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For other uses, see Sikkim (disambiguation).

Nepali: सससककम
Sikkimese: ས་ཁཁམ ་
State of India


Location of Sikkim (marked in red) in India

Map of Sikkim

Coordinates (Gangtok):

27°20′N 88°37′E27.33°N

27°20′N 88°37′E27.33°N 88.62°E



Admission to Union †

16 May 1975



Largest city




• Governor
• Chief Minister
• Legislature
• Parliamentary

Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil
Pawan Chamling (SDF)
Unicameral (32 seats)
Rajya Sabha 1


Lok Sabha 1

• High Court

Sikkim High Court

• Total
Area rank

7,096 km2 (2,740 sq mi)

Population (2011)[1]
• Total


• Rank


• Density

86/km2 (220/sq mi)

Time zone

IST (UTC+05:30)

ISO 3166 code

0.684 (medium)

HDI rank

7th (2005)


82.2% (13th)
Nepali (lingua franca)
Sikkimese, and Lepcha (since

Official languages

Limbu (since 1981)
Newari, Gurung, Magar, Sherpa,
and Tamang (since 1995)
Sunwar (since 1996)


Assembly of Sikkim abolished monarchy and resolved to be a constituent unit of India.

A referendum was held on these issues and majority of the voters voted yes. On May 15,
1975 the President of India ratified a constitutional amendment that made Sikkim the
22nd state of India.

State symbols of Sikkim



"Music of Sikkim"

Red Panda

Bird Blood Pheasant Flower Noble Orchid Tree Rhododendron Sikkim (/ˈsɪkɨm/) is a landlocked Indian state located in the Himalayan mountains. covering approximately 7.[5] Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. It also has the only open land border between India and China. introduced Buddhism and foretold the era of the Sikkimese monarchy. West Sikkim.[6] Guru Padmasambhava. Over the next 150 years. Almost 25% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park. and Bhutan to the east. The state is bordered by Nepal to the west. The Indian state of West Bengal lies to the south. the world's third-highest peak. According to legend. the kingdom witnessed frequent raids .[2] With 607.096 km2 (2. the patron saint of Sikkim.688 inhabitants as of the 2011 census.[1] Sikkim is the least populous state in India and the second-smallest state after Goa in total area.[4] Sikkim is a popular tourist destination. owing to its culture. the Buddhist guru Padmasambhava visited Sikkim in the 8th century CE. the climate ranges from subtropical to high alpine. at Samdrubtse. is located on Sikkim's border with Nepal.[7] Sikkim's Namgyal dynasty was established in 1642.740 sq mi).[3] Sikkim is nonetheless geographically diverse due to its location in the Himalayas. and Kangchenjunga. scenery and biodiversity. China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north and east.

Limbu. eventually becoming a British protectorate. Newari. Sikkimese. it allied itself with British India. Sunwar and English.4 Recent history  3 Geography o 3.[13] although it is also among the fastest-growing.1 Subdivisions  5 Flora and fauna  6 Economy  7 Transport o 7.[11][12] English is taught in schools and used in government documents. and the territory instead became part of India. Magar. Sikkim's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and tourism.2 Climate  4 Government and politics o 4. Gurung.[9] In 1975.and territorial losses to Nepalese invaders.[8] In the 19th century. Lepcha.1 Foundation of the monarchy o 2.2 Sikkim during the British Raj o 2. a referendum abolished the Sikkimese monarchy.1 Geology o 3.1 Air .[10] Sikkim has 11 official languages: Nepali (which is its lingua franca).[13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Toponymy  2 History o 2. Rai. Tamang.3 After Indian independence o 2. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. and as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states.

3 Rail  8 Infrastructure  9 Demographics o 9. meaning "paradise". which means '"the hidden valley of rice". [16] In History. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong (Wylie-transliteration: ´bras ljongs). The name is believed to be a reference to the palace built by the state's first ruler. and khyim. which means "palace" or "house". the original inhabitants of Sikkim. which means "valley of rice". Phuntsog Namgyal.[16] The Lepcha people. the garden of the war god Indra.2 Roads o 7. called it Nye-mae-el.[15] while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong. Sikkim is known as Indrakil.o 7. which means "new".2 Ethnicity  10 Religion  11 Culture o 11.1 Languages o 9.[17] History .1 Cuisine  12 Media  13 Education  14 See also  15 References  16 Bibliography  17 Further reading  18 External links Toponymy The most widely accepted origin theory of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two Limbu words: su.

through the land in the 8th century.[20] . Phuntsog Namgyal. A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa. also known as Guru Rinpoche. received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east. who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse (near modern Pelling). Between 1717 and 1733. According to legend. [8] In 1791. of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. China sent troops to support Sikkim and defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. or the Palace of the Three Chortens.[18] The earliest historical mention of Sikkim is a record of the passage of the Buddhist saint Padmasambhava. or priest-king. beyond the fact that its original inhabitants were the Lepcha. Khye Bumsa.Main article: History of Sikkim Foundation of the monarchy Main article: Kingdom of Sikkim Little is known about Sikkim's ancient history. the Chinese Qing dynasty established control over Sikkim. and foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later. became the founder of Sikkim's monarchy in 1642. who had been denied the throne. introduced Buddhism. the old capital of the Chogyal in West Sikkim Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son. Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal. Tensung Namgyal. a 14thcentury prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet. when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal. Following the subsequent defeat of Gorkha.[19] Rabdentse Ruins. culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese.[7] The Guru is reported to have blessed the land. The Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans. In 1700.

