepardi - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE
FIELD OF ADDITIVES FOR CONCRETE), it was also necessary to monitor the compatibility and the creation of
synergies between the super-plasticizer and the other additives / additional elements used (combined
action between the super-plasticizers and the other additives / additional, non-shrinking and compacting
elements with micro-expansive action). The monitoring controlled that the action did not slow down or
compromise the phenomena of setting and hardening within 12 to 24 hours (essential requirement for the
precast concrete industry).
For example, for the MIX of 320 kg of cement without pozzolanic minerals:

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SF = 0.01 x 320 = 3.20 kg/m3

SF = 0.009 x (320+0.33x100) = ~ 3.20 kg/m3


Added elements with a base of micro-expansive oxides and new generation anti-shrinkage (with modulated
action in time)
SEM micrographs (x1500) of the CLS at 28 days and study of the portlandite derived from the expansive
agents and from the cement derivatives (expansive agents DRY D1 N and CEM I 52, 5 R). The micrographs
enable for a clear reading of the morphology of the Portlandite in the space (frontally and laterally).

The SEM MICROGRAPH of basic cement pastes (magnification x 2.000 and x 3.500). The presence of
portlandite is highlighted in yellow, respectively, in the samples Cement paste 0 (AS IS) and Cement Paste
1 (AS IS + DRY).

For the MIX of 320 kg of cement with added elements of pozzolanic minerals:

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a) Shrinkage Compensating Concrete (ShCC) that provokes the initial expansion within the concrete,
slightly lower than or virtually equal to the subsequent contraction due to the shrinkage (see UNI
EN 1992-1-1/Eurocodice 2 + Appendix B - DM 14/01/08 par. 11.2. 10.6). The "expansion-shrinking"
diagrams according to UNI / EN, ASTM, or other methodologies enable one to understand the type
of action of additives on the market and their effectiveness or ineffectiveness according to the
dosage (sometimes excessive).
b) Self-Consolidating Concrete (see ACI 223R-98, a very different type of concrete, but along the
philological lines and trends of Self Compacting Concrete o SCC, UNI EN206-1 ) provokes a sensitive
micro-expansion, slightly superior to the contemporary contraction of shrinkage in a resistant
matrix, on the inside of the concrete. In the presence of formwork/ rigid constraints and of spacial
scaffolding this may lead to the creation of compression stress in the growth of the young concrete
(in the setting/ hardening phase). The scaffolding in the c.a., as a function of its arrangement and
diameters, works for the cls expansion, thanks to its adherence and circular design. This expansion,
if properly calibrated, offers benefits including decreasing viscous movements of self-compacting
and self-fortification during the constitutive genesis of the young concrete, creating the foundation
to enhance its future performance.
c) Volumetric Stability Controlled Concrete The external constraints applied to the structures
scaffolding constitute a system of redundant constraints and the presence of contraction
deformation that (such as the hygrometric shrinkage, negative thermal changes and heat
dissipation of hydration) induce tensile stress states, which still increase the distance between the
materials (facies). This exceeds the limits of concrete resistance (strength) producing macro and
micro cracks. Concrete that retains its shape, with balanced and weighted expansion in the
beginning, and then without shrinkage and critical stress in its genesis, as a function of its MIX
DESIGN and external conditions (humidity, temperature, thickness of the jet, the jet mass,
constraints, etc..) is the dream of structural engineers and is defined as "a volumetric stability
control." This represents one of the principle objectives of researchers and technologies for the
production of new generation concrete.
VSCC&ICME (Volumetric Stability Controlled Concrete and/with initial calibrated micro-expansion).

The new generation of concrete in the precast and c.a.p. industry requires always more of a painstaking
approach to the packaging of concrete in the absence of the noted criticalities of autogenous/hygrometric
shrinkage:

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The test to monitor the macro-expansion-contraction of the 50x50x50 mm. concrete cubes according to
Gennaros Method begins testing by using 4 probes (on the horizontal plane) arranged in contact with steel
plates embedded in the jet. The mix/preparation time is controlled. The two probes along the X-axis and
the two probes along the Y-axis constantly measure the free expansion / contraction of the time "t.0" of
the semi-hardened and hardened concrete until the cancellation (essentially) of the phenomena of
volumetric change (t.fin). A double plastic film wraps the sample (with the exception of the contact areas of
the 4 sensors) on the lateral faces of the cube (reference test type B of the UNI standard). The relative
humidity and temperature are controlled by meteorological stations (generally the tests are performed in
air using the following parameters: RH 50% + / - 2% and temperature 20 + / - 2 C). The test could also be
performed by totally immersing the specimen in water (filling the tank), or varying the conditions of
temperature / RH. The test allows for monitoring of the time t.0 and the volume displacements of the
concrete (time t.0 generally equal to 4 hours after the jet). The apparatus provides for the possibility of
inserting a further probe for monitoring the movements with respect to the Z-axis. For testing of microexpansion/micro-shrinkage, components of a larger sized concrete are packaged (e.g. 300x300x50, etc.).

Photo X + Y Restrained expansion test


UNI 8148 - Method B

Above: ASTM 878 test data Above on the right and below: instruments and software for the free
shrinkage/expansion, according to Gennaros method.

