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PRACTICAL ASPECTS IN

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Prof. Dubravka Bjegović, Ph.D.C.E.
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Enginering, Department for
Materials
Institut IGH, d.d., Zagreb, Croatia

Assis.prof. Irina Stipanović Oslaković, Ph.D.C.E.
Institut IGH d.d., Zagreb, Croatia
University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,
Construction Management and Engineering Department, Netherlands
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CONCRETE IN EUROPE
• Yearly production of concrete in Europe - 750
millions m3 (around 4 tonnes per EU citizen)
• In the European Union (EU27 countries), total
cement production in 2007 is estimated at 283
million tonnes, representing 10.5% of world
production.
• Cement production in the EU is dominated by
Spain, at over 19% of the EU total, followed by Italy
and Germany.
• Natural resources consumation - 9 billion tonnes of
sand and rock and 0.9 billion tonnes of mixing water
annually
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Concrete construction
• Concrete construction is
becoming increasingly
complex and the importance
of producing structures that
meet required performances
or that satisfies their
strength, that are cost
effective and durable has
never been higher.
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durability. 4 . strength. is termed the concrete mix design. and workability as economically as possible.Concrete mix design • The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required.

65 t/m3 water ρw= 1 t/m3 concrete chemical and/or mineral addmixtures ρcon= 2.4 t/m3 5 .CONCRETE – building product produced from: cement ρc= 3 t/m3 aggregate ρa= 2.

Concrete mix design • The various factors affecting the mix design are: – – – – Compressive strength Workability Durability Cost 6 .

7 . • The mean compressive strength required at a specific age.Compressive strength • It is one of the most important properties of concrete and influences many other describable properties of the hardened concrete. usually 28 days.

therefore. becomes of vital importance. it cannot be properly placed and compacted.Two states of concrete • The proportioning of ingredient of concrete is governed by the required performance of concrete in 2 states: – the plastic and – the hardened states. • If the plastic concrete is not workable. 8 . The property of workability.

Workability • The degree of workability required depends on three factors: – the size of the section to be concreted. • The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment available at the site. and – the method of compaction to be used. – the amount of reinforcement. 9 .

This also applies to the embedded steel sections.Workability • For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible parts. the concrete must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable amount of effort. 10 .

• Concrete durability: its resistance to weathering action. abrasion and other degradation processes.Concrete durability • Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures and when assessing the condition of existing structures. chemical attack. 11 .

Concrete durability • Different concretes require different degrees of durability depending on the exposure environment and the properties desired. 12 .

– the “performance based” approach.Concrete durability • Durability of concrete can be addressed by two approaches: – the “prescriptive” approach. 13 .

Concrete durability “Prescriptive approach” • In the “prescriptive” approach. 14 . and construction methods based on fundamental principles and practices that exhibit satisfactory performance. proportions. designers specify materials.

Concrete durability
“Performance based approach”
• In the “performance based” approach,
designers identify functional requirements
such as strength, durability, and volume
changes, and rely on concrete producers and
contractors to develop concrete mixtures to
meet those requirements.

15

Concrete durability
• High strength concrete is generally more
durable than low strength concrete.
• In the situations when the high strength is not
necessary but the conditions of exposure are
such that high durability is vital, the durability
requirement will be determined by concrete
penetrability (absorption, diffusion,
permeability).
P
H2O

C1

C2
C1 > C2
16

Performance specifications
• Performance specifications define
performance for a given exposure and life
expectancy, and include tests, which are tied
not only in the laboratory but also to the field
performance of concrete.

17

Cost of concrete • The cost of concrete is made up of the cost of materials. plant and labour. 18 .

placing and curing practices.Concrete service life • Concrete ingredients. interactions between them. and the service environment determine the ultimate durability and service life of the concrete. 19 . their proportioning.

micro silica and metakaolin. – The supplementary cementitious materials not only influence the strength of concrete. – There are now a variety of supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash.Variables in the concrete mix proportioning -1 – The actual cement strength is not necessarily the one expressed by the ‘grade’ of cement. ggbs. but also the water demand. workability and the ability to retain workability of the mix! 20 .

