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he use of nanotechnology in fiction has attracted scholarly attention.

[1][2][3][4] The first use of the
distinguishing concepts of nanotechnology was "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", a talk
given by physicist Richard Feynman in 1959. K. Eric Drexler's 1987 book Engines of
Creation introduced the general public to the concept of nanotechnology. Since then,
nanotechnology has been used frequently in a diverse range of fiction, often as a justification for
unusual or far-fetched occurrences featured inspeculative fiction.[5]

Literature[edit]
In 1881 the Russian writer Nikolai Leskov wrote The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the
Steel Flea, which included the concept of text that can be seen only through a microscope at
5,000,000 times magnification.[6]
In 1931, Boris Zhitkov wrote a short story called Microhands (Микроруки), where the narrator
builds for himself a pair of microscopicremote manipulators, and uses them for fine tasks like eye
surgery. When he attempts to build even smaller manipulators to be manipulated by the first pair,
the story goes into detail about the problem of regular materials behaving differently on a
microscopic scale.
In his 1956 short story The Next Tenants, Arthur C. Clarke describes tiny machines that operate
at the micrometre scale – although not strictly nanoscale (billionth of a meter), they are the first
fictional example of the concepts now associated with nanotechnology.
Stanislaw Lem's 1964 novel The Invincible involves the discovery of an artificial ecosystem of
minuscule robots, although like in Clarke's story they are larger than what is strictly meant by the
term 'nanotechnology'.
Robert Silverberg's 1969 short story How It Was when the Past Went Away describes
nanotechnology being used in the construction of stereo loudspeakers, with a thousand speakers
per inch.[5]
The 1984 novel Peace on Earth by Stanislaw Lem tells about small bacteria-sized nanorobots
looking as normal dust (developed by artificial intelligence placed by humans on the Moon in the
era of cold warfare) that has later came to Earth and are replicating, destroying all weapons,
modern technology and software, leaving living organisms (as there were no living organisms on
the Moon) intact.
The 1985 novel Blood Music by Greg Bear (originally a 1983 short story) features genetically
engineered white blood cells that eventually learn to manipulate matter on an atomic scale.
The 1991 novelization of Terminator 2: Judgment Day, authored by Randall Frakes, expands the
origin story of the T-1000 Terminator through the inclusion of a prologue set in the future. It is
explained that the T-1000 is a 'Nanomorph', that was created by Skynet, through the use of
programmable Nanotechnology. This was only implied in the film itself.

Neal Stephenson's 1995 novel The Diamond Age is set in a world where nanotechnology is commonplace. The Trinity Blood series features an alien nanomachine found on Mars which is present in the body of the protagonist. and self-assembling islands all exist. fabrication at the molecular scale. Nanobots (called Nanoes) are central to Stel Pavlou's novel Decipher (2001). . These nanomachines are known as Krusnik nanomachines. Abel Nighroad. and feed on the cells of vampires. Nanoscale warfare.