proved to be extremely unpopular with the people. ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised. Sikkim came under the suzerainty of India. Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India. The Nepalese attacked Sikkim.[9] In 1890. depicting Chomto Dong Lake in northern Sikkim. the whole of Chumbi and Darjeeling are not depicted as part of Sikkim in the map. Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary. defence.Sikkim during the British Raj An 1876 map of Sikkim. A state council was established in 1953 to allow for constitutional government under the Chogyal.[22] Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817.5 per cent of voters . Meanwhile.[23] The doctors were detained by the Sikkimese government. The invasion led to the Chogyal of Sikkim becoming a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor. in the interest of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. which controlled its external affairs.[24] After Indian independence In 1947. diplomacy and communications. Archibald Campbell. a popular vote rejected Sikkim's joining the Indian Union. Sikkim became a British protectorate. ties between Sikkim and the British weakened when the latter began taxation of the Morang region. a referendum was held in which 97. the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for Nepalis in Sikkim. after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to British India in 1853. overrunning most of the region including the Terai. In 1975. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal. riots in front of the Chogyal's palace led to a formal request for protection from India. Nepal. but Sikkim otherwise retained administrative autonomy. the Chogyal at the time. In April of that year. resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. In 1849. However. In 1973. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr.[21] However. the Indian Army took over the city of Gangtok and disarmed the Chogyal's palace guards. Although a treaty was made between India and Sikkim in 1950. the Prime Minister of Sikkim appealed to the Indian Parliament for Sikkim to become a state of India. That Indo-Sikkim treaty made Sikkim an Indian protectorate status. Thereafter. Palden Thondup Namgyal. two British physicians. leading to a punitive British expedition against the kingdom. and was gradually granted more sovereignty over the next three decades. when India became independent. the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkimese governments.

and the city of Gangtok suffered significant damage.supported abolishing the monarchy. adding its name to the First Schedule of the Constitution. as any protests to India would mean an explicit endorsement of India's governance of Sikkim.[5] The pass. which had previously been closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War.[28] New Delhi had originally accepted Tibet as a part of China in 1953 during the government of Jawaharlal Nehru. Bangladesh and Tibet. Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union. the seventeenth Karmapa.[26] To enable the incorporation of the new state. and made Sikkim a full state.[29] The 2003 agreement led to a thaw in Sino-Indian relations.[32] Geography . was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road. escaped from Tibet.[30] and on 6 July 2006. The Chinese government eventually recognised Sikkim as an Indian state in 2003. Urgyen Trinley Dorje.[5] On 18 September 2011. Chinese officials were in a quandary on this issue. First. effectively approving union with India. the 35th Amendment laid down a set of conditions that made Sikkim an "Associate State". who had been confirmed by the Dalai Lama and accepted as a tulku by the Chinese government.[27] Recent history In 2000. and the monarchy was abolished. Later.[31] More than 60 people died in Sikkim alone. Bhutan. which China still recognised as an independent state occupied by India. killing at least 116 people in the state and in Nepal. seeking to return to the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. becoming the first open border between India and China. a special designation not used by any other state. the 36th Amendment repealed the 35th Amendment.9Mw earthquake struck Sikkim.[25] On 16 May 1975. the merger was widely criticised as an annexation and India was accused of exploiting the ethnic divide and rigging the referendum. on the condition that India officially recognise Tibet as a part of China. the Indian Parliament amended the Indian Constitution. the Sikkimese Himalayan pass of Nathu La was opened to cross-border trade. Although the union was presented as the will of the people by the Indian authorities. a magnitude 6.

situated on the border between Sikkim and Nepal. are the most densely populated.[35] . However. These streams combine into the major Teesta River and its tributary. with an elevation ranging from 280 metres (920 ft) to 8. The summit of Kangchenjunga—the world's third-highest peak—is the state's highest point.169 ft). some hill slopes have been converted into terrace farms. The Lower Himalayas. more than 80 glaciers. Almost the entire state is hilly.The Ban Jhakri waterfall and park near Gangtok.[33] About a third of the state is heavily forested.[4] For the most part. eastern and western borders of Sikkim.586 metres (28. five major hot springs. which flow through the state from north to south. lying in the southern reaches of the state. Bhutan and Nepal.[34] 227 high-altitude lakes (including the Tsongmo. Numerous snow-fed streams have carved out river valleys in the west and south of the state. Sunrise on Kangchenjungha as seen from Pelling in West Sikkim The Himalayan mountains surround the northern. Eight mountain passes connect the state to Tibet. The state has 28 mountain peaks. Nestling in the Himalayan mountains. the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky. Gurudongmar and Khecheopalri Lakes). and more than 100 rivers and streams. the Rangeet. the state of Sikkim is characterised by mountainous terrain. precipitous slopes.

