A POSTMODERN APPROACH TO IMPROVING CAMPUS CLIMATE THROUGH

STRATEGIC THINKING AT A MINORITY SERVING INSTITUTION IN TEXAS

A Dissertation
by
BARBARA ANN THOMPSON

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Educational Leadership
Prairie View A&M University
December 2012

2

A POSTMODERN APPROACH TO IMPROVING CAMPUS CLIMATE THROUGH STRATEGIC
THINKING AT A MINORITY SERVING INSTITUTION IN TEXAS
A Dissertation
by
BARBARA ANN THOMPSON
Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of
Prairie View A&M University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Approved as the style and content by:
___________________________________
Patricia Hoffman-Miller
Dissertation Chair

______________________________
William Allan Kritsonis
Committee Member

______________________________
Clement Glenn
Committee Member

___________________________________
Solomon Osho
Committee Member
______________________________
Lucian Yates III
Dean
Whitlowe R. Green College of Education

______________________________
Willie F. Trotty
Dean
Graduate School
December 2012

3
Abstract
A Postmodern Approach to Improving Campus Climate Through Strategic Thinking at a Minority
Serving Institution in Texas (December 2012)
Barbara Ann Thompson, B.S., University of Houston, University Park
M.S., M.A., Prairie View A&M University
Dissertation Chair, Dr. Patricia Hoffman-Miller
The 20th century can be divided in two periods, modern and postmodern. The modern period
before 1914 was described as a cultural movement. It included progressive art, architecture, music,
literature and design. The emerging modern world was embraced by academic and historical traditions.
There were new economic, social and political aspects that defined the modern period such as
individualism, rationality, mistrust of government and religion and a disbelief of any absolute truths.
Academic institutions have rested on modernism as a foundation in its way of thinking. One of the
functions of higher education institutions is to prepare future leaders. The problem identified in this
study focused on a decline in students graduating or completing their four-year academic program at a
Minority Serving Institution in Texas. For a variety of reasons, graduation rates declined in the past
decade. College student’s current perceptions and attitudes of campus climate at this Minority Serving
Institution had an effect on student academic achievement, students believing they are socially
connected to the university, student’s persistence to continue their four-year degree, and graduation and
retention rates at the university. (Thompson, 2011, p. 5)
Campus or school climate can be defined as behaviors within a workplace or learning
environment, ranging from subtle to cumulative to dramatic, that can influence whether
an individual feels personally safe, listened to, valued, and treated fairly and with
respect. Climate can be described as the atmosphere or ambience of an organization as

4
perceived by its members. An organization's climate is reflected in its structures,
policies, and practices; the demographics of its membership; the attitudes and values of
its members and leaders; and the quality of personal interactions (Campus Climate
Network Group, 2002 p. 1).
The dependent variables were student academic achievement, students' persistence to continue
their four-year academic program, students believing they are socially connected to the university, and
student graduation and retention rates. The independent variables were the student perceptions and
attitudes on campus climate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a
postmodern process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI) in Texas. The design of this study was a qualitative-quantitative model also known as
exploratory mixed-methods. The qualitative phase of the study was a narrative analysis of student
perceptions and attitudes on campus climate. A modified version of the Gavilan College Campus
Diversity Survey (Willett, 2002) was the instrument used in the quantitative phase of the study.
Findings revealed Cronback's Alpha = 0.923 on agreement items (270 valid responses). Cronback's
Alpha = 0.947 on importance items (234 valid responses). A probability of rejecting the null
hypothesis of p < .05 was used as the criterion in deciding a significant finding to determine whether or
not improvements made to service delivery are effective, such as do students see a difference in the
enhancements in their campus climate. Inferential statistics was used as a tool to analyze the data for
the qualitative study. Correlation statistics and descriptive statistics were used for the quantitative part
of the study to analyze the data to provide responses to research questions #1 through #4. Correlation
statistics was used to determine whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two or more
quantifiable variables. A correlation co-efficient decimal number between -1.00 and +1.00 will indicate
the degree to which two variables are related.

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The research questions for this study were:
1) Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic achievement?
2) Is there a relationship between campus climate and a student’s

persistence to

continue their four-year academic program?
3) Is there a relationship between campus climate and students believing they are
socially connected to the university?
4) Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and retention
rates of students in the university? (Thompson, 2011, pp. 16-17)
The null hypotheses were:
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus

climate and

student academic achievement.
H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus

student’s persistence to continue their four-year
H03:

climate and a

academic program.

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
students believing they are socially connected to the university.

