rtrrcl I lashing

A datat-rasc incicx is n clata s1r'uclurc that inrprovcs tltc spccd ol'data rctrieval opclations on
databersc tablc at thc cost ol'slowcr writes ancl thc use of'more storage space.


llasic Concepts
only a srlall proportion of thc rccorcls in a ljlc. Ior cxanrplc, a clLicrv
all accounts at thc Pcrryriclgc bruulch" or "Find the balance o1'account nrrurbcr;\l()1" rclbrcnccs only u fl'lction ol'the accr'rlu-rt rccorcls. It is iucl'l'lcicnt tbr thc s1'stcil to rcatl
cvcr\/ r'ccol'cl lrnrl io cltccli l,lrc hrttttclt-uutna llclcl lirr llic nr.rntc "l)cn1,1'l1ga," or tltc (iL'(()tt)t'tttrntber llcld lbr thc value A-101. lclcally. tltc syslenr should be ablc to iocatc thcsc rcc()r'ds
clircctlr,. 'l'o allow thcsc lornrs 01'ac:ccss, we design adclitional structurcs that u'c .rssocirtc
u'ith filcs^
N4auv clucrics rclcrcncc

lil<c "Fincl

An inclcx lbr a lllc in a databasc systcu worlis in muc,h thc sarnc way as thc irrdcx in this
tcxtbooh. ll-lvc r.vant to lcarn about a 1-rarticular topic, wc cern scarch Ibr thc topic in thc inclcx
at 1hc back of tirc book. llnd thc pagcs rvhcre it occurs, and then read the pagcs to find lhc
inlbrrnation we arc looking lbr. The words in the indcx are in sorted ordcr, making ii casv lo
llncl thc r,vorcl w'c arc loolting {ilr. N4orcovcr. i}rc inclcx is uruch smaller ihan thc br-rok. lurtirur'
lcclucing thc cllbrt necclccl to lhcl thc ivorcls we arc looking lbr.
l)atabase systcrr indiccs play the saure roie as boolt indices or card catalogs in libraries. I;or
cxirrrilllc. to rctricvc Lu1 (tccorutl rccorcl givcn thc account numbcr, thc databasc s),slcirl rvoi,rlrl
l,'.'k u:'r.ur ittJcr io linil e'n nirich ciisli block thc corrcsponding rccord resiclcs. and llrcn lcteh
tirc .iisk biock. to gct Lltc uccottttl rccold.
Kccping a soltccl list ol-accoLtttt numbcrs woulcl not worl< wcll on vcry lalgc databa:;cs vuith
nrillions ol'uccounts, sitrcc 1hc inclcx rvoulcl itsclf bc vcry big; Iirrthcr cvcn thoLigh l<ccprng
thc inclcx .sortcd lccluccs thc scurch tinrc, Ihcling an accoLrnt can still bc rathcr tintcconsunriug. lnstcacl. nrorc sopiristicaicd indcxing techniclucs rnay bc used.

'l'vJrcs ol' I ndice s
'l'lrcrc arc two basic kinds of indices:


Ordcrctl Indiccs: Ilascd on a sortcd orclering of the values.
Ilash Incliccs. IJascd on a unilbmr dislribution of vallies across a rangc o1' bucl<cts.
'l'ire bucket
1o lvhich a value is assignecl is cietermincd by a fi"inction, cailccl a hu,th
Ittnc'l iott.

llvalu atio n I,'acto rs/Criteria
atc scvcral tcchniclr-rcs lbl both olcicrccl inclcxing and hashing.No ot-tc tccltniclrrc is ihc
cach tccl-uricluc is bcst suitecl to particr,rlar databasc applications. Earch tcchniciuc
musl bc evaluatccl on thc basis ol'1hc lbllou,'ing lactors:
. Acccss t)'pcs: '['hc typcs o['acccss that are suprportccl clliciently. .A.cccss t,yl]cs ciu']
inch-rdc linding lccords with a specilicd attribute valuc and fir-rding rccords r.r'hosc
attribLrlc values fall in a spccilicd range.
. r\cccss timc: The timc it takcs to find a particular data itern, or set of itcnrs. Lrsing thc
tcclrniquc in qLrcstioti.