causes extensive soil erosion and the loss of soil nutrients through leaching. with large concentrations of iron oxide. summer. some are known to emit hydrogen. Most of the inhabited regions of Sikkim experience a temperate climate. with temperatures seldom exceeding 28 °C (82 °F) in summer. producing generally poor and shallow brown clay soils. and is highly susceptible to weathering and erosion.Khecheopalri Lake. The springs. and the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) almost every night. The rock consists of phyllites and schists. which is much younger in age than the hills.[42] . combined with the state's heavy rainfall. the peaks are frozen year-round. which have a high sulphur content.[38] Most of Sikkim is covered by Precambrian rock. Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. The snow line ranges from 6. making transportation perilous.[36] The average temperature of the water in these hot springs is 50 °C (122 °F).[37] Geology The hills of Sikkim mainly consist of gneissose and half-schistose rocks.[41] because of the high altitude. temperatures in the mountains can drop to as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter. autumn. Among the state's most notable hot springs are those at Phurchachu. Sikkim's hot springs are renowned for their medicinal and therapeutic values.900 metres (16. Ralang. it ranges from neutral to acidic and is lacking in organic and mineral nutrients. During the monsoon. The average annual temperature for most of Sikkim is around 18 °C (64 °F). spring.000 ft) in the south of the state to 4. The record for the longest period of continuous rain in Sikkim is 11 days.100 metres (20.100 ft) in the north.[36] In north-western Sikkim.[39] Climate The Kangchengyao Himalayan mountains of northern Sikkim. considered holy by Buddhists (both Bhutias and Lepchas) in West Sikkim. Sikkim's climate ranges from sub-tropical in the south to tundra in the north.[40] The tundra-type region in the north is snowbound for four months every year. Sikkim is one of the few states in India to receive regular snowfall. Borang. This. Fog affects many parts of the state during winter and the monsoons. Yumthang. landslides are frequent. The soil is coarse. The state has five seasons: winter. heavy rains increase the risk of landslides. are located near river banks. and a monsoon season between June and September. This type of soil tends to support evergreen and deciduous forests. often isolating rural towns and villages from the major urban centres. As a result.

Sikkim is allocated one seat in each of the two chambers of India's national bicameral legislature. The Sikkim High Court is the smallest state high court in the country. The Chief Minister.[45] . The governor also appoints cabinet ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. the Sikkim Legislative Assembly. located at Gangtok. a governor stands at the head of the executive power of state. and is appointed by the President of India. Sikkim has a parliamentary system of representative democracy for its governance. has a Chief Justice along with two permanent justices. The government structure is organised into three branches:  Executive: As with all states of India. and his or her main role is to oversee the swearing-in of the Chief Minister. just like the president is the head of the executive power in the Union. the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.  Judiciary: The judiciary consists of the Sikkim High Court and a system of lower courts.  Legislature: Sikkim has a unicameral legislature. universal suffrage is granted to state residents. including one reserved for the Sangha. The governor's appointment is largely ceremonial. is the head of the party or coalition garnering the largest majority in the state elections. The High Court. who holds the real executive powers. like most other Indian states.Government and politics See also: Elections in Sikkim and History of Sikkim State symbols State day State animal 16 May (day of accession to India) Red panda State bird Blood pheasant[43] State tree Rhododendron State flower Noble orchid[44] According to the Constitution of India. Its state assembly has 32 seats.

[52] Flora and fauna Sikkim is situated in an ecological hotspot of the lower Himalayas. the district collector. Pawan Kumar Chamling of the Sikkim Democratic Front became the Chief Minister of the state. was sworn in. Owing to its altitudinal gradation. the Indian National Congress gained a majority in the 1977 elections.[51] Each of Sikkim's districts is overseen by a Central Government appointee. The district capitals are Gangtok. one of only three among the ecoregions of India. Bhandari held on to power in the 1984 and 1989 elections. West Sikkim. and official permits are needed to visit them. from tropical species to temperate. Chamling and his party have since held on to power by winning the 1999. The forested regions of the state exhibit a diverse range of fauna and flora. In 1975. Chungthang is the subdivision of the North district and Ravongla is the subdivision of the South district.[9][46][47][48] Currently. North Sikkim and South Sikkim. a popular ministry headed by Nar Bahadur Bhandari. In 1979. Mangan and Namchi respectively. The Indian Army has control over a large part of the state. leader of the Sikkim Sangram Parishad Party. who is in charge of the administration of the civilian areas of the district. after the abrogation of Sikkim's monarchy. the state has a wide variety of plants.[49] Subdivisions A clickable map of Sikkim exhibiting its four districts.[53] . Pakyong and Rongli are the subdivisions of the East district. Gyalshing.The White Hall complex in Gangtok houses the residences of the Chief Minister and Governor of Sikkim.2009 and 2014 elections. Nearly 81 per cent of the area of Sikkim comes under the administration of its forest department. after a period of instability. 2004. alpine and tundra ones. In the 1994 elections.[50] These four districts are further divided into subdivisions. Sikkim has four districts – East Sikkim. Soreng is the subdivision of the West district. the Governor of Sikkim is Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil. Many areas are restricted to foreigners. and is perhaps one of the few regions to exhibit such a diversity within such a small area. as Sikkim forms part of a sensitive border area with China.