H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
graduation and retention rates of students in the university. (Thompson, 2011, p.
17)

Quantitative findings revealed there was a statistically significant relationship for research
questions 1, 2, 3, and 4. The null hypotheses were rejected for H01, H02, H03 and H04. Qualitative findings
revealed several themes which included areas of concern with the educational environment, security,
cultivation and awareness of all students to include undergraduate, graduate and doctoral students,
enhancement of a culture of hard work and rewards, customer service improvement, and fairness.

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Dedication
In loving memory of the following persons
My parents
Laura Bess Collins Thompson
Hometown - Teague, Texas
*
Frances Frank Thompson
Hometown - Beaumont, Texas
*
My Christian Friend and Cheerleader
Ms. Harriette Beason
Former Co-worker in Houston, Texas
Hometown: Omaha, Nebraska

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Acknowledgements
To God be the glory for the great things He has done. His mercy endures forever.
I would like to thank Almighty God for giving me the fortitude, grace, wisdom, knowledge,
understanding, and good common sense to finish this dissertation. I want to also thank the following
individuals in their respective roles: Dr. Patricia Hoffman-Miller, dissertation chair, Dr. William A.
Kritsonis, Doctoral mentor, advisor, and committee member, Dr. Clement E. Glenn, committee
member, and Dr. Solomon G. Osho, committee member.
I extend my heartfelt appreciation to Dr. Richard McWhorter and Dr. Eustace Duffus, Master of
Science mentors and advisors, for their excellent teaching, educational recommendations, and their
supportive role in my well being, the faculty and staff of Roy G. Perry College of Engineering,
Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, the Graduate School, Human Sciences, Ms. Carolyn Brown
for housing and for being a dedicated Christian friend, my student office manager, Camillia Whiteside,
for her faithful and dedicated service and expert knowledge in the collaborative development of the
sample FACEBOOK page for graduate engineering students, numerous PVAMU students, friends, and
supporters. I sincerely thank my daughter and son-in-law, Julisha and Wilbert Cormier; grandchildren,
Janeesa and Adrian; brothers Gregory, Quinn, and Kenneth; sisters Agnes and Francine; cousins
Sabrina and Glenda, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles, prayer partners, Christian friends, and
neighborhood associates in Sunnyside, Houston, Texas and Missouri City, Texas for their
encouragement, support, and prayers.

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Abbreviations
HBCU

Historically Black Colleges and Universities developed before 1964 that serves

black student populations and is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or
association determined by the

Secretary of Education retrieved April 1, 2012 from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historically_black_colleges_and_universities
PBI

Predominately Black Institution includes 50% of the student

is Black enrollment and the school is classified

population or greater

as HBCU. Brown’s study, (2003, as cited

in Hubbard & Stage, 2009)
HSI

Hispanic Serving Institution has a Latino enrollment of 25% or

greater.

Benitez’s study, (1998, as cited in Hubbard & Stage, 2009)
MSI

For this study, a Minority Serving Institution is described as a PBI or HSI (Hubbard
& Stage, 2009)

PWI

Predominantly White Institution (PWI) includes student populations with less than

10% of the students being Black or Hispanic (Hubbard

& Stage, 2009)

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Table of Contents
Page
Abstract...............................................................................................................................iii
Dedication..........................................................................................................................vii
Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................viii
Abbreviations.....................................................................................................................ix
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................x
List of Tables......................................................................................................................xv
List of Figures...................................................................................................................xvi
Chapter
I

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................1
Postmodernism

.................................................................................................3

Factors Contributing to the Problem........................................................................6
An Inherited Culture of Entitlement............................................................6
Closing the Gap in State Legislature Goals by Allowing Students
Who are Underprepared for College Level Curricula to
Attend College.............................................................................................9
Serving the Socio-Economic Disadvantaged...............................................9
Expected Outcomes ...............................................................................................10
Promotion of Student Academic Achievement and
Commitment to Study................................................................................10
Promotion of Students’ Persistence to Continue Their four-year
Academic Program ....................................................................................11
Fostering Students Believing They are Socially Connected to the University
11
Promotion of Graduation and Retention Rates..........................................12

10
Page
Dual Frameworks

...............................................................................................13

Statement of the Problem.......................................................................................16
Purpose of the Study..............................................................................................16
Research Questions ...............................................................................................16
Null Hypotheses

...............................................................................................17

