John Jay Magazine

EDUCAT I N G F O R J U S T I C E
SPRING 2010

AL QAEDA CALL-INS FAVELAS TORTURE GANG VIOLENCE MILICIAS REENTRY THROUGH THE ARTS
RACIAL RECONCILIATION
CRISIS INTERVENTION

TERRORISM

SUICIDE BOMBERS

SACRED VALUES
OPEN-AIR DRUG MARKETS SUBVERSIVE LEARNING
John Jay College
T h e C i T y U n i v e r s i T y o f n e w y o r k

of Criminal Justice

John Jay Magazine
E D U C A T I N G F O R JUSTICE
Dear Friends:

John Jay College
T H E C I T Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E W Y O R K PRESIDENT

of Criminal Justice

Jeremy travis

CONTENTS

As we complete the 2009 – 2010 academic year, we can proudly say that the changes at John Jay are simply breathtaking. What’s more, we are continuing to garner more public and private recognition for our scholarship and our ability to shape practice. This past year alone, our faculty scholars received more than $10 million in grants from a broad array of agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice Assistance. Such recognition is due in large part to the revitalization of the College. Highlights of these accomplishments include: Improving Student Success Five years ago, John Jay’s entering freshman class consisted of 1,182 baccalaureate students. This fall we enrolled 1,657 baccalaureate freshmen, a 40 percent increase. Based on this success, the College has officially closed associate degree programs and will seek senior college designation next fall. Simultaneously, working with the six CUNY community colleges, John Jay has created joint degree programs in criminal justice, forensic science and forensic financial analysis. These educational partnerships, collectively called the CUNY Justice Academy, will enable us to expand access to criminal justice programs across the university. Reinvigorating Faculty This fall the College welcomed 36 new full-time faculty members. With their arrival John Jay reached another milestone — since 2004, our ranks of full-time faculty have grown from 335 to 449, a 33 percent increase. Fully 50 percent of the College’s full-time faculty have been hired over the past five years. These new faculty come from premier doctoral programs around the world, committed to excellence in scholarship and teaching, and eager to join the John Jay community. They are a critical building block of a revitalized John Jay College. Retooling Core Academic Programs John Jay has added liberal arts majors in English, Economics, Gender Studies and Global History, with Philosophy, Law and Society, American Studies, Anthropology, Latin American and Latina/o Studies and Sociology in the pipeline. These new majors are receiving positive reviews from academic colleagues around the country and will distinguish the John Jay undergraduate education in the coming decades. The College is also expanding options at the graduate level with two new master’s programs — one in Forensic Mental Health Counseling and another in International Crime and Justice and certificates in Forensic Psychology and Forensic Accounting. In addition, this fall, the College launched its first online degree program — the MPA-Inspector General Program. In the next few months, we will complete work on our Master Plan titled “John Jay @ 50,” which will address questions surrounding the core issue of how John Jay when celebrating its 50th birthday in 2014 will be different, while remaining true to its mission of “educating for justice.” At this moment in our history, we particularly appreciate the encouragement we receive from our alumni, friends and supporters. And, with the wealth of exciting developments and accomplishments we are now witnessing, there has never been a better time to be part of the John Jay community.

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President’s Letter

Multifaceted Phenomenon

TERRORISM—
Like the John Jay Researchers Studying It— Has Many Faces

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For Reducing Violence, It Takes a NETWORK

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & THE THEATER
At John Jay, A Perfect Fit

President Jeremy Travis Vice President for Marketing and Development Vivien Hoexter Executive Director of Communications & Editor Christine Godek Senior Writer Jennifer Nislow Contributing Writers Peter Dodenhoff Marie Rosen Photography Coordinator Doreen Viñas Pineda Alumni Contributor Sharice Conway Production Coordinator Kathy Willis Designer JRenacia

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RIO’S FAVELAS
Field Notes of a Fulbright Scholar

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ALUMNI WORTH NOTING

ALUMNI CLASS NOTES

John Jay Magazine is a publication of Marketing and Development, published twice a year and distributed free to alumni and friends of John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

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M U L T I F A C E T E D

P H E N O M E N O N

Transfiguration by GN Miller World Trade Center, NYC after terrorist attack

TERRORISM—
LIKE THE JOHN JAY RESEARCHERS STUDYING IT—HAS MANY FACES
By Jennifer Nislow

World Trade Center survivors

Terrorist crimes committed in the United States and abroad are perpetrated by many different actors with diverse ethnicities, nationalities, religions and motivations. They range from right-wing extremists to Islamic jihadists to separatists, among others. The multifaceted nature of the problem has long caught the attention of researchers at John Jay.

Scott Atran, a Presidential Scholar in Sociology and research fellow at the Center who developed the hypothesis, these intrinsic beliefs form the moral frame by which a society functions. It is because of this significance that they may hold a key to resolving seemingly intractable disputes in the Middle East.

Atran became interested in the possibility that these conflicts were not being resolved because negotiators were making the mistake of attaching material wealth to what both sides viewed as their people’s “sacred values.”
“You give something and I give something in return — quid pro quo,” said Atran. “In the standard negotiation, you leave the value questions for last….I find that that doesn’t seem to work. So the idea was to try to systematically explore this in the world’s conflict zones, especially Palestine and Israel, which is the world’s symbolic knot at this particular moment in world history.” In 2007, Atran and his colleagues began interviewing government and political leaders in the Middle East, pushing them to see how far they would go in negotiations and listening to their reasons for accepting or not accepting a deal. Many of their subjects, he noted, had surprisingly personal reasons for saying “no.”

The most deeply held values we have about our relationships with other human beings, particularly in our own society, can be called

Terrorism is not a field, it’s not a discipline.

Prior to September 11, 2001, the College was one of a handful of institutions in the United States addressing the question of what compelled individuals to commit terrorist acts. John Jay in the intervening years has become a home for scholars whose work examines the subject through the lenses of sociology, law enforcement, psychology and history, and a research hub for the investigation of the phenomenon through its Center on Terrorism. The Center, created in the wake of the attacks, serves as an extension of John Jay’s mission by making the knowledge it gathers serve a useful public purpose. To that end, it offers an interdisciplinary MA certificate

program in the study of terrorism that draws students from all over the world, a Friday Seminar Series that examines a different aspect of terrorism each week, and research fellowships to scholars investigating its various elements. According to Professor Charles B. Strozier, the Center’s director, “Terrorism is not a field, it’s not a discipline. It’s a problem in the world.” Sociology The most deeply held values we have about our relationships with other human beings, particularly in our own society, can be called our “sacred values.” According to Professor
Professor Scott Atran

our “sacred values.”

It’s a problem in the world.

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Call-in in High Point, NC

FOR REDUCING VIOLENCE, IT TAKES A
The façade of the destroyed Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City

FAR-RIGHTISTS HAVE SINCE 1990 COMMITTED OVER 250 HOMICIDES — INCLUDING THE BOMBING OF THE ALFRED P. MURRAH BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY — THAT HAVE KILLED 520 PEOPLE.

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, for instance, said he rejected Israel’s offer to “swap on the Golan.” “His response was basically ‘When I was a kid, my dad took me to barbecue on the shores of Lake Tiberius and I want to do that again.’ I thought, ‘That’s not the usual thing you hear in negotiations.’”
Atran has been experimenting with reinterpretations and reframings that would allow actual breakthroughs.

anti-Semitism. Israel has its statement that says Palestine was a land of no people for a people with no land — “both complete nonsense,” said Atran. Though each side has told him that they do not believe these assertions, they have still been unwilling to relinquish them. “We’ve been negotiating two years to get them to make these no-cost moves,” Atran said. “The only people who can do it are people like [Nelson] Mandela or [Anwar] Sadat, who have the power and are great enough so that their people won’t believe they’re selling out.” While much of the focus on terrorism has been on the Middle East, the United States has its own brand of dangerous extremists. According to Professor Joshua Freilich, a member of the Department of Criminal Justice and deputy director of the criminal justice doctoral program, far-rightists have since 1990 committed over 250 homicides — including the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah building in Oklahoma City — that have killed 520 people. Of those victims, 28 were law enforcement agents who were killed in the line of duty. With more than $500,000 in funding from the Department of Homeland Security and grants from START, a consortium of scholars
continued on page 15

NETW RK
By Marie Rosen

At first glance, the news is good.