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Metodo UNI Metodo b


1
Espansione Contrastata sec. UNI 8148 met.B

m/m

CONCRETE: CEM I 52,5 R 320kg/mc - a/c= 0.42

100
62
50

25
21
0

14

0
-50

21

-8

-25
-42
-71
-79

-54

-75
-50

-87

-83
-100

-121

-150

-142
-154

-150

-154

-192

-200

-221

-221
-250

-250
-300

-313
-342

-350

-400
Time (days)

C.V. (100Kg/mc)

D1 40-40-20 (7Kg/mc)

D1 30-30-40 (7Kg/mc)

C.V. (100Kg/mc) + D1 40-40-20 (7,5Kg/mc)

C.V. (100Kg/mc) + D1 30-30-40 (7Kg/mc)

C.V. (100Kg/mc) + D1 30-30-40 (7Kg/mc) + D1 Rapido (0,5Kg/mc)

AS IS 1 (Riferimento a secco)

AS IS 2 (Relative high UM)

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1
Gennaros Method

SAMPLE 1:
Dimensions 50 x 50 x 50 mm
(Duration measure 143h)
Experimental Test of Macro-Expansion
Dosage of 20% of DRY NORMALE in respect to cement
Date: January 2012
(Duration measure 143h)

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1
Researchers at the Department of Earth Sciences interacted with the facilities engineers of Chimica Edile to
formulate different types of "micro-expansive and compacting agents" based on the scientific and technical
needs of the project ("concrete with controlled volumetric stability with initial micro-expansive action of
compaction and acceleration / expansion of pozzolanic activity"). A primary purpose of the research was
therefore to respect the hypothesis of formulating concrete with "controllable" volumetric stability (res
extensa), or a concrete that from its inception to its use is not subject to "structural / mechanical / chemical
disturbances "and trauma in general" due to volumetric instability. This hypothesis is to be instantaneously
detected at the end of the mixing, or by the t.0 time of the casting: after a few hours, a few days, weeks,
months and ...years, regarding the minimization of "expansion / shrinkage" and of the "volumetric change".
However, it would seem reasonable and rational to say that in the plastic and semi-plastic "fresh" or "semifresh" concrete phase, its significant expansion as described above would result in a positive compacting
and strengthening effect of the concrete (a decrease in porosity and greater contact between the facies),
still in the setting and hardening phase (Self Compressing + Shrinkage Free Concrete = SCompresC SHFC).
The questions from the beginning of the research were the following: what is the optimal value of this
micro expansion and for how long must this micro expansion be set? The only methodology able to provide
a response was to constantly monitor this phenomenon (from the casting phase to the setting and
hardening phase), right from the moment of casting, (t.0 ) and to then follow the chronological evolution
(volumetric stability/instability) of the "Epsilon/t" diagram according to the dosage and the type of
formulation provided by Chimica Edile. The Department of Earth Sciences developed a special apparatus to
test this phenomenon (a cube/slab of concrete in unrestricted formwork, which permitted its free
expansion/shrinkage in space, in air or in water. The test was then named Expansion/Shrinkage according
to Gennaros Method). Furthermore, this apparatus allowed for a comparison of these results with those
determined by applying international standards for obstructed shrinkage/expansion tests (UNI / ASTM
standards).
Te st
Form a e Dim . P rovino
M e todo
P rim a sta giona tura (sta m po-ca ssa form a )
ritiro-e spa nsione
(m m )

S e conda sta giona tura

S ca de nze m isure
(giorni)

Note :

Pris m a
8 0x80x240

Stam po: 8 ore - 2 0 1 C - U R 95%

Vas ca co n acqu a s atu ra d i ca lce: 20 1 C per 2 8 giorn i

2 - 7 - 1 4 - 28

Es pa ns ione co ntra s tata


in a s s enza d i ritiro

Pris m a
8 0x80x240

Stam po: 8 ore - 2 0 1 C - U R 95%

Arm ad io clim a tico : 20 1 C - U R 95%


Prim i 2 g iorni: a vvolti da 2 s trati d i film po lie tilene (LDPD )
Su cces s ivam ente: liberi fino a 28 giorni