(sometimes a need) to use 56 days or even 90 days strength as against 28 days strength. – The transportation and placing methods have their own demand on the properties of fresh concrete at different stages. each generation of these bringing in greater complexity in the interplay of the constituents of concrete. – Designers (both structural and concrete mix) have the confidence. 21 .Variables in the concrete mix proportioning -2 – Admixtures continue to evolve.

– Unit weight of coarse aggregate. 22 . – Mixing-water requirements of concrete developed from experience with available aggregates.Information for materials -1 • For the concrete mix proportioning the following information for available materials will be useful: – Sieve analyses of fine and coarse aggregates. – Bulk specific gravities and absorption of aggregates.

23 . if used. – Optimum combination of coarse aggregates to meet the maximum density grading for mass concrete. – Specific gravity of Portland cement and other cementitious materials.Information for materials -2 – Relationship between strength and water-cement ratio or ratio of water-to-cement plus other cementitious materials.

Examples: (prescriptive approach) Simple one Complex one 24 .

EXAMPLES based on EN norms related to concrete structures: EUROCODES and EN 206-1 1. CONCRETE REINFORCED ROOF PLATE 2. PRESTRESSED BEAM IN BRIDGE 25 .

REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF PLATE 26 .1.

27 . REINFORCED CONCRETE ROOF PLATE • Basic data about structural element – Concrete mix design has to be done for reinforced concrete roof plate situated in the appartement house – From structure design: plate height is 20 cm.1. and surface area 135 m2.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) POURING CONCRETE C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 28 .

rarely dry Concrete surface exposed to long-term contact with water Most foundations XC3 Moderate wet Concrete in structures with moderate to high RH of air Outer concrete protected from rain XC4 Changing dry and wet conditions Concrete surface in contact with water but different from XC2 • Plate is in the environment class XC1 29 .Requirements for concrete are defined in structural design project ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSES Corrosion induced by carbonation XC1 Dry or permanently wet Concrete in structures with low RH or dry air Concrete permanently submerged XC2 Humid.

50 C30/37 300 - 30 .Requirements for concrete mix design based on durability DURABILITY CONDITION – Recommended limit values for concrete mix design for XC1 Exposure class Max w/c ratio Min concrete strength class Min.55 C30/37 280 - XC 4 0.65 C25/30 260 - XC 2 0. amount of cement (kg/m3) Min air content (%) Other requirements Degradation process: Carbonation XC 1 0.60 C30/37 280 - XC 3 0.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) IDENTITY TEST POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 31 .

– Testing according HRN EN 12390-3 32 .Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project CONCRETE STRENGTH • Concrete must be of at least compressive strength class C25/30.

5. it is necessary to prove (certify) cement’s declared properties 33 . • It has to satisfy specifiations given in HRN EN 197-1. strength class 32.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project CEMENT • For construction of concrete plate following cement may be used: cement for general purpose. » • Before using cement in the concrete production.

m > fck + (6 do 12) N/mm2 fc.m > 30 + 8 = 38 N/mm2 • for fc.55 w/c 34 .m = 38 N/mm2 cement class 32.5 • From the diagram w/c ratio can be read and it is recommended to use: w/c 0.Requirements for concrete mix design based on cement’s strength and type STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS fc(MPa) C25/30 fc.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 35 .

Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project CONCRETE COVER • Nominal concrete cover depth (cnom) is determined from: cnom=cmin + ∆c (mm) where: – cmin – minimum concrete cover depth depending on environment class and i requirements for adhesion properties – ∆c – allowed deviation (tolerance) in concrete cover depth • Nominal concrete cover depth is cnom je 20 mm. 36 .

Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project AGGREGATE • It is chosen to use natural river aggregate due to the source and proved quality • Has to be certified and tested according HRN EN 12620.06 % Chlorides content AS0. Requirement Property Class SI20 Shape index Class LA35 Course aggregate resistance to grinding Class FNR Frost resistance < 0.2 Maximum sulpfate content dissolved in acid ≤ 1% Total suplhate content 37 .