The FBI is reporting that murder declined 10 percent nationwide during the first half of 2009.
But, despite the fact that crime in the United States is declining, there remain all too many neighborhoods where violence is a way of life, where residents live in constant fear and intimidation, where open-air drug markets flourish, where illegally obtained guns are prevalent, and where gangs dominate the landscape.
In these areas, violence breeds violence, with young men of color usually being both victims and offenders. A typical police response has been to send in lots of cops, stop just about everyone, and make many arrests. The result is that crime goes down temporarily and resumes shortly after the police presence is gone. Another result is that citizen complaints against police go up and the relationship between the police and the minority community takes a hit. For John Jay Professor David Kennedy, director of the Center for Crime Prevention and Control, it is unconscionable that “one in 200 young black men in the most dangerous communities is murdered each year, that one in three black men will go to prison in their lifetime.” To stop this cycle of violence, the Center established the National Network for Safe Communities to promulgate the crime reduction strategies that Kennedy developed, which have demonstrated significant results in violence reduction — strategies that have saved countless lives and improved the relationship between communities of color and their law enforcement agencies. These strategies target gang violence and open-air drug markets and are being used successfully in 75 jurisdictions across the country. According to Kennedy, who is co-chair of the Network, the strategies have some variance in the places using them, but all the projects have three fundamental components: law enforcement, community participation and focused social services.

What holds the most promise is if both sides first recognize each other’s “sacred values,” and then make a gesture by giving up one of their own, explained Atran.
For example, Article 32 of Hamas’ charter states that Israel’s plans for the Palestinians are well described in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. A forged text, first published in Russia in 1903, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion purports to describe an international Jewish conspiracy set on global domination and the enslavement of non-Jews. Although it has been debunked countless times, the text is still used as a justification for

it is unconscionable that “one in 200 young black men in the most dangerous communities is murdered each year, that one in three black men will go to prison in their lifetime.”

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Bernard K. Melekian, Director, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, President Jeremy Travis, Professor David Kennedy

For John Jay President Jeremy Travis, co-chair of the Network, “these

strategies, developed over the past 15 years, will reduce the level of violence, reduce drug markets, reduce incarceration, start the process of racial reconciliation between police and minority communities” and lead “to a change in the direction, a new standard of practice, for crime policy in America.”
Becoming a Believer Although the process sounds simple, it requires intensive coordination among numerous players in law enforcement, community stakeholders, social services and academia. As Ted Heinrich, the assistant United States attorney for Boston noted, the strategies are “partnership rich.” These groups often have different agendas and resources. In California, which has had more than 16,000 gang-related homicides since 1981, the strategies are being employed in seven cities. Paul Seave, director of the Governor’s Office of Gang and Youth Violence Policy in Sacramento, CA, told the audience, “You’re asking everyone to do business differently. Bureaucracies that are used to doing things in certain ways have to change to some degree in order to work with people they haven’t worked with before.” Another essential ingredient is that it takes a commitment from all the parties to focus on the common goal of violence reduction and not get sidetracked by other concerns.

Current National Network Jurisdictions 1. Baltimore, MD 2. Boston, MA 3. California 4. Canton, OH 5. Chicago, IL 6. Cincinnati, OH 7. Cleveland, OH 8. Columbus, OH 9. Concord, NC 10. Dallas, TX 11. Dayton, OH 12. Durham, NC 13. East Palo Alto, CA 14. Graham, NC 15. Greensboro, NC 16. Greenville, NC 17. Hempstead, NY 18. High Point, NC 19. Hillsborough, NC 20. Lancaster, PA 21. Long Beach, CA 22. Los Angeles, CA 23. Mesa, AZ 24. Middletown, OH 25. Milwaukee, WI 26. Mineola, NY 27. Mount Vernon, NY 28. North Carolina 29. Oakland, CA 30. Ocala, FL 31. Omaha, NE 32. Peoria, IL 33. Pittsburgh, PA 34. Providence, RI 35. Richmond, VA 36. Rockford, IL 37. Sacramento, CA 38. Salisbury, NC 39. Seattle, WA 40. Shelby, NC 41. Snow Hill, MD 42. Stockton, CA 43. White Plains, NY 44. Winston-Salem, NC 45. Yonkers, NY

The Work

all the projects have three fundamental components:

law enforcement, community participation
and

For the drug market strategy, all dealers are identified, criminal investigations are conducted and drug cases are made against each. Violent offenders are arrested. For the others, the cases are “banked” — held in suspension. Offenders are told that if they sell drugs again, the “banked” case will be used and they will be arrested right away. Kennedy notes, “Drug dealers usually deal all day long and they may or may not be arrested. This lets the dealer know that there is a certainty that they will be prosecuted immediately without new evidence, without a new criminal investigation.” In the gang strategy, the gangs in the city are identified. Members who are on probation or parole are given the message that if anybody in their gang kills someone, the criminal justice system will come down hard on everyone in the gang for any and all crimes being committed.

to the offenders, like mothers, children, neighbors, pastors are also brought together. In both strategies, offenders receive a notice to appear at a call-in, the heart and soul of the strategy. As important as the message, is the manner in which it is delivered.
At the call-in, law enforcement officials tell the offenders what awaits them if their criminal behavior doesn’t stop. Also in attendance are community members, who provide the moral voice that is so critical to the strategies. They let the offenders know how the violence and drug dealing damages the community, but also that the community wants them to succeed. Offenders are given privileged access to special social services, which have been prearranged. Last December, the Network convened its first annual conference that for two days brought together more than 300 people from 24 states and 5 foreign countries. Police, prosecutors, federal officials, youth workers, pastors, correction officers, social service providers, academics and community activists shared information about these groundbreaking strategies that reduce violent crime and improve police/minority relations.

The Network, which currently comprises 45 jurisdictions, is designed to be a community of practice where these strategies can be disseminated to those using them and those who are considering them. For John Jay President Jeremy Travis, co-chair of the Network, “these strategies, developed over the past 15 years, will reduce the level of violence, reduce drug markets, reduce incarceration, start the process of racial reconciliation between police and minority communities” and lead “to a change in the direction, a new standard of practice, for crime policy in America.”
Bernard Melekian, the recently appointed director of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the U.S Department of Justice, was the keynote speaker and had used these strategies while police chief in Pasadena, CA. He told the participants

focused social services.

Both strategies require a concerted effort on the part of numerous law enforcement agencies — police, probation officers, prosecutors, federal agents from DEA and other agencies. Members of the community who mean something

At the call-in, law enforcement officials tell the offenders what awaits them if their criminal behavior doesn’t stop. Also in attendance are community members, who provide the moral voice that is so critical to the strategies.
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“tension between police and communities of color are at a dangerously unacceptable level… the death of a young man, particularly a young man of color, at the hands of the police will generate dramatic and emotional community response regardless of the specific facts. But very often, the deaths of a dozen young men at the hands of other young men produce nothing but an ominous silence, which hangs over the community like a blanket. All those deaths are significant and they must stop.” And in the jurisdictions where these methods are used, violence significantly declined and race relations have improved.

Police Chief James Fealy of High Point, NC

For both Melekian and Police Chief James Fealy of High Point, NC, talking to gang members and “banking” cases for drug dealers can initially leave some with
continued on page 23

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Criminal Justice & The Theater
At John Jay, A Perfect Fit
By Peter Dodenhoff

the student theatrical club at John Jay is one the oldest continuously active campus organizations.