pine.[55] A variant of the Poinsettia. while the rhododendron is the state tree. figs. Higher up are Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.500 to 16.500 metres (4. birches. sal trees and bamboo grow in the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests of the lower altitudes of Sikkim. 8 tree ferns. 16 conifer species. home to a broad variety of rhododendrons and wildflowers. as well as Himalayan subtropical pine forests. where oaks. can be found in abundance in the mountainous state. laurel.900 ft) there are Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. alders. Alpine-type vegetation is typically found between an altitude of 3. about 40 species of Rhododendron bloom late April . In the temperate elevations above 1. 362 types of ferns and ferns allies.000 metres (11. and magnolias grow in large numbers. Rhododendron is its state tree. The red panda is the state animal of Sikkim. In lower elevations are found juniper. locally known as "Christmas Flower". cypresses and rhododendrons from the Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests.mid May across the state. 60 primula species. 36 rhododendron species. firs.Noble orchid (top) is Sikkim's state flower. 11 oak varieties. 23 bamboo varieties.000 species of flowering plants. and over 424 medicinal plants.500 to 5. The Noble Dendrobium is the official flower of Sikkim. chestnuts. maples.[54] Sikkim is home to around 5.[56] Orchids. 515 rare orchids. dominated by Chir pine. .400 ft). bananas.

Tibetan snowcock. hog badger. Old World flycatchers. and Himalayan jungle cat. clouded leopard. Among the animals more commonly found in the alpine zone are yaks. as well as golden eagles.[66] Despite the state's minimal industrial infrastructure.[59] dhole. and as a beast of burden. constituting the third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states. tea and cardamom. the state's GDP expanded by 89.The fauna of Sikkim include the snow leopard.93 per cent in 2010 alone. plovers. meat. and are mainly located in the southern regions of the state. tanning and watchmaking are the main industries. Asian black bear. is the chief cash crop of Sikkim. and is home to the largest cultivated area of cardamom.[61] These include the endangered Kaiseri-hind.[67] Sikkim plans to become the first state in India to transition its agriculture to entirely organic cultivation by 2015. Himalayan marmot. barley. wheat. pigeons. some of which have been declared endangered. babblers and robins. a small mining industry exists in Sikkim. Himalayan serow.[13] The state's economy is largely agrarian.[65] Because of its hilly terrain and poor transport infrastructure. quartzite. based on the terraced farming of rice and the cultivation of crops such as maize. or cardamom. Brewing. 695 have been recorded in Sikkim. Of the approximately 1. many of which remain unstudied. primarily in the towns of Melli and Jorethang.[60] Sikkim also has a rich diversity of arthropods. extracting minerals such as copper. The avifauna of Sikkim include the impeyan pheasant. crimson horned pheasant. Sikkim's nominal state gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$1. coal.[62] Economy Elaichi. In addition. Sikkim lacks a large-scale industrial base. graphite. talc. sandpipers. oranges. mainly reared for their milk. snow partridge. the most studied Sikkimese arthropods are butterflies.[57] musk deer. muntjac. zinc and lead. the Yellow Gorgon and the Bhutan Glory. dolomite.[68][69][70][71] . Himalayan goral. binturong.[63][64] Sikkim produces more cardamom than any other Indian state. distilling. Himalayan tahr. red panda.[58] marbled cat. leopard cat. quails. Tibetan wolf. Sikkim's economy has been among the fastest-growing in India since 2000. woodcocks.438 butterfly species found in the Indian subcontinent.57 billion in 2014. bearded vulture and griffon vulture. Sikkim has more than 550 species of birds. common langur. millet.

Terraced rice paddy fields of Sikkim In recent years. though the volume of traded goods has been steadily increasing.400 m) above sea level.700 feet (1.[83] As of 2015. As a result. the closest operational airport to Sikkim is Bagdogra Airport.[81][82] The airport will be capable of operating ATR aircraft. and frequent buses connect the two.[84] A daily helicopter service run by the Sikkim Helicopter Service . Pakyong Airport. after its completion was delayed from the original target of 2014. located at a distance of 30 km (19 mi) from Gangtok. Trade through the pass remains hampered by Sikkim's limited infrastructure and government restrictions in both India and China. At an altitude of 4. However. was billed as a boon for Sikkim's economy. Tibet. The airport is located about 124 km (77 mi) from Gangtok. the government of Sikkim has extensively promoted tourism. it will be one of the five highest airports in India. is expected to become operational in March 2016. connecting Lhasa.[73][74] The Playwin lottery has been a notable success in the state. The state's first casino. the Casino Sikkim.[75][76] The opening of the Nathu La pass on 6 July 2006. state revenue has increased 14 times since the mid-1990s. near the town of Siliguri in West Bengal.[79][80] It is being constructed by the Airports Authority of India on 200 acres of land. Sikkim currently does not have any operational airports or railheads because of its rough terrain. and the government subsequently issued a number of additional casino licences and online sports betting licenses.[72] Sikkim has furthermore invested in a fledgling gambling industry. opened in March 2009. the state's first airport. promoting both casinos and online gambling.[77][78] Transport Air The Teesta River is considered the state's key waterway. to India.