. Spacc ovcrhcad: l'hc additional space occupied by an index structure. it is usuaily worthwhilc to saclilrcc thc spauc tr.'l'his valuc inclLrdcs thc tirre rl takcs to llnd thc itcm to be elelctcd.rr A-217 Dcrtr'rt Lolr'tt Nli. Scarch l(cy' An attribr-rtc or sct ol'attributcs uscd to look up rccords in a file is called a scarch licy.' tiurc it tulics to ljrtl thc corlcct place trl iuscrt tlrc ncw clata itcn-r.r'rr 600 A.'l'his vrlrrc inclrr'.Inscrtion timc: 'l'lrc tirnc il lalics to iuscrl n ncrv dala itcrl. An ordered index storcs the valr. prin'rarv iirelcx is an inclcx rvhosc scalch kc1'also dcllncs'rhe scc'. Ortlcrcd Intliccs 'l'o gliin litst mnilttur access lo lccorrls in a lilc. a clcrrsc primary inclcx.r'ooil Rotrrrtl Hill -= t\ \- qer Hill 754 l) 701) 350 Irig.i:r.vith that scarch-key value" To locate a record.l achicvc intprovcd pcrlbrtttarrce .'.:c:r:j.ooc{ A-305 l(otrncl Briglr tt.le: iir. wc can Lrsc aln inclcx structLrrc. sincc.e Rerl t. l'rilnarl' (clustcrcd) Iurlcx: i1' thc lrlc containing thc t'ccords is sc. Dclction tinrc: 'l'hc tiurc it talics to clclctc a clata itcm. l: Dcuse Index Sparsc Intlcx: An inclcx recorcl appeal's lbr only sonte ol'thc scarch-kcy valLrcs. - t\\o tvpcs of ordcrcd indiccs iirilt rre can usc: I)cnse lndex: r\n index record appears tbr evcry search-key value in thc trlc.luer'. and associatcs with eacir scarch key tl-re rccords that contairr it. I:ach index rccord contains a search-key value and a pointer 1o the first data rccord r.trtrrs Prrl r'\r ri cl .100 A-201 Pelrvricl qe c)00 A-218 Pen'vrirl 700 A-222 iledu.'l-hc rcsl ol'thc rccorCs with tlrc sarll scarch licy-r'aluc lvould bc storcd scqLrcntially al'tcr thc lllst lccorcl. Providcd that thc arnount cll. A lilc may have several indices. bccrLrse llic indcx is a primary onc. as well as the tirnc it takes to updatc thc incicx stnrctuLc.rcs o1'thc scarch keys in solted ordcr.:l c::--: l'ritrarv inclices arc also callcd clrrstcrius itidiccs. tl-rc inclcx rccorcl contains thc scarch-l<cy valuc ancl u pointer tcr thc llrst clata rccord with that scarch-l<cy valuc.aclclitional spacc is rnodcratc.'15 N. rccords arc sortcd on the samc scarch kcl'. we find the indcx entry with the largcst scarch-key value that is less tl-ian or equal 1o the scarcli-key valuc ior which \vc arc . ljacir inclcx slnrctlrrc is associittccl rvith a particular scarch key. on dilkrent scarch keys. as wcll us tlre tirirc il tal<es to uptlate 1hc inclcx strurcturc.rl 500 A-110 f)ctlrrrt tot. in l-hcrc arc . A-t0l Blich ti)rr f)ori'n torr.'[iarti-rs 700 A-102 Perlyricl ger .