The notion of combining criminal justice themes and drama is as old as the ancient Greeks and as new as the latest “ripped from the headlines” episode of Law & Order. At John Jay, criminal justice and the theater have enjoyed a happy, fruitful partnership that is as old as the College itself.
Over the years, that partnership has played out in a variety of ways: in staged productions from classical as well as contemporary repertory; in course curriculums and classroom teaching; and in outreach to criminal justice agencies and institutions, to name just a few applications. Two John Jay alumni have built a long and successful career for themselves in publicand private-sector training based on theatrical techniques they first learned at the College. And, in one telling bit of testimony, the student theatrical club at John Jay is one of the oldest continuously active campus organizations. The variety of criminal justice themes that have been dramatized at John Jay is nothing short of staggering. Audiences have seen corruption, drug abuse and gangs; explored

Lt. Schrank & Jets in the 2007 production of West Side Story

false confessions and problematic eyewitness evidence; considered the nuances of revenge killings and justifiable homicide, and gotten riveting behind-the-scenes looks at jury deliberations and military justice. Equally impressive, these themes represent the creative output of an A-list of theatrical talent: Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim; Aristophanes and Aeschylus; Arthur Miller and Aaron Sorkin; Brendan Behan and David Guare, to name but a few. Putting John Jay on the Map John Jay’s Gerald W. Lynch Theater, which opened in 1988, has provided a professional-quality venue for a wide range of productions, and recent shows bear witness to the continuing influence of criminal justice themes. In the spring of 2009, Professor Dana Tarantino of the Department of Communication and Theatre Arts directed the daring play The Last Days of Judas Iscariot, a courtroom thriller about an imagined trial involving the Bible’s most notorious sinner. Two years earlier, Tarantino staged the

youth-gang spectacle West Side Story, in an authorized 50th-anniversary production. In 2008, Tarantino’s colleague Professor Lorraine Moller directed the taut military court-martial drama A Few Good (wo)Men. Rashomon, the quintessential tale of eyewitness evidence gone awry, has been produced twice at John Jay, as has The Crucible, Arthur Miller’s poignant allegory of 1950s anti-Communist fervor, set in the context of the Salem witch trials more than two centuries earlier. These diverse and powerful plays represent just a sampling of the many criminal justice-relevant works that have been produced under John Jay’s auspices, in a dramatic arc that can be traced to the College’s very beginning. (See p.10.) In fact, theatrical efforts were instrumental in first putting John Jay on the map. As Ben Termine, a charter member of the faculty and former chairman of the speech and theater department, recalled in a recent interview:

police commissioner, all of the brass, and on the stage were all the cops who had been taking the course.” Jerry Tallmer, the influential theater critic, reviewed the production for The New York Post, calling it “extraordinary in the history of Western civilization, not to mention Eastern civilization.”
That production, along with the following year’s staging of Aristophanes’ The Birds, would later be cited in the Encyclopedia Americana as major events in police education, Termine noted. Detective Story, in 1968, continued the College’s string of successful productions, and earned John Jay front-page coverage in the theater section of The New York Times. Termine recalled how rehearsals were not often easy for his cast of police student actors. As the show’s opening night approached, one rehearsal was abruptly cut short when the cast members were deployed to break up a student demonstration on the Columbia University campus. The show went on, to laudatory reviews, and even had Police Commissioner Michael Murphy take a turn on

Audiences have seen corruption, drug abuse and gangs; explored false confessions and problematic eyewitness evidence; considered the nuances of revenge killings and justifiable homicide, and gotten riveting behind-the-scenes looks at jury deliberations and military justice.
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“The vehicle chosen for John Jay’s maiden theatrical effort in 1966 was ‘nothing simple,’— Franz Kafka’s The Trial…. In the audience we had the

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As the show’s opening night approached, one rehearsal was abruptly cut short when the cast members were deployed to break up a student demonstration on the Columbia University campus. The show went on, to laudatory reviews, and even had Police Commissioner Michael Murphy take a turn on stage in a walk-on part as a small-time con artist and police impersonator. A follow-up study of police response to domestic crises found that the new drama-based training approach significantly reduced the number of injuries associated with such calls.
stage in a walk-on part as a small-time con artist and police impersonator. “All of that helped to get people to sit up and take notice of this new college,” said Termine, who retired in 1986. As important, however, Detective Story would prove to be the bridge to another synergy of criminal justice and theater: the use of drama in police training. Crisis Intervention and “Subversive Learning” Evidence showed at that time that more people had been seriously injured or killed in the line of duty from intervening in a domestic dispute than from any other kind of police action. Termine, who had studied psychodrama with its originator, Jacob L. Moreno, organized the first course in which principles of drama were used to teach police how to intervene in a family crisis. Police students from the cast of Detective Story — Bob Burke (BA ’65), head of programming at the Police Academy; Ed Powers (BS ’71) and Ethel Breslin (MA ’74) — became the vanguard of this new approach, employing it not only in classes at the New York Police Academy but in police departments throughout the area. A follow-up study of police response to domestic crises found that the new drama-based training approach significantly reduced the number of injuries associated with such calls. Joyce St. George (BA ’74) a young civilian student at John Jay, became enthralled by what she saw in the new training approach and in Termine’s class on family crisis intervention, and her fascination with it would ultimately become a calling. “After playing with it for a little while and seeing the light bulbs go on above the heads of participants, I knew there was something really special about this,” she said. Along with several fellow students, and mentored by Termine and other speech and theater faculty, she helped spin off the Police Academy’s crisis intervention training into an independent group, the Criminal Justice Repertory Company (CJs). “It was really just to bring some of the ideas we had at the academy into school,” St. George explained. “We started working with professors and coming into their classes to do different things — scenes from Detective Story, Short Eyes, I Never Promised You a Rose Garden and
continued on page 20

FIELD NOTES OF A FULBRIGHT SCHOLAR
By Jennifer Nislow

Rio’s Favelas

In the days following Rio de Janeiro’s successful bid last October to host the 2016 Olympic Games, violence broke out among the rival drug gangs who dominate the city’s slums, or favelas. The turf-war resulted in the deaths of an estimated 40 people, including three police officers who were killed when their helicopter was shot down.
Just six months earlier, one of the milícias — some call them criminal protection rackets — that are pushing the drug gangs out of the shantytowns kidnapped several journalists. The reporters were beaten, made to play Russian roulette, nearly suffocated with plastic bags and given electric shocks. A female captive was threatened with rape; all were told they would be killed.
To the estimated two million residents of these neighborhoods, whose daily lives are circumscribed by these two well-armed factions, it begs the question: Which are worse, the drug gangs or the milícias fighting to take their place? An analysis of these groups is central to the work of Enrique Desmond Arias, an associate professor in the Department of Political Science who spent seven months in Brazil as a 2008 Fulbright Scholar and as the recipient of a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies. Arias is not so much concerned with deciding which is the lesser of two evils, but rather exploring the differences between the gangs and the

CURTAIN UP!
A non-inclusive listing of justice-themed plays that have been staged at John Jay over the years. The Trial The Birds Detective Story The Hostage Corruption in the Palace of Justice Riot Act Does the Tiger Wear a Necktie? Landscape of the Body Rashomon The Crucible 12 Angry Men (and Women) Il Furioso (Eumenides) La Medea For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Is Enuf Macbeth Arabian Nights Metamorphoses West Side Story A Few Good (wo)Men The Last Days of Judas Iscariot

And, coming in December 2010, Sweeney Todd, The Demon Barber of Fleet Street.

Which are worse, the drug gangs or the milícias fighting to take their place?

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The milícias are sort of like mafias… who push out all of the other criminals in the neighborhoods.