[94] However. Towns in southern and western Sikkim are connected to the hill stations of Kalimpong and Darjeeling in northern West Bengal.[72] Power is also obtained from the National Thermal Power Corporation and Power Grid Corporation of India.[89][90] though as of 2013 its construction has met with delays. the voltage remains unstable and voltage stabilisers are needed.[85] Sikkim National Transport runs bus and truck services. tourist taxi and jeep services operate throughout Sikkim.[51] Sikkim receives most of its electricity from 19 hydroelectric power stations. 73. The closest major railway stations are Siliguri and New Jalpaiguri in neighbouring West Bengal. and was initially planned to be completed by 2015. A branch of the highway from Melli connects western Sikkim. landslides being less frequent in this region.[91] In addition.[92] Infrastructure Sikkim's roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO). The roads in southern Sikkim are in relatively good condition.[46] The Gangtok helipad is the only civilian helipad in the state.2 per cent of Sikkim's households were reported to have access to safe .[95] In 2005. the New Sikkim Railway Project has been launched to connect the town of Rangpo in Sikkim with Sevoke on the West Bengal border. Roads A mountain road through Temi Tea Garden. the Ministry of Railways proposed plans in 2010 for railway lines linking Mirik to Ranipool. and can carry four people. The state government maintains 1. Privately run bus. The state government has promoted biogas and solar power for cooking. Rail Sikkim lacks significant railway infrastructure.connects Gangtok to Bagdogra.[93] By 2006. the flight is thirty minutes long.[86] The state is furthermore connected to Tibet by the mountain pass of Nathu La.[87] However. Per capita consumption of electricity in Sikkim was approximately 182 kWh in 2006. and also connect it to Siliguri.857 kilometres (1. the state had achieved 100 per cent rural electrification. National Highway 31A and National Highway 31 link Siliguri to Gangtok. operates only once a day. an offshoot of the Indian Army. but these have received a poor response and are used mostly for lighting purposes.[88] The five-station line is intended to support both economic development and Indian Army operations.154 mi) of roadways that do not fall under the BRO's jurisdiction.

[show]Population growth history Sikkim is India's least populous state. the average per capita income in Sikkim stood at ₹81.[51] and the state's large number of mountain streams assures a sufficient water supply. the urban population in Sikkim constituted around 11.305). thus attaining the status of "Nirmal State". with only 86 persons per square kilometre. On 8 December 2008.[99] Languages .000 males.[1] Sikkim is also one of the least densely populated Indian states. it was announced that Sikkim had become the first state in India to achieve 100 per cent sanitation coverage.06 per cent of the total.[96][97] Demographics Further information: Sikkimese people Sikkimese woman with child in Gangtok.[51] In 2011.drinking water. averaging 12.000 inhabitants as of 2011. the capital Gangtok is the most significant urban area in the mostly rural state.159 (US$1.027 females recorded in 2011. it has a high population growth rate. in 2005.661 males and 286. with a total of 321. 2004. With around 98.577 inhabitants according to the 2011 census. with 610. becoming completely free of public defecation. However. The sex ratio is 889 females per 1.36% per cent between 2001 and 2011.

825). Tamang (10.8%) Other (6. Rai. who are believed to have migrated from the Far East.292).728). Sunuwar. Gurung. Bengalis and Marwaris.Languages of Sikkim in 2001[100][101][102] Nepali (62. Thulung. Majhwar.072). Sherpa.3%) Sherpa (2.7% .[104] The native Sikkimese consist of the Bhutias. Ethnicity Due to a centuries-long population influx from Nepal. Tamang. Tibetan. who migrated from the Kham district of Tibet in the 14th century.4%) Tamang (1. Hindi (36. Limbu (34.[citation needed] the majority of Sikkim's residents are of Nepali ethnic origin. Sikkimese (41. who are prominent in commerce in South Sikkim and Gangtok. Magar. Lepcha (35.[103] The major languages spoken as per census 2001 are Nepali (338. Nepal Bhasa.6%) Lepcha (6. Limbu.6%) Hindi (6.[105] Religion Religion in Sikkim (2011)[106] Religion Hinduism Percent   57.5%) Limbu (6.6%) Sikkimese (Bhutia) (7.2%) Nepali is the lingua franca of Sikkim. Sherpa (13. Migrant resident communities include Biharis. and Yakha.089). and the Lepchas.606). Other languages include Dzongkha. Groma. Tibetans reside mostly in the northern and eastern reaches of the state. while Sikkimese (Bhutia) and Lepcha are spoken in certain areas.922). etc. English is also spoken and understood in most of Sikkim. Majhi.

Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple is very popular. .3% 9. even among Sikkim's majority Nepali Hindu population.[108] Other religious minorities include Muslims of Bihari ethnicity and Jains.4% Vajrayana Buddhism. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Sikkim is the largest Christian denomination in Sikkim.9% 1. the oldest dating back to the 1700s. and constitute around 10 per cent of the population. which accounts for 28. an estimated 57. Christians in Sikkim are mostly descendants of Lepcha people who were converted by British missionaries in the late 19th century. Sikkim has 75 Buddhist monasteries.Buddhism Christianity Islam Others         27. is Sikkim's secondlargest. since it consists of the chardham altogether.1 per cent of the population. who each account for roughly one per cent of the population. Pemayangtse Gumpa in Pelling. Vajrayana Buddhism was the state religion under the Chogyal.[107] The public and visual aesthetics of Sikkim are executed in shades of Vajrayana Buddhism and Buddhism plays a significant role in public life.the first monastery of the Chogyals and one of Sikkim's oldest monasteries The Rumtek monastery is among Sikkim's most famous religious monuments.[109] The traditional religions of the native Sikkimese account for much of the remainder of the population. There exist many Hindu temples. As of 2014.4% 3.75 per cent of the total population are now adherents of the religion. Hinduism has been the state's major religion since the arrival of the Nepalis. yet most prominent religion. Prior to Sikkim's becoming a part of the Indian Union.

[113] Losar.[117] Sikkim's most popular sports are football and cricket. Lhabab Duechen. behind Punjab and Haryana.[120] as is tongba. including Diwali and Dussera. unlike in other Indian states. most offices and educational institutions are closed for a week.Although tensions between the Lepchas and the Nepalese escalated during the merger of Sikkim with India in the 1970s.[112] Culture See also: Music of Sikkim The traditional Gumpa dance being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar. chowmein.[115] Christmas has also been promoted in Gangtok to attract tourists during the offseason. although hang gliding and river rafting have also grown popular as part of the tourism industry. gyathuk and wonton are common in Sikkim. Traditional local festivals. such as Maghe Sankranti and Bhimsen Puja. fakthu. [118] Cuisine Main article: Sikkimese cuisine Noodle-based dishes such as thukpa. Sikkim's Nepalese majority celebrate all major Hindu festivals. buffalo meat or pork and served with soup – are a popular snack.[119] Beer. there has never been any major degree of communal religious violence. whiskey. Indigenous Nepali rock and Lepcha music are also popular. During the Losar (Tibetan New Year).[116] Western rock music and Indian pop have gained a wide following in Sikkim.[121] Media . thanthuk. a millet-based alcoholic beverage which is also popular in Nepal and Darjeeling. Saga Dawa. an animist practice which coexists with Buddhism and Christianity. are also popular. Sikkim has the third-highest per capita alcoholism rate amongst all Indian states.[114] Sikkimese Muslims celebrate Eid ul-Fitr and Muharram. Momos – steamed dumplings filled with vegetables.[110][111] The traditional religion of the Lepcha people is Mun. Loosong. Drupka Teshi and Bhumchu are among the Buddhist festivals celebrated in Sikkim. rum and brandy are widely consumed in Sikkim.

the Samay Dainik. but broadband connectivity is not widely available. Satellite television channels through dish antennae are available in most homes in the state. Doordarshan and Nayuma. seven central government schools and 385 private schools. Bilokan. Channels served are largely the same as those available in the rest of India. Avyakta.29 per cent for males and 76.[125] Twelve colleges and other institutions in Sikkim offer higher education.[123] Internet cafés are well established in the district capitals. including 765 schools run by the state government.43 per cent for females. are locally printed. The Telegraph.The Dro-dul Chorten Stupa in Gangtok. medicine and management.2 per cent: 87. Sikkim Express (English). Himalayan Mirror (English daily). which .157 schools in the state. is one of the leading Nepali daily newspapers in the region. the state receives regional editions of national English newspapers such as The Statesman. the Journal of Hill Research.[126] There are two state-run polytechnical schools. Khaber Khagaj. It also runs a host of distance education programs in diverse fields. Pragya Khabar (Nepali weekly) and Himalibela.[124] There are a total of 1. which offers higher education in engineering. Kanchanjunga Times (Nepali weekly). and the Sikkim Science Society Newsletter are among other registered publications. Nepali and Hindi daily newspapers. The largest institution is the Sikkim Manipal University of Technological Sciences. Himalaya Darpan. Sikkim Now (English).[122] Furthermore. as well as some English newspapers. although Nepali-language channels are also available. the Advanced Technical Training Centre (ATTC) and the Centre for Computers and Communication Technology (CCCT). whereas Hindi and English newspapers are printed in Siliguri. The main service providers include Dish TV. The southern urban areas of Sikkim have English. The Sikkim Herald is an official weekly publication of the government. Nepalilanguage newspapers. Important local dailies and weeklies include Hamro Prajashakti (Nepali daily). Education In 2011 Sikkim's adult literacy rate was 82. the English news portal Haalkhabar and the literary magazine Tistarangit. Online media covering Sikkim include the Nepali newspaper Himgiri. Panda. a Nepali daily published in Siliguri. The Hindu and The Times of India.

