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Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918

Vertical and horizontal profiles of airborne particulate matter
near major roads in Macao, China
Ye Wua, Jiming Haoa,*, Lixin Fua, Zhishi Wangb, Uwa Tangb
a

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China
b
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macao, Macao, People’s Republic of China
Received 5 April 2002; accepted 28 June 2002

Abstract
Vertical profiles, horizontal profiles and size distribution of airborne particulate matter were measured near major
roads in Macao using DustTrak and TEOM monitors. A significant decrease in the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and
PM1, as the height above the ground increases from 2 to 79 m, was found. At the height of 79 m, the concentrations of
PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, decrease to about 60%, 62% and 80% of the maximum occurring at 2 m above the ground,
respectively. However, the horizontal profiles near another major road revealed there was no significant trend of
decrease in concentrations of particulate matter as the distance from the road increases. Over the total measured
distance (0–228 m), the maximum decreases of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 are only 7%, 9% and 10%, of the maximum
occurring at 2 m from the road, respectively. The daytime averaged PM2.5 and PM1 contribute 66–67% and 51–60%,
respectively, of the total PM10 mass after the particle readings by DustTrak were recalibrated by TEOM. It showed that
fine particles and submicrometer particles contributed a major part of PM10 at the roadside in Macao, which is most
likely attributed to the combinations of local sources including exhausted particulate matter from vehicles and
resuspended fine dust, and secondary particles (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) of regional scales.
r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: PM10; PM2.5; PM1; Vertical profile; Horizontal profile; Particle size distribution; Traffic

1. Introduction
Throughout the last 30 years, an increasing body of
research has consistently shown statistically significant
positive associations between ambient PM10 and daily
mortality counts and various indices of morbidity, and
these associations appear stronger for fine particles,
which are generally marked as PM2.5 (US EPA, 1996;
Vedal, 1997; IIASA, 2000a, b). Based on the totality of
evidence, many countries and international organizations issued air quality standards for airborne particulate matter to protect public health. PM10 and PM2.5
were introduced as a standard in the US in 1987 and
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-10-6278-2195; fax: +8610-6277-3650.
E-mail address: hjm-den@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn (J. Hao).

1997, respectively. The new EU directive 1999/30/EC of
22 April 1999 also gave limit values for PM10. Since
1996, there have been amendatory National Ambient
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in China for TSP and
PM10, and the second class of NAAQS, which pertain to
urban areas, do not permit ambient PM10 concentrations to exceed 100 mg m 3 for an annual arithmetic
average and 150 mg m 3 for a 24-hour average.
Particulate matter pollution in those districts near
major roads was often found to be more severe than
urban background since these districts are affected
directly by various important primary sources, which
are frequently grouped into tailpipe exhaust from motor
vehicles, brake/tire wear, and resuspended road dust
(Lamoree and Turner, 1999). Resuspended road dust is
generally considered to be the most important source of
PM10, especially for the fraction of coarse mode

1352-2310/02/$ - see front matter r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 1 3 5 2 - 2 3 1 0 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 4 6 7 - 3

6 times higher. black smoke and benzene at increasing distances from a major motorway were conducted by RoordaKnape et al. The vertical profile measurements also revealed no significant correlation between particle number concentration and height.. Also.3 times higher near the road compared with the background sample. PM2.5 and PM1) near major roads. Although the correlation between the PM10.5 and NO2 concentrations and annual average daily traffic volume is relatively weak. and to acquire . separately. (1998).697 mm) as distance from the road increased. PM2. Macao. It showed that black smoke and NO2 concentrations declined with increased distance from the roadside. long-term monitoring was not an option. site 2 near Avenida da Amizade Road for horizontal profile measurement. Wu et al. at the roadway. PM2. Previous major studies at the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering (DESE) of Tsinghua University (TU) focused on gaseous vehicle emissions and determined their behavior as they are transported away from the road in Macao. were used at all of four sites to provide an assessment of the relationship between particle mass concentration and vertical and horizontal distance in relation to major roads. Furthermore. it is necessary to quantify the particle emission levels with different size fraction (PM10.5–20 mm). Hao et al. Motor vehicle emissions are considered to be the main source of air pollutants in Macao since it is not directly influenced by industrial emissions (Hao et al. Profiles of mass concentrations of PM10.5 and PM1 to total PM10 mass. no gradient was found for PM10. such as PM2. however. at a distance of 375 m in the study. A pilot study examined horizontal and vertical profiles of number concentrations of submicrometer particulates in relation to a busy road in Brisbane.4908 Y. Also. 100. Due to funding and labor constrains. (1997) compared the mass concentration and elemental composition of airborne particulate matter at street and urban background locations in Netherlands. Janssen et al. NO2. usually constitute the significant source of fine and ultrafine particles. These studies presented information on the real-world traffic activities..5 levels also decreased with distance to around 75% for wind from the road and to 65% for wind parallel to the road. as they are transported away from the road. Totally 6 DustTrak monitors with PM10. 1998. and 300 m from a major motorway at two different locations in the study. 2.5 and NO2 in Hong Kong was conducted by Lam et al. however. As part of a program to assess emission characteristics from motor vehicles in Macao. respectively. Another study examined street-level concentrations of PM10. black smoke (elemental carbon) concentrations were 2. is located in South China. There was a clear decrease in fine and ultrafine particle number concentration (in the range 0. (2000) measured horizontal profile of concentrations of fine and ultrafine particles from vehicle emissions near a major road in Brisbane. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 (between 2.(1999). Further study conducted by Hitchins et al. 2000). PM2.5 in vicinity of major road.015–0.. the study attempts to acquire particle size distribution. Therefore. 1999). respectively. instead. the daytime period from 3 to 12 December in 2001 was chosen for this monitoring.5 and/or PM1). however. including the contributions of PM2. PM2. There have been several studies conducted on behavior of mass concentrations and elemental composition of airborne particulate matter near the road. one of the Special Administrative Regions in China (another is Hong Kong). which resulted in one of the highest traffic densities in the world.. PM10 and PM2. 150. which suggested that reentrained road dust.5 concentrations were found to be only 1.5 and PM1. and not vehicle tailpipe exhaust. however.5 and PM1 inlets. 2000). the levels of Si and Fe (abundant species in road dust) were significantly higher in PM10. Macao has three main island components with a total area of only 19 km2. as well as the larger particles measured separately (in the range 0. Experimental techniques and procedures Monitoring was conducted at four sites near major roads in Macao. and site 3 and site 4 for single point measurement. Monitoring sites were set up at approximately 50.5. Motor vehicle emissions. its vehicle population has exceeded 110 thousand in 1999. PM2. at the roadside of Avenida da Amizade Road and Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road.5. a noticeable trend showing higher concentrations for higher traffic volumes can be still found. Site 1 at the junction of Avenida de Horta e Costa Road and Rua de Francisco Xavier Pereira Road was chosen for vertical profile measurement. Australia (Morawska et al. PM2. It concluded that the horizontal profile measurements did not provide any evidence of a statistically significant difference in fine particle number concentration with respect to distance at ground level up to a distance of 200 m with the exception of measurements in close proximity to the freeway (about 15 m). emission inventory of motor vehicles and patterns of dispersion and transportation of the exhaust air pollutants in street canyon of Macao (He et al.5 and 10 mm). 1999. was the dominant source for PM10 and PM2. and to a lesser extent in PM2. and also to determine particle behavior after emissions. a TEOM 1400a was used at sites 3 and 4 to recalibrate the readings of the DustTrak.5 and benzene. the purpose of this research was to measure vertical and horizontal profiles of airborne coarse particles (PM10) and fine and submicrometer particles (PM2.