Using tiiis sparsc indcx. fhus..looking. a good compromise is to have a sparse index with one index entry per block.-'i. thc tirlc 1o scan thc cntirc block is ncgligible. The rcason this dcsign is a good trade-off is tl"rat the dominant cost in processing a database reqllcst is thc tinrc that it tahes to bring a block liom clisi< into main memory.c lnttl thc tlcsil'ctl rccol'tl. .girtori lJtighton Vliantrs I-)or.vhilc kceping tl-re size of thc index as small as possiblc.'*.. and lbllow thc poinlcrs in llrc fllc tnttil n.i.r'c Iocatc thc block coirtaining thc rccord that we arc sccking.. Incliccs at nlI lcvcls lt. r. sparsc indiccs havc advantagcs over dcnse indiccs in that they rcqr-rire lcss spacc and they impose less maintenance ovcrhcad lbr insertions ancl delctions.. rve minimizc block accesscs r. and so on..r'niLrlvn Redt".ll evcn ollter inclex is too large to fit in main memory.tust bc upc'latccl ott inscrtioti ttr dcletion liorn thc filc.ri.Solution: treert printary indcx kcpt on disk as a sequenlial file and constrlrct a spi-rrsc indcx or-r il.If primary indcx does not l'rt in merlory. access bccot-ucs cxpctrsive.\'n lVlianrLs Pcrryrirlge Pcrrvri.-ci-'io.:. yet auothel level ol'itlclcx catl bc clcatcd.rrood L)o\v'nlo\. . unless the recorcl is on an ovcrllow block. lSri.{ I{ill Irig.thc prirlary indcx lilc .ige Penyridge A-222 | liercln'oor{ Iioum. this tradc-o11 depcnds ott thc sltccil-ic apllliclrttorl. Once rve ltavc brought in the block..:" . 2: Sparsc lncicx Comparison: It is generaily i'astcr 1o locate a rccord if we l-ravc a dense index rather than a sparsc incicx..:::. ' outcr inclcx -. I lowcvcr.r icgardin-u.it sllarso irrdcx of prin-raly indcx ' inncr inclcx .:i. N{ulti-Lcvcl Indiccs .'. 'l-hclc is a lraclc-olf that tl-ie systcr-r-r dcsigner uust n-iakc bctwcen acccss timc and spacc . We start at tlic t'ccord pointcd to by that indcx entry.

lrig. :rncl ri Sccoutial.or vcry largc lilcs.000 ipclcx lccolds. If indcx is too largc to bc kcpt in urain lllemor)-. l:vcn ilwc can ilt 100 index records pcr bloclt.ittr. Incliccs must be qrdateel at all lcvcls when insertions or deletions rcquire it. rccorcls witl.i I 1"1 l-)l()cl( | Irig. lf it sccondary indcx stores only some of thc scaruir-kc} valucs.this rs 100 blocks. iptclnccliatc scarch*kcy valttes miry bc auyrvhcrc in thc lllc anci' irl gcn. 3: scconclary indcx on uccout'tl tlle . 10 per block. at one index record per block. Frcqucntly.1. or noti-clustcring indiccs.y incliccs grust lrc clcnsc rvith au inclex entry for every search-ke1' r'air-te' poiltcr to cvcl. on non-candidate key balunce .000 Lecords. aciditional lcvcls of indcxitlg tnay bc recluircd. (. a t a l. Sccr-rpdarl'(nt1n-clustcrcd) Indcx: Incliccs rvhose scarch kcy spccifies an ordcr clil'fcrcnt lionr t6c scqucntial orrleL o1'the lilc arc callcd sccondary indiccs. a search rcsults in scicrli disk rcatls. 3: Multilevel Index An Exaltplc: Colsider 100.lcr' Lrltrc"l. we cannot llnd thern without scarching the cntire 1lle. cach lcvcl ol inclcx corrcspclttds 1o it unit ol'physical storagc.y rccorrl in thc lile .:ral. tSat's 10.