Professor Desmond Arias in his classroom

Their reputation is first clean up the neighborhood. If you break their rules, they will drive you out of the community or kill you... And everything that happens in the community once these groups run it involves a little See excerpt on payment. page 22

The milícias grew and developed until the 1990s, when they changed into a protection racket, according to Arias. Many of these groups include the city’s poorly paid police and firefighters, who moonlight as members, he noted.
milícias, how each affects the communities in which they operate, and what part they play in Rio’s political system. In his 2006 book, Drugs and Democracy in Rio de Janeiro: Trafficking, Social Networks, and Public Security, Arias examined the role drug gangs play in the lives of these impoverished communities. He planned to study them more explicitly, particularly the gangs’ political aspirations, when he returned to Rio in 2008. What Arias discovered, however, was that during the intervening years there had been an “explosion” in the number of milícias. These vigilante groups first emerged in the city’s western zone as a counterforce to the drug gangs. The milícias grew and developed until the 1990s, when they changed into a protection racket, according to Arias. Many of these groups include the city’s poorly paid police and firefighters, who moonlight as members, he noted. “The milícias are sort of like mafias…who push out all of the other criminals in the neighborhoods,” said Arias. “They develop a lot of their reputation by pushing drug gangs out of certain parts of the city, although many people would say they also collaborate with drug gangs. Their reputation is first clean up the neighborhood. If you break their rules, they will drive you out of the community or kill you, all kinds of bad things. And everything that happens in the community once these groups run it involves a little payment.”

“Some people even say the government allowed milícias to expand in the months before Rio hosted the [2007] Pan-American Games, so they would keep the drug activity tamped down in certain parts of the city,” he said.
American Quarterly last year, Rio’s major bus companies have historically balked at providing service to outlying areas. When local entrepreneurs began developing unlicensed van services, the milícias bribed police to minimize the inconvenience to van drivers. milícias as legitimate groups that supplied paramilitary strength to Rio. “Some people even say the government allowed milícias to expand in the months before Rio hosted the [2007] Pan-American Games, so they would keep the drug activity tamped down in certain parts of the city,” he said. Rio drew international attention last year when days after being awarded the 2016 Olympic Games on October 2, gang warfare broke out in an area close to the Maracana stadium where the Games opening and closing ceremonies will be held. In the days after the clash, police and gang members engaged in firefights that sent hundreds of residents fleeing from their homes, according to a report by the Associated Press. Arias’ research focused on two favelas: One that was run by a drug gang and the other by a milícia. Last year, the drug gang-run community was finally successful in getting its own candidate elected to the City Council. The candidate was a local businessman, with a long-term personal connection to the gang.

Eventually, milícias began receiving support from the state and city government who wanted a share of the money that these organizations produced. For every business transaction, the milícias collect a tax. In addition to making businesses pay for protection, the milícias also make residents pay fees on their transactions, like the buying or selling of a house.
One particularly lucrative area for them has been their control of the means of transportation for residents seeking to travel from the shantytowns to the city’s downtown. According to an article that Arias wrote for

This, according to Arias, allowed the milícias to develop a strong economic base that they use to control a great number of legal and illegal activities, and dominate a significant portion of Rio’s poorer neighborhoods. They hold monopolies on cooking gas, state lottery offices, Internet, cable and other services that operate within the favelas.
Politicians, he observed, also sought the votes that these groups brought in from fast-growing parts of the city. In fact, Arias noted, certain factions of the “urban political spectrum,” especially those on the right who were concerned with drug gangs, viewed

certain factions of the “urban political spectrum,” especially those on the right who were concerned with drug gangs, viewed milícias as legitimate groups that supplied paramilitary strength to Rio.

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M U L T I F A C E T E D

P H E N O M E N O N

TERRORISM—
LIKE THE JOHN JAY RESEARCHERS STUDYING IT—HAS MANY FACES
continued from page 4

What Freilich and his colleagues have found is that in many cases, there is no “bright line” between ideological and non-ideological cases.
A favela in Rio de Janeiro

That’s a personal grudge that might have led to an ideological motivation.

The milícia-run community was also successful in electing its candidate to the City Council in 2008, a high-ranking police officer with no formal ties to the organization. Four years earlier, a senior member of the milícia won a seat on the City Council. Subsequently, another member of the milícia, a police investigator from an opposing political party, was murdered. Many in the community believed that the council member had been responsible for the investigator’s death, according to Arias.

Police arrested one man who was believed to be the No. 2 in the hierarchy of the local milícia. The group’s leader was also identified by the victims, but fled before police could capture him. Among the tormentors, the reporter recognized the voice of an assistant to a state assemblyman whom she had met at a Batan restaurant.
According to Arias’ American Quarterly article, with the milícia’s violence against representatives of Rio’s middle class increasing, “the political pendulum began to swing dramatically.” On June 11, 2008, the state legislative assembly approved a proposed investigation into the milícia. On that same day, a milícia-linked bomb was exploded at a police station. Nevertheless, a Committee of Parliamentary Inquiry (CPI) was opened and its detailed report found that milícias dominate 171 neighborhoods in Rio’s metropolitan area. Moreover, the CPI identified two state deputies and five city councilmen as members of milícias. “I was studying two different neighborhoods in the city that were run by different types of armed groups…I wasn’t really seeking to learn about criminal activities,” said Arias. “I was more interested in the question of how politics works, how they decide who to support and those kinds of things. People are always a bit more willing to talk about that.”
Jennifer Nislow is a senior writer at John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

studying different aspects of terrorism, Freilich and his collaborator, Steven Cermak at Michigan State University, have been collecting data on all violent and non-violent crimes committed by those who espouse a far-right ideology. This Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) holds information on extremists who have refused to pay taxes, supplied material support, or committed other crimes that did not involve force.

with the milícia’s violence against representatives of Rio’s middle class increasing, “the political pendulum began to swing dramatically.”

“Both groups had a distinct influence on politics and secured the election of a representative…to the City Council,” he said. “They actually have representatives very close to the milícia and these gangs that hold public office….The question is what differences there are in terms of the electoral practice.” Despite the inherent danger in asking too many questions about a criminal organization, Arias initially did not fear for his safety. However, he became more concerned after the incident involving a group of journalists in the milícia-run neighborhood of Batan.

On May 14, 2008, a 28-year-old female reporter for the daily newspaper O Dia, a news photographer and a driver were kidnapped. The journalists were working undercover on an article about daily life in the favela. According to a New York Times report, they were tortured for more than six hours before being released.

“It’s interesting to examine whether there is any type of relationship between ideological and non-ideological crimes,” said Freilich, who is also a research fellow at the Center on Terrorism. In Northern Ireland, he noted, there is anecdotal evidence that ideological groups like the IRA have begun to morph into organized crime groups since the ceasefire. There are also white supremacist groups in the United States that began as non-ideological organizations and then grew into ones based on extremism.
“It’s an open question whether or not you can uncover particular contexts which would make the evolution between one type and the other type more or less likely,” said Freilich. “Only by having both types of crime in front of you can you examine whether or not the relationship exists.”

Professor Joshua Freilich

What Freilich and his colleagues have found is that in many cases, there is no “bright line” between ideological and non-ideological cases. Eric Rudolph, who was notorious for blowing up abortion clinics, was racist, anti-Semitic and anti-government, he noted. Yet, there were allegations that when Rudolph was a child, his stepfather died because of a lack of healthcare for which Rudolph blamed the government. “That’s a personal grudge that might have led to an ideological motivation,” said Freilich. The findings have multiple practical implications, he observed. One example would be the way homicides are unevenly distributed across the nation. Twelve states, he noted, have not had a single murder attributed to right-wing extremists. Conversely, three states — Texas, California and Florida — account for 40 percent of such crimes.

This information is very useful to law enforcement in terms of prioritizing resource allocations, areas that could be of interest.