DustTrak The DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (model #8520.1.2.2. and labeled as D1–D6. thus limiting the smallest detectable particles to approximately 0.1. 1–3. the PM2. Paul. Different size-selective impactors are available for the inlet of the DustTrak allowing measurements of PM10. The TEOM 1400a monitor collected particles continuously on a Teflons-coated borosilicate glass fiber filter mounted on the tip of a glass element which oscillates in an applied electric field. Hourly meteorological data during the measurement were obtained from the Macao Meteorological Service.5 were monitored continuously by a TEOM 1400a ambient particulate monitor (Rupprecht & Patashnick Co. Instrumentation 2. NY) at sites 3 and 4 to recalibrate the readings of DustTrak in this study. . PM2. Albany. is in the vicinity of Avenida da Amizade Road. The resonant frequency of the element decreases as mass accumulations on the filter. Totally 6 DustTraks were used in the study. The US EPA has designated 79m 6 (D2) Building 5 (D4) 59m Up 4 (D3) 30m 19m 8m 2m 3 (D1) Site 1 1 (D6) 4909 2 (D5) Avenida de Horta e Costa Road N Fig. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) The concentrations of PM10 and PM2. (2) site 2.. Sites and procedures Four sites were chosen for this monitoring study. respectively. is located at the roadside of Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road. Temperatures are maintained at a constant value.5 inlet the design 16. The meteorological station is located on Taipa Granda 2. typically 501C. respectively.7 l min 1 exhaust stream. All of the sites were near major roads: (1) site 1. and PM1.5. readings were logged every minute and averaged over 1 h. to minimize thermal expansion of the tapered element. is located at the junction of Avenida de Horta e Costa Road and Rua de Francisco Xavier Pereira Road.5 and PM1 contributions to PM10 near major roads.1 mm.. EQPM-1090-079).Y. At the exit of the PM10 or PM2.0 l min 1 sample stream that is sent to the instrument’s mass transducer and a 13. The instrument is calibrated using Arizona Test Dust to relate light scattering intensity to aerosol mass concentrations. for vertical profile measurement. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 the TEOM 1400a PM10 Monitor as an equivalent method for the determination of PM10 concentrations in ambient air (Designation no.7 l min 1. Schematic representations of the four sites selected for measurements are shown in Figs. 1. (3) site 3. portable instrument that uses particulate light scattering to infer PM concentrations where the amount of scattered light is proportional to the volume concentration of the aerosol. Wu et al. in this study. For particles smaller than one-third the wavelength of the laser (780 nm). for single point measurement. 2. TSI Inc. Inc. and would need to be recalibrated at the roadside in the study. DustTrak data can be logged at user-defined intervals and gives an average reading of mass concentration over the specified interval.1.. MN) is a rugged. St.7 l min 1 flow is isokinetically split into a 3. which is about 500 m east from site 2. Site 1 for vertical profile measurement. for single point measurement also. the scattered light decreases as a function of the sixth power of the diameter. is located at the roadside of Avenida da Amizade Road. (4) site 4. Readings of mass concentrations were logged every 10 min and averaged over 1 h in this study. directly measuring inertial mass. 2. for horizontal profile measurement. The flow rate of the instrument is 1.1. For this study.