-lucrics tirat use licys tltircr thau thc Sccondary incliccs ir-nprovc thc fcrtoullrnce ovcrhcad ot-t l-toweve'..T::*c. poi't t''itrst a ca'cliclatc kcy' it is not crroug'to n. by to 'ot rcc.". 'r'heretbrc oniy some or.ny*ir. 2: Sirrce irrdices as possiblc' l..nprouccl less b. ir.rrt or. i". irr.cls poi'tcd clitlc'cnt structltrc 1i'o'r prit'ary i.thc sc*r. livcry ir-rdex rcquircs aciditional?PU tin.-kcy rccorcls arc orclcrcd by t'c scarch thc '1't'c rirt..H:ii:f:ili.u l|ir.:i-.."-i" tl-. rn gcrcral' thc incrsx arc in valucs succcssi'c..rocessitrg..icvs.ir* iy rhc r. .r".t.f* hic is small cotnparcd the ililS\\ searclr why might thcy not be kcpt on sevcral p.ry indiccs utity llt'c a howcvcr. kcy rhc rrrst rccord witrr cacrr scar...1"1l i" primary'index orclcr is efficient . i. ar-icl niodi lications' lllc' the secluential orcler of the daia itt.rvc to bc c'*rgccl o' *pdarcs' e'l1cicrrcv migrrt *o'| bc il *:':.y i'cicx on zr ca'clicratc kcy siorcd seclucntiany. .r scirt'ch licys? tixplain your 1o irave t\'vo prlmal" possiblc not is it gcucral. thc e.^l.clcr. 'ortn" tn. thcy ir-npose a. ii.lii'ic'crrt Ansrvcr: ln tuplcs are to bc storcd in dil'ferent kcys. orclcr o'r c.ir-rdcx' cxccirt 1'41 t'c rooks ir-rst rirtc a crcnsc primary A sccondar. clil-lcrcnr scarch l<cYs..an*cstimarc of the rslalive frequcncy 'rodil-rcatio' i'cliccs arc clcsirerblc o' rhc uori.-'nir-ri'g rccorcrs witrr the sarrre se'rch-kc1' I. . . iiillJitl.l.r.ittg darabasc cxisi' incliccs whcn many incliccs aircacly on trrc sarnc rclatio'lbr dii'lc'cnt gc'crar to havc trvo prinrary i'criccs elnswcr'. Whcn iit.ot.". When ifr" itf.^a. rh.cys? List as mally reasolls scvcral scarch inciiccs includc: inscrts ancl Ansu'er: llcasons {br not kceping and clisk i/o overhcacl cluring i..o'-'ri'ra'y *eys migrir ir. have i'diccs baci cvcn if pcrlbrmnnc. .signit-rcant ina". i.lr. primary thc oi licy scarch dccidcs which secondriry of thc clatabasc.ablctOtlScl"iclct-tscit-rclcxralhcrtlranasl]ilrscirrdcx?Iixp1ltirrl.THJ:il. qllefy specd Q. .tt. is not sortcd on the index toficld' sizc of metnory' ii. tlcca. r arc orclcr as the iudex orcler' storcd physically ir-r the satnc of .diccs' sccond. detlsc itrdcx: Ansrvcr: it is orcl'crablc to usc a or i.v i'dices on the sanre rclation l. valuc co*lcl a sccondarv 'inct inclex"fhercfbrc' secotrdary i'clex..:::i:JTHi:l. rr.l: \\'hcn is itpr.crr kcy uui. prinrary inclcx is on tl-re fieid whic'h speciiies many sccondarY indices' 'l'hcrc cari be only one primary index wirilc therc can be Q.3: Is it possiblc i. .u'"rtittf to ali thc rccorcis' iuCcx tnust colltaln poiutcrs 'rimary Complrison (Prinrary vs' Sccondnry): because records in the tlie r A seclucntial .i.. rurit.y. on the'-r.rig"er-of a databasc or qiicrics oi.t is i'clcx scconcrary or.r.

.2.tunl filc (n-3) arrd tlrc scarch l<ey is brunch-nante.. l"or leaf nodes.rmbcr o{'pointcls in a nodc is callcd thc lanout ol'thc noclc. .i. It contains up Lo tt . . The structr. A lealtrodc o['a I]-F{rco lor Lhe trccr. bctr. and n pointcrs I't..tre of nonieaf nodes is the same as tirat ibL leal' nocics.P.ith scar-ch-kcy valLrc 1(i.lrrouug t ' " thc clata. A typical nodc o1'er B't--trcc is shorvq bcic. there are no other nodes in Lhe rrcc). 'l'lrc search-licys rn a node ale ordercd: Kr < Kz< Kt'-.rclur. A IJ-t-trcc inclex is a multilcr. . .- E Ii t-1't.rLIlll tiir' fig. n . [rz. it has at lcast 2 children. lbr l: \.vccn l(n-_t tlZl ancl n*1 valucs Spccial cascs: .cn.'l't-l ovcr comc this clclicicncy. If 1hc root is not a lcaf.rv. A ttonlcal'nodc tlay hold up to u pointcrs. ." Intlcx llilcs 'l'ltc tttltitl''tlislttlvlttt{agc ol' tltc itttlcx-scrlLrential Illc organizatiop is thlrt pctlsiiitilllcc ' dcgradcs as the lile grorvs. a a Sincc tlrc account lllc is ordcrcd by branch-nume. ' llach nclclc that is rrot a root or a lcral'iras bcrwcen [n/21and n chilclt. wc Llsc a rJ'-trcc indcx. A typical node of a B*-tree r . . pointer Pi points to either a 1llc recor'd rvith seat'ch-key valuc Ki or to a bucket of pointels. t 11'1he root is a ieaf (that is. A lcal'noclc lus .I scarch-kcy valucs Kt. except lhat all pointcls arc pointcrs to trcc nocles.. . and lnust itolci at least [ni2l pointcrs. it cln l nyc bctrvecn 0 and (n-1) valucs.rttorvn i ttorlt' Briglilcirr A-101 Dotr. the pointcrs in thc lcaf noclc poirit diLcctly to 1hc Iilc. 'l'hc noulcai noclcs of the ll'l--tree l'orin amultilcvcl (sparsc) index on thc lcal'noel*. Brigirton ir'.i'. Irig. t . n r .cs tha'r ttraitltain thcir clllcicncy rlcspitc inscrtiou and clclctiol of clat1.cl indcx. Kz.t Don. < K. . Dotvrttorr'rr Jqa. 'fhc Il*-trcc indcx structure is thc rnost widcly uscd of scvcral incicx sLrr. 'l'his is a bahnccd trcc in which cvsry path fiom the root ol the trcc to a lcal'ol'tfic trcc is i:f thc serurc lcngth..which poinls to a lllc rccorcl 1 u. 'l'hc nr.ttIoir.Kr-t. each of . . both lbr index lookups ancl for sequcntial scans r.