2 - 7 - 1 4 - 28

Es pa ns io n e contras tata
in cond izio ni di ritiro co ntrollate

C ubo - Cilindro - Pris m a


D im .di b as e u guale a 3,5
volte dim . nom inale
aggregato

Sta m po: 241 ore - 202 C - UR 95%

C am era cond izio na ta: 20 2 C - UR 5 05% per 90


gio rni

2 - 3 - 7- 28 - 60 - 90

R itiro lib ero

C ubo - Cilindro - Pris m a


D im .di b as e u guale a 3,5
volte dim . nom inale
aggregato

Sta m po: 241 ore - 202 C - UR 95%

C am era cond izio na ta: 20 2 C - UR 5 05% per 90


gio rni

2 - 3 - 7- 28 - 60 - 90

Ritiro libero s upe rficiale

Pris m a
7 5x75x250

Stam po: 6 ore - 2 3 2 C - U R 95%

Vas ca con acqua s atura di calce


7
Vas ca co n a cqua s atura di calce: 232 C per 7 gio rni
Oltre 7 giorni: da stabilire
23 2 C

Pris m a
7 5x75x250

Stam po: 6 ore - 2 3 2 C - U R 95%

Vas ca co n a cqua s atura di calce: 232 C per 7 gio rni

U NI 81 48

UN I 11307

ASTM C878

Pris m a
100x100x285
75x75x285 - 25x25x285

Pris m a
100x100x285
75x75x285 - 25x25x285

1 - 28
Vas ca con acqua s atura di calceU lteriore s tagion atura:
Vas ca co n acqu a s atu ra d i ca lce: 23 2 C per 2 8 giorn i
2 30,5 C
8 - 16 - 32 - 64
s ettim a ne

Sta m po : 24 ore - 230,5 C - U R 95%

Vas ca co n acqu a s atu ra d i ca lce: 23 2 C per 2 8 giorn i

C am e ra condizionata
232 C - UR 504 %

Ca s s afo rm a: 4 o re

Aria o acqua
Tem peratura e UR controlla te

(secondo dimensioni
massime aggregato)

de'
Genna ro

Cubo - Pris m a
70x70x70
100x100x150
150x150x150

Aria
Cond izion i di tem peratu ra e
U.R. predeterm in ate

Es pa ns ione co ntra s tata


in a s s enza d i ritiro
Prim i 7 g iorni: es pans ione
7
contra s tata in as s enza di ritiro
Oltre 7 giorni: da stabilire
Dopo 7 g iorni: es pans ione
contra s tata in co ndizioni varia bili

Sta m po : 24 ore - 230,5 C - U R 95%

(secondo dimensioni
massime aggregato)

ASTM C157

Ulte riore sta giona tura

Varia zione linea re


in a s s enza d i ritiro

1 - 28
U lteriore s tagion atura:
Varia zione linea re
4, 7 , 14, 28 giorn i
in cond izio ni di ritiro co ntrollate
8, 16, 32 , 64
s ettim a ne
Varia zione linea re
Monitoraggio co ntinuo in as s enza d i ritiro o in condizioni
di ritiro co ntrolla te

CHECK AND COMPLETE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ON EXPANSION/SHRINKING TESTS AND AGING TYPE in
water, lime or in air; compare results to Gennaro's Method
In the following, we distinguish 3 types of micro-expansive formulations of Chimica Edile : Fast action,
normal action and slow action, which allowed the research to finalize, specialize and refine its applications.

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Type of DRY
RESEARCH PHASE
Dosage 1.a research
phase
Dosage 2.a research
phase

DRY D1 RAPIDO

DRY D1 NORMALE

1,1%

1,1%

0,6%

0,6%

DRY D1 LENTO
(new generation)

1%

Micro-expansive, rapid action, oxide based additive with compacting and self-compressing effect (e.r)
The insertion of micro-expansive, (e.r) calcium oxide based additives in the MIX, as noted, results in the
following reaction:
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
Reaction "immediately" and integrally involving the fine particles of highly reactive oxides (first those of a
few microns and then, in outside thickness, those of a few hundred microns), produced and marketed by
the CHIMICA EDILE group with the name of " DRY D1 Rapido". These oxides also have the advantage of
having a high pH (> 12) that helps the durability and protection of the scaffolding in alkaline positive
environments. The research and the various instruments allowed for the determination of an optimal
formula and an effective dosage percentage in respect to the cement of less than 1% (e.r/c). Some of the
benefits of the use of such additives involves the reduction of further ethringite formation and the
expansion phenomena that occurs shortly thereafter (from the time of the mix up to about 48 hours). The
action then completely ceases after a few days (the temperature obviously, strongly affects the trigger
times of reactivity).
However, at the same time, the downside if one decides only to use this type of expansive agent is the
risk of losing this expansion, or significantly reducing it, following hygrometric shrinkage. This risk occurs in
environments that are not water saturated (meaning those environments not in water, not in
environments regulated con U.R. near 90% or in the phase of wet sheet removal or thermo-heated places
in the winter). Another risk is that this type of expansive agent may not be effective to control the
autogenous shrinkage of concrete (meaning that which is measurable in water immersion). This type of
additives produced by Chimica Edile, nevertheless, has the advantage of beginning to act (immediate
micro-expansion) from the start time of the mix and in the transition days and the first creation of the fresh
concrete: fluid -> semi-fluid -> plastic-> semi-solid. It is also easily mixable and diffusible in the mass of the
mix (thanks to the fine grain of its particles and their capacity to spread in the mix without flocculating,
because of the super-plasticizing action) and is sufficiently, less sensitive to mild, rigid and cold external
temperatures (high reactivity that obviously, noticeably increases in the heat). These expansive agents
based on the reaction between water and "very fine, porous particles "of calcium oxide are much faster
and more direct with respect to those with a base of sulfa-aluminates with primary ethringite formation
( Candlot salt) or compared to magnesium oxides. The calcium oxides tend to expand much more quickly
and autonomously compared to those based on an ethringite formation (i.e. trisolfo-calcium aluminate
hydrate, 3CaOAl23CaSO432H2O which is a salt expansive molecule that needs 32 water molecules to
form). Therefore, the technicians and the market have a greater appreciation for calcium oxides with
respect to those with a base of sulfa aluminates, but that have a decisively "rapid" and "short" expansive
action limited in time (manifesting the expansive action in the mixture reaching a maximum in up to 2 to 3
days). To annul the final withdrawal of the cls (offset by strong final expansion) would result in excessive
dosages, (in part rendered useless by the strong heat, higher temperatures greater than 25-30C) and more

