THE

AMERICAN

NUMISMATIC

MUSEUM

SOCIETY

NOTES
18

' numismatic
JSymy /
VsOCIETYJJggpT /

THE

AMERICAN

NUMISMATIC
NEW

SOCIETY

YORK
1972

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THE

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF

EPHESUS
Fred S. Kleiner

(Plates XI-XV)

Among the coinages of the Hellenistic world, the cistophori are
perhaps the most remarkable. Exceptional in the choice of types
and unique in weight standard, these curious coins pose more
problems than they solve. Although they carry the mint marks of
over a dozen known cities and often bear dates, there is still no
general agreement on when the coinage was begun1 nor why its
peculiar weight standard was adopted.2 Moreover,some of the most
widely held views regardingthe cistophoriare open to question. One
such view concerns the dated issues of Ephesus and is the subject
of this paper. The larger questions concerning the beginning and
purpose of the cistophoric coinage must be discussed elsewhere at
greaterlength.3
It is universally accepted that the cistophori of Ephesus were
undated priorto the formationof the Province ofAsia in 134/133b.c.,
and that thereafteran "almost unbroken" series of dated coins was
issued for sixty-seven years. Both assumptions are surprising in
light of the recorded evidence. Of the sixty-seven years of dated
emissions, only twenty-fourwere known to Pinder.4 Head was able
1 The mostrecentdiscussionsplace the beginning
of the cistophoric
coinage
withtheenlargement
oftheAttalid
about 188b.c. and connectthecistophori
kingdomin Asia Minorafterthe Treatyof Apamea. H. Seyrig,RN 1963,
pp. 22-31; C. Kraay,GreekCoinsandHistory(Oxford,1969),pp. 8-9. I would
place the date stilllater,ca. 166b.c., afterEumenesII's greatvictoryover
theGalatians,and afterthecreationofa freeportat Delos,whichsignificantly
alteredthepatternsoftradein theHellenisticworld.
2 The cistophorus
has been variouslydescribedas a silverpiece of reduced
Rhodianor Chianweight,as a didrachmon the Aeginetanstandard,and as
threeRomandenariior threeAtticdrachms.Compilationof approximately
1000specimens
struckbefore128b.c. revealsthatthecistophoric
tetradrachm
was intendedto weigh12.60gramsat thetimeofitsinception.
8 A studyof the cistophoric
coinageof Asia Minorbased on the notes of
in preparation
SydneyP. Noe is currently
by theauthor.
4 M. Pinder, UberdieCistophoren,Abh.Berlin1855,pp. 533-635,nos.25-54.
17

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i8

FRED

S. KLEINER

to add eleven to that list,5 and since then only seven other years
have been published, raising the total to a mere forty-two,or sixtytwo per cent. By contrast, the published record of the pre-133
cistophoriof Ephesus includes fourissues with dates rangingfromA
(year 1) to AK (year 21). Both groups require reexamination.
I. REGNAL DATES
An example of an early Ephesian cistophorus dated year A
(Plate XI, 6) was known to Imhoof-Blumerand illustrated in his
study of the coinage of Pergamům.6 More recently,two additional
specimens have been published: one by Nekriman Olçay; the second
in an auction catalogue of 1964.7All these pieces may be distinguished
from the later year 1 pieces dated from the formation of the
Province of Asia in 134/133B.c. by the symbol in the right field of
the reverses.The later series has a torch as the invariable civic badge
of the city of Ephesus; the earlier pieces have a double cornucopiae
as symbol. Nevertheless,both varietieshave two featuresin common:
the placement of the date and ethnic to the left, and the inclusion
of a bee between the opposed heads of the serpents. This format,
as well as the detail of the bee, may indicate that the two varieties
of year A are not too distant in time.
Year B (Plates XI, 7; XII, 1) was known to Pinder8 and several
pieces of this variety are included in catalogues of major public and
private collections. The issue differsfrom that of year A and from
the later series in two respects: the B is placed to the right and the
symbol in the right field is a bust of Artemis Ephesia wearing a
loftyheaddress. One specimen published by Nekriman Olçay9 shares
an obverse die with pieces of year A (Plate XI, 6-7).
6 B. V. Head, NC 1880,pp. 149-151.
6 F. Imhoof-Blumer,
"Die MünzenderDynastievon Pergamon,"Abh.Berlin
1884,Pl. IV, 7.
7 N. Olçay, IstanbulArkeolojiMüzeleri Yilligi 11-12 (1964), pp. 58-63
(Turkish)and 171-177 (English),no. 42. Kress Sale, Munich,June 1964,
no. 286.
8 Pinder,"Cistophoren,"
no. 19.
9 Olçay,no. 58.