lbr t'hc lbllowirlg scl trf licY valucs: Q.Construct Assuurc that the trcc is initially "*p. i. 19. 3. iii Ansrve i.31) ancl values arc adclecl in ascending order'. Four Six Digltt r: For order 4 (n=4) 19 \-1\ 5 2 ii.l: Consttuct a Ll-l--trcc (2.nib. 3 r l:or ordcr 6 (n:6) 5 \t 7 11 29 rfl \ 19 LJ 29 JI . 5. 11()clc clttt lroltl lcrvcl'tlurrr In/?-l l"roitrlct's" lltlrvcvr"'r' il nrttst ltoltl lt lr"rtst lrltr poilltcrs. . 29.'l'hc r()(it . 17. ii.7.i of pointcrs that will fit in onc rroclc is as Ibllows: lJ t-trccs lbr thc cilscs whcrc thc nr'. 1 1..23.

.. Thus' it is neccssar)' to vaiues 'l-hcsc search-kcy allows B-tree A ibr .r.'rcal' n'clc' irclr. Atlr':tttt:tgcs of l]-'l'rcc indiccs: r.solan-otrtisledr.Non.s r $l* sitlliltlr 1o i]-i'-1rce rAg..ibl' ro ll'cl scarch-key value belore reachi'g le af node' Disnclvantages of I]-'I'rcc indiccs . tirus '"tit'ti'-tg 'ocles hcld in these nodcs..flrus..rdJ.b resPcctivelY' trcc In uonleaf nodes' the pointers P1 arc thc [.y ir a r. .. n r ..i.. to appear ouly once'.c .oachcs i.t...rced. r colllplicarccl tltarr irr 13'-'flccs..c usccl also lbr B+ -trcc'. lrr-rplcmentation is harclcr thau llo-'frccs' lnscltion ilncl clclction r110r.I hcys in thc nonlcaf cirn bc thitt thc nr'r'rber of searclt ltcys must incluclc pointcrs l).oli.r . leaf node' * the figure' tliere arc n 1 keys in the i' g*.I ree' r Sor'crim. t5c 11 pointcrs. .. incliees"l'h* pt'irni:Li" g{illliliglieiu hcl storagc o1'scarch*ltey valLrcs' . ij-rr*.lt'.r .'. .n. This ciiscrcirancy occitrs-bccaruc but therc atc u1..lcal.or.. Only small fraction of ail scarch-kc'v values are found early' : ...B-Treestypicallyhar'egreater flcc clcpth thtlu corrcslloncling IJ'- .tt' tfic rcclundant appr.< . lronlcal' n.rJir*all-rr.*l.' t.rcrc a' aclcritioral pointcr lrcld search key' records or buckets for the associated til.* xri l":\€cr tlc ttr.. Moy rtsc less trce noclcs tl-ran a cort'cspoudlllg lJ .ll'ilcs .eaf nocles arc the surmc as iu Bl--trees' filc-rccold or *ftlit the pointers Bi aie buckct poi'tcrs that q.. to poi't pointers additionai li-'l'rcc Intlcx o 1]-ilce inelicr.i.f in-.r."dl]-troclcafnoclcatrclancln-lcafnoclcappcariirllig..aandllig. . .nodesarelarger..