Table Studio Mix Design of DRY "expansive agents" for concrete with CEM 52, 5 R with a dosage of 320
kg/m3. The dosage is expressed as a percentage of cement. For high doses of cement, the percentage of
DRY D1 can be suitably reduced after the test campaign.

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A) Its cooking temperature, cooking times, the fineness of its granules (granulametric curve and
grinding process), its water-accessible porosity (characteristics of the formulate and assigned
parameters of the computerized plants of the Chimica Edile group);
B) The outside temperature, the U.R., the type of aging/ form stripping of the concrete.
C) The combination and type of additives combined (super-plasticizers, etc.);
D) Other external factors (cement type and dosage, type and dosage of the additives, the arrangement
and quantity of scaffolding, the morphology and fineness of the aggregates, the presence of fly ash
and micro-fillers, w/c, mix design, etc.)

Below is the linear performance graph, relative to the variation of the crystal size (nm) as a function
of temperature (range from 900 C to 1400 C) performed on a sample of limestone rock.

importantly, would lead to phenomena of strong, dimensional and volumetric non-stability, "excessive"
initial expansion. It would also involve the loss of such expansion in the long term with volumetric
disturbance in absolute terms, numerically similar to those of the withdrawal (several hundred microns:
300 600 uM) although, beneficially, of opposite sign (expansion). Additional parameters that influence the
speed and duration of the rapid expansive phenomena of calcium oxide are proportional to:

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1
The chemical reaction, resulting in the expansion, takes place at the "water - solid" interface. Therefore, by
reducing the dimensions of the solid particles of the expansive agent and increasing its surface porosity,
there tends to be an increase in the surface exposed to the action of water and thus in the "speed" of its
reaction (expansive). The result is an overall acceleration of the expansion process but a shorter duration of
the expansive effect over time (the concrete expands too quickly in the first few days to then withdrawal /
contract and lose much of its expansion in a few days like many small balls that inflate instantly in the
newly formed concrete). Similarly, if an expansive agent is in the form of porous granules accessible to
water, it becomes more easily able to be hydrated, while if its granules are less fine, without excessive
porosity in communication with the outside or large and dense, they are more difficult to hydrate, thus
reacting more slowly and with greater tenacity. The degree of grinding, the porosity of the granules and the
density of the expansive agents (CaO) are "adjustable" parameters. The manufacturer, Chimica Edile Group
may vary the firing temperature of the raw material used, the firing cycle, the cooking time, the type of
material (mixture of limestone and other minerals extracted and selected in the Andes) and of course its
granulametric curves pre / post cooking. In addition, the manufacturer may further delay the phenomenon
of hydration-expansion of the expansive agent by covering the granules (adsorption) with a suitable
polymer (retardant) and with multiple processes of sintering processes. The main product resulting from
the hydration of the calcium oxide is thus a "Portlandite ad hoc that may intervene intelligently, profitably,
massively and temporally in the various stages of the creation of the concrete and also in the presence of
pozzolanic activity within the concrete. In order to address critical issues and notes of the normal oxidebased expansive agents (rapid) -formerly emphasized- it was necessary to resort to the use of the MIX
DESIGN of ulterior micro-expansive agents with compacting action and slow and tough micro-expansive
action products. Chimica Edile specifically produced these products for the research objectives of the
Department of Earth Sciences, which are further explained in the following paragraphs. These additional
expansive agents may assist the rapid and immediate action additives, already known to scholars and the
market for several years. For the purpose of the calculation of the dosage based on the weight of Cem I
52.5 R, the quantity used for the MIX n 10 (A4) with a base of 320 kg of CEM I 52,5 R for DRY D1 R (rapid)
was obtained, for example, as follows:
r.e = 0,06 x 320 = 1,92 kg
Compacting oxide based added element with normal expansive action (n.e)
The added element and its relative dosage of compacting additives with normal and slower action, (from 1
to 7 days) hygrometric and autogenous anti-shrinkage (e.e) with a calcium oxide mix base were performed
and weighted in respect to the hypothesis of finding shrinkage or expansion (ShFC 0 Shrinkage Free
Concrete) close to zero, also in medium/long term. Also incremented were the values of the compression
resistance for the effect of the reduction of porosity of the conglomerate, having an accelerating and
valorizing action of the pozzolanic activity in the case of pozzolanic added elements (volcanic aggregates, fly
ash, micro-silica, silica fume, etc.) as in the following illustration. The triggering of the expansion
phenomenon of such oxides is slower and more prolonged compared to the previous ones (rapid) and their
strength is considerably higher. Therefore, the quantity must be adjusted to compensate for the size of the
granules and their greater density. The research monitored the Epsilon / t diagrams with special equipment
developed by the Department of Earth Sciences and compared these results to those determined by