Significance of the Study.......................................................................................17
Definitions..............................................................................................................18
Abbreviations.........................................................................................................20
Summary................................................................................................................21
II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE.................................................................................22
Student Achievement............................................................................................25
Unwelcoming Climate .................................................................................25
Instructional Leaders and Stakeholder Support............................................27
Students’ Persistence to Continue Their four-Year
Academic Program ................................................................................................28
Barriers to Academic Success.......................................................................28
Increasing Student Populations at Universities.............................................29
Institutional Effectiveness.............................................................................30
Matriculating to Campus Life.......................................................................30
Race and Ethnic Relations............................................................................30
Students Believing They are Socially Connected to the University.............32
Critical Race Theory.....................................................................................32
Critical Theory..............................................................................................33

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Page
Meaningful Educational Change and Improvement.....................................33
Graduation and Retention Rates

35

Helping Schools with Dropout Rates Using Social Network Tools.............35
Large Scale Change......................................................................................36
Cultural Proficiency......................................................................................37
Strategic Thinking..................................................................................................39
Extension of Prior Research...................................................................................44
Theoretical Frameworks........................................................................................45
Michael Fullan's Eight Lessons to Bring About Change...........................46
Five Key Steps Identified for Improving Campus Climate.......................48
Summary................................................................................................................49
III

METHODOLOGY................................................................................................52
Research Questions ...............................................................................................53
Null Hypotheses.....................................................................................................53
Research Design.....................................................................................................54
Quantitative Method..............................................................................................56
Quantitative Participants............................................................................56
Quantitative Sampling Procedures.............................................................56
Quantitative Instrumentation ....................................................................58
Qualitative Method ...............................................................................................59
Qualitative Participants..............................................................................59
Page

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Qualitative Sampling Procedures...............................................................59
Qualitative Instrumentation.......................................................................59
Validity and Reliability..........................................................................................59
Data Analysis.........................................................................................................60
Summary................................................................................................................61
IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS..........................................................................62
Data Analysis.........................................................................................................63
Quantitative Data Analysis........................................................................63
Qualitative Data Analysis..........................................................................63
Data Entry & Analysis...............................................................................64
Findings..................................................................................................................64
Quantitative Findings.................................................................................64
Research Questions........................................................................65
Null Hypotheses.............................................................................65
Qualitative Findings...................................................................................72
Summary................................................................................................................74

V

CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................75
Research Questions ...............................................................................................75
Null Hypotheses.....................................................................................................76
Conclusions............................................................................................................76
Research Question 1 and H01........................................................................................................76
Research Question 2 and H02........................................................................................................76
Page
Research Question 3 and H03........................................................................................................77

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Research Question 4 and H04........................................................................................................77
Concluding Remarks..............................................................................................77
Recommendations for Further Study.....................................................................77
References..............................................................................................................80
Appendices.............................................................................................................88
A. Key Tests and Epochs Impacting Leadership Thought
on a Continuum of Premodernity and
Postmodernity ...........................................................................................89
B. Eight Lessons for Complex Change......................................................................90
C. Five Steps for Improving Campus Climate...........................................................91
D. Qualitative Interview Questions............................................................................93
E. Objective Survey....................................................................................................94
F.Original Survey 99
G. Information Letter to Participants........................................................................105
H. Document Granting Permission to Use the Gavilan College
Campus Diversity Survey........................................................................107
I. Letter from IRB ......................................................................................111
J. List of Codes............................................................................................112
K. Demographics Tables and Graphs.............................................................113
L. Correlations and Descriptive Statistics Tables..........................................121
M. Vita...........................................................................................................130

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List of Tables
Table

1.

Page

Mental Processes Necessary to Work in Ambiguous, ............................43
Complex and Problematic Situations

2.

8 Lesson for Change and Improvement..................................................47

3.

One-Way ANOVA Testing Null Hypothesis H01.....................................67

4.

One-Way ANOVA Testing Null Hypothesis H02 ....................................68

5.

One-Way ANOVA Testing Null Hypothesis H03.....................................69

6.

One-Way ANOVA Testing Null Hypothesis H04.....................................71

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List of Figures
Figure

Page

1.

Key Tests and Epochs Impacting Leadership Thought
on a Continuum of Premodernity and Postmodernity........................4

2.

Five Key Activities Identified for Improving Campus ........................
Climate..............................................................................................49

3.