lf thc scarch-kcy value o1'thc rccord rccorcl. . tircn searQh tire corresportding btrckct dclcle thc rccord li'om tire bucket' .tcicx illlorv Lrs structure to locaic data. we colnpute h(l(i). Six iii.Slncc'we doiot linow at design tirne prcciseiy r.cc is initially cnipty ancl valucs arc addcci iu zrscencling is as lbllorvs: nodc rvill onc llt in I] t-trccs lbr t5c cascs whcLc thc nunibcr ol'pointcrs lltat i. 11. thctl scarch /(z' havc thc satttc tirc buckct rvith thai acich'css. 19. h(Ks) h(i<) If wc pcrform a lookup on Ks. valLrcs Kr' contains records with search-kcy valucs K5 and records with seaichkey to Vcrily' bucket the in "l'6us./ of licy valttes: Q. File orgar-rizations based on the technique of hashing to ar. For orcicr 4 (n:4) l[:rshing . and let B denote the set of all bucket a hash lr-rnctiorr' adclrcsscs. we obtain the adcircss of the disk block" also calicd thc buckct containing a desired rccorcl directly by computing a function on the scarch-kc-vvaluc ol'thc rccord. lrour ii. A hash function /z is a tlnction from I{to B. Ks ernd tiic bLrckct h(/(s) : hash valr. 29. Ilashing also provides a way of constrLrctitig :.. that is. . 23. 17.vhich search-kcy values will bc storcd i.-.rckct lbr that rccorcl. Cotrstruct Assumc that thc tr. which gives thc aclcircss ol' to storc thc br. Ilight Artsu'cl': i. Assumc I'or now thal thcrc is spllcc in the bucket titc rccord. 3. we iravc to chcck 1hc search-key value of every iecord that thc rccord is cltlc that wc u':rut' to bc clclctccl Dclctiop is ccprally slraiglrtibnvalci. 5.oicl acccssipg ap incicx stmcttue. 31) ordcr.| IIIUiLLJ. 7. Suprposc lhat two scarolt kcys.irile organizations based on hashing allow us to find the address of a data item directly by coniputing a fur-rctiol.. wc sirrrply cottrputc h(Ki).. a good hash liinction to choose is onc that assigns scarch-kcy valucs to buckcts such that thc distribrition is both uniform and random' I Iash - - - lrilc Organization In a hash file organization.' thc file. Let ft denote 'l'o inscrt a record with scarch kcy Ki. I'hcn.t it. we colnpute h(Ki). thc rccot'tl is storcd irl that buckct' 'l'o pcrtbmr a lookup on a scaLch-kcy valuc Ki. Lct K clenore the set of all scarch-kcy values.l ou thc search-key value of the desircd record. tttrcl that fbr is Kl. 5: ConstrLlcl a lJ-trcc lbr the lbilowing sct (2.rc.O1e clisadvaltagc of scqucntial lile organization is that wc must usc ett.