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DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

19

There are no knownearly Ephesian cistophoridated to years P-I0,
but several are recorded for year K (20) (Plates XI, 1-2; XII, 2).
This issue was also listed by Pinder10and is representedin a few of
the published collections. In this case the K is placed to the left and
the symbol in the rightfieldis a profilebust of Artemisthe huntress.
The last series, AK (21- Plate XI, 3-5) is likewise representedin
Pinder11and in several published catalogues. It bears many points of
resemblance with year A. A double cornucopiae is again the symbol
in the right field; the A is to the left; and in a few examples a bee
is placed between the serpents' heads. Moreover,the style of many
of the obverse and reverse dies of the two years is so close that it
seems almost certain that some of the dies of years A and AK were
executed contemporaneouslyby the same man, rather than twenty
years apart. The similarityis so strikingthat one of Mr. NewelTs
pieces, where the K has been erased, is almost indistinguishablefrom
the pieces marked year A.12The significanceof this observation will
soon become apparent.
The following is a corpus of all specimens of these four years
known to me.13 For each denomination, Arabic numerals indicate
10Pinder,"Cistophoren,"
remarks
ofE. H. Bunbury,
no. 24. Cf.theperceptive
NC 1883,p. 183,note3: "Thereis one coindescribedby Dr. Pinderand byMr.Head in his list withthe letterK in the field,whichtheydo not regard
as a date . . . becausethe coin in question. . . wantsthe longtorchwhich
oftheusualseriesbearingdates.Notwithstanding
appearsto be characteristic
thisvariationit appearsto me moreprobablethat the letterK is intended
fora date."
11Pinder,"Cistophoren,"
no. 23.
12Series2b, 4-b.
13I wishto thankthe following
curatorsforsupplyingcasts or photographs
ofthematerialundertheircare: M. JessopPriceand G. K. Jenkins(London);
G. Le Rider (Paris); H. Bioesch (Winterthur)
; M. Comstock(Boston);
O. Morkholm(Copenhagen);C. Kraay (Oxford);H.-D. Schultz (Berlin);
N. Olçay (Istanbul);H. von Aulock;G. Pollardand M. Hendy(Cambridge);
G. Dembski (Vienna); S. Taner (Ankara); M. Oeconomides(Athens);
J. Oleson(DewingColl.); A. Robertson(Glasgow);H. E. van Gelder(Hague);
and H. Küthmann(Munich).The piecesin theANS collectionareillustrated
fromcasts preparedby Mrs. Persy Coronis.In addition,I profitedfrom
discussionsor correspondence
with C. Boehringer,
H. Cahn, P. R. Franke
and, above all, M. Thompson,withoutwhose assistancethis paper could
neverhave been written.I herebyalso gratefully
a grantfrom
acknowledge
theAmericanPhilosophical
Societywhichenabledme to visitthecollections
in Istanbul,Ankara,Izmir,Bergamaand Athensin May/
June 1971.

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20

FRED

S. KLEINER

obverse dies, numberedconsecutivelyforall series; lower case letters
indicate reverse dies within a single series.
:
Tetradrachms
Obv.: Cista mystica with half-open lid, from which a serpent
issues to 1.; all within an ivy wreath.
Rev. : Two coiled serpents with heads erect; between them an
ornamentedbow-case with strap at r., usually containing
a strungbow at 1. E<DEin 1. field; othermarks as indicated.
Series i : To r., bust ofArtemisr.,with quiver; above 1.,K (year 20).
Pinder 24.
i-a. ANS 12.50 / .
i-b. *London, BMC 145 12.55 t Struck over a Macedonian
tetradrachmof the firstdistrict (Plate XI, 1).
i-c. London 12.26 f.
i-d. Von Aulock, SNG 7833 12.58.
1-e. New York, Metropolitan Museum (Ward 661) 12.46;
Schlessinger13, 1935, 1264 12.30; Vienna 12.25 / •
2-f. *ANS-ETN (Asia Minor 1928 hoard) 12.68 / (Plate
XI, 2).
2-g. Paris 12.32 t ; Winterthur11.89.
Series 2a: To r., double cornucopiae; above 1., A; above r., K
(year 21). Pinder 23.
3-a. *ANS-Strauss 12.54 t (Plate XI, 3) ; Boston 12.67 t3-b. Copenhagen 12.66 f.
3-c. Oxford 12.30.
4-d. *Bern 12.52 (Plate XI, 4).
4-e. London 12.65 f4-f. London 12.65 t4-g. Von Aulock, SNG 1857 12.45 ; Kress 148, July 1969, 171.
4-h. Berlin 12.39.
Series 2b : As 2a, except above center,bee.
*
4-a. Paris 12.40 f (Plate XI, 5) ; von Aulock, SNG 7841
12.74.
4-b. ANS-ETN (Asia Minor 1928 hoard) 12.67 ^ K erased.