FOR CONCRETE Quantities of materials for the production of required quantity of concrete of given mix proportions can be calculated by absolute volume method.[127] Many students. Kolkata. coarse aggregates and water. This method is based on the principle that the volume of fully compacted concrete is equal to the absolute volume of all the materials of concrete. cement. and CCCT at Chisopani. Sikkim University began operating in 2008 at Yangang. <img style="background-image: none. ATTC is situated at Bardang. Namchi. however.offer diploma courses in various branches of engineering. which is situated about 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Singtam. migrate to Siliguri. padding-top: 0px. Singtam. display: inline. . border: 0px. Bangalore and other Indian cities for their higher education.e. sand." title="concrete-materials-calculationfor-any-volume" src="http://theconstructor. padding-left: 0px. padding-right: 0px.

jpg" alt="quantities-of-mateirals-for-concreteformula" width="258" height="44" border="0" /> Where. padding-right: 0px.jpg" alt="concrete-materials-calculation-for-any-volume" width="568" height="250" border="0" /> The formula for calculation of materials for required volume of concrete is given by: <img style="background-image: none. padding-top: 0px. border: 0px. . Sfa and Sca are the specific gravities of cement. fine aggregates and coarse aggregates respectively. This method of calculation for quantities of materials for concrete takes into account the mix proportions from design mix or nominal mixes for structural strength and durability requirement.content/uploads/2015/04/concrete-materials-calculation-for-any-volume. padding-left: 0px." title="quantities-of-mateirals-for-concrete-formula" src=" The air content has been ignored in this calculation. Vc = Absolute volume of fully compacted fresh concrete W =Mass of water C = Mass of cement Fa = Mass of fine aggregates Ca = Mass of coarse aggregates Sc. display: inline.

45.5:3 where. Consider concrete with mix proportion of 1:1.6. The mix proportion of 1:1.15 Sand = 2. Assuming bulk densities of materials as follows: Cement = 1500 kg/m3 Sand = 1700 kg/m3 Coarse aggregates = 1650 kg/m3 Specific gravities of concrete materials are as follows: Cement = 3. .5 x 1700 = 2550 Coarse aggregate = 3 x 1650 = 4950.5:3 by dry volume of materials can be expressed in terms of masses as: Cement = 1 x 1500 = 1500 Sand = 1. 1 is part of cement. The water cement ratio required for mixing of concrete is taken as 0.6 Coarse aggregates = 2.5 is part of fine aggregates and 3 is part of coarse aggregates of maximum size of 20mm.Now we will learn the material calculation by an example. 1. The percentage of entrained air assumed is 2%.

padding-right: 0px. display: inline. paddingleft: 0px. border: 0px.45 Now we will calculate the volume of concrete that can be produced with one bag of cement (i. Thus. padding-top: 0px. . sand and coarse aggregates" src="http://theconstructor. the absolute volume of concrete for 50 kg of cement = <img style="backgroundimage: none. 50 kg cement) for the mass proportions of concrete materials. cement will as follows = <img style="background-image: none.e. padding-left: 0px.3 The water cement ratio = 0. the ratio of masses of these materials w. sand and coarse aggregates" width="94" height="40" border="0" /> = 1 : 1.7 : 3.jpg" alt="Volume of concrete for 1 bag of cement " width="408" height="40" border="0" /> Thus." title="Volume of concrete for 1 bag of cement " src="http://theconstructor. paddingright: 0px. border: 0px. for the proportion of mix considered.t. padding-top: 0px. display: inline. m3 of concrete can be with on3 bag of cement of 50 kg.jpg" alt="Ratio of masses of cement." title="Ratio of masses of cement.

29 bags of cement. Solve the resulting equation 5. Idealise the structure 2. The word idealized is used because the bridge engineer needs to be aware that he is only analyzing an idealized model of the bridge and not the bridge itself. The quantities of materials for 1 m3 of concrete production can be calculated as follows: The weight of cement required = 7.We have considered an entrained air of 2%. the quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of concrete = 0. Interpret the idealized results 6.1345 = 7. Thus. Weight of coarse aggregate = 3 x 364.75 kg. Thus the actual volume of concrete for 1 cubic meter of compacted concrete construction will be = 1 -0.02 = 0. Idealise the loading in a form suitable for the model 4.5 kg. Form a model 3. Check these results so that they comply with initial assumptions and meet any specific criteria.5 kg.5 = 1093.5 = 546.98 m3.98/0. Weight of fine aggregate (sand) = 1.5 x 364. STEPS IN ANALYSING A BRIDGE STEPS IN ANALYSING A BRIDGE The analytical process for structure of bridges can be broken down to six main steps: 1.29 x 50 = 364. .

border-left: 0px. The values to be calculated will depend on the . border-bottom: 0px.jpg" width="400" height="145" /> The bridge designer must remember that these lines do represent real beams with breadth. These line elements have length and stiffness but no depth or breadth. padding-top: 0px" title="Idealise the structure" border="0" alt="Idealise the structure" src="http://theconstructor. border-right: 0px. Form a model: Once the idealized structure of line elements has been produced it must then be allocated both stiffness and areas. padding-right: 0px. For they will have to return from one idealized bridge design to the real one in order to select reinforcement and prestressing and check compliance. depth and reinforcement. padding-left: 0px. margin: 0px auto. <img style="backgroundimage: none. float: none. bordertop: 0px. padding-top: 0px" title="Idealise the structure" border="0" alt="Idealise the structure" src="http://theconstructor. 2. padding-right: Idealise the structure: This is generally a process of simplification whereby the real bridge members are replaced by simplified models. float: beams may be replaced by line elements. border-right: 0px. For example. margin: 0px auto.1. bordertop: 0px. display: block. padding-left: 0px. display: block. border-left: 0px. They are thus idealization of real beams as shown below. border-bottom: 0px.jpg" width="386" height="142" /> <img style="backgroundimage: none.