The sampling roads were chosen that the winds were perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to them during most of the sampling period. 42. N Building Site 3 2 (D3. about 3 days of sampling followed another directions of southeasterly wind. motorcycles 1108.5 and 6 December for PM1. during the daytime from 8:00 a. Therefore.Y. 10th of December for PM1. to 20:00 p. 2. light-duty vehicles 145. 72.e.m. we assumed that the particle characteristics were relatively homogeneous on the same road during the sampling days in the study. could be considered as relatively steady at the same hour during different sampling days. 59 and 79 m. Measurements at site 1 were taken at different heights: 2. Site 2 for horizontal profile measurement.5 m for each DustTrak. relative humidity and precipitation were used for this work. 30. for single point measurements. Mount. On each side of the site three DustTrak monitors were installed with 10. 1346 motorcycles. light-duty trucks. 4 December for PM10. temperature.5 and 1 mm inlets. As mentioned above.5–2. The average traffic flow per hour during the measurements for all of the four sites were: (1) Avenida de Horta e Costa Road: 795 cars.m. D6.. different particle size fraction of vertical and horizontal profiles were measured on different days due to constraint of DustTraks.. Measurements at site 2 were made at distances of 2. D4. D6. each day only one particle size fraction was measured. motorcycles 1856. which is about 3–4 km south from the monitoring sites. 8. 19. to 20:00 p. the pattern of hourly vehicle traffic flow is relatively steady. separately) with PM10. motorcycles 352. on 4–6 December 2001. had a negligible amount of traffic (less than 10 vehicles per hour). heavy-duty vehicles (including buses) and motorcycles for 30 min of each hour from 8:00 a. TEOM1400A) Building Fig. TEOM1400A) Building N Site 4 Building 2 (D3. 237 heavy-duty vehicles. heavy-duty vehicles 107. i. on 4–6 December 2001. respectively. total vehicles 1633.m.m. 2. There are two small roads crossing the monitoring site.5. Due to constrains of DustTrak monitors. only one particle size fraction can be measured each day. 1992). Because the strongest decrease in concentration was expected to occur in the first 100–150 m (Leu. i. heavyduty vehicles 124. were used here during the sampling period from 8:00 a. The monitoring height of each tube was about 1. heavy-duty vehicles 395.m. light-duty vehicles 129.5 and PM1 inlets.m. However. 453 lightduty vehicles. (3) Avenida da Amizade Road: cars 1029. D2) Avenida da Amizade Road 1 (D1. 120.m. respectively. 11th of December for PM10 and the 12th of December for PM2. 170 and 228 m from the road. (4) Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road: cars 782. total vehicles 3284. total vehicles 2831. respectively. Site 3 is located at the roadside. It may cause bias because the characteristics of particles may be different during variant sampling days. PM2. total vehicles 1726. respectively. 3. D2) Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road 1 (D1. light-duty vehicles 251.g. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 4910 N Site 2 Building Avenida da Amizade Road 1 (D1) 2m 2 (D2) 42m 3 (D6) 72m 4 (D4) 120m 5 (D3) 170m 6 (D5) 228m Fig. as the measurement were all conducted at workdays. to 20:00 p. wind direction. A TEOM 1400a was installed at . exhausted particulate matter from vehicles.0 m above the ground. Sites 3 and 4 for single point measurement. Sampling tubes were extended vertically from the window at least 0. 5 December for PM2. however. which were characterized by northerly wind. four monitor locations were situated within 150 m in the study. on 3 December. D4. (2) Rua de Francisco Xavier Pereira Road: cars 365. Wu et al. However. D5. Again. which means the emission characterizations of local sources on the same road. Six DustTrak monitors were used here during the sampling period from 8:00 a. Totally 6 DustTrak monitors (labeled as D1–D6.. Wind directions followed a similar pattern during most of the sampling period (about 5 days).e.m. to 20:00 p. The traffic flow was acquired by counting the number of cars. D5. e. Hourly data of wind speed.

