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Annotated Bibliography

The Columbian Exchange
Anna Dupré
Primary Sources
Columbus, Christopher and Stevens, B.F. Codex Diplomaticus of Christopher Columbus.
1893. Unknown location. Library of Congress. Web. 22 January 2016.
This image was used to represent my annotated bibliography on my website, because it
was a primary source. However, I did not use the information written down (because it
was unrelated to my thesis), which explains why I cited it in a MLA picture format.
Columbus, Christopher and Wisconsin Historical Society. Journal of the First Voyage of
Columbus. WHS, 2003. PDF file.
This PDF file was Christopher Columbus’ journal in English, with annotations. It
helped me understand what Columbus went through, what he was thinking when he
encountered the Native Americans, and many other things.
De Bry, Theodor. Columbus Landing on Hispaniola. 1594. Public domain. Christopher
Columbus. 1st ed. By Struan Reid. Chicago: Heinemann Library. 19. Print.
This engraving located in one of my books showed the encounter between the Native
Americans and Columbus.
Halsall, Paul. "Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal."
Fordham. Fordham University, 1996. Web. 25 September 2015.
This website page included an excerpt from Columbus’ journal. It was from an
Internet History Sourcebooks Project. It’s a great primary source because I can know
exactly what Columbus thought during his exploration to the New World, encounter
with the Natives, and his exchange with them.
Ortelius, Abraham. Unknown. 1570. No known location of map. Bricatannica. Web. 30 Sep
This map showed me what people thought the world looked like. It is very similar to
what our world map looks like today, because of the exchange of ideas that were
happening during the 16th century. I used it as the header of my website.
Unknown artist. Aztec Smallpox Victims. 16th century. Public domain. Wikimedia. Web. 30 Sep.
This Aztec drawing depicted the exchange of diseases between Europe and the
Americas. Many Native Americans died because they were not immune to the diseases
that the Europeans were immune to.
Unknown artist. Cortez & La Malinche. 1500-1600. Public domain. Wikimedia. Web. 9 Dec.
This shows how the Europeans and Native Americans encountered. It also shows how

the Natives judged the explorers on their appearance.
Secondary Sources
Adams, Simon, and Ann Kramer. Exploration & Empire. New York: Warwick Press, 1990.
This book had many maps and pictures. It also included information on how Native
Americans were affected by the European explorers.
CNYRIC and OCS. “European Colonies in Latin America.” n.d. PDF file. 22 Sep. 2015.
This PDF file explained how Columbus got to America and what the implications were
from the Spanish’s presence. (How they encountered and exchanged.)
Cory Malone, Katie Ryan, Sarah Gray, and Sean Ross. Gettsyburg. Gettysburg College. n.d.
Web. 22 Sep. 2015.
This website gave me information on the Columbian Exchange and how different
people were affected by it.
Crosby, Alfred. "The Columbian Exchange." Gilder Lehrman. The Gilder Lehrman Institute
of American History, n.d. Web. 28 Sep. 2015.
The website page, written by Alfred W. Crosby, explained the exchange between the
Native Americans and the Europeans. It mainly focused on the crops/livestock and the
diseases that were spread.
McNeill, J.R. "The Columbian Exchange." Learnnc. LEARN NC, 2008. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
This website went in-depth about the items that were exchanged during the Columbian
Exchange. It also included examples of how similar exchanges happen today.
Reid, Struan. Christopher Columbus. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2002. Print.
This book included information on Christopher Columbus’ life and his explorations to
the New World. It explains how he got to the New World and what he found there.
Ross, Stewart. Into the Unknown. Somerville: Candlewick Press, 2011. Print.
Into the Unknown had a section about Christopher Columbus and his voyage to
America and how it happened.
Unknown artist. Airplane-travel.jpg. 2012. Digital only. Jadabugs.wordpress. Web. 1 Aug.
This image represented the effects of the Columbian Exchange on my website.
Unknown artist. Puzzle-pieces.jpg. 2015. Digital only. Washington Country Wisdoms. Web. 25
January 2016.
This picture was used to represent my process paper on my website. This is because
the process paper is mainly about piecing your project together.

Vanderlyn, John. Landing of Columbus. 1836/1837. United States Capitol Rotunda,
Washington, D.C. Learnnc. Web. 30 Sep. 2015.
This oil on canvas shows the encounter between Columbus and the Natives. The
Natives are timidly watching Columbus claim the land.
Widmer, Ted. “Navigating the Age of Exploration.” Gilder Lehrman. The Gilder Lehrman
Institute of American History, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2016.
This website page included information on the effects and a deep analysis of the events
that happened during the Columbian Exchange, or as the author called it, the Age of