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DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

21

Series 3: To r., double cornucopiae; above 1., A (year 1); above
center,bee.
*ANS-Strauss
5-a.
12.35 t (Plate XI, 6) ; ANS-ETN (Asia
Minor 1928 hoard) 12.51 f; ANS 12.45
Istanbul (Yesilhisar 1963 hoard, 42) 12.65 t I Berlin 12.68.
5-b. ANS (Asia Minor 1955 hoard) 12.59 t ! Kress 130, June
1964, 286.
Series 4: To r., facing bust of Artemis Ephesia with lofty headdress; above r., B (year 2). Pinder 19.
Istanbul
5-a.
(Yesilhisar 1963 hoard, 58) 12.67 / ■
6-b. Istanbul (Yesilhisar 1963 hoard, 57) 12.60 f.
6-c. *ANS-ETN (Asia Minor 1928 hoard) 12.43 f (Plate XI, 7) ;
von Aulock, SNG 7842 12.65.
6-d. London, BMC 144 12.65 t; Kress 130, June 1964, 285.
6-e. Berlin 12.52 (pierced); Vienna 12.38 / .
6-f. Serrure,April 1911, 43; Kress 149, November 1969, 243.
6-g. Lockett, SNG 2813 (Naville 1, April 1921, 2435) 12.64 t7-g. ANS-ETN (Asia Minor1928 hoard) 12.71 / ; Paris 12.30 f.
7-h. Von Aulock, SNG 1858 12.59.
7-i. Helbing, April 1927, 1774 = Helbing, March 1920, hi.
8-j. *ANS-Strauss 12.65 t (Plate XII, 1); Istanbul (Yesilhisar
1963 hoard, 56) 12.74 t8-k. Istanbul.
8-1. Kress 120, November 1961, 208.
9-m. ANS-BYB, SNG 1057 12.46 / ; Kress 135,March 1966, 188.
9-n. ANS-BYB, SNG 1058 12.58 / ; Istanbul (Yesilhisar 1963
hoard, 60) 12.50 / ' Commerce.
Didrachms and Drachms:
Obv.: Club, over which a lion's skin is draped; all within a
wreath.
Rev.: Bunch of grapes, placed upon a vine leaf. EOE in 1. field;
other marks as indicated.
Series i : As above.
1-a. *Na ville 1, April 1921, 2439 6.02 (Plate XII, 2).
2-b. ""Copenhagen,SNG 315 2.83 f (Plate XII, 3).

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22

FRED

S. KLEINER

Series 2b or 3: To 1., bee on side; to r., double cornucopiae.
3-a. *ANS-Stephens 6.15 t (Plate XII, 4).
4-b. *Berlin 2.73 (Plate XII, 5).
It will be noticed that five of the pieces come from the 1963
Yesilhisar hoard, buried in 130 B.c.,14and five others fromthe 1928
Asia Minor hoard, buried in 128 b.c. An additional seven pieces
dated year B were recordedby Newell as part of the 1928 hoard, but
have been dispersed.15In both hoards, the early series of dated
pieces are well represented; only the latest pieces, dated from the
formation of the Province of Asia, outnumber them. The former
series was probably struck in the years just prior to 134 b.c., which
accords well with the similarity in format between the two series
noted above.
This assumption is confirmed by the evidence of the British
Museum's piece, dated year K, which was struck over a Macedonian
tetradrachm of the firstdistrict (Plate XI, 1). Part of the legend
MAK . . . nPß . . . and the end of the club are still visible beneath
the cistophoric obverse. The Macedonian series was issued between
158 and 149 b.c.,16and the cistophorusof year 20 must postdate 158
and is probably somewhat later. An unpublished hoard of cistophori
and tetradrachmsof Prusias I and II, Eumenes II, Demetrius I, and
Side, buried ca. 150-140 B.c., does not contain any dated Ephesian
cistophori.17
The range of possibilities is thus very narrow, and in the period
between 158-150 and 134 B.c. there is only one set of dates that
14The lot of 100 cistophori
Museum
acquiredby the IstanbulArchaeological
nos. 30-37,69-70,and 91. The remaining
containsseveralintrusions:
eightynine pieces constitutethe largerpart of a hoard of 104 pieces foundat
Ye§ilhisarin 1963.The sevenEphesianpieces,nos. 62-68,dated 132-130b.c.
are in excellentconditionand indicatethatthehoardwas buriedca. 130 b.c.
15The 1928 hoardwas seen in severallots during1928-29by E. T. Newell
and G. F. Hill. The Londonlot of sixty-three
pieceswas publishedby Hill
(NC 1929,pp. 72-76) and the burialdated "soon after129b.c." The entire
lot of 158 pieceshas now been studiedby the author;the onlysignificant
additionsto Hill'srecordaretwopiecesofEphesusdatedyearC (129/128
b.c.).
18This series has been discussedmost recentlyby P. MacKay, Ancient
Macedonia
, FirstInternational
Symposium
(Salónica,1970),pp. 256-264,with
previousbibliography.
17Information
this hoardwas kindlyprovidedby C. Boehringer.
regarding