3.960 0. and not recalibrated yet.968 0.999 1. Concentrations were measured simultaneously with these monitors.989 0.997 0.5 and 1 mm inlets. The detailed sampling periods and meteorological conditions are listed in Appendix A. However.000 1.5 and 1 mm inlets. 4 and 5 are measured by DustTraks.984 0.030 0. R2 =correlation coefficient.924 0. b south of the road (Location 1.918 0. However.00) were found for the readings of all of the DustTraks. Excellent correlations (0.989 0. It was characterized by northerly winds at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) prevailing in the morning and changing direction to southeasterly winds at about 1501 (nearly parallel to the road) at noon and maintained this direction throughout the afternoon.977 0. Site 4 is located at the roadside of another major road. It is clear that there is a significant decrease in the concentrations of PM10.950 PM1 c n Ratio R 14 6 6 8 6 0.m. on 7 December. as the height increases. Those samples collected on 4 December show a strong decreasing trend in concentrations of PM10 as the height increases.000 1. c n=number of hourly averaged samples. In the study.m.5 and PM1 concentration profiles in daytime at the site 1. Wu et al. Wind direction changed during the measuring period (see Appendix A).973 0.943 0. see Fig. as the height above the ground increases.Y. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 4911 Table 1 Results of parallel measurement with 6 DustTrak monitors at the same site DustTrak PM10 PM2.1. to 19:00 p. The ratios of averaged readings of other DustTraks (D1. Site 4 is also used for single point measurement.953 0.5 a D1 D3 D4 D5 D6 2b Ratio R 0.3. and the same experimental procedures as those used in site 3 were applied. Although the concentrations by DustTraks are not real mass concentrations. At the height of 8 m (location 2). which was probably due to the small shift in the cut-point of these inlets or other systematic bias from the monitors. Quality assurance and quality control Parallel measurements were conducted with these 6 DustTrak monitors at the same site with 10. The sampling height of DustTraks and TEOM 1400a are about 2. Results and discussion The measurements were conducted between 3 and 12 December 2001. D3–D6) divided by the readings of D2 that was used as a reference monitor and their linear correlation coefficients are summarized in Table 1.5 and PM1. 2.000 1. the concentration of PM10 decreases to about 60% of the maximum. The concentrations of particulate matter in Figs. on 8 and 9 December. used to recalibrate the readings of DustTrak monitors. In this section and followed section on horizontal profiles.994 0.928 0.000 5 8 8 6 8 a Ratio=the averaged readings of other DustTraks divided by readings of D2.996 2 n Ratio R2 n 8 8 8 8 8 0.5 and 3 m above the ground level. PM2. There were slight differences of averaged readings between each other DustTrak and D2 with 10 mm inlets. 3) with PM10 and PM2. the hourly averaged concentrations of each DustTrak monitor were normalized to eliminate the systematic bias. and the vertical profiles of the daytime averaged particulate matter concentrations are summarized in Fig. 4a–c present the hourly vertical PM10. respectively. the vertical profiles measured by DustTraks could be considered as similar as those measured by other monitors such as TEOM if we assume that particle characteristics are relatively homogeneous on the same road.946 0.972 0.945 1.5 inlets. There is only 14% attenuation over the measured height from 8 to 79 m. 3. the attenuation of PM10 concentrations slows down significantly. the result demonstrates that there is no .896 0. as well as the 2. The largest difference found was about 10% for D4 and D2 with 1 mm inlets.992 0. separately. respectively. PM2. and the monitoring period was from 8:00 a. the decreasing trends of particle concentrations are of concern.972 0. 5.994 0. the daytime averaged PM10 concentration decays to 74% of the maximum occurring at 2 m above the ground (the closest measurement point above the ground). 2. respectively.999 0.95–1. Vertical profiles at site 1 Fig. At the height of 79 m (location 6). instead of the detailed concentration values.

300 PM2.700 10:00 4912 0.5’s as the height increases.050 TIME Fig.100 12:00 0.5 also slows down as the height increases. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 PM2. the daytime averaged PM2. (mgm-3) 0. 0. 5. the decrease of PM2.400 8:00 CONC.200 9:00 CONC. where the concentration of PM1 decays to 77% of the maximum.100 13:00 0.5 (12/5/2001) 0. At the height of 8 m.050 10:00 0.000 11:00 0.5 still decreased significantly until the height reached 19 m (location 3).350 0. (mg m-3) 0.500 1(D6) 2(D5) 3(D1) 4(D3) 5(D4) 6(D2) 0.150 0.350 PM10 (12/4/2001) CONC. Those samples collected on 5 December also show a significant decreasing trend of in concentrations of PM2. At the height of 8 m. Wu et al. 4.5 (12/5/2001) PM1 (12/6/2001) 0. statistically significant difference between the vertical profiles in the morning and those in the afternoon (see Fig.200 0. At the height of 79 m.250 0.300 CONC. 4a).100 0.150 0.5 concentration decayed to only 87% of the maximum at the ground level. The samples collected on 6 December exhibit a decay of the PM1 concentrations that is less significant than the PM10 and PM2.100 (c) 19:00 18:00 17:00 16:00 15:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 11:00 10:00 9:00 0.Y. 5) shows a ‘‘dip’’ at the height of 19 m.250 (a) (b) TIME 19:00 18:00 17:00 TIME PM1 (12/6/2001) 0. the concentration of PM2. not as strong a decrease as for PM10. The curve of PM1 (see Fig. Site 1 hourly vertical PM concentration profiles in daytime.150 11:00 0.400 1(D6) 2(D5) 3(D1) 4(D3) 5(D4) 6(D2) 0. the concentrations of PM2. Site 1 vertical profiles of the daytime averaged PM concentrations.050 0.000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Height above the ground (m) Fig. However.200 0. Then.350 0.300 15:00 1(D6) 2(D5) 3(D1) 4(D3) 5(D4) 6(D2) 0.5 decays to 62% of the maximum. where the concentration decays to 73% of the maximum. (mgm-3) 16:00 8:00 19:00 18:00 17:00 16:00 15:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 0. although the attenuation did not follow the same pattern as PM10.300 0.200 0. Then. the daytime averaged PM1 concentration decays to about 86% of the maximum at the ground level.5 as the height increases.000 9:00 0. the concentrations of .250 0.600 14:00 PM10 (12/4/2001) 0.000 8:00 0. (mgm-3) 0.