8 horizontal distance of reinforcing bars – cnom – concrete cover depth = 20 mm – d – plate height = 20 cm – a – horizontal distance between reinforcing bars = 125 mm 1) 2) 3) Dmax ≤ c = 20 mm Dmax ≤ 1/3×d = 1/3×200 = 66.7 mm Dmax ≤ 0.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project MAXIMUM GRAIN SIZE • Maximum grain size Dmax may not be greater than: 1) 2) 3) concrete cover depth cnom 1/3 of plate height 0.8×a = 0.8×125 = 100 mm Selected: Dmax=16 mm 38 .

5 5-7 4-8 3 7-10 39 .Requirements for concrete mix design based on maximum grain size Dmax CHOICE OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES – Concrete will be produced without admixtures DETERMINATION OF PORE AMOUNT IN CONCRETE (assumed values for design procedure) Max grain size (mm) The amount of air in non-aerated concrete (%) The amount of entrained air .5 3-5 8-16 2.pores (%) 32-63 0.4 2-3 16-32 1.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 40 .

Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project WORKABILITY REQUIREMENTS – SLUMP VALUES Structure type Transport type Slump (mm) Not reinforced or weak reinforced concrete foundations Straps. trucks.50 130 .50 Concreting under water Pumps. trucks 10 . tubes 120 .180 Mass concrete Straps. sylobus Anchoring pouring. columns Pumps.200 41 . container on crane 80 . container on crane 60 .120 Heavily reinforced columns and beams Pumps. casting plates of machines Containers 10 . plates.160 Industrial floors. special containers 10 . walls. roads Straps.50 Reinforced foundations.

210 V3 10 .45 .90 V1 30 .40 V0 ≥ 31 C0 ≥ 1.1.620 - - - - - - F6 ≥ 630 42 .6 C3 1.26 F2 350 .1.10 .11 C2 1.550 S5 ≥ 220 V4 5-3 C4 < 1.21 C1 1.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project • Class of workability – slump 60 -120 mm → selected S2 (50-90 mm) Slump class (mm) Vebe class (s) Compaction class Spread class (mm) S1 10 .150 V2 20 .25 .410 S3 100 .11 F3 420 .480 S4 160 .04 F4 490 .04 F5 560 .46 F1 ≤ 340 S2 50 .1.

Requirements for concrete mix design based on workability Water amount for 1m3 of fresh concrete (l) Workabillity condition – Choice of demanded amouont of water for achieving slump class S2 Curve Crushed aggregate River aggregate S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 A63 120 145 160 95 125 140 A32 130 155 175 105 135 150 A16 140 170 190 120 155 175 A8 155 190 210 150 185 205 B63 135 160 180 115 145 165 B32 140 175 195 130 165 185 B16 150 185 205 140 180 200 B8 175 205 225 170 200 220 C63 145 180 200 135 175 190 C32 165 200 220 160 195 215 C16 185 215 235 175 205 225 C8 200 230 250 185 215 235 43 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES WORKABILITY IDENTITY CONTROL ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 44 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY DURABILITY WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONCRETE MIX DEISGN GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES IDENTITY CONTROL POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 45 .

8 Selected amount of cement: 282 46 .55 0.CONCRETE MIX DESIGN SELECTED VALUES Type of cement Cement CEM I 32.65 Selected 0.55 Amount of water for 1 m3 concrete ( l ) Amount of cement (kg) 155 Lowest amount of cement – durability condition: Amount of cement from w/c – strength condition: 260 281.5 w/c ratio Strength condition Durability condition 0.5 Type of aggregate Natural river aggregate Max grain size (mm) 16 Pores (%) 2.

5 % - Aggregate 1924.0 w/c = 0.0 47 .0 TOTAL 2361.0 Water 155.55 - Air 2.Concrete mix design Calculated values ma md mw mc     Vz  1000  w c z ZPS  d Component mass (kg/m3) Cement 282.

2 x 135 = 27 m3 • Needed amount of each component: – Cement: – Water: – Aggregate: 7614 kg 4185 l 51945 kg 48 .CALCULATION OF TOTAL CONCRETE NEEDED • Plate dimensions: – Depth 20 cm – Surface 135 m2 • Needed concrete total volume: Vbet = 0.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY DURABILITY WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES IDENTITY CONTROL C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 49 .