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Instead of being able to appeal to someone’s loyalty or good citizenship, explained Haberfeld, law enforcement has to buy their cooperation with monetary incentives. “I think it corrupts law enforcement to a certain degree,” she said. “It corrupts from the moral sense…but that’s the reality of it.”
USS Cole shows the damage to the U.S. destroyer after a terrorist attack

and even make headway with their sympathizers — particularly when those who support the group are law-abiding citizens who just have a different understanding of what is right for the community. Haberfeld and her colleagues, Professors Joseph King and Charles Lieberman, made this finding during a research project that took them to seven countries and resulted in the book Counterterrorism within Comparative International Contexts. The type of circumstance she describes makes it virtually impossible to get the community on board with a counterterrorism plan. Instead of being able to appeal to someone’s loyalty or good citizenship, explained Haberfeld, law enforcement has to buy their cooperation with monetary incentives.

The consequences and repercussions of maritime terrorism would be dramatic, according to Haberfeld. In addition to the economic misfortune that would affect consumers as ships are forced to carry more costly insurance, there is also the chance of a major disaster.
“They could hijack a ship that is capable of coming here with weapons of mass destruction,” she said. Professor Peter Romaniuk, a research fellow at the Center and member of the Department of Political Science, is also involved in counterterrorism research, although his specific focus differs from that of Haberfeld. In his recent book Multilateral Counterterrorism: The Global Politics of Cooperation and Contestation, Romaniuk focuses on the ways in which countries cooperate with each other to thwart terrorist activities and the conditions under which they do so.
Professor Peter Romaniuk

power to impose multilateral financial sanctions such as those imposed on Saddam Hussein in the 1990s.
“I sort of conform to the view that there is no such thing as a purely domestic terrorist,” he said. Many of the right-wing groups in this country, noted Romaniuk, share an affinity with right-wing Nazis abroad, as well as a penchant for gang violence. “Whether it is through a material connection, a direct connection or an ideological connection,” a domestic terrorist is unlikely to be “purely motivated by things within the U.S. borders or fund his activities from resources obtained within the U.S. borders,” he said.

Many of the right-wing groups in this country share an affinity with right-wing Nazis abroad, as well as a penchant for gang violence.

They could hijack a ship that is capable of coming here with weapons of mass destruction.

“This information is very useful to law enforcement in terms of prioritizing resource allocations, areas that could be of interest,” said Freilich. Law Enforcement Terrorism has two faces, contends Professor Maria R. Haberfeld, a member of the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration, and the co-editor/co-author of three books on counterterrorism.

Romaniuk also examines the financial underpinnings of terrorist activities, following the activities of the U.N. Security Council, which has the

“It’s context,” she said. “You talk to people who are in law enforcement like the [Cuerpo] Nacional de Policía of Spain, and you’re talking about ETA as a terrorist threat there. But when you talk to community members who support the Basque separatists, they say they are freedom fighters.”
This contradiction makes it exceedingly difficult for police engaged in counterterrorism to penetrate terrorist groups

Professor Maria R. Haberfeld

“I think it corrupts law enforcement to a certain degree,” she said. “It corrupts from the moral sense…but that’s the reality of it.” Haberfeld’s latest book is on maritime terrorism, a problem that made headlines in 2009 when Somali pirates hijacked the U.S.-registered Maersk Alabama cargo ship.

Search and rescue activity at the Oklahoma City bombing site

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Torture, he explained, is a sign of weakness, not a sign of strength. It means that a government can no longer persuade or dissuade others. Sneh’s research is on how to approach terrorism in “a policy way,” one that does not include the use of torture.
“Let’s not roll over, but touch the raw materials, the core issues...the core groups may not be persuaded, but the vast majority of those who support them with money, they can be persuaded.”
Psychology What can be learned about suicide bombers from the last will and testaments that they leave with their families? That perhaps they are not fueled by vengeance, as is commonly believed, but rather by what Professor Shuki Cohen calls “the imperative of memory.”

Cohen found that vengeance played little part in their [suicide bomber’s] thinking. More important was the fear of forgetfulness and the preservation of memory....
“But anything that has to do with words and associations between words, we don’t see. The computer can see that.” Through this close reading of the documents and the creation of a “thematic map of the concerns” stated by suicide bombers in their last words, Cohen found that vengeance played little part in their thinking. More important was the fear of forgetfulness and the preservation of memory in the face of what they believe is Israel’s goal “of erasing the memory of the Palestinians,” he said. “Basically, what you see is exactly what the Palestinian conflict is about,” said Cohen. “It’s a war of memory...once you put it as a war of memory, you suddenly see exactly what is happening.” He added, “You also start to understand and appreciate the committees on truth and reconciliation. You understand why that has arisen as a way to end a conflict. It’s like when you are going through a divorce. We will live so much better if we have a compromised narrative that we both agree on.” While September 11, 2001 was a terrible, tragic event, it was not apocalyptic in the literal sense of that word. Yet that was how the public experienced it, especially those at the World Trade Center. They believed they were the victims of a nuclear attack. According to the Center on Terrorism’s Strozier, people imposed a nuclear template on the event so that when the first building came down, they saw mushroom clouds. A member of the Department of History and a psychoanalyst, Strozier’s scholarly interest and research has long focused on nuclear weapons and apocalyptic thinking. Since 2001, he has turned his attention to religion and Christian fundamentalism.

Professor Itai Sneh

“You really can’t begin to appreciate the enormous political consequences of 9/11, the cultural and spiritual consequences, unless you grasp how much of it was felt to be apocalyptic,” said Strozier.
In a book he is writing based on interviews conducted with witnesses in the days following the attacks, Strozier divides these individuals into four “zones of sadness,” with the first zone including survivors who saw people die. The second zone is made up of witnesses who saw the whole event happen — as Strozier did from the West Village. The third zone is composed of people who were caught up in the confusion, on closed bridges and in tunnels. The last group is the onlookers, who saw it on television. “What I try to do is tell the story of this major terrorist attack from within the experience of survivors,” he said. “I think that gives you an appreciation of what it means, in a way that you can never have when you look at it from the outside.”
Jennifer Nislow is a senior writer at John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

Professor Charles B. Stozier

History

Torture is a sign that a regime is illegitimate and about to fall, according to Professor Itai Sneh, a member of the Department of History who is writing a book on terrorism through the ages.
Torture, he explained, is a sign of weakness, not a sign of strength. It means that a government can no longer persuade or dissuade others. “It basically says, ‘We can’t win any other way,” said Sneh. “Empires that are about to crash torture the most. The Inquisition tortured the most when Catholicism was losing from within, or later on, to Protestantism.” The reason for the attacks on the United States is that the country makes an easy target for terrorists whose rage is stoked by issues in their own countries, such as Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan and Afghanistan, he explained. Ayman al-Zawahiri, al-Qaeda’s second-in- command, noted Sneh, had been a doctor. He became radicalized after being tortured in Egypt in the wake of Anwar Sadat’s assassination in 1981. Sneh’s research is on how to approach terrorism in “a policy way,” one that does not include the use of torture, he explained.

While September 11, 2001 was a terrible, tragic event, it was not apocalyptic in the literal sense of that word. Yet that was how the public experienced it, especially those at the World Trade Center. They believed they were the victims of

Professor Shuki Cohen

Wills have a long tradition in the Muslim religion, said Cohen, a member of the Department of Psychology and research fellow at the Center. By poring over the Internet, reading personal blogs and chat room discussions, he has been able to collect nearly 90 of them. Cohen then utilizes the methodology of content analysis to uncover meanings that the writer might not have consciously intended. For this, he uses a computer program he developed specifically for this purpose. “I look for subtle differences that we may not pick up because our brain is designed to extract the gist of what we are saying,” said Cohen, who has a background in neuroscience as well as clinical psychology.

Men of Stone by GW Miller

a nuclear attack.
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Rape Crisis Response, a training session conducted in the 1970s by the Criminal Justice Repertory Group (CJs)

Bayview 1, a prison-based drama production by Professor Lorraine Moller at Bayview Correctional Facility

Photo: Richard Moller

the CJs began to receive invitations to do their “structured improvisations” — a term St. George coined — for police, corrections, probation and parole agencies.