Courses Normally Enrolled In..........................................................72

1
Chapter I
Introduction
According to Thompson (2011) "colleges and universities have the task of providing students
with high quality, effective educational experiences. These experiences prepare students to live as
productive citizens in a highly diverse society"
(p. 5). As a continuation of previous work, (Thompson, 2009; 2011), it was deemed necessary to
recast material from an unpublished class presentation of a proposed dissertation draft of "A
Postmodern Approach to Improving Campus Climate Through Strategic Thinking" and an unpublished
report on "The Center for Educational Reform", which was submitted to a Minority Serving Institution
(MSI) for a comprehensive examination. These papers were used to frame a new analysis for this
current study on the improvement of campus climate. The purpose of the second report was to
"develop a center to eradicate educational disparities" (Thompson, 2011, p. 2). This study was a
multidisciplinary report. The literature review has evolved from the original framework to dual
frameworks to show interrelated concepts. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 13-16) The methods section was
modified from the first and second report of administering a hand-delivered survey to an on-line
survey, with a larger population and a larger sample. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 17-24) The quantitative
section of this study consisted of descriptive and correlation statistics (Thompson, 2011). A narrative
analysis was used for the qualitative portion of the study and consisted of open ended questions on
campus climate (Thompson, 2011).
Organizational, occupational, and social cultures shape people’s values and affect their
communications (Lindsay, Robins, & Terrell, 2003). The overlay of school

2
climate, school or student cultures, and professional cultures provide a unique mix
that affects each group at the school in a different way. According to a Tableman
& Herron (2004) publication, "campus or school culture is defined as shared
ideas, assumptions, values, and beliefs that give an organization its identity and
standard ways of conduct. The culture of schools is based on what previously
occurred in the history of the school" (p. 2). Campus climate is how its members
perceive the day to day operations of the school (Campus Climate Network
Group, 2002).
Tableman & Herron (2004) referred to "school climate as the physical and
psychological aspects of the school that provide the preconditions necessary for teaching
and learning to take place" (p. 2). Four national centers agreed that "school climate was
the quality and character of school life. It was based on patterns of school life
experiences and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching,
learning and leadership practices, and organizational structures" (The School Climate
Challenge, 2008, p. 5). (Thompson, 2011, p. 6)
"Members in a professional culture shared common elements and feel a sense of
belonging. They stay in regular contact with each other, show group commitment, and
care for colleagues" (Seyfarth, 2008, p. 189). Also, teacher beliefs were influenced by
the culture of their school. Successful teachers were culturally astute to train a diverse
student population to work in environments where they succeed and make meaningful
contributions in society. (Seyfarth, 2008).

3

Postmodernism
According to Boland (1995), for over 3 decades, the culture of the American
people was penetrated with postmodern perspectives, terms, and assumptions. Boland
found postmodernism captured a plethora of changes that occurred in people, policies,
and how government and business was managed. English (2003) stated "the true
language of power is theory and theory embraces both the structure of language and its
ability to describe things in order to communicate and influence others" (p. 15). It
explains and establishes meanings of facts and events, and works to reinforce existing
power relationships (English, 2003).
The “conceptual landscape of educational leadership included epochs of
foundational writings during the pre-modern, modern, and postmodern periods, which
inform leadership studies in the past and present" (English, 2003, p. 145). All three
periods are active because key texts from the pre-modern period are read in the modern
and postmodern periods. As noted in Figure 1, the modern period is dominant. It has the
largest number of scholars, writers, and researchers. An epoch is a period of time
marked with a distinctive event or written publication text that continued along of line of
development after publication of the text, sometimes for decades or even centuries”
(English, 2003, p. 145) [see Appendix A]. Due to accountability laws, the major
emphasis in educational leadership is its continuing reliance on rationality and efficiency
in its models, standards, and approach to preparation (English, 2003).

PROTOSCIENTIFIC
EPOCH
PREMODERN

1 Plutarch’s
Parallel Lives
2 Suetonius’
Twelve Ceasars
3 Machiavelli’s
The Prince
4 Shakespeare’s
Tragedies

PSEUDO
SCIENTIFIC
EPOCH
MODERN
5 Frederick Taylor’s
Scientific Management
6 Henry Fayol’s General
Management Principals
7 Mary Parker Follett’s
Work - Conflict resolution,
Power Sharing
8 Chester Barnard’s
Functions of the Executive

▪ Behaviorism Epoch
9 Herbert Simon’s
Administrative Behavior
10 Douglas McGregor’s
The Human Side of
Enterprise
11 Katz & Kahn’s Social
Psychology of
Organizations

▪ Structuralism Epoch
12 James Thompson’s
Organizations in Action
12 Henry Mintzberg’s
Structure in Fives
14 Bolman and Deal’s
Reframing Organizations