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e.n = 0.06 x 320 = 1.92 kg


Special oxide based addition with slow, expansive action (L.e)
The addition and relative dosage of additives with slow and delayed expansive action (generally 7 to 28
days) that mitigate the long-term withdrawal phenomena, (eL) based on mixtures of calcium oxides and
other mineral additions, were performed and weighted. This was performed in accordance with the
experience-based hypothesis of shrinkage or expansion (ShFC = Shrinkage Free Concrete) close to zero over
the long term, as well. They also monitored the values of the compression resistance for the effect of the
decrease in porosity of the conglomerate and of the micro-cracks from the shrinking of the hardened
concrete, fragile and almost entirely dehydrated. The research monitored the Epsilon / t diagrams with
special equipment developed by the Department of Earth Sciences and compared these results to those
determined by applying the norms: UNI 8146, 8147, 8148, ASTM C157, C878, ACI 223R and UNI 6555. The
research allowed for the determination of a dosage percentage close to 1% (L.e/c). The amount must be
greater to provide for the large size of the granules and their high density and low reactivity.
For the purposes of calculating the dosage based on the weight of Cem I 52.5 R, the amount of DRY D1 L
(slow) for MIX n10 with a base of 320 kg of CEM I 52.5 R is:
L.e = 0.10 x 320 = 3.20 kg
The mixing and synergy of special oxides with expansive and compacting action (r.e+n.e+L.e)
After having studied the effects of the individual agents with expansive action, the research developed the
best dosage combining the action of the three expansive agents for the purpose of optimizing their synergic
action in function with the MIX DESIGN and the conditions at the boundary and externally. It should be
noted that the type of cement might influence and significantly vary the micro-expansive and compacting
action of the line of DRY D1 additives.
The addition of active fillers and pozzolanic minerals (fa and gvr)
In respect to the UNI EN 12620, UNI EN 450, UNI EN 197 and UNI EN 11104, UNI EN 206, as illustrated in
the premise, two types of active minerals were used, that nevertheless are adequately available on the
market at low costs:
fa (rv) = fly ash with pozzolanic activity and with benefits that improve the workability of the mix and that
optimizes the granulametric curve of the aggregates. The maximum dosage used was close to or less than
33% of the cement dosage, (Cem 52,5 R) to ensure a minimum balance with a quantity of calcium
hydroxide and enough water to activate the pozzolanic addition.
gvr (rvm): ground volcanic rock with pozzolanic and thermal activity (a type II classified addition). A medium
sized dosage equal to 8% of the cement was used and nevertheless, always less than 33% of the dosage of
cement (Cem I 52.5 R) to ensure the minimum balance with an amount of calcium hydroxide and enough
water to activate the pozzolanic addition. This occurred with the silica fume, meta caolino, etc., as well.
In the research project, the addition of these active minerals was performed both in combined and
separate forms. The phases were performed as follows: distinct MIXES without active minerals (note: only
limestone aggregates in phase 1), MIXES with only additions of Fly Ash or only Ground Volcanic Rocks/Silica
Fume/ Metacaolino (phase 2) and MIXES with a weighted combination of Fly Ash + ground Volcanic Rocks

applying the norms: UNI 8146, 8147, 8148, ASTM C157, C878, ACI 223R and UNI 6555. The research on the
MIXES tested, allowed for the determination of an optimal dosage percentage inferior to 1% (n.e/c)
For the purposes of calculating the dosage based on the weight of Cem I 52.5 R, the amount of DRY D1
Normale (normal) used for the MIX n 10 (A4) with a basis of 320 kg of CEM I 52,5 R is:

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In order to establish the content of cement for m3 (UNI 11104:2004 for the application in Italy of the EN
206), the following, respectively, occurs:
cv/c < 0.33
cv/c = 100/320 = 0.31 < 0.33
c.tot = c.eq = c (Cem 52,5R) + 0.33 cv = 320 + 0.33x100 = 320 + 33 = 353 = ~ 350 kg/m3
Regarding the analysis of the size, shape and porosity characteristics of the particles (closed spheres,
cenospheres and pleurospheres with accessible porosity) of the added fillers and pozzolanic minerals, (fa
and gvr) the electron microscope characterized the specificities of the two distinct materials. It also
highlighted the greater fineness and roundness of the fly ash (industrial) in respect to the ground volcanic
rocks available today.

Figure: Comparison between the Laser granulametric distribution of native ash, micronized ash, Portland
cement 42.5 and 52.5, silica fume (as is and disaggregate).
SEM MONITORING OF POZZOLANIC BEHAVIOR (in progress, beginning on July 16th)
FINE SECTION (in progress, beginning on July 16th)
The ground volcanic rock presents particular thermal capacities for the presence of zeolites and is capable
of significantly affecting the temperature of the fresh concrete. The temperature of fresh concrete is
strongly influenced by the external temperature, but above all by the temperature of its elements.
Generally, it is calculated as follows:
t.cls = 0.70 t.aggregates + 0.20 t.water + 0.10 t.cement

(phase 3 in progress). This research focused on obtaining very precise comparative parameters for a correct
cost/benefit analysis.