The reasons maybe relate to (1) the sampling heights.. 6a–c present the hourly horizontal PM10. The findings from this study can be compared with other literature data on horizontal profiles of particulate matter near major road. due to lack of the meteorological monitors. The reasons for the ‘‘dip’’ have not been investigated. which makes air pollutant accumulate at the bottom (Fu et al. the concentrations of particulate matter in Figs. 1988. maybe a very important contributor to total particle mass concentrations near road in Macao. Therefore. 2000). but more likely relate to other source interference at those heights.5 at location 1 is about 12% higher than at other locations in the afternoon.g.5 and PM1. PM2. such as residential cooking. e. and the horizontal profiles of the daytime averaged particulate matter concentrations are summarized in Fig. The horizontal profiles of site 2 at the roadside reveal there is no significant trend of decrease in concentrations of PM10. secondary particles and sea salt. Furthermore. which is the maximum decrease in concentrations of PM1 over the total measured distance. which undoubtedly results in significant street canyon. PM2. and (2) the relatively low vehicle volume at site 2. Depaul. tailpipe exhaust from motor vehicles for PM2. 6c). site 1 is located at the junction of two major roads. and not recalibrated yet. and detailed analysis of the influence of wind to particle concentrations is not available. 3. the maximum decrease of PM10 is only 7%. However.5 and PM1 as the distance from the road increases. the average concentration of PM2.m. both of which are narrow roads with width less than 15 m. from the location 1 (2 m above the ground) to location 2 (8 m above the ground).g. since the particles in the coarse mode have the much higher settling velocity than those fine and ultrafine particles. and the wind characteristics including wind speed and wind direction are height-dependent in general (Hoydysh. The samples collected on 10 December show a weak trend of decrease in concentrations of PM1 as the distance from the road increases. it was characterized by northerly winds at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) prevailing in the morning and changing direction to southeasterly winds at about 1251 (from the measuring site towards the road) at noon and maintained this direction throughout the afternoon. which resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of PM10. . which occurred at the distance of 228 m. 7. PM2. e. Hitchins et al. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 PM1 increase slightly. Similarly. because it rained in the early morning (see Appendix A and Fig. at a distance of 375 m in their study.Y.5 and PM1 at a low height level.2. (2000) concluded that PM2. the flow at the bottom of street canyon is more stable than upper part. attenuation of the concentrations of PM10 is more significant than the PM2.. e. The samples collected on 12 December also show a weak trend of decrease in concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1 concentration profiles at the site 2.0 m) resulting in significant interference from wind-blown dust near the sampling locations since the wind speed is high (more than 3 m s 1 in average) during the sampling period..5 from all of the 6 DustTraks decreased significantly after the wind direction changed. the daytime averaged PM1 concentration decays to only 90% of the maximum occurring at 2 m from the road (the closest measurement 4913 point from the road). The samples collected on 11 December shows that the vertical profile of PM10 follows a similar pattern as demonstrated by PM1. For example. surrounded by high buildings with height more than 30 m at both sides of the roads. At the distance of 170 m (location 5).5–2. 7) shows a slightly ‘‘dip’’ at the distance of 72 m..5 and PM1 concentrations are affected significantly by traffic sources at ground level. The measurement did not begin until 14:00 p. And. the wind characteristics in different height were not measured.. the change of wind will inevitably affect the trend of vertical profile of particle concentrations. resuspended road dust for PM10.5 concentrations at an increasing distance from a major motorway. The latter reason revealed that background particulate matter.5 (see Fig. respectively. however. where the daytime averaged concentration of PM2. which is low above the ground (only 1. At the height of 79 m. 1985). Special flow circulation will be generated. 6 and 7 are measured by DustTraks. Wu et al. resulting in relatively low particulate matter emissions from vehicle exhaust and resuspended road dust.5 and PM1. as the height increases from 19 to 79 m. which is less than 40% of total traffic volume at site 1. the results in the afternoon show that the concentrations of PM2. The total concentration of PM2. As the aspect ratio (building height to street width) of site 1 is high. the total decrease of PM1 concentration is about 20%. The vertical profiles of site 1 at the roadside suggest that PM10. And. Horizontal profiles at site 2 Fig. as the height above the ground increases. The curve of PM2. Roorda-Knape et al (1998) found there was no clear decline for PM10 and PM2.5 levels decreased with distance to around 75% when the wind blew from the road and to 65% for wind parallel to the road. Wind direction changed during the measurement period on this day (see Appendix A). which are relatively steady as the distance from the road increases. etc.g.5 decays to 91% of the maximum occurring at 2 m from the road. PM2. Over the total measured distance.5 as the distance from the road increases.5 at other locations have no statistically significant difference except at location 1 (the closest point from the road).

080 0. Good . Single point measurements at sites 3 and 4 0.020 0.5 (12/12/2001) PM 10 (12/11/2001) 0. Wu et al.97. and the ratios of PM1/PM10 are also as high as 0.200 0.5 DustTrak measurements to TEOM are illustrated in Fig. (mg m-3) 0.150 0.87.000 TIME Fig. Particle size distribution near major roads Table 2 lists the roadside particle size distribution at sites 3 and 4.100 0.050 0.040 0.150 0.200 0.100 PM10 (12/11/2001) PM25 (12/12/2001) PM1 (12/10/2001) 0. (mgm-3) 0.200 3.250 0.200 0. and need to be recalibrated by TEOM to acquire the real particle size distribution and particle concentrations near roads in this study. The sample arithmetic mean ratios of PM2.000 0 50 100 150 200 250 Distance from the road (m) Fig.000 (a) (b) TIME 19:00 18:00 17:00 16:00 15:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 11:00 9:00 8:00 19:00 18:00 17:00 16:00 15:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 11:00 9:00 10:00 8:00 0. 7. Since DustTrak is calibrated using Arizona Test Dust to relate light scattering intensity to aerosol mass concentrations. its readings were not real mass concentrations near roads.050 (c) 19:00 18:00 17:00 16:00 15:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 11:00 10:00 9:00 8:00 0.Y.1.100 0. 3. Site 2 horizontal profiles of the daytime averaged PM concentrations.250 0.060 0.3. 6. 8.000 10:00 CONC. 0.5/PM10 by DustTraks at both sites are between 0. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 4914 0.300 0.140 0. (mgm-3) 1(D1) 2(D2) 3(D6) 4(D4) 5(D3) 6(D5) 0.300 TIME PM1 (12/10/2001) 0.74–0.050 1(D1) 2(D2) 3(D6) 4(D4) 5(D3) 6(D5) 0.100 0.250 0. The comparisons of hourly PM10 and PM2.120 0.95 and 0. Site 2 hourly horizontal PM concentration profiles in daytime.180 CONC.300 1(D1) 2(D2) 3(D6) 4(D4) 5(D3) 6(D5) CONC. (mgm-3) PM2.3.160 0.150 CONC.