org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/clip_image006.jpg" width="388" height="257" /> Fig: 2-D Grillage Model Bending in beams leads to torsion in beams at 90degree.type of model that is being formed. loading will have been specified as part of the design. padding-top: 0px" title="Bridge model" border="0" alt="Bridge model" src="http://theconstructor. margin: 0px auto. border-left: 0px. The specification is likely to be in terms of a codified loading that has been already idealized. so it is idealized as a uniform loading as shown below. padding-left: 0px. 3. A 2D grillage model requires both bending and torsional stiffnesses but no area as there are no axial load present. border-right: 0px. Idealise the loading: In general. border-top: 0px. . display: block. float: none. border-bottom: 0px. A 2D beam only requires bending stiffness and cross-sectional area to be calculated. filling cabinets. Nearly all the models will require the elastic modulus to be supplied. chairs. Typical examples for bridges in Britain are HA and HB loading as specified by the Highways Agency code BD 37/88. padding-right: 0px. A 3D space frame model will require bending and torsional stiffness and areas in several directions. people etc. Another example of idealization is office loading. <img style="backgroundimage: none. However this is very inconvenient to analyse as individual components. Think of the contents of a typical office: desks.

. border-top: 0px. border-bottom: 0px. padding-top: 0px" title="Idealization of office loading" border="0" alt="Idealization of office loading" src="http://theconstructor.jpg" width="480" height="187" /> Fig: Idealization of office loading Likewise. display: block. Much of the remaining idealization has been done of authors of the commercial computer programs. border-left: 0px. padding-left: 0px. padding-top: 0px" title="HB loaded vehicle" border="0" alt="HB loaded vehicle" src="http://theconstructor. display: block. padding-right: 0px.<img style="background-image: none. border-left: 0px. margin: 0px" width="208" height="152" /> Fig: HB loaded vehicle <img style="background-image: none. border-top: 0px. fortunately most of the idealization has been done by the code authors. border-bottom: 0px. border-right: 0px. bunching etc). border-right: 0px. float: none. float: none. bridge loading is idealized into uniform line and point loads to represent typical traffic behavior (of speed. padding-right: 0px. margin: 0px auto. impact. padding-left: 0px.

For example. It would be extremely tedious to convert standard HA and HB loads into node loads for each load case by hand. . The use of computers has meant that much larger and more complex designs can now be tackled without worrying about computation time and effort. Typically the stiffness matrix method is used. Grillage moments will have a sawtooth appearance which does not occur in real structures. float: none. display: padding-top: 0px" title="loading on bridge" border="0" alt="loading on bridge" src="http://theconstructor. torsions. shears. deflections and rotations. However. grillages only take vertical loads at each node.<img style="background-image: none. borderbottom: 0px. border-top: 0px. border-right: 0px.jpg" width="228" height="245" /> Fig: Converting points loads to uniformly distributed loads. 4. Interpretation of the idealized results: The results obtained from the analysis will generally be moments. border-left: 0px. For instance. margin: 0px auto. slab moments are shears need to be averaged out per meter width. These results are only applicable to the idealized structure. padding-left: 0px. Solve the resulting equation: If the model selected is a simple one. then the equations of structural analysis can be solved by hand using such method as moment distribution or known coefficients such as WL/8. 5. if a method such as grillage or finite element analysis has been used then a computer program will normally be used to solve the equations. padding-right: 0px. axial forces. The reverse of the idealization process needs to be applied. This tedium has been removed by commercial analysis programs which contain pre-processors which do this automatically.

Only simple hand checks are generally required. margin: 0px auto. The moments and shears obtained from the isolated beam should be similar to those from the corresponding member in the grillage model. A typical longitudinal beam can be viewed in isolation with a proportion of the deck loading. Only a few simple checks are required.<img style="backgroundimage: none. border-right: 0px. the inclusion of all loading and the other of magnitude of the A typical example is the grillage analysis of a simply supported bridge deck. If there is a significant difference between the load cases. border-bottom: 0px. The two total values should be equal. the working of the model. display: block. padding-right: 0px. border-left: 0px. float: none. Checking the results: The importance of this part of the procedure should not be underestimated. As with the analysis the results need to be interpreted in relation to the true structure. and they can be selected at random from the known load cases. if there is a significant difference this implies that there is a problem with the model. border-top: 0px. padding-top: 0px" title="interpreting bridge analysis results" border="0" alt="interpreting bridge analysis results" src="http://theconstructor. the input data. The support reactions should then be summed together for that load case. Once the designer has satisfied themselves that they are happy with the checks they can proceed with using the model results. NOTE: HA & HB LOADING . padding-left: 0px. the total load applied to the grillage model is known. For a typical load case. but they can be used to great effect to confirm. 6. this implies that the load cases have not been applied to the modal properly.jpg" width="415" height="249" /> The grillage moments need to be smoothed by averaging to give true value. Again.

. HB loading.HA loading consists of uniformly distributed loads combined with line loads. on the other hand represents a standard abnormal vehicle which could weigh upto 180 tonnes on each axle.

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