Criminal Justice & The Theater
At John Jay, A Perfect Fit
continued from page 10

Moller said studies by her and others have shown that prisoners engaged in theater activities have reduced levels of anger. “It teaches emotion management and control,” she observed. Theater has also been shown to improve discipline and behavior, promote empathy and coping skills, and foster a sense of community and mutual responsibility.
Reentry through the Arts Professor Moller has seen the truth of Canavan and St. George’s assessment most vividly through her theater work with incarcerated women at the medium-security Bayview Correctional Facility in Manhattan, and with male inmates at Sing Sing Prison. “Prisoners are role-deprived,” said Moller. “Drama-based activities allow prisoners to resume rehearsing and playing real-life roles in fictive settings, which has a resocializing effect, and allows the actor to observe the consequences of behavior.” Moller’s Bayview production of Metamorphoses, using a cast of inmates and John Jay actors, won an award from the American College Theater Festival for its contribution to theater outreach. Moller said studies by her and others have shown that prisoners engaged in theater activities have reduced levels of anger. “It teaches emotion management and control,” she observed. Theater has also been shown to improve discipline and behavior, promote empathy and coping skills; and foster a sense of community and mutual responsibility. “Going one step further,” Moller said, “it gives disadvantaged people cultural capital, a feeling that one owns a piece of what ‘educated’ people have.” Providing access to this kind of cultural wealth can enhance one’s self-esteem, she observed. Another member of the Department, Professor Greg Donaldson, who has worked with Moller in Bayview productions, needs no convincing as to the power of theater as an educational tool. “There’s nothing quite like theater work in prison,” he said. “You can’t imagine what it’s like to work with 25 women who are serious felons. Theater is highly therapeutic, and through it prisoners can learn about things in ways we can’t begin to understand.” A similar effect can be seen in the classrooms of John Jay. “Dramatic things happen in my classroom,” Donaldson said. “They never

several other plays. We would hold discussions with the classes and talk about how issues in criminal justice were reflected in the plays.” As so often happens, one thing led to another. Word spread, and the CJs began to receive invitations to do their “structured improvisations” — a term St. George coined — for police, corrections, probation and parole agencies. Through the CJs, she also met (and later married) cast mate Frank Canavan (BS ’78), who brought the perspective of a private security industry veteran and saw that the training approach could be applied to a much wider audience than just criminal justice professionals. “There’s an incredibly wide application of this learning technique,” Canavan said, and his

and St. George’s career path have borne out the truth of that. St. George and Canavan went on to attend graduate school at New York University, studying learning theory, educational theater and related subjects. Their respective master’s degrees served as the foundation for what would become PACT Training [www.pacttraining.com], their wildly inventive and wholly original training firm, the essence of which is the structured improvisation. “It’s learning by osmosis — subversive learning,” St. George observed. “With these training exercises we help to redirect people toward other choices that they have, so they can choose different paths.” This process of self-discovery, Canavan added, is part of the essence of adult learning.

“It’s learning by osmosis — subversive learning,” St. George observed. “With these training exercises we help to redirect people toward other choices that they have, so they can choose different paths.” This process of self-discovery, Canavan added, is part of the essence of adult learning.
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“Prisoners are role-deprived,” said Moller. “Drama-based activities allow prisoners to resume rehearsing and playing real-life roles in fictive settings, which has a resocializing effect, and allows the actor to observe the consequences of behavior.”

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“There’s nothing quite like theater work in prison,” he said. “You can’t imagine what it’s like to work with 25 women who are serious felons. Theater is highly therapeutic, and through it prisoners can learn about things in ways we can’t begin to understand.” This isn’t professional theater, but we’re trying to prepare students for the professional world.

FOR REDUCING VIOLENCE, IT TAKES A

continued from page 7

NETW RK

“We met with David and I thought ‘what’s he talking about, this can’t possibly work.’ Our homicides are now at the lowest point they have been in 10 years.” Using Kennedy’s gang strategy, the International Association of Chiefs of Police awarded the Cincinnati Police Department the coveted Weber Seavey Award for 2008.
misgivings. Fealy, whose jurisdiction has used Kennedy’s strategies successfully since 1997, noted, “This is usually outside the comfort zone for prosecutors, police and even members of the community” who are new to this approach. Police Chief Thomas Streicher of Cincinnati was at first skeptical of these methods. In 2001, his city was the scene of the country’s last race riot. In 2006, the city had 89 homicides, the highest in the history of the department. “We met with David and I thought ‘what’s he talking about, this can’t possibly work.’ Our homicides are now at the lowest point they have been in 10 years.” Using Kennedy’s gang strategy, the International Association of Chiefs of Police awarded the Cincinnati Police Department the coveted Weber Seavey Award for 2008. “what are you white folk thinking of now.” The drug market has essentially disappeared as a result of Kennedy’s strategies and she currently runs an innovative program in Hempstead called the Council of Thought and Action where 300 ex-offenders meet twice a week — a process that, she says, provides individuals with a sense of integrity. Letting offenders know that the community values them is essential. But just as important, is an honest dialogue that must occur between law enforcement and the minority community. For Lewis, “everyone in this process — the police, the DA, and the service providers — had to come in and do some truth telling about the way they had been treating the population.” The Call-In: A Process of Revelation For Kennedy, “the work has been a process of revelation.” The call-in, which began as a tool of the strategies, has now become its centerpiece. A carefully orchestrated event, there is always worry among all concerned — the law enforcement members, the community members, even the offenders — that each of the others will not appear. But as Kennedy points out, “comes the day and everybody shows up. The call-in becomes a place where they can say things that they don’t seem to be able to say anywhere else. It’s where the mother of a dead child can say what this had done to her.” Kennedy also pointed out that the call-in allows the community to see that law enforcement officers are not the predators that some believe them to be. Conversely, it allows the law enforcement community to see that the

Assistant District Attorney Risco Mention-Lewis was also skeptical at first. She thought to herself “what are you white folk thinking of now.”

There are students who have so much inside them that’s untapped, and theater can help bring that out. When you do, it’s a beautiful thing.
A scene from A Few Good woMen

know what’s going to happen next. For me, the performance is in the service of the teaching.” An Ancient Teaching Tool Added Professor Tarantino, who like Donaldson teaches a criminal justice and theater course: “Theater unifies across disciplines. For example, what better way to teach criminology than to explore the mind of a criminal?” The use of theater to teach is ancient, she observed. “The Greeks knew this, and the Bible is just filled with theater,” said Tarantino. “Theater is simply a better teaching tool.” In a college like John Jay, the effect is enhanced, since “there isn’t a play written that’s not about justice,” according to Tarantino. “If there’s no conflict, there’s no play.”

Tarantino typically accompanies her John Jay productions with a one-day symposium on a relevant topic: street gangs for West Side Story, justice and theology for The Last Days of Judas Iscariot and, for the forthcoming production of Sweeney Todd, a discussion of vigilante justice.
“The play’s the thing,” Shakespeare observed in Hamlet, and Tarantino would likely be quick to concur. “This isn’t professional theater, but we’re trying to prepare students for the professional world. There are students who have so much inside them that’s untapped, and theater can help bring that out. When you do, it’s a beautiful thing.”
Peter Dodenhoff is editor of @John Jay.

Nassau County Assistant District Attorney Risco Mention-Lewis

As if to ensure that the educational value of theater is optimized,
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In Nassau County, District Attorney Kathleen Rice took the lead. One six-block area in Hempstead was responsible for 15 percent of the drug arrests in the county. Assistant District Attorney Risco Mention-Lewis was also skeptical at first. She thought to herself

The drug market has essentially disappeared as a result of Kennedy’s strategies.