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DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

23

could correspondto years 1, 2, 20, and 21. In 139/138b.c. Attālus II
died during his twenty-firstyear as king of Pergamům and was
succeeded by Attālus III. The years K and AK must referto the
twentiethand twenty-first
years of the former'sreign (140/139and
A
B
the
firsttwo years of his successor's rule
and
and
to
i39/i38),
(139/138 and 138/137). This would explain why pieces marked AK
and A are so close in style and format.They were issued in the same
calendar year, but commemoratedifferentregnalyears. This solution
would also provide an explanation for the erased K on NewelTs
piece (4-b). Apparently the Ephesian mint had struck, but not yet
issued, a series of AK pieces when the change in rulers occurred. In
order to avoid restrikingthe now misdated coins, the K was simply
removed, renderingthe pieces indistinguishablefrom those shortly
to be struck fromthe new year A dies.
There does not, however, seem to be any special reason why the
series did not begin until the twentiethregnal year of Attālus II and
was abruptly halted in the second year of Attālus III, nor why the
dates appear on the coins of Ephesus and not of Pergamům itself.
Perhaps the celebrationof Attālus II's twentiethyear on the throne,
coinciding with his eightieth birthday, was sufficientreason for
beginning the series. The cessation in 138/137 must remain unexplained.18 In any case, the identificationof Ephesian cistophori
commemoratingthe regnal years of two Pergamene kings once again
attests to the political hegemony of Pergamům at this time, and to
its influenceon (or control over) the issuance of silver coins by its
possessions in Asia Minor.
II. PROVINCIAL

DATES

The followingis a list of all issues of dated Ephesian cistophori
after 134 b.c. known to me. Fifty-sevenof the sixty-sevenyears are
represented,as well as all threecistophoricdenominations.Previously
unpublishedissues are indicated by an asterisk and are illustratedon
Plates XII-XV.
18It is unlikelythatany piecesmarkedT, A or E wereeverstruck.Several
hoardsburiedbetween130 and 128b.c. do not containany such pieces,
althoughK, AK, A and B are wellrepresented.

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FRED

24

S. KLEINER

Tetradrachms
:
Obv.: Cista mystica with half-open lid, from which a serpent
issues to 1.; all within an ivy wreath.
Rev.' Two coiled serpents with heads erect; between them an
ornamentedbow-case with strap at r., usually containing
a strung bow at 1. EOE in 1. field; torch in r. field; other
marks as indicated.
1. Above center, bee; to 1., A (year i = 134/133). Pinder 25;
von Aulock, SNG 7844.
2. Above center,bee; to 1., B (year 2 = 133/132).Pinder 26; Cambridge, SNG 4431 ; de Luynes 2597.
3. Above center, bee; to 1., T (year 3 = 132/131). Pinder 27;
von Aulock, SNG 7846.
4. To 1.,T. London, BMC 156; Copenhagen,SNG 317; von Aulock,
SNG 7845 ; Glasgow, Hunter 26.
Above
center, bee; to 1., A (year 4 = 131/130). Copenhagen,
5.
SNG 319.
6. Above center,A. Pinder 28 ; Copenhagen,SNG 318 ; von Aulock,
SNG 7847.
Above
center,E (year 5 = 130/129).London, BMC 157; Copen7.
hagen, SNG 320; von Aulock, SNG i860; Cambridge, McClean
8087; Aberdeen, SNG 272.
*8. To 1., lyre; to r., NE; above center, E. ANS-Strauss 12.60 /
(Plate XII, 6).
Above
center, stag r. ; to 1., E. ANS-Strauss 12.67 / (Plate
*9.
XII, 7).
*10. Above center, stag r.; to 1., C (year 6 = 129/128). ANS-ETN
12.73 t (Plate XII, 8).
11. Above center, Artemis Ephesia; to 1., Z (year 7 = 128/127).
London, BMC 158.
12. Above center, stag r.; to 1., H (year 8 = 127/126). Pinder 29;
von Aulock, SNG 1861.
*13. Above center, Artemis Ephesia; to 1., 0 (year 9 = 126/125).
London 11.72 f (Plate XIII, 1).
Above
center, cornucopiae; to 1., 0. London 10.70 f (Plate
*14.
XIII, 2).