rvith ht'LItlcli-ti.SUpposc \vc havc 2(r bucltcts anci wc clclinc a hash ftlnction that rtlaps the ithbucliet' beginning withthc ith lctrcr o1'thc alphabet 1o . a bucket oYcrl'lurr is salJ to fbr two reasons: occLlr.'.rc' of simplicily. Multiplc rccords uray havc thc satrle scarch kcY.-t i\rl [rl)r kct I i0 .l irlto thc ovct'llow bucket' thc ovcrllorv br:ckct is also l'ull' thc systcur brckerr[::] -l . 11 a record lnust be inserted '[_-]-[--_j--'l into a bucket b. wc considcr l0br-ickctsandalrashllrrctionthatconrpritestlreslttl-to1. llaslr crr.osc]i hlsh lirnction iirr tlic accoi.-ig.l. - lnstcad. so a bllckct may Sligv. sl<crv. i Lu.rclX. clcnotcs the total nunbcr of rcgords that will fit in a buckct' otirers. o1' scarrch ii."oor.et 9 butlet { fuiirocd l -1 1og as tlrc kcr l. and b is alrcacly lull' the rrvulilrr\r' llLtt kct: and brrcke t b' lbr br-rckct ovcrilow an provides systc. firc number of buckets n3 flLlst i.lcnotcs tlic numbcr of recorcis that will be storccl an(l f r . buclet buc!. Skcrv call occllf 1'or trvcl rclr$olls: i.Ilxarnplc of hash lilcs orgitnizatiolt .ttlia llandling of Buclict Ovcrflo'tvs cr]ough Iu case ol inscrtion. Perrurdz* r0( Pernr:d:e For branch naurc 'I{ottnd l{ill' : Buckct no:ft(ltor-rnc1 I{iil) 3 Irol braucit ttamc 'llrightou' Ilurcltct no'-'ft(liriglttotl)'= 3 iTJCI ! buc}er 6 bucLet i Ir. wlicre r?.. but to bcgin rvith strch lcttcrs rls 1l ancl It distr..tne key.-tet -1 m buci. 'fhe chosen hash iunctioll rnay resuit in non-unilonn distribittion keys. Bucket overllow can occllr lnainly bc chosen such thal fl11 z n7f" Insufficicnt bucl<cts.. . lrut:kt:t.ibr-rti. if the buckct docs not havc space. thcn returns the sttni nrodulo thc binarY rePlcscntations oi tirc characters of a ttumbcr o1'bucltcts.l. si'cc wc cxllcct urolc branch nanrcs than Q ar.his it litils to piovidc a Lrnilirml hash liructiou has t5c virtr. I ':. Wc linrtillc bucliet ovcrllow by u'ing [:: LrrcLer ovcrllow buckcts.ct us ch. Sourc br-rckets are assigned morc rccorcls than are Ti'ris situation is callcd btrckct ovcrllow evcn whcu othcr burckets still havc spaicc.ganizatioit of trc'"0urtt tllc..--.rnt tilc Lrsing thc scarch kcy branch--llalll(:' ni]l'n(rs .er 0 lior brauch namc 'PcrrYriclgc' : Iluckct ut-r:/t(Pcrlyridgc) 5 5 Perqrrdle A-lcl 9!JL.l If inscrts il-tc .

lbr thc scarch kcy ctccottttt-number' I Iasirir-rg r11s[1't ll Br iglt ttrrr A-l lr) f)otvtttolvtt Dot\'tlt()\\'li P.i. l'iash index on scarch kcy 11 . hash filc structurc' hash function on et search kcy to we construct a l.. Ovcrllorv hanclling ttsing srtch a lirlkccl e haitrccl togcthcr in a-tinltcd chaiuing. lndices only lbr l'rle organizati on..^. A l-rash i'clcx org. and store tl-.ti-rcsystctninsertsrccordsinoverflor'vbuckets' .irl.' A- lt)l lirrtrntl l-l rll dccount-nunlber of account hle I. We apply a pointers in thc bucket (or in idcntili.rhi'g ovcrl'low btrckcts also)' -lfbuckctirltlt. All lhc ovcr[]<lrl' lrtrcl<cls ovt:rllor.n.riish index as lbllows.^* bc -.^ witrr thci'associatccl poi'tci's' i'to crciiti.*ar"h k*eys.a buckct."y ancl its associated hash index otr thc uccttttttl o'crllo* U".. but also 1br inclcx-structurca not n.'ig. Follo* i'g ligriic sirou's a seco'dary lllc.r' uscci .OPcn liashing [rtrckct is lirll' - Ilash - - Placcs hcys with samc lrirsir l-unction valucs in dil'l'crcr-rt br"rcl<ct il' a chain Sct o1'buckets is {lxcd there is no overllow Delelion is dillicult in opcr-i hashing.."-i.d tll' lt 1r'ivcll l'rttt'iit't ltt't' hrrcl<ct' lttltl st'r rln.v llr()vi(lcs tist is callcd ovcrllow list.tr call r. illl()1 hcr Dill'crcncc bctwecn opcn alttl closcd hashing: ckrscd varues in same buoket (in always places keys with same hash f-uncrion iillili.rlizcs th" .Diil'ercnt buckets cerri be oi difl'ercnt sizcs' - Ovcrllolv bucltcts arc iitrliccl togcthcr' 0pcn hirshing: .: rryrid gt' Pct-rvriclg.

..rrc liasrr thc crigits rl-rc br-rckcts has ovcrllow buckct' thrcc kcys mappccl to it. onc of nroduro 7".or r.cco.l.hclash indcx l._ orthc-.r.trrc su'rof cac'of size-z. in t'c rigLrrc co'r'utcs. so it has an t') F .u"ir-buckcts. .t'u'r'c' lirnctio.