Quality control for determination of concrete mix design • Quality control during production of concrete – at the concrete plant • Qulity control at site before pouring concrete – identity control testing 50 .

QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Testing of fresh concrete properties – workability .slump – pore amount – temperature 51 .

QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Sampling in order to make control of hardenet concrete propestries: – Identity of compressive strength 52 .

QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Program for sampling for test on hardened concrete in order to prove identity of compressive strength and other required properties • Criteria: – Certified production of concrete – Uncertified production of concrete Property Number of samples Compressive strength 3 samples 53 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES IDENTITY CONTROL C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 54 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (IDENTITY TEST) POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 55 .

2. PRESTRESSED BEAM IN BRIDGE 56 .

Beam cross section 57 . width 420 cm. for train bridge • Data from structure design project – – – – Beam height 130 cm.2. length 24.00 m. span 23.60 m. PRESTRESSED BEAM IN BRIDGE • Concrete mix design for 2 prestressed beams in longitudinal direction. freely supported on ends.

and post-tensioned prestressed in longitudinal direction • Grouting of tendons after prestressing. 58 .Reinforcement • Beam is heavily reinforced.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) POURING CONCRETE C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 59 .

Requirements for concrete based on structural design project Asset type • Bridge for 2-track-railway • Main span is over the river vale. • Frost action. • Atmospheric action. Environment class • Outer element. 60 .

kitchens) Moderate humidity or cyclic wet and dry Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces exposed to alternate wetting and drying Interior concrete surfaces of pedestrian subways not subject to de-icing salts. but which are exposed to de-icing salts either directly or as spray or run-off XF3 High water saturation without de-icing agent Horizontal concrete surfaces. rarely dry Reinforced and prestressed concrete completely buried in soil. but exposed to freezing and to rain or water XF2 Moderate water saturation with de-icing agent Concrete surfaces such as parts of bridges.Exposure classes Corrosion caused by carbonation XC1 Dry or permanently wet Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces inside enclosed structures except areas of structures with high humidity Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces permanently submerged in non-aggressive water XC2 Wet. which would otherwise be classified as XF1. poorly ventilated bathrooms. where water accumulates and which are exposed to freezing Concrete surfaces subjected to frequent splashing with water and exposed to freezing High water saturation with de-icing agent or sea water Horizontal concrete surfaces. direct rain Reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces subject to high humidity (e. such as roads and pavements. foundations Moderate humidity External reinforced and prestressed concrete surfaces sheltered from. exposed to freezing and to de-icing salts either directly or as spray or run-off Concrete surfaces subjected to frequent splashing with water containing de-icing agents and exposed to freezing XF1 XF4 61 . such as parts of buildings. voided superstructures or cellular abutments Reinforced or prestressed concrete beneath waterproofing XC3 XC4 Corrosion caused by freezing/thawing with or without de-icing salts Moderate water saturation without de-icing agent Vertical concrete surfaces such as façades and columns exposed to rain and freezing Non-vertical concrete surfaces not highly saturated.g. or exposed to.

55 C30/37 300 - Additional requirements Aggregate according HRN EN 12620 has to be frost resistant 62 . amount of cement (kg/m3) Min air content (%) XC 4 0.50 C30/37 300 - XF 1 0.Requirements for concrete mix design based on durability DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS – Recommended limit values for concrete composition for clasess XC4 and XF1 Environment class Max wc ration Min strength Min.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) IDENTITY TEST POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 63 .

HRN EN 12390-3) C35/45 Average concrete tensile strength fctm (testing acc.025) 33500 N/mm2 Minimum compressive strength needed for prestressing calculated on final force of prestressing (at the age of concrete of 30 days tested on concrete cylinder) 34 N/mm2 64 . HRN U.M1.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE: STRENGTH AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY Compressive strength class (testing acc.2 N/mm2 Static modulus of elasticity (Ecm) (acc. HRN EN 12390-6) 3.

length 24. – With the condition of low hydration heat (sign LH). width 420 cm.5. • Need to be certified 65 .60 m – cement for general purpose. • Cement has to satisfy specifications according norms HRN EN 197-1 and HRN EN 197-3.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project CEMENT • It is possible to use: Beam: height 130 cm. – Strength class 42.

m > fck + (6 do 12) N/mm2 fc.5 • From diagram read value is: w/c ratio of 0.m > 45 + 10 = 55 N/mm2 • for fc.m = 55 N/mm2 and class of cement 42.Requirements for concrete mix design based on concrete strength required and chosen cement Strength conditions fc(MPa) C35/45 fc.45 w/c 66 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 67 .

Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project CONCRETE COVER • Nominal concrete cover depth (cnom) is determined from: cnom=cmin + ∆c (mm) where: – cmin – minimum concrete cover depth depending on environment class and i requirements for adhesion properties – ∆c – allowed deviation (tolerance) in concrete cover depth • cnom = 55 mm for ordinary steel reinforcement • cnom = 105 mm for prestressing steel 68 .

2 Maximum sulpfate content dissolved in acid ≤ 1% Total suplhate content 69 .03 % Chlorides content AS0.075 % Volume stability – shrinkaeg due to drying Class F1 Frost resistance < 0. Requirement Property Class SI20 Shape index Class LA35 Course aggregate resistance to grinding ≤ 0.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project AGGREGATE • It is chosen to use crashed aggregate due to the source and proved quality • Has to be certified and tested according HRN EN 12620.

Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project MAXIMUM GRAIN SIZE d • Maximum grain size Dmax may not be greater than: 1) concrete cover depth cnom 2) 1/4 of beam height 3) 0.8 horizontal distance of reinforcing bars  minimum sistance is 90 mm accroding the project – cnom – concrete cover depth = 50 mm – d – plate height = 20 cm – a – horizontal distance between reinforcing bars = 125 mm 1) 2) 3) Dmax ≤ c = 550 mm Dmax ≤ 1/4×d = 1/3×250 = 62.5 mm Dmax ≤ 0.8×a = 0.8×90 = 72 mm Selected: Dmax=32 mm 70 .

Requirements for concrete mix design based on maximum grain size Dmax CHOICE OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES – Concrete will be produced wit admixture – AIR ENTRAINING AGENT in order to ensure frost resistance of concrete DETERMINATION OF PORE AMOUNT IN CONCRETE (assumed values for design procedure) Max grain size (mm) The amount of air in non-aerated concrete (%) The amount of entrained air .4 2-3 16-32 1.5 3-5 8-16 2.5 5-7 4-8 3 7-10 71 .pores (%) 32-63 0.

HRN EN 480-11): – Air spacing ratio in tested mix has to be ≤ 0.200 mm • Compressive strenght at 28th day (teseted acc. HRN EN 12350-7): – Tested mix ≥ 2.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project • Choice of concrete admixtures and requirements • Pore content in fresh concrete (testing acc. HRN EN 12350-3): – Tested mix ≥ 75% of control mix 72 .5% of the value in the control mix – Total content of air should be 4-6% of volume • Pores in hardened concrete (testing acc.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (BEFORE POURING CONCRETE) C O S T POURING CONTROL AFTER POURING 73 .

120 Heavily reinforced columns and beams Pumps. tubes 120 . trucks.160 Industrial floors. walls. casting plates of machines Containers 10 . sylobus Anchoring pouring. container on crane 80 .50 130 . container on crane 60 . columns Pumps. roads Straps. special containers 10 .50 Concreting under water Pumps. trucks 10 .200 74 .180 Mass concrete Straps. plates.50 Reinforced foundations.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project WORKABILITY REQUIREMENTS – SLUMP VALUES Structure type Transport type Slump (mm) Not reinforced or weak reinforced concrete foundations Straps.

46 F1 ≤ 340 S2 50 .550 S5 ≥ 220 V4 5-3 C4 < 1.11 F3 420 .04 F5 560 .45 .1.90 V1 30 .410 S3 100 .150 V2 20 .480 S4 160 .04 F4 490 .6 C3 1.Requirements for concrete mix design based on structural design project • Class of workability – slump 80 -160 mm → selected S3 (100-150 mm) Slump class (mm) Vebe class (s) Compaction class Spread class (mm) S1 10 .25 .21 C1 1.10 .40 V0 ≥ 31 C0 ≥ 1.26 F2 350 .620 - - - - - - F6 ≥ 630 75 .210 V3 10 .1.1.11 C2 1.