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DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

25

*15. Above center,star; to 1.,I (year 10 = 125/124).Athens 411. 1969
12.6o ' (Plate XIII, 3).
*16. Above center,roundshield; to 1., IA (yearn = 124/123). Berlin
12.57 / (Plate XIII, 4).
17. Above center, Dioscurus pileus surmounted by star; to 1., IB
(year 12 = 123/122). Pinder 32 (Vatican IB was misread by
Pinder as KA) ; Cambridge,McClean 8093.
18. Above center, caduceus; to 1., II". Berlin 12.49 t (pierced);
unpublished.
*19. Above center,caduceus; below C- ĀIN-C; to 1., IT. A. S. Dewing
Coll. (Plate XIII, 5); below 1., C-ÄI; below r., N -OF* Berlin
12.64 t- All three varieties of year IT are struck fromthe same
obverse die.
*20. Above center,torch; to 1., IA (year 14 = 121/120).ANS 12.48 /
(Plate XIII, 6).
21. Above center,torch; to 1., IE (year 15 = 120/119). Cambridge,
McClean 8088.
22. Above center,cornucopiae; to 1., IC (year 16 = 119/118).Copenhagen, SNG 321.
*23. Above center, bunch of grapes; to 1., IS (year 17 = 118/117).
London 12.46 f (Plate XIII, 7).
Above
center, cornucopiae; to 1., 10 (year 19 = 116/115).
*24.
New York, Private Coll. (Plate XIV, 1).
Above
center, ear of grain; to 1., AK (year 21 = 114/113).
*25.
ANS-Strauss 12.29 ' (Plate XIV, 2).
26. Above center, ear of grain; to r., KA. Copenhagen, SNG
322.
27. Above center,lyre; to 1., BK (year 22 = 113/112).Von Aulock,
SNG 1862 ; Cambridge,McClean 8089.
28. Above center,Helios head facing; to 1., I~K (year 23 = 112/111).
Cambridge,McClean 8090-91.
*29. Above center,gorgoneion; to 1., AK (year 24 = in/no). ANS
12.50 Î (Plate XIV, 3).
Above
center,winged caduceus; to 1., EK (year 25 = 110/109).
*30.
Hague 5691a 12.36 t (Plate XIV, 4).
Above
center,winged caduceus; to 1., CK (year 26 = 109/108).
31.
Cambridge,McClean 8092.

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26

FRED

S. KLEINER

32. Above center, palm branch; to 1., KH (year 28 = 107/106).
Copenhagen, SNG 323.
Above
center, trident; to 1., K© (year 29 = 106/105). Copen33.
SNG
324.
hagen,
34. Above center, bunch of grapes; to 1., A (year 30 = 105/104).
Cambridge,McClean 8094-95.
*35. Above center, wreath; to 1., bee, above which AA (year 31 =
104/103).ANS 12.61 t (PLATE XIV, 5).
Above
center,bucranium; to 1.,AB (year 32 = 103/102).Copen36.
hagen, SNG 325.
37. Above center, owl; to 1., Ar (year 33 = 102/101). Cambridge,
McClean 8096.
38. Above center,tripod; to 1., AA (year 34 = 101/100).Pinder 33;
London, BMC 159; von Aulock, SNG 7848; ANS-BYB, SNG
1059 ; Cambridge, McClean 8097.
Above
center, tripod; to 1., AE (year 35 = 100/99). ANS-ETN
*39.
12.39 t (Plate IV, 6).
*40. Above center, crested helmet r.; to 1., AC (year 36 = 99/98).
ANS-ETN 12.27 t (Plate XIV, 7).
*41. Above center, crested helmet r.; to 1., AH (year 38 = 97/96).
Commerce 12.27 (Plate XV, 1).
Above
center, crested helmet r.; to 1., A0 (year 39 = 96/95).
*42.
ANS 12.64 t (Plate XV, 2).
43. Above center,candelabrum; to 1., M (year 40 = 95/94)-London,
BMC 160 ; von Aulock, SNG 7849.
Above
center, bee; to 1., MA (year 41 = 94/93). Von Aulock,
44.
SNG 7850.
45. Above center, fulmen; to 1., MA (year 44 = 91/90). Pinder
46.
47.
48.
49.