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1
SEM micrograph (magnification x2000 e x500) of the Basic MIX (AS IS + DRY 2.2%+ Fly Ash 30%) in a zone
rich in microspheres of Fly Ash.

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Protocols of research and test execution

TEST
Compression resistance
Tensile strength
Density
Espansion-Shrinkage
Class consistency (SLUMP)
SEM, SEM-EDS on fine sections
Def. X-Rays
Mercury Porosimeter
Water press. absorption Atm.
Ultrasound

STANDARD REFERENCE
UNI 12390-3
UNI 12372
UNI
UNI 8148 Metodo b
UNI 206-1

NOTE
Campioni 15x15x15, 10x010x10, etc

UNI EN 13755

Rck (MPa) = compression resistance to crushing of sample cubes sized 15x15x15, 10x10x10 and 7x7x7 cm of
concrete and basic mixes (cement + water + additives + active minerals, in absence of aggregate additions).
The resistances were established at 1 day, 7 days and 28 days (aged in water). The aging temperatures
were 3, (cold, moderate, hot) in order to understand the sensitivity of the dosages and the effects of the
different components according to the temperature changes.

Photo: Chassis (maximum load 3000 kN) used to establish compression resistance (Department of Earth
Sciences Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II).

The laboratory equipment of the Department of Earth Sciences and other collaborating laboratories
allowed for the establishment, control and monitoring in time of the tests indicated in the following table.

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1
Photo: Chassis (Maximum load 25kN) used to establish tensile strength (Department of Earth Sciences
Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II).

Photo: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) mod. Jeol JSM 5310 (CISAG, Napoli).

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1
Photo: Mercury Porosimeter Thermo Finnigan of the Pascal series 140, 240 e 440 (Department of Earth
Sciences Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II).

Photo: Automatic Panalytical Diffractometer XPert PRO PW 3040/60 with RTMS Xcelerator detector and
MPD PW 3710 unit (Department of Earth Sciences Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II).

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Summary and discussion of the first research results

MIX: Cem I 52.5 R at 320 kg/m3+ CV at 100 kg/m3+ DRY D1 L/N/R at 2.2%+ SUPER PLASTICIZING at 1%
ELEMENTS:
AGGREGATES
CEMENT I 52,5 R
PLASTICIZER
DRY D 1 RAPIDO/COMPACT
DRY D 1 NORMALE/COMPACT
DRY D 1 LENTO
FA
GVR
ACCELERANT
WATER:
WATER FOR THE CEMENT
WATER FOR THE FLY ASH

Kg/m3
1,950.00
320.00
3.20
1.92
1.92
3.20
100.00

Note:
Sand + rice husk + gravel
1% in respect to the cement
0.6% in respect to the cement
0.6% in respect to the cement
1% in respect to the cement
Alternative use
Cold climate (from 1% to 1.5%)

134.00
16.00

w/c = 0.410.43
k = 0.40 x w/c

The research enabled us to develop some possible final MIX DESIGNS with high technical-economic
competitiveness for the prefabrication and high performance concrete industry and led to some exciting
new ideas for the use of new generation additives. The minimization of the shrinkage leads to, as is known,
a considerable number of advantages regarding both the absence of cracks, and the different behavior of
the reinforcement (especially if pre-strained). This factor also results in an increase in the durability of the
concrete and the reduction of the delayed effects of micro-fillers based concrete.
The presence of pozzolanic material (combined with the calcium oxides in question) besides increasing the
mechanical strength in the short and mid-term, helps to improve the microstructure of concrete (for the
drastic transformation of Portlandite into C-S-H fiber). The micro-expansion phenomena positively reduce
the absorbency and the porosity of the concrete, thereby providing volumetric stability and avoiding stress,
disruption and trauma to the concrete due to hygrometric shrinkage and coactions of internal and external
hyperstaticity of the c.a and the c.a.p.
All of this allows the packaging of concrete through the synergies and harmonization of the additives and
additional elements studied, to be decidedly "effective, durable and economically competitive."

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Mercury Porosimetry Test

Among the many possible techniques of measurement of the pores, those of mercury intrusion and
adsorption / desorption of gas are the most used techniques. The mercury porosimetry is a technique
developed by Ritter and Drake in 1945 that allows you to measure the size and distribution of macropores
and mesopores in porous solids (see figure below).