049 10 % R=size fraction by DustTraks only.0 TEOM CONC.3.866 0. e. the sample arithmetic mean ratios of PM1/PM10 are between 0.350 0.g. It is seen that the slope of the linear regression is 0. however.0 Fig.0029.0 40.250 0.5 (0.665 0. and for PM2. Because the sample chamber and inlet air are heated to 501C to measurement in the TEOM system. most of which are fine particles.0 80. the statistically significant difference of PM1 between these two locations is not found. Wu et al. 8). (mg m-3) 0. R% r =readings of DustTraks were recalibrated by TEOM (see Fig.300 Avenida da Amizade Road (site 3) 0.82 for PM10.67 after the readings of PM2.5.5 (0.. d NA=not available because of the power malfunction of D6.0 60.952 Recalibrated mean R% r b 0. the secondary particles (sulfate.597c 0.5 and PM10 by DustTrak were recalibrated by TEOM.150 y = 0. (mg m-3) PM2.5 0.053 9 0.0029.0 (b) Ruada Ribeira do Patane Road (site 4) 20.5/PM10 and PM1/PM10 will be higher if the volatilization bias (negative sampling artifact) of TEOM is considered.5 and PM1 at location 2 are all statistically significantly lower than those at location 1 at site 3. Since all of the locations are close to the road.0 20.002x R2 = 0.656 Standard deviation sr 0.8182 0. If we assume that PM1 could be recalibrated the same ratio as PM2. reentrained road dust and vehicle exhausts.000 0.050 0.Y.66 and 0.91.5 and PM1 by DustTraks (not recalibrated by TEOM yet) at sites 3 and 4 are shown in Table 3. where are significantly influenced by the sources.200 0. (ug m-3) 100.970 0.5/PM10 at both sites decrease to be between 0.250 Avenida da Amizade Road (site 3) 0.0029 with a correlation coefficient of 0. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 4915 Table 2 Size distribution of particulate matter concentrations near major roads Sampling sites Site 3 (Avenida da Amizade Road) Site 4 (Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road) Location 1 Location 1 Location 2 Location 2 PM2:5 =PM10 PM1 =PM10 PM2:5 =PM10 PM1 =PM10 PM2:5 =PM10 PM1 =PM10 PM2:5 =PM10 PM1 =PM10 Arithmetic mean R% a 0. see Fig.000 0. c Assumes that PM1 could be recalibrated the same ratio as PM2.2.9114 0. PM2.009 Number of samples n 11 0. Moreover. nitrate and ammonium) of regional scales may be important contributors to fine particles near roads in Macao too.833 0.965 0.002 and the correlation coefficient is 0. PM2.0 100.011 12 0. but the differences are small (less than or equal to 10%). not recalibrated by TEOM yet.0 60.100 0.669 0. 8b). 3.0 80. the sample arithmetic mean ratios of PM2.050 0.011 10 0. The high ratios of fine and submicrometer particles in total PM10 mass is most likely attributed to the contribution of local sources including vehicle tailpipe exhaust and resuspended fine dust.0029x R2 = 0. Particle concentrations near major roads Results of the daytime averaged concentrations of PM10. the differences of particle concentrations between location 1 and location 2 of the roads may be weakened. the slope is 0. correlations were found for the readings of DustTrak monitors and TEOM.200 y = 0.549c 0. a b PM10 DUSTTRAK CONC. Then.100 0. 8.0 TEOM CONC. The ratios of PM2. Comparison of hourly PM DustTrak measurements to TEOM.0 40.575c 0.014 10 NAd NAd NAd NAd 0. it undoubtedly aggravates the particle volatilization bias for ammonium nitrate and organic compounds. The mean concentrations of PM10.509c 0. It suggests that fine particles and submicrometer particles contributed major part of PM10 concentrations at roadside in Macao. 8b). both site 3 and site 4 are narrow roads (less than 15 m of road width) surrounded by buildings with . see Fig. and.150 0.013 11 0. (ug m-3) (a) DUSTTRAK CONC.60.738 0.51 and 0.796 0. The mean concentration of PM10 at location 2 is statistically significantly higher than that at location 1 at site 4.

/ Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 4916 windward side.012/11 0. Depaul. d NA=not available because of the power malfunction of D6.500 Avenida da Amizade Road (site 3) y = 5E-05x + 0.106nn 0. po0:01).400 CONC.100 0.193 0.116 0.6055 0.049/10 0. nnn No statistically significant difference compared with location 1 (paired t-test. 1988. not recalibrated by TEOM.045/9 PM2. The recalibrated daytime height more than 20 m at both roadsides.015/11 0.600 Ruada Ribeira do Patane Road (site 4) Ruada Ribeira do Patane Road (site 4) CONC.195nnn 0.300 0. 1985).097 0.200 0.250 0.400 0. c n=number of samples.150 0.000 0 (c) 1000 2000 3000 4000 Hourly traffic flow 5000 Fig. (mg m-3) 0. 8).000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 (b) Hourly traffic flow 2000 3000 Hourly traffic flow PM 1 0.204 0.450 Ruada Ribeira do Patane Road (site 4) 0. and result in higher air pollutant concentrations at leeward side than windward side (Hoydysh.5 and PM1 at leeward side of sites 3 and 4 are all higher than those at Table 3 Daytime averaged particle concentrations near major roads Sampling sites Site 3 (Avenida da Amizade Road) Site 4 (Rua da Ribeira do Patane Road) Location 1 Location 1 Location 2 Location 2 3 a PM10 (mg m ) sb/nc 0.100 0. The arithmetic mean concentrations of PM10.111 0.025/10 n a Arithmetic mean concentration by DustTrak.100 0.350 0.000 0 (a) PM 2. s=the standard deviation.047/9 0. PM2. Wu et al. which undoubtedly results in remarkable street canyon.050/10 NAd NAd PM1 (mg m 3)a sb/nc 0.258nn 0.200 0.5 PM 10 0. (mg m-3) CONC.0146 R2 = 0.300 y = 5E-05x + 0.350 0. po0:05).150 0.186 0. nn Statistically significant difference compared with location 1 (paired t-test.300 0. 0. n Statistically significant difference compared with location 1 (paired t-test. 4000 5000 . which revealed that the effect of street canyon exactly occurred during the sampling period. 9.050 0.0388 R2 = 0.450 0.Y. which are not recalibrated yet. (mg m-3) b Avenida da Amizade Road (site 3) 0.014/11 0.250 0. Correlations of particle concentrations and hourly traffic flow in daytime. Special flow circulation will be generated.200 0.015/11 0.017/11 0. The concentrations of particulate matter in Table 3 are the readings by DustTraks. The real mass concentrations will decrease significantly after the DustTrak readings are recalibrated by TEOM (see Fig.6695 0.109 0.050 0.013/11 0.5 (mg m 3)a sb/nc 0. po0:05).6066 Avenida da Amizade Road (site 3) 0.400 y = 6E-05x + 0.086n 0.0072 R2 = 0.

resuspended road dust and tailpipe exhaust from motor vehicles. respectively.1 (2. At site 4. respectively.8–5.8–5.4) 0 69 (64–74) Site 1 (PM1) 12/6/2001 6.5) 12/5/2001 4.2 (3. d RH=relative humidity.0 and 66.0–4.3. The obtained correlation coefficients are equal to 0. the concentrations of PM10.5 and PM1.9 (6.67.9) 0 64 (60–71) Site 2 (PM10) 12/11/2001 4. WD=wind direction.5 at site 3 are 54. 0. due to the thermal loss of volatile material in the TEOM system.9 (1.9–9.Y.61. decrease to about 60%. arithmetic mean (minimum–maximum). the real mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.8 mg m 3.9) 0 61 (48–79) Site 1 (PM2. The results 4917 reveal that correlations between the particulate matter and the traffic volumes are significant. showing a clear trend of higher concentrations for higher traffic volumes.7–3. As mentioned above. e. PM2.5 and PM1. Wu et al. respectively. c P=precipitation.5) 12/12/2001 2.g.6 mg m 3.6 (08:00) 81 (75–90) Site 3 12/3/2001 3.6) 0 72 (62–81) Site 2 (PM1) 12/10/2001 7.1–8. Table 4 Sampling periods and meteorological conditions used in the study Sampling site Date WS (m s 1)a WDb P (mm)c RH (%)d Site 1 (PM10) 12/4/2001 2. b . respectively. The vertical profiles at the roadside suggest that particle concentrations are affected significantly by those sources at ground level from traffic district.3.5–58.9 (5. The particle concentrations at site 4 are much higher than those at site 3. which is most likely attributed to the much higher traffic volume at site 4.4–5. 4. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 averaged mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.3 (3.2 (11:00) 0 72 (64–79) Site 4 12/7/2001 5. 3..5) 0 61 (53–71) a 08:00–17:00: Northeasterly and easterly winds at about 45–901 (nearly parallel to the road) 17:00–20:00: Southeasterly wind at about 1251 (from location 1 towards location 2) Northerly wind at about 251 (from location 2 towards location 1) WS=wind speed. PM2.5 and PM1.61 and 0.5 are 102.9) 0 79 (77–81) Site 2 (PM2. arithmetic mean (minimum–maximum). PM2.1) 0.7–7.0 and 36. 62% and 80% of the maximum occurring at 2 m above the ground. as the height above the ground increases from 2 to 79 m at site 1. It is clear that there is a significant decrease in the concentrations of PM10. respectively.9 (1.2) 08:00–13:00: Northerly wind at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) 13:00–20:00: Southeasterly wind at about 1501 (nearly parallel to the road) Southeasterly wind at about 1301 (nearly parallel to the road) Northerly wind at about 101 (from the road towards the measuring site) Northerly wind at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) 08:00–13:00: Northerly wind at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) 13:00–20:00: Southeasterly wind at about 1251 (from the measuring site towards the road) Northerly wind at about 201 (from the road towards the measuring site) 1.0–129. the real mass concentrations of particulate matter in the study may be underestimated. At the height of 79 m. 9a–c for PM10. The correlations of hourly particle concentrations and hourly traffic flow in daytime at sites 3 and 4 are presented in Fig. the local traffic conditions would affect directly the measured concentration levels of particulate matter. Summary and conclusions Vertical and horizontal profiles of airborne particulate matter in daytime were measured near major roads. Relation to vehicular traffic Since both sites 3 and 4 were located at the roadside.6–38.0 (2.

