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Facultatea de Sociologie şi Asistenţă Socială

Sociologie (Seria 2 Avansati 2)

ASYLUMS
THE MORAL CAREER OF THE MENTAL PATIENT

Prof. Coordonator: Claudia Ghișoiu
Student: Vasile Ana-Maria Alexandra

Universitatea Bucureşti
Anul 2016

The book is very well structured in four essays that talks about: I. cut off from the wider community for a considerable time1. „The Characteristics of Total Institutions” . and in many cases people who suffer for mental illness become more troubled and sick.Ervin Goffman’s book. Greenwood Publishing Group. sometimes work where a great number of similarly situated people . phases that a person became a patient and loose the connection with the his social life.This institution is divided in two section: the people who need to be separated from the society and the people who mantain order in the institution and have the power. The term total institution is a place of residence. Hospital” „ The Medical Model and Mental Hospitalization: Some notes on the Vicissitudes of the Tinkering Trades” The total institution can be classified on five main categories: 1 Frank. if this posibility was still available. Asylums: Essays of the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates talks about the total institution in America. with some issues in order to reabilitate them and if this is not possible anymore. The II.This capther talks about how a total institution can enter in a person life and how some total institutions works. the staff control the life of inmates in the institute. Goffman studies is based of certain accounts and observations in many mental hospitals. „The Underlife of a Public Institution: A Study of Ways of Making Out in a Mental IV. because they developed some deviant behaviors. in this case. asylums from America in the 60’s. The paradox of aging in place in assisted living. majority of this institutions abused their patients and degrade their life. In Goffman’s point of view a mental institution is very similar with another institution who in fact gather several people. „The Moral Career of the Mental Patient” – The second chapter talks about the like of a patient in a total institution like a mental hospital or an asylums and why are the III.The sujbect of the book is a painful true and it shows that many people who are forced or just stuck in some kind of institute dosen’t have a chance of life anymore. 44 . p. Jacquelyn (2002).

Assylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patiens and Other Inmates. In this area of institutions are: asylums or orphanages. concentrations camps or war camps intended to protect the society.127 . p. The chapter begins with the term career who is used in this context to show how a mental ill can be read like a straight profession. I chose to talk about „The Moral Career of the Mental Pacient” because this part of the book is in my oppinion the one who focus on the people who arrive to live in a mental hospitall. juridical matters and style of life „and is part of a publicly accessible 2. The secons side talks about the official position. Sanatoriums or hospitals for mental healtth for example. Goffman. prisons. however.1) Institutions designed to take care innocent people who can not take care of themselves because they are old or have some disabilities an no one to help them. Ervin (1961). 4) Institution that allow different activities for the good of society like schools and boarding schools. 2) Institution for people who take care of people that are a danger for society and can be controlled because they have some psychosis. First side is the career that follow things that the human keeps inside of him. how much influence has this institution it institution for the ill ones and if the people are actually helped in here. „The term (career) is coming to be used. These institution. Anchor Books. in a broadened sense to refer to any social strand of any person's course through life”2 Goffman talks about the concept of career in two-sidedness. two things very important and cherished by the human. 5) Institution that are fully committed to religion and preserve religious laws like monasteries. internal matters such as the image of himself and his indentity. 3) Institution for those people who can be a social danger and have discernment for their deeds.

Anchor Books. Ervin (1961).institutional complex”3. it’s just a normal attitude that every human would have it. „the ex-patient phase” but Goffman refferes in his book just the two phases.127 4 Goffman. The majority of pacients has a lack of carelessness because they don’t think they are ill and this is not the because of the mental illness. Many persons who became mental-hospital patient don’t get along with the diagnosis and don’t think this is just a tremendous mistake. p. 3 Goffman. in the side of human self (the personal matter) and in the side that targets the society where the human is living. I find very intersting while reading that the actually study has being very hard for the sociologists because every inpatient is a person instable in many ways and the observastion and taking notes it’s the only way to understand the fight between acceptance and refuse. p. „the inpatient phase” and the phase when the person is no longer in the hospital. Assylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patiens and Other Inmates. Ervin (1961). Many inpatients have been taking from their homes by police for example. The term of „mental patient” has an important way of understanding because it became important too late when the social life is already alterated and the person is cataloged sick or crazy and hospitalized. Assylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patiens and Other Inmates. Anchor Books. Many inpatiens need to be supported by their families and other need a „next-of-relation” how Goffman said. In conclusion we can see in both sides. the period when the person is actually in the mental hospital and lives here. Students who take notes in mental hospitals discover that the „sick behavior” everybody has once is hospitalied it caused by the social distance and the situation that the patient is in and is not „primarily a product of mental illness. Sometimes people with mental issues can be controlled outside of a mental hospital with drugs or shock but there are other situations when the person entered in the circle of mental hospitals.130 .”4 The career of the mental patient grows in three principal phases: the period before the person enter in the hospital system and this phase is called „the prepatient phase”. some inpatients were influenced by family and just a few inpatient realise the problem who need to get a special help.