Figure: Measuring ranges of the techniques of mercury intrusion and for adsorption / desorption of gas.
The technique is based on the properties of mercury as a non-wetting liquid with a great variety of
solids. Thanks to this characteristic, the mercury penetrates through the open pores of a solid sample
under the effect of an increasing pressure. The radius of the pores penetrated is inversely proportional to
the pressure exerted according to a report proposed by Washburn:
P = (2cos )/r
Whereas:
P = the absolute pressure exerted; r = the radius of the pore; = the surface tension of the Hg
(48mN/m); = the angle of contact (141.3).
In which some assumptions are to be taken into consideration:
I.
The surface tension of the mercury and the angle of contact with the solid are constant during the
analyses (480 dynes/cm is considered to be the average value);
II.
The pressure of the intrusion must be at the equilibrium;
III.
The pores are considered cylindrical in form;
IV.
The solid does not deform under the effect of the pressure;
V.
The angle of contact (determined as 141.3) depends on the nature of the sample and may
therefore, be considered only as an average value derived from measurements made on a large number of
samples the values of which are between 125 and 152.
In addition to these approximations, we must also assume that the porous nature of the substances
and the shape of the pore remain constant throughout the entire range of pressure applied during the
analysis. The experimental data for the calculation of the distribution of pores as a function of their radius
was obtained from the amount of Hg penetrated into the pores of the sample and the equilibrium pressure
at which the intrusion occurs.
The analysis was carried out by means of two devices of the Thermo Finnigan called PASCAL 140 and
440. Their combined use made it possible to achieve a maximum working pressure equal to 400MPa, with
an accuracy better than 0.2%, providing, on a fragment of the cement paste sample, the frequency
histogram of the distribution of pore volume in function of the radius with the following results:
Specific pore volume, specific surface area, average pore radius, porosity percentage; Bulk Density (Bulk
Density-BD); apparent density.
The tests of mercury porosimetry on the aforesaid elementary cement pastes highlighted the different
distribution of the radius of the pores. In particular for the cement paste sample 0 (AS IS) and the cement
paste sample 1 (AS IS + EXPANSIVE) the distribution is bimodal with a concentration prevailing at the mesopores and a more limited densification between the macro- and meso- pores.

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Mercury Porosimeter of fragments of a sample of the cement mixture with CEM 52,5 R + DRY+ Fly Ash

Cement paste 3 (with an addition of EXPANSIVE and FLY ASH to AS IS) has a uni-modal distribution with
concentration of the pore sizes in the smallest range of the mesopores (figure XX) that confirms a greater
homogeneity of the mass and the microstructure with evident increases in mechanical strength.

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TEST of Water Absorption at atmospheric pressure - UNI 13755

AS IS
AS IS + DRY
AS IS + CV
AS IS + DRY+CV

AVERAGE ABSORPTION
COEFFICIENT
H2O
3.00-3.10-3.20
2.77-2.87-2.97
2.84-2.94-3.04
2.58-2.68-2.78

Photo Test for water absorption

CONCRETE MIX
Cem 320 kg/m3

NOTES
MIX 0
MIX 1
MIX 2
MIX 3

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Test of ULTRASOUND SPEED

AS IS
AS IS + DRY
AS IS + CV
AS IS + DRY+CV

AVERAGE SPEED
m/sec
(20 days)
(Dry samples)
4,700-4,900
4,700-4,900
4,600-4,800
4,800-5,000

Photo Ultrasound Test on 15x15x15 cubes

AVERAGE SPEED
m/sec
(25 days)
(Saturated samples)
5,000-5,200
5,000-5,200
5,000-5,100
5,100-5,300

AVERAGE SPEED
m/sec
(28 days)
(Dry samples)
5,000-5,250
5,000-5,250
5,000-5,100
5,100-5,250

NOTES

CLS MIX 0
CLS MIX 1
CLS MIX 2
CLS MIX 3

CONCRETE MIX

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COMPRESSION RESISTANCE TO CRUSHING TEST UNI 12390-3

Resistance to compression after 1 day (temperature 20C): 38 MPa


Resistance to compression after 7 days (temperature in water 20 C): 56 MPa
Resistance to compression after 14 days (temperature in water 20 C): 66 MPa
Resistance to compression after 28 days (temperature in water 20C): 70 MPa
MIX A3: 320 kg/m3 of CEM I 52,5 + 100 kg/m3 of FA
Resistance to compression after 1 day (temperature 20C): 29 MPa
Resistance to compression after 7 days (temperature in water 20 C): 42.5 MPa
Resistance to compression after 28 days (temperature in water 20C): 62 MPa
MIX A2: 320 kg/m3 of CEM I 52,5 + 7 kg/m3 of DRY (AS IS + DRY)
Resistance to compression after 1 day (temperature 20C): 37 MPa
Resistance to compression after 7 days (temperature in water 20 C): 45 MPa
Resistance to compression after 28 days (temperature in water 20C): 49 MPa
MIX A1: 320 kg/m3 of CEM I 52,5 (AS IS)
Resistance to compression after 1 day (temperature 20C):33 MPa
Resistance to compression after 7 days (temperature in water 20 C): 41 MPa
Resistance to compression after 28 days (temperature in water 20C): 46 MPa

Table

SVILUPPO RESISTENZE CLS A CONFRONTO


(MIX 320 Kg Cem con distinti dosaggi CV e Dry)

70
95,0

Rck (MPa)

105,0
100,0
95,0
90,0
85,0
80,0
75,0
70,0
65,0
60,0
55,0
50,0
45,0
40,0
35,0
30,0
25,0
20,0
15,0
10,0
5,0
0,0