. Zhou. L.5 and PM1 are only 7%.B. of the maximum values occurring at 2 m from the road.P. C. 1988.. N.. Vanmansom. of US EPA for his helpful advice to improve our paper. Roorda-Knape.W.... 256–261 (in Chinese with abstract in English). Hao.. O.... TNOReport No.. He. G. Y. China. Hao.. . 1–11.W.. Hoek. 552–581. Lam. R. Harssema. Gilbert. D. Janssen.. The daytime averaged PM2.X. He. The authors thank Jingnan Hu and Litao Wang (DESE. G.. U.. Berkowicz. Environmental Science 19 (3).A.. W. the particle size distribution at the roadside was acquired in this study. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 47. Atmospheric Environment 32 (11)... Fu. 2000a.. Fu. Mass concentrations and elemental composition of airborne particulate matter at street and background locations. 1996. 1261–1274. Wu. Vedal. 51–59. R92/003. J. 1999.. 7–10 (in Chinese with abstract in English). J. US EPA. 1999. Harssema. Atmospheric Environment 31 (8). 454–479 (in Chinese). Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae 19 (3). A tracer study of dispersion in an urban street canyon. and secondary particles (sulfate.R..F.M. Lee. TU) for their contribution to the collection of the samples. resulting in interference from other ground-level sources near the sampling locations. H.H.S. Liu. Wang. Morawska. 1997.M. 1921–1930. Hitchins.. EPA/ 600/P-95/001cf.H. M. D.N. Atmospheric Environment 19.C. Van Vliet. nitrate and ammonium) of regional scales. D. of the total PM10 mass after the particle readings by DustTrak were recalibrated by TEOM at both sites 3 and 4 (we assume that PM1 could be recalibrated using the same ratio as PM2. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 50. Cincinnati. Atmospheric Environment 22. P. Interim Report IR-00-004. Urban Vehicular Pollution Control-International Experience and Chinese Practice.X.. respectively. 85–94.. 2677–2689. Y.. S. K. A. D. Pollution assessment in urban street canyons of Macao using OSPM model. 1992. Z. J. Wolff.. Beijing..P. Appendix A The detailed sampling periods and meteorological conditions are listed in Table 4. / Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 4907–4918 The horizontal profiles of site 2 at the roadside reveal there is no significant decreasing trend in concentrations of particulate matter as the distance from the road increases.. De Harthog. 9% and 10%. Concentrations of submicrometre particles from vehicle emissions near a major road.5). PM2. Wu et al.. 1985. Greenaway. P. PM emissions emanating from limited-access highways. Thomas.K.M.H..4918 Y. Delft (in Dutch).N. Calculating emission factors of motor vehicles using model. Louie.. Study of air quality along freeways outside the built-up area in the province South-Holland.. 1999. L.X. Morawska. L.. Lamoree. Hertel. C. Rijnders.K. K. It suggested that fine particles and submicrometer particles contributed the major part of PM10 at the roadside in Macao. Tang. H. The reasons may be related to low sampling heights. 2000. Atmospheric Environment 33. 1185–1193. and the relatively low vehicle volume at site 2.C. National Service Center for Environmental Publications. Leung. R.Th. Also. Janssen.Y. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 49 (9).. 2000b.. 1999.. Acknowledgements The research described in this paper is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China & Macao Foundation (Grant No. Z. M. Turner. Atmospheric Environment 33.. Niewiadomski. L.de. 2060–2066.Q.. Vanderjagt. Interim Report IR-00-005. Modeling traffic-related air pollution in street canyons of Beijing. IIASA.J. S. the maximum decrease of PM10.5 and PM1 contributed 66–67% and 51–60%. Over the total measured distance. D. N. 555–559. China Environmental Science Press. monitoring data and emission inventories. respectively. Pang. pp.. S. Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter in Hong Kong. J. D. Kinematics and dispersion characteristic of flows in asymmetric stray canyons.M. 1998. A study of the horizontal and vertical profile of submicrometer particles in relation to a busy road.. L.F. Hao.. Air quality criteria for particulate matter. Airborne fine particulates in the environment: a review of health effect studies. 2000. 40045015). IIASA. Brunekreef. B. D.A.C..Q.. L.. Freed. Air pollution from traffic in city districts near major motorways. OH. J. Fu.. E. F. He. J. L. He. which may be attributed to the combinations of sources including exhaust particulate matter from vehicles and reentrained fine dust. 1998. K.. Leu. J. Fu.X.. A review of particulate matter and health: focus on developing countries.K. 1997...M. 2000. Hao. Hoydysh. Atmospheric Environment 34.B. Gilbert. References Depaul. and Mr. Ambient particles and health: lines that divide.