6 The subject is very popular in the XII century because all the things Goffman observe in his work are the painful true and the power that a total institution has on the patients. Asylums is also a starting point of every study who talk about mental health and the social disorders.”7 5 Goffman. Raymond. as the two can never be divorced. he has been approaching. abused. At the beggining the prepation is very antisocial and wants to be alone like he tries to force things and not get the hospital authority to control him. Anchor Books.„First is the next-of-relation-the person whom the prepatient sees as the most available of those upon whom he should be able to depend most in times of trouble. „5 Other than next-of-relation is „the complainant” a person who convice the inpatient to go to a mental hospital for help. Most patients do not see themselves as inmates who are coerced. depersonalized. or abandoned. the hospital world as subjectively experienced by the pacient. betrayed. This phase lasts a few days or weeks but the inpatient begin to be more open to treatment and talk to other people just because next-of-relation pressed him with other people. Even the work of Goffman dates back to 60’s is on the of first sociological examination of the social situation of mental patiens. many writers and researchers have argued the perspective took by Goffman in his books an they said that Goffman was „exaggerated and overdrawn”. p. „Not all mental hospitals are total institutions or remotely resemble prisons or concentration camps. Ervin (1961). „the mediators” the sequence of agents and agencies that prepatient has in the progress of him in the hospital. Assylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patiens and Other Inmates.136 6 Weinstein. it transpires. And his generalizations about mental hospitals from one unrepresentative case study are suspect. in this instance the last to doubt his sanity and the first to have done everything to save him from the fate which. Goffman’s Aylums and the Social Situation of Mental Patients . Goffman's vision of mental hospitals without reference to the psychiatric problems of patients is actually quite myopic. like a counselor for example. Unfortunately. And last but not least and in my oppinion a very important people.

the staff tries to dehumanise them in order to control them better. The advantages that a few pacients has are things that every human need in their life and not to be given to the patients just because they have a good behaviour. contrary to what Goffman says. Pp. The family dosen’t know the struggle in a mental hospital and think their love ones is just crazy or sick and dosen’t understand that this type of life is for his own good and for a limited time of life.Weinstein says that the meaning of the term „ideal type” used by Goffman for organization is a Max Weber elaboration of the idea of bureaucracy and not all the mental hospitals has been so strict with the patients and things get to be a little more dramagtic in Goffman’s study. to play different games and take walks outside. Instead of a good life in a mental hospital that is 7 Weinstein. If an inmate try to escape from the power of the staff he is marginalized and the few advantages that he has are taken from him and the inmate is isolated from the rest of inmates. Goffman’s Aylums and the Social Situation of Mental Patients. in fact i think that if a patients or inmates. I understand that a mental hospital or another total institution like a asylum is a place when a person arrive just when they have serious issues with themselves or are a danger for the love ones and the strangers but I think the hard treatment and the abuse that is described in this book is no longer applied. like Goffman reffers to them are treated like objects. „Grob's analysis of the characteristics of institutional populations during the last century suggests that. Hastings Center Report(1977).Rediscovering Asylums: The Unhistorical History of the Mental Hospital.33-441 . pacients that behave good are given the chance to socialize more with other patients. Raymond. For example. In my oppinion the study Goffman takes in the 60’s it is not longer available with the institution these days.272 8 Grob. The majority of commitment proceedings originated within the family.”8 The treatments in the asylums and mental hospital are a way to desconsider the patinents. Gerald N. p. hospitals were not intended as instruments of social control. and those persons committed were seldom perceived as threats to society.

Goffman’s Aylums and the Social Situation of Mental Patients de pe site-ul http://orthomolecular. WEINSTEIN. The paradox of aging in place in assisted living. Rediscovering Asylums: The Unhistorical History of the Mental Hospital. BIBLIOGRAPHY GOFFMAN. (1961).org/library/jom/1982/pdf/1982-v11n04-p267. Greenwood Publishing Group. The Hastings Center Report. 7 . ora: 13:14 GROB. Anchor Books. JACQUELYN.01. (1977).Gerald N.trying to treat your mental illness. Assylums – Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients.2016. (2002). Raymond. the patiens are more anxious and depressive once they are enter in this vicious centre of the total institutions. Frank. Ervin.pdf accesat la data de 19. No.