MIX A2:CEM320+
DRY

56
65

33,0

38

36,5

37

41

45

42,5

MIX A1:CEM320

62
46

49
MIX A3:CEM320+
CV100Y

29

MIX A4:CEM320+
CV100+DRY

7
giorni

28

MIX A4: 320 kg/m3 of CEM I 52,5 + 100 kg/m3 of FA + 7,5 kg/m3 of DRY D1 NEW GENERATION

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TEST of TENSILE STRENGTH for Flexure - UNI 12372


1

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN with 320 kg/m3 of CEM I 52,5 R


Days of maturation (in
water)
5 days
7 days
14 days
21 days
28 days

MIX AS IS+CV (MPa)

MIX AS IS+ CV + DRY


(MPa)
6.15

AS IS (MPa)

6.98
7.41

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EXPANSION - SHRINKAGE TEST - UNI 8148 Method B

Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 1 day (temperature of 20C and UR 50-60%): + 60 micron


Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 7 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): + 20 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 14 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): 0 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 28 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%) 20 micron
CEM MIX 52,5 at 320 kg/m3 + CV 100 kg/m3
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 1 day (temperature of 20C and UR 50-60%): -70 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 7 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): -140 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 14 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): -190 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 28 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%) 240 micron
CEM MIX 52,5 at 320 kg/m3 + CV 100 kg/m3
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 1 day (temperature of 25C and UR 40-50%): -75 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 7 days (temperature of 25 C and UR 40-50%): -140 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 14 days (temperature of 25 C and UR 40-50%): -190 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 28 days (temperature of 25 C and UR 40-50%) 240 micron
CEM MIX 52,5 at 320 kg/m3 + CV 100 kg/m3
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 1 day (temperature of 20C and UR 50-60%): -70 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 7 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): -135 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 14 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%): -150 micron
Shrinkage/Expansion UNI after 28 days (temperature of 20 C and UR 50-60%) 165 micron

CEM MIX 52,5 at 320 kg/m3 + DRY 2,2% + CV 100 kg/m3

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At 28 days

Micrographs, fine sections:

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TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Cement batching: the use of the micro-expansive / compacting DRY D1 combined and in synergy with
pozzolanic powder leads to a further increase in compressive strength between 5-10%. Such an increase
might imply that an optimization of the MIX DESIGN, for the same compressive strength, could result in a
cement dose reduction of about 5-7%.
Workability: Because of its fineness, DRY D1 significantly improves the workability and slump of the fresh
mixture. This workability further improves when combined with fine pozzolanic powders.
Dosage of DRY D1: the new generation of micro-expansive / compacting additives (controlled volumetric
stability) allows for a reduction of up to 40% of DRY D1 to obtain a reduction of the final withdrawal.
Durability: the lower amount of water absorption, the reduced porosity and the elimination of shrinkage
cracks of the concrete packaged with DRY D1, increases the durability performance.
Chemical resistance: the use of micro-expansive / compacting additives, DRY D1 in combination and
synergy with powders with pozzolanic activity lead to an additional increase in chemical resistance.

Cement batching: the use of the micro-expansive / compacting additives DRY D1 leads to an increase in
the compression strength between 10-15%. Such an increase may imply that the optimization of the MIX
DESIGN, at the same compression strength, could involve a reduction of the cement dosage of between
5-10%.

Primo report su ricerca DRY e altri additivi/aggiuntivi 20 gennaio 2012 Bozza interna di Paolo Check Mat +Ric+Ma

Normative References
NTC
UNI EN 934-2 e UNI 12350 Plastification Additives
UNI 8146, UNI 8147, UNI 8148 e UNI EN 1992-1-1/Eurocode 2 + Appendix B - D.M. 14/01/08 par. 11.2.10.6.
ASTM C157, C878 e ACI 223R Non metallic anti-shrinkage / expansive agents for cement mixtures.
Expansion determination.
UNI EN 450/2005 Fly Ash
UNI 13263-3 - MARCATURA CE
UNI EN 12620- Aggregates and concrete additions
UNI EN 2062006 and UNI 11104-2004 Concrete workability and exposition class
UNI 206-1 Consistency class of fresh concrete
EN 206-1, UNI EN 932-3,UNI 8520 Concrete aggregates
UNI EN 1008 Water quality in concrete
UNI EN 197-1 Cements for concrete and additives / added elements classification
UNI 7123 Concrete: the determination of the start and finish times.
UNI 12390-3 Testing hardened concrete: Compression resistance of the samples
UNI EN 196-2 - Determination of acid-soluble chlorides, tenors in alkali, SO3, CaO, Al2O3 content etc.
UNI EN 196-3 Starting time of the cement paste
UNI EN 196-6 Determination of the fineness (Residue of 90 micron m). Sieving method.
UNI EN1097-7 Volumetric mass
UNI 7044-Determination of mortar consistency.
UNI 12390-8 Determination of H20 penetration.
Bibliography
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Acknowledgements
THE ENTIRE STAFF OF CHIMICA EDILE SRL, Engineer F. POMPONIO and Geom. S: GRUOSSO INPES SPA, the
Technicians of the Laboratory of the Department of Earth Sciences, Eng. A. PASQUINI of General Admixture,
DETTA SPA, CAIVANO CALCESTRUZZI SRL, Geom. N. ZACCARO,

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