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For Kennedy, “the work has been a process of revelation.” The call-in, which began as a tool of the strategies, has now become its centerpiece. The call-in becomes a place where they can say things that they don’t seem to be able to say anywhere else.
The “wrong way” that Williams referred to is the practice of conducting police sweeps, sometimes called zero tolerance, that often take place in such neighborhoods, where almost everyone is stopped and numerous arrests are made for all kinds of offenses great and small. In High Point, Fealy says that using sweeps was ultimately making things worse. “We had the community up in arms with our tactics, well intentioned though they were.” According to Yale Law School’s Deputy Dean Tracey Meares and Professor Walton Hale Hamilton, these arrest-intensive methods can often embolden gangs, “but police also lose the assistance of their primary partner in the suppression of violence — the community.”

According to Yale Law School’s Deputy Dean Tracey Meares and Professor Walton Hale Hamilton, arrest-intensive
Tracey Meares, Deputy Dean,Yale Law School Pastor William Sherman Mason

For many of the conference participants, these strategies represent not just a successful program, but a “movement” that can fundamentally change the way police do business in neighborhoods that are beset by violence.
the prestigious Innovations in American Government Award from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, the second time Kennedy’s strategies were given the honor — the first time was for his work in Boston in 1997. According to Striecher, “our law enforcement efforts are now focused on the worst of the worst.” He likens the process in military terms to the difference between carpet bombing and clinical strikes, where collateral damage is reduced. Fealy pointed out that the community is involved with decisions regarding who will be arrested. “When we sat down initially, we made the decisions of those who would get prosecution and those who would not with the community at the table ...we’re all in it together.” For many of the conference participants, these strategies represent not just a successful program, but a “movement” that can fundamentally change the way police do business in neighborhoods that are beset by violence. From numerous reports coming in from around the country and abroad, Kennedy’s innovative strategies are proving to be the most effective since the introduction of community policing.
Marie Rosen is a senior editor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

methods can often embolden gangs, “but police also lose the assistance of their primary partner in the suppression of violence — the community.”

Professor David Kennedy

community is neither complacent nor complicit about the violence it is experiencing. Dante Ingram and Clarence Williams went through the process and now function as street outreach workers in Cincinnati who work with (not for) police to help mitigate circumstances that can lead to outbreaks of violence. For Ingram, the process began with a knock on the door from his probation officer. “It was particularly scary. I had my gun and my drugs on the table.” He was awaiting his “lick” — a drug buyer — and had 10 years “on the shelf” — the sentence that awaited him with the next arrest. Instead of coming into the house, his probation officer handed him the notice to attend a call-in. It turned his life around. For Williams, the community’s moral voice made the difference. “The call-in saved my life,” he says. Williams had been dealing drugs since he was 13 and was addicted to the life style — the street life. “When you hear from people who have a vested interest in the neighborhood, the mother that lost her kid — that really hit me.

Meares believes that the strategies not only reduce violence, but that they also “produce a sense of justice.” She is working with the Chicago team, which recently reported a 37 percent reduction in the homicide rate in its highest crime police districts where these strategies are being used.
One of the fears Fealy had at first was engaging in a truth-telling dialogue in the minority community. Pastor William Sherman Mason recalled, “When Chief Fealy came to a meeting in our community and launched his speech with ‘We failed you, we let you down,’ there was pin-drop silence. People were so fired up to blow folks out of the water. He disarmed them. It set the stage for change.” In High Point, violent crime has substantially decreased and in 2007 the department won

That’s not to say that these methods are “soft” on really bad offenders. Referring to an arrest of a drug dealer who had been plaguing his neighborhood, Mason noted, “I believe in prison…there are some folks that need a reality check, so I had no problem with seeing him carried off and neither did the community.” In criminology circles, it is generally accepted that a small percentage of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate amount of violence.

Hearing from the police chief saying that they have been doing things the wrong way…that was also a big step.”
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“When Chief Fealy came to a meeting in our community and launched his speech with ‘We failed you, we let you down,’ there was pin-drop silence. People were so fired up to blow folks out of the water. He disarmed them. It set the stage for change.”
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Alumni Worth Noting
“Here at CUNY, we truly transform lives. People come to CUNY and they become successful. That’s our mission and I can’t think of any mission that is better than that.”
John B. Clark (MPA ’77)
When the Vietnam War kept him from pursuing his dream of teaching, John Jay alumnus John B. Clark (MPA ’77), redirected his passion for higher education by using his financial acumen to help students have the same transformational experience that he had in college. “The irony of my life is that I always wanted to be in the university as a professor and things kept getting in the way,” said Clark, the newly appointed acting executive director of CUNY’s Office of Business and Industry Relations. “When I graduated from college I was an honors student in history, but the U.S. Army intervened. By the time I got out, I was advised that history jobs — forget it.” So, Clark went to work. After holding positions at a number of municipal agencies, including the New York City Housing Authority and the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, he became involved in municipal bonds and public finance. Clark spent 18 years as a Wall Street analyst and investment banker who specialized in healthcare and higher education financing. It was during those years that he furthered his education. Clark has three master’s degrees and a doctorate. In addition to a BA in history from Providence College, he also holds an MPA from John Jay; an MA in economics from Fordham University; an MS in philosophy from New York University; and a doctorate in politics and education from Teachers College, Columbia University. Even his dissertation, Clark points out, was on one of the most well known classical works on the University, The Idea of University by John Henry Cardinal Newman. “My wife said, ‘What’s up with this?’ I said some guys go fishing, some guys go bowling, your husband goes up to the attic to write his dissertation,” said Clark. In addition to encouraging New York City’s business community to hire more CUNY graduates, he will also work at creating closer, more direct links between the University and that community.

Alumni Worth Noting
Brian Gimlett (BS ’75)
When Brian Gimlett began his studies at John Jay in 1972, he was working as a messenger on the trading floor at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). As fate would have it, some 34 years later in 2006 he was named Senior Vice President for Global Security for that same Exchange, which now includes London, Paris, Brussels, Lisbon, Amsterdam and an interest in Doha, Quatar. He also serves as the Exchange’s primary liaison with local, state, federal and international law enforcement agencies. At the time of Brian’s appointment, former NYSE CEO John Thain noted, “Brian brings a level of knowledge and experience that make him an outstanding addition to our organization.” That “knowledge and experience” began at John Jay. He initially wanted to follow in his brother’s footsteps and join the NYPD. However, at John Jay he met a number of people who encouraged him to look into other types of law enforcement positions. At the time, the late Governor Nelson Rockefeller had just set up the Office of the Special Prosecutor to investigate corruption in the criminal justice system. Gimlett, like a number of John Jay students and alumni, became a part of that effort. He started as a confidential clerk. Once he received his degree in criminal justice in 1975, he worked as a special investigator. From there it was on to the Secret Service. Brian spent 22 years with the Service, starting with assignments in Philadelphia, Atlantic City and Washington, DC. He returned to New York and eventually became the Special Agent in Charge, the top job in the New York Office. In the Secret Service, “I had two main responsibilities — investigations and protection.” This proactive and reactive background is important in the corporate world, says Gimlett, who worked for Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, and MBNA before joining the NYSE. “When you work in a corporation, many times you have to wear multiple hats.”

“A successful and satisfying career begins with a first step,” he says. “For me attending John Jay was that first step. I would
A big difference between public law enforcement and corporate security, he points out, is that there is more emphasis on customer service. “You have to build consensus with your customers, the managers who are responsible for the business. You have to show you are providing value to the company.” There’s no question that corporate security took on new importance after 9/11. And it’s no secret that the Exchange is a terrorist target. Dealing with the terrorist threat is one of Gimlett’s primary duties. He, like a number of John Jay alumni, is a member of Bankers and Brokers — former law enforcement executives who have security clearance and share information. “We work hand-in-hand with the NYPD Counterterrorism Division, the FBI and a number of federal agencies that provide us with intelligence information.” At the Exchange, the “primary boots on the ground” in addition to his own armed security people, “are the NYPD that are here 24/7 for 365 days a year. It’s an unbelievable partnership.” Gimlett is quick to credit the College for providing that critical first step in his career. “A successful and satisfying career begins with a first step,” he says. “For me attending John Jay was that first step. I would not have had my first opportunity in law enforcement if it weren’t for the College. John Jay and the people I met there opened the door for me.”

not have had my first opportunity in law enforcement if it weren’t for the College. John Jay and the people I met there opened the door for me.”