35Above center,serpent staff;to 1., ME (year 45 = 90/89). Pinder
36; Copenhagen, SNG 326.
Above center, headdress of Isis; to 1., MC (year 46 = 89/88).
Pinder 34 and 37 ; Glasgow, Hunter 27.
Above center, filleted trident; to 1., MZ (year 47 = 88/87).
London, BMC 161.
Above center,head of Isis facing; to 1., MH (year 48 = 87/86).
Pinder 38; Copenhagen, SNG 327; von Aulock, SNG 7851.

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DATED

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OF EPHESUS

27

50. Above center, Nike holding wreath in r. ; to 1., M© (year 49 =
86/85). Pinder 39-40; London, BMC 162.
51. Above center, eagle on fulmen; to 1., N (year 50 = 85/84).
Von Aulock, SNG 7852.
52. Above center, Hermes holding wreath in r. and caduceus in 1.;
to 1., NA (year 51 = 84/83). Pinder 41; London, BMC 163;
Copenhagen, SNG 328-329; von Aulock, SNG 7853.
Above
center, headdress of Isis; to 1., NB (year 52 = 83/82).
53.
Pinder 42; London, BMC 164; Copenhagen, SNG 330.
54. Above center, bow in bow-case; to 1., NT (year 53 = 82/81).
Pinder 43; London, BMC 165; Cambridge, SNG 4432.
Above
center, cornucopiae; to 1., NA (year 54 = 81/80).
55.
Von Aulock, SNG 1863.
56. Above center,Artemisstridingr., bow in 1., drawing arrow with
r.; to 1., NE (year 55 = 80/79). London, BMC 166; von Aulock,
SNG 1864; ANS-BYB, SNG 1060; Cambridge, SNG 4433.
57. Above center,owl on palm branch; to 1., NC (year 56 = 79/78).
Pozzi Coll. = Naville 1, April 1921, 2437.
58. Above center, Priapus facing; to 1., NX (year 57 = 78/77).
Pinder 44; Copenhagen, SNG 331.
Above
center, stag r.; to 1., EA (year 61 = 74/73). London
*59.
12.41 / (Plate XV, 3).
60. Above center, ear of grain between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
Er (year 63 = 72/71). Pinder 45.
61. Above center,palm branch between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
Er. Pinder 46.
62. Above center, covered crater; to 1., EA (year 64 = 71/70).
Pinder 47; London, BMC 167; Copenhagen, SNG 33233363. Above center,gorgoneion; to 1., EE (year 65 = 70/69). London,
BMC 169.
64. Above center, ear of grain between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
EE. Pinder 48 ; Cambridge, SNG 4434.
65. Above center, poppy between opposed cornucopiae; to 1., EE.
London, BMC 168.
66. Above center,palm branch between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
EE. Pinder 49.

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67. Above center, quiver between opposed cornucopiae; to 1., EC
(year 66 = 69/68). Pinder 50.
68. Above center, ear of grain between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
HC. Copenhagen, SNG 334 ; Cambridge,SNG 4435.
Above
center, poppy between opposed cornucopiae; to 1., EC.
69.
London, BMC 170; von Aulock, SNG 7854; Weber 5866.
70. Above center,palm branch between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
EC. Pinder 51 ; London, BMC 171 ; Cambridge, McClean 8098.
Above
center, quiver between opposed cornucopiae; to 1., EZ
71.
(year 67 = 68/67). Pinder 52.
72. Above center,ear of grain between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
EZ. Pinder 53 ; Glasgow, Hunter 28.
73. Above center, poppy between opposed cornucopiae; to 1., EZ.
Cambridge,SNG 4436-4437.
74. Above center,palm branch between opposed cornucopiae; to 1.,
EZ. Pinder 54; London, BMC 172; Copenhagen, SNG 335;
von Aulock, SNG 1865.

Didrachms and Drachms
Oiv.: Club, over which a lion's skin is draped; all within a
wreath.
Rev. : Bunch of grapes, placed upon a vine leaf. Efl>Ebelow 1.;
other marks as indicated.
Above
1., bee; below r., torch; below 1., A (year 1 = 134/133).
*75.
Munich 6.22 (Plate XV, 4).
76. Above 1., bee; below r., torch; below 1., A. Von Aulock, SNG
I859.
Below
r., torch; above 1., CK (year 26 = 109/108).ANS 3.13 f
*77.
(Plate XV, 5).
The seventy-seven issues enumerated above represent almost
everyyear from133 to 67 b.c. and suggestthat the "almost unbroken"
series of issues was a continuous row of annual emmissions. The
missing years (IH, K, KZ, AZ, MB, MT, NH, N0, E and HB) will
undoubtedly turn up when new hoards are uncovered.