Requirements for concrete mix design based on workability Water amount for 1m3 of fresh concrete (l) Workabillity condition – Choice of demanded amouont of water for achieving slump class S3 Curve Crushed aggregate River aggregate S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 A63 120 145 160 95 125 140 A32 130 155 175 105 135 150 A16 140 170 190 120 155 175 A8 155 190 210 150 185 205 B63 135 160 180 115 145 165 B32 140 175 195 130 165 185 B16 150 185 205 140 180 200 B8 175 205 225 170 200 220 C63 145 180 200 135 175 190 C32 165 200 220 160 195 215 C16 185 215 235 175 205 225 C8 200 230 250 185 215 235 76 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES WORKABILITY IDENTITY CONTROL ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 77 .

It is recommended to: – use cement of low hydration heat during mix design – preliminary testing of heat development during hydration on concrete for the prestressed beam 78 .Requirements for concrete mix design based on structure design project Special conditions by the construction of structural element • Due to large dimensions of this beam (130x420 cm) it can be expected a high temperature in the middle of cross section due to the heat hydration development.

423 .At the age of t∞ = 30000 days φ(t∞. ts) = -0.At the age of t1 = 30 days εcs(t1. Design values of shrinkage and creep Basic deformation of shrinkage εcs (mm/m) .84·10-5 .Requirements for concrete mix design based on structure design project Special conditions by the construction of structural element • Due to the post-tensioning of tendons it is necessary to determine: – Shrinkage of concrete (HRN U.610 79 .At the age of t1 = 30 days φ(t1.029) and – Creep coefficient of concrete (HRN U.At the age of t∞ = 30000 days εcs(t∞.027). t0) = 1.M1. t0) = 0. t0) . ts) = -20.39·10-5 Creep coefficient φ(t.M1.

Requirements for concrete Additional requirements for fresh concrete • Cement of low hydration: sign LH • Hydration heat: ≤ 270 J/g • Temperature of fresh concrete: 5-25 °C • Pore content in fresh concrete: 4% 80 .

Requirements for concrete Additional requirements for hardened concrete • Freezing thawing test (frost resistance): 100 cycles • Tensile strength: ≥ 3.2 N/mm2 • Static modulus of elasticity: ≥ 33500 N/mm2 • Maximum shrinkage at the age of t1 = 30 days: εcs(t1. ts)= -0. t0) = 0.423 81 .84•10-5 mm/m • Maximum creep coefficient at the age t1 = 30 days: φ(t1.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY DURABILITY WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS CONCRETE MIX DEISGN GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES IDENTITY CONTROL POURING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POURING 82 .

3 Selected value of cements:: 433 83 .50 Selected 0.45 0. low hydration cement CEM I 42.55 0.5 LH Aggregate type Drobljeni agregat Maximum grain size (mm) 32 Admixture aerant Air content (%) 4 w/c ratio Strength requirement Durability risk .45 Amount of water on 1 m3 of concrete ( l ) Cement amount (kg) 195 Lowest amount of cement – durability condition: Amount of cement from w/c – strength condition: 300 433.carbonation (XC4) 0.frost (XF1) Durability risk .CONCRETE MIX DESIGN – recommended and selected values Type of cement – PC.

0 TOTAL 2338.5% on mc Air 4 % ~2.0 - Agreggate 1708.0 w/c = 0.45 Air entrainer 0.CALCULATION OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN ma md mw mc     Vz  1000  w c z ZPS  d COMPONENT MASS (kg/m3) Cement 433.0 Water 195.0 84 .

CALCULATION OF TOTAL CONCRETE
NEEDED
• Beam dimensions:
– Beam length 24,6 m
– Cross section surface 5,76 m2

• Concrete needed for 2 beams:
Vbet = 24,6 x 5,76 x 2 = 283,4 m3
• Needed amount of each component:



Cement:
Water:
Agreggate:
Air entraining agent:

122.712 kg
55.263 l
484.025 kg
615 kg
85

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES
DURABILITY

STRENGTH

WORKABILITY

ADDITIONAL
REQUIREMENTS

GEOMETRICAL
PROPERTIES

IDENTITY TESTING

C
O
S
T
POORING

CONTROL AFTER POORING

86

Quality control for determination of
concrete mix design
• Quality control during production of concrete
– at the concrete plant

• Quality control at site before pouring concrete
– identity control testing

87

slump – pore amount – temperature 88 .QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Testing of fresh concrete properties – workability .

QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Quality control of hardened concrete – identity tests of: – Compressive strength – Tensile strength by splitting – Static modulus of elasticity – Freezing/thawing – Shrinkage – Creep 89 .

QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING • Program for sampling concrete property Broj i učestalost uzimanja uzoraka Compressive strength At least 1 sample on a day of concreting At least 1 sample on each 100 m3 poored concrete Tensile strength At least 1 sample on a day of concreting At least 1 sample on each 200 m3 poored concrete Static modulus of elasticity 3 samples for compressive strength determination 3 samples for static modulus of elasticity Freezing thawing resistance 15 samples Shrinkage At least 3 samples Creep 3 samples for deformations due to shrinkage 3 samples for compressive strength 3 samples for meausirng total deformations under a constant load 90 .

for the assesment of strength in the group Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Average from “n“ results (fcm) (N/mm2) Each single result (fci) (N/mm2) 3 ≥ fck + 4 ≥ fck .4 2-4 For uncertified concrete production Initial Continuous Number of tested samples.4 91 .QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING CRITERIA FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH For certified production of concrete Number of tested samples for declared amount of concrete production Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Average from “n“ results (fcm) (N/mm2) Each single result (fci) (N/mm2) ≥ fck + 1 ≥ fck .4 Not less than 15 ≥ fck +1. “n”.48σ ≥ fck .

5 92 .5 Not less than 15 ≥ fck + 1. for the assesment of strength Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Average from “n“ results (ftm) (N/mm2) Each single result (fti) (N/mm2) 3 ≥ fck + 0.5 ≥ fck – 0.QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING CRITERIA FOR TENSILE STRENGTH Production Initial Continuous Number of tested samples. “n”.48 σ ≥ fck – 0.

84·10-5 mm/m Maximum creep at t1 = 30 days ≤ 0. t0)) 93 . ts)) ≤ -0.QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE – IDENTITY TESTING CRITERIA PROPERTY CRITERIA Freezing / thawing resistance Loss of compressive strength after 100 cycles has to be less than 25% Modulus of elasticity ≥ 33.500 N/mm2 Maximum shrinkage at t1 = 30 days (εcs(t1.423 (φ(t1.

after 28 days CRITERIA HRN EN 447 ≤25 s <2% from initial volume >-1%. < +5% > 30 MPa 94 .REQUIRED PROPERTIES FOR THE GROUT TESTING PROPERTY METHOD HRN EN 445 DESCRIPTION Fluidity / flowability Cone method – Time needed for flow of 1L of grout through the cone Bleeding Gauge glass – The amount of bleeded water after 3 hours Volume deformations metoda s limenkom Compressive strentgh prisms – Volume deformations within 24 hours – On prisms 4x4x16 cm.

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (IDENTITY TEST) POORING C O S T QUALITY CONTROL AFTER POORING 95 .

STEPS IN QA/QC PROCEDURES DURABILITY STRENGTH WORKABILITY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL AT THE SITE (IDENTITY TEST) POORING C O S T CONTROL AFTER POORING 96 .

1 • Durability of concrete in 21st century: – carefully selected materials – control and optimization of their properties – reduction of varaiblity in mixing. placement and curing of concrete – performance-based specifications to control insitu concrete – real-time monitoring. transport. NDT evaluation – understanding reaction between concrete and its environment 97 .SUMMARY.

SUMMARY .2 • It is surely within the capability of the modern day IT systems to capture all these variables in a complicated mix design software. • However. the trial mix would not necessarily follow the predicted results as the numbers of independent variables contributing to the single outcome are too many! 98 .

SUMMARY -3 • The journey from the calculated mix proportion to the final proportion would require judgment and experience. 99 . and laboratory trials.

100 .

Thank you for your attention! 101 .