“CUNY’s Chancellor Matthew Goldstein felt that we are in New York City, which is the financial capital of the world, and we have this wonderful faculty…there is a natural link between investment wealth in New York and the ideas that our faculty generate where we can form collaborations, start-up companies, patent ideas….” Besides bringing his business expertise to CUNY, Clark also brings a deep understanding of higher education from the administration side. He served as interim chancellor for the State University of New York (SUNY) and as interim president at the SUNY colleges at Plattsburgh, Alfred State, Brockport and the College of Optometry before joining CUNY. He also served as SUNY’s interim vice chancellor for enrollment management and university life. “What kept me going on all the campuses where I have worked, are the students,” said Clark. “On Wall Street, you’re there for one reason — to make money and support your family. When you’re in higher education, particularly public higher education, you not only can support your family but you’re there for a noble cause,” he said. “Here at CUNY, we truly transform lives. People come to CUNY and they become successful. That’s our mission and I can’t think of any mission that is better than that.”

Clark is the acting executive director of CUNY’s Office of Business and Industry Relations.

Gimlett is Senior Vice President for Global Security for the New York Stock Exchange.

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Alumni Class Notes
Farrell M. Adams, BA ’83, retired from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in May 2009 as a senior special agent with over 21 years of federal law enforcement experience. Tyberius D. Asante, BA ’96, was promoted to project manager with University Behavioral Associates (UBA), a behavioral care and substance abuse managed care company affiliated with Montefiore Medical Center. Lissette Barrios-Reyes, BA ’05, held several positions since graduation, including that of a case manager/court liaison for the New York State Courts, where she worked with the elderly and provided alcohol and substance abuse counseling. She now holds a position with the Town of Islip, NY, working with teen parents and members of the community. Shantal M. Carter, MA ’07, quickly got her “dream job” as a corrections counselor for the New York State Department of Correctional Services “thanks to [her] degree from John Jay.” Salvatore J. Cassano, BS ’76, was appointed as New York City’s 32nd fire commissioner by Mayor Michael Bloomberg on December 21, 2009. Wendy E. Chavez, MPA ’04, is the national academic director of the Universidad del Pacifico in Guayaquil, Ecuador. David E. Chong, BS ’80, was named commissioner of public safety in Mount Vernon, NY. Carrie V. David, BA ’06, was offered a position as a budget manager at New York University and is also pursuing a MPA in public finance at the Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service. She says, “I am forever devoted to John Jay.” Yvonne Segar Davis, BS ’97, received a MPA from Savannah State University. Richard Goff, BS ’74, a former NYPD detective 3rd grade, is currently a professor of criminal justice and criminology at Ventura College in Ventura, CA. Camille A. Gould, BS ’08, is in her second year of law school. Timothy J. Horohoe, MPA ’07, is an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration at John Jay. Natasha M. (Iheme) Henry, BS ’00, completed a master’s degree in 2008 and owns a driving school in Baltimore, MD. She also works for Ernst & Young. Connie Jones-Hairston, BA ’01, is a legal assistant with the United States Attorney’s Office. Sedeke M. Kamara, BA ’04, is working as a law enforcement officer with the New York City Department of Correction at Rikers Island. She is married with two beautiful daughters. ages 3 and 2 years. Robert J. MacMaster, BS ’08, became a deputy U.S. marshal in the District of Wyoming. With members of a number of agencies, he recently helped support law enforcement and drug intervention operations for the 69th Annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally in Sturgis, SD. John McCormack, BA ’05, was promoted to the position of national import specialist associate within the Office of International Trade under U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Joshua A. McElroy, BA ’07, was hired as a Connecticut state trooper. Yessenia Mendez, BA ’06, is currently taking the paralegal certificate course through the Continuing Education program at John Jay College. Tamara A. Monell, BA ’00 & MS ’04, is CEO of her private practice, Peaceful Minds Inc., which she began in 2007 in Miami Beach, FL. In addition to individual, family and couples counseling, she works as a psychotherapist with therapeutic and educational groups at community mental health centers and online. She is also a premarital course provider registered with Miami-Dade County. Amar R. Moody, BA ’02, has been a child protective specialist for New York City Children Services (ACS) for over three years. Angelo L. Morales, BA ’08, a detective with the NYPD, is currently enrolled in John Jay’s graduate program in protection management. Rebecca E. Paul, BA ’07, was recently employed by the New York State Unified Court System, working with the Rockland County Drug Court as a case manager to monitor clients who have committed crimes due to their drug and/or alcohol addiction. She notes, “This job is very rewarding because I can help people change their lives and live as law-abiding, productive members of society.” Lisa D. Peay, BA ‘99, is currently working at Create, Inc. as a Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor (CASAC). Michael E. Ruggiero, MA ’09, is teaching as an adjunct professor in the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration at John Jay. Frank Straub, MA ’90, stepped down as commissioner of public safety in White Plains, NY and was subsequently named public safety director in Indianapolis, IN. John F.Timoney, BA ’74, stepped down as police chief of Miami, FL and is now senior vice president of Business Development, Consulting and Investigations for Andrews International, the largest privately owned full-service provider of security and risk mitigation services in the United States. Benjamin B. Tucker, BS ’77, was nominated by President Barack Obama as deputy director for state, local and tribal affairs at the Office of National Drug Control Policy. He currently serves as a professor of criminal justice at Pace University. Elyse Y. Warner-Lyons, BS ’00, obtained a Certificate in HR Benefits and Compensation from Cornell University in 2008 and a Certificate in Early Intervention from the New York State Health Department in 2009. Scott C. Weems, BA ’95, started working for the Immigration and Naturalization Service in 1997 as a detention enforcement officer. He later was promoted to an immigration enforcement agent and then a deportation officer. In 2009 he was again promoted to detention and deportation officer at ICE Immigration and Customs Enforcement Headquarters in Washington, DC as the residential facilities coordinator for the Juvenile and Family Residential Management Unit, where he is currently assigned. “None of this would have been possible without obtaining my degree from John Jay,” he notes. Beatrice Wilkinson Welters, MA ’78, was nominated by President Barack Obama as Ambassador to the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. She is currently president and chairperson of the AnBryce Foundation. Mark Zarbailov, BS ’00, has been director of database services for the Ethical Culture Fieldston School since 2005. In 2008, he established a fundraising technology consultant company, Datawebflex, which helps educational institutions, non-profit organizations and small to mid-sized businesses achieve maximum outcome from their information systems.

PLANNED GIVING
Everyone can play a part in the future of the College, especially in ensuring the success of future programs and activities. A bequest to the John Jay College Foundation, Inc. will contribute significantly and forever, either toward the John Jay Endowment Fund or in support of a particular program, lectureship or scholarship fund. When formulating your bequest, the following wording is suggested: I give and bequeath to John Jay College Foundation, Inc., New York, NY, $____________ to be added to the principal of the John Jay Endowment Fund, the income to be credited each year in my name. It is as simple as that, and just imagine what your gift will provide for future generations of students who follow in your footsteps.

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John Jay College
T h e C i T y U n i v e r s i T y o f n e w y o r k

of Criminal Justice
899 TenTh AvenUe new york, ny 10019 www.jjay.cuny.edu

Campus expansion project (Phase II) construction site on February 1, 2010

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