POSTMODERN
EPOCH
POSTMODERN

20 JeanFranncois
Lyotard’s
The Postmodern
Condition: A
Report on
Knowledge
21 Jacques
Derrida
Of Grammatology

▪ Feminist & Critical
Theory Epoch

15 Kathy Ferguson’s The
Feminist Case Against
Bureaucracy
16 Jurgen Habermas
Moral Consciousness and
Communicative Action

▪ Critical Race Theory
Epoch

17 Richard Delgado’s
Critical Race Theory

▪ Queer Theory Epoch
18 Bill Tierney’s Academic
Outlaws: Queer Theory
and Cultural Studies in the
Academy
19 W. Edwards Deming’s
Total Quality Management

Figure 1. Key tests and epochs impacting leadership thought on a continuum of
premodernity and postmodernity, Adapted from The Art of Educational Leadership:

4

5
Balancing Performance and Accountability (p. 147), by F. W. English, 2003, Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, Incorporated. Copyright 2008 by Sage Publications,
Incorporated.
New social movements evolved as the American culture became a society of
consumers with international connections. Past ways of doing business changed from
producing goods and services to a society of consumers. Exchange of goods and services
and communication now uses technology that shapes and improves environments of
many individuals (Boland, 1995). English (2003) reported that postmodernism has many
"implications for the theory and practice of educational leadership" suggesting the
controversies and struggles of this moment in time punctuate the priority and importance
of postmodernism for educational administration (p. 98).
Postmodernism looks critically on modernism seeing that some of its aspects are
outdated. Educational institutions are shaped by the advancement of modernism.
According to Boland (1995), when educational institutions are criticized, it was the same
as criticizing modernism.
Postmodernists believe there are multiple forms of truth emanating from multiple
sources. "They believe claims to truth are just concealed impositions of authority
masking social structures of domination; everything is relative to history and culture; we
can’t know anything for certain; and an individual’s beliefs result from psychological,
social or chemical conditioning" (English, 2003, p. 243). Approaches to truth are
temporary. Such approaches are likely to be modified over and over again.
Postmodernists are in favor of one's ability to make choices. For example, there is more
than one viewpoint on how one sees a situation. An individual can choose among many

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viewpoints for one he or she would want to hold. Postmodernists are in favor of
approaches that consider human diversity and differences with positive viewpoints
(English, 2003).
A primary tool for postmodernists was deconstruction, a way to take apart textual
passages (Critchley, 1992). Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) was the first to introduce "the
deconstruction as a way to take textual passages apart" (English, 2008, 159). Flaws and
assumptions in modernism were the primary purpose of deconstruction. Lyotard (1997)
stated modernism was exposed as irrational, while not offering any permanent alternative.
Modernism is not the end, but a constant state. In de-construction, “the first reading is to
interpret the passage and the second reading is to look for contradictions, hidden silences,
binaries, and circularities in the test itself” (English, 2008, p. 159).
A postmodern approach to improving campus climate through strategic thinking
at this MSI would be to interpret the problem and realize there was not any permanent
alternative to the problem. Flaws and assumptions are exposed as irrational thinking
(Lyotard, 1977). Problems are de-constructed to look for hidden silences, contradictions,
and dual messages. Tableman & Herron (2004) suggested that when the behavior and
performance of students change, there would be a change in the culture and climate.
Factors Contributing to the Problem
An inherited culture of entitlement. One of the president’s goals at this
Minority Serving Institution located in Texas is to promote mentoring and higher
performance standards for its students (Minority Serving Institution Compact with Texas
University Systems, 2007). The postmodernist would emphasize that a culture’s belief
system, such as a culture of entitlement would be one in which everything resulted from
psychological, social or chemical conditioning of its people (English, 2003). Consider
the following:

7
We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they
are endowed (granted or furnished) by their Creator with certain unalienable (nontransferrable) rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness. The Declaration of Independence (1776, as cited in Motivate to
Educate; Glenn, 2009, p. 150).
The legal institution of slavery lasted over 250 years until 1863. This institution
denied rights, that are both basic and legal, from African American people to include their
human rights, constitutional rights, and civil rights (40 Acres and a Mule: The
Reparations for Slavery Debate, 2001). In the theoretical analysis project conducted by
Coop, Henk, & Phillips (2001), the background of the slavery experience is described as
follows. To be human is to choose, decide, create, and be empowered in the world.
These rights were taken from African Americans. Abraham Lincoln emancipated the
slaves in 1863, but this action did not end slavery. On January 31, 1865, the United
States Congress abolished slavery with the thirteenth amendment to the United States
Constitution right after the end of the Civil War.
Later that year, on December 6, 1865, Abraham Lincoln had the support from the
number of states it took to ratify the thirteenth amendment. Two other amendments
followed, the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, which expanded civil rights for
Americans. One hundred years after emancipation, African Americans were subject to
Jim Crow laws and were not seen as legally equal until 1965. Shortly after the slaves
were freed via the thirteenth amendment, a decree was made for African Americans to be
paid reparations because of slavery, which included giving 40 acres and a mule to freed
slaves. In 1869, President Andrew Johnson vetoed the decree. In 1969, in the writing of
the Black Manifesto, a request of $3 billion dollars was demanded by the National Black
Economic Development Conference. The new amount demanded is close to $8 billion

8
dollars, which is the estimated amount of 40 acres and a mule and lost wages cumulating
over 250 years of slavery. The reparations were due to African Americans who had been
exploited, degraded, brutalized, killed, and persecuted. This demand was generated out
of the Civil Rights movement and the money came from predominately white places of
worship to satisfy reparations to African Americans.
Different groups within the African American community began to demand
programs to eradicate poverty and workings against discrimination. These events did not
bring about systemic change. A transformation of what could happen ended when
President Richard Nixon took office. He had conservative views and black economic
development was not on his political agenda. "On an international level, the United
Nations and Nigeria formalized a position that the United States should respond to this
issue, at least with an apology and by paying in the form of economic development" (40
Acres and a Mule: The Reparations for Slavery Debate, 2001, p. 2). These actions,
according to The United Nations and Nigeria, would at most right the wrongs that
occurred.
The transformation of a culture of entitlement includes the role of educational
administrators to provide the academic rigor and mentoring experience in their
specialized areas along with their additional responsibilities. Training students in
excellence in their areas is imperative. Students must be ready to assume leadership roles
at any level of academia. Improvement to campus climate has so many different
manifestations and comes with challenges. There is no absolute cure for all. Campus
improvement must involve all the stakeholders of the university. Students, professors,
parents, and business partners of the university, according to English (2003), play a vital
role in the success of suggested improvement plans.

9
Closing the gap in state legislature goals by allowing students who are
underprepared for college level curricula to attend college. In order to close the gap
in state legislature goals, it is imperative that this Minority Serving Institution creates a
climate in their university where all students believe they are respected and have a chance
to experience a rewarding learning experience. Engaging every member of the campus
community embraces the postmodern approach to improving campus climate. There is
no one way to bring about change (English, 2003). The social environment should be
one that promotes communication and interaction. The affective environment of the
university should be one where student learning occurs and there are high expectations of
all students. Curriculum for low performing students should be adjusted and varied so
they can succeed in school.
Campus improvement plans should be monitored to find out whether
interventions positively impacted student performance. Assessing student skills and
knowledge in meeting performance standards was crucial to being competitive in a global
society. (Strategic Planning in Higher Education: A guide for leaders, 2007).
Serving the socio-economically disadvantaged. This Minority Serving
Institution serves the socio-economically disadvantaged and has a rich heritage in
producing students who will lead their country in the future. Top leadership at this
university has the responsibility to ensure there is adequate leadership at every level
(Minority Serving Institution Compact with Texas University Systems, 2007).
Expected Outcomes
"Perceptions about campus climate impact teacher morale and student
achievement" (Patterson, Purkey, & Parker (1986, p. 98). Teachers and administrators are

10
an important part of campus culture. Their perceptions about their campus impact their
efficacy, conduct, and enthusiasm in the classroom. According to Bandura (1997), from
an organizational perspective, teacher efficacy helps to explain the different effects
schools have on student achievement. Hoy & Miskel (2005) found that the healthier the
school climate, the higher the achievement levels.
Promotion of student academic achievement and commitment to study. A
way to invest in the student’s academic career is for a professor to become a mentor to a
first year graduate student; a doctoral student can be paired with a first year graduate
student; an internship can be offered in the corporate, teaching, or research arena; and/or
a scholarship can be given to a graduate school student (Graduate/Undergraduate
Mentoring Program, 2012). Carter (2010) stated "Lack of engagement is one of the
biggest problems in getting more students through college and university systems, and if
the problem of engagement was not tackled, more people are not going through the
system. Also, the use of a social network may help students stay connected to the
university" (p. 1).
In The Fifth Discipline, Senge (1990) has found organizations