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DATED

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OF EPHESUS

29

It is interestingthat Ephesus is the only city to place provincial
era dates on its cistophori,19a decision which possibly reflectsa
readier acceptance of Roman rule than in the other Attalid cities.
It is perhaps significantthat it was an Ephesian fleetthat turnedback
the pretender Aristonicus,while other cities opened their gates to
him as the rightfulheir to the Attalid throne.20
In Issues 1-3, the date is placed in the upper left field,a bee is
included between the serpents' heads and a torch occupies the
right field. Whatever functionthe changing symbols served on the
Ephesian cistophori prior to 134, the bee and torch have no comparable significance.The torch, which remains the civic symbol of
the Ephesian mint until the introductionof cistophoriof new types
under Mark Antony,is really a subsidiary type, not a controlmark;
and the bee also seems to lack any temporal significance.
Issues 4-9 reflecta briefperiod of uncertaintywith regard to the
formatof the cistophoricreverses and to the inclusion or omission
of marks indicatingpersonal control.The civic bee is usually omitted
and the date is variously placed to the left or in the center,until in
Issue 9 a satisfactoryformat is attained. Henceforth,the date is
placed to the left and a symbol is located between the serpents'
heads.
In Issue 8 (Plate XII, 5), a monogram and symbol appear. That
the symbol,as well as the monogram,is a mark of personal controlis
borne out by the erratic pattern of symbols used in subsequent
years. In Issues 9, 10 and 12, the symbolis a stag, while in 11 and 13,
ArtemisEphesia appears. In 20 and 21 a torchis used; in 14, 22 and
24, the symbol is a cornucopiae. The lyre of year E appears again in
Issue 27, the cornucopiae is repeated in 55 and the stag in 59. In
years KH, K0, A, AA, AB and Ar, a differentsymbol is used with
each date, while a tripod appears with both AA and AE, and a crested
helmet is used in year AC and retained for AH and A0. Years EE,
EC and EZ employ foursymbolsper year with threeof them retained
throughout; and so on.
19The dates on the T7TOA pieces of Tralles,as K. Regling,Frankfurter
fromSulla'sreconstruction
1932,pp. 1-5,has shown,arereckoned
Münzzeitung
oftheProvinceofAsia in 85/84b.c.
20Strabo14.1.38.

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30

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Such a pattern of symbols cannot correspondto artists' signatures,
monthsor the like. As the hi of Issue 8, the symbols can only be the
personalmarks of supervisingmagistrates,whose termsof officewere
unequal in length, or signifya liturgy,as Thompson has shown to
be the case with the New Style silver coinage of Athens.21
The most curious of all the seventy-eightissues is year IT (Plate
XIII, 5) in which the name of a Roman magistrateis added in Latin,
as on the later pro-consular cistophori. The official,OÄIN-OF
cannot be identifiedwith any known Roman magistrate in Asia in
122/121B.C.22
III. CISTOPHORIC

OVERSTRIKES

The publication of the dated Ephesian cistophorusof 140/139B.c.
struck over a Macedonian tetradrachm of the firstdistrict (Plate
XI, 1) affordsthe opportunityfora general discussion of cistophoric
overstrikes.Plate XV, 6 illustratesa cistophorusof Tralles23which
is also struck over a Macedonian tetradrachm. Very little of the
undertype is visible, but in the left field of the reverse, somewhat
obscured by the ethnic, . . . QTHZ (reading downward) is still legible.
Plate XV, 7 reproduces a cistophorus of Ephesus24 struck over a
Thasian tetradrachmof the HPAKAEOYZ IfìTHPOZ type.25All three
21M. Thompson,The New StyleSilverCoinageofAthens
, ANSN S 10 (New
York,1961).
22T. R. S. Broughton,The Magistrates
of theRomanRepublic(New York,
ofAsia "before90,possibly
Ī952),p. 462 citesa C. (Atinius?)Labeo,governor
before100B.c.;" Ins. v. Priene121. D. Magie,RomanRule in Asia Minor
in 120/119B.C.
(Princeton,1950),p. 1579,places C. Labeo's governorship
B. V. Head, HistoriaNumorum2
(Oxford,1911), p. 575 and note 1, cites a
variantof this piece,also dated IT: "The date and the earlystyleof this
whosename
the magistrate
makeit quiteimpossibleto identify
cistophorus
it bearswithC#ASIN#C#F
(Gallus),ProconsulofAsia in b.c. 6-5."
28ANS-ETN 12.53f.
24ANS 12.11f.
25The Thraciantetradrachms
dated after146b.c., but this
are traditionally
to place the
whoprefers
beenquestionedby M. Thompson,
date has recently
of the Heraclesseriesa fewdecadesearlier{ANSMN 12 [1966],
beginning
p. 61 and note4; cf. G. Le Riderin Guidede Thasos[Paris,1968],p. 190).
ruleout the
does not unequivocally
The evidenceof the Ephesianoverstrike
but it rendersit exceedingly
traditionalchronology,
unlikely.My die study

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OF EPHESUS

31

cistophori attest to an elaborate process of restrikingat the mints
of Ephesus and Tralles, for the Attic weight pieces were apparently
heated and trimmedto approximate the size and weight of a cistophoric flan before being struck with new dies. Why this costly
operation was preferredto outrightmeltingand restrikingcannot be
determined.
A fourthexample of overstrikingwas already known to Pinder26
and is now in Berlin. The cistophorus is a didrachm of Tralles
weighing6.20 grams; the undertype is a Rhodian didrachm with a
facing Helios head, usually ascribed to the period before 189 B.c.
In this case, the overstruckpiece was not trimmed,and its unaltered
flan has been used as evidence for the compatability of the two
weight standards.27
The question of compatability is, however, quite differentfrom
that of acceptability. The four cistophori are all struck over fairly
recent,fullylegible foreignpieces. Whether or not the value of these
coins could be easily converted into cistophoric denominations,the
fact that restrikingwas carried out indicates that the Macedonian,
Thasian and Rhodian pieces were not legal tender at Ephesus or
Tralles.28 The earlier regnal coinage of Pergamům is frequently
foundwithotherAttic weightpieces fromcities as faraway as Athens,
and the Philetaerus types were oftenhoarded in Syria.29By contrast,
cistophori are rarely found outside Attalid territoryand hoards of
of the earlycistophori
in questionoughtto be
suggeststhatthe cistophorus
datedabout 145b.c. It is highlyimprobable
thattheundertype
is a Thracian
tetradrachm
oftheveryearliestvarietywhichhad beenbroughtto Ephesus
fromThasosand restruck
in theveryyearit enteredintocirculation.
Enough
is visibleoftheThracianundertype
thata systematic
withother
comparison
Thasianpiecesmightlead to an identification
of the dies. If theissue marks
werefoundto be ratherlate in the series,as seemslikely,Miss Thompson's
wouldbe confirmed
and the Thasian chronology
suggestion
placed on firm
ground.
26Pinder,"Cistophoren,"
p. 551,pl. I, 16.
27See note2 above.
28At a laterdate,eventhe Atticweightpiecesof
nearbyPamphyliahad to
be countermarked
to insuretheiracceptability.
R. Mowat,RN 1906,p. 291;
Mowat,CorollaNumismatica
(Oxford,
1906),pp. 189-207;S. P. Noe,ANSMN 6
(1954).pp-85f.
29The hoards of Philetaeruscoins are discussedin U. Westermark,
Das
Bildnisdes Philetairos
von Pergamon(Stockholm,i960), withbibliography.

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32

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cistophori almost always exclude pieces of any other weight standard.30 Actual exchanges of cistophori for Attic or Rhodian funds
must have been restrictedto international frontiers.Those foreign
pieces which reached cities where cistophoric mints were located
were apparently melted down and restruck. If it was the intention
of Eumenes II in creating the cistophorus to make the new coins
the only form of money valid for commercial transactions within
Attalid territory,he was highlysuccessful.
80The area of circulation
has beenmostrecentlydiscussed
of the cistophori
on earlierbibliography.
by H. Seyrig,RN 1963,pp. 25-26,withcommentary
What is so peculiarabout the cistophori
is that theyrarelyleftthe area in
to believethatany Attaliddecree
whichtheywerestruck.It is verydifficult
would have preventeda foreignmerchantfromacceptingcistophorias
silverequal in bullion
paymentifhisclientprovidedan amountofcistophoric
were
value to the askingpricein anothercurrency.
Yet such transactions
rare,especiallypriorto 128. Onlyone explanationas to whythe
apparently
cistophoritendedto remainat home appearsprobable.The Attalidsilver
than outsideit.
musthave had a highervalue withinPergameneterritory
of
Some degreeof overvaluationmustbe postulatedor else the flexibility
the cistophoricweightstandardwould have encouragedratherthan discouragedexportofthesecoins.

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XI

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

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XII

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

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XIII

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

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XIV

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

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XV

DATED

CISTOPHORI

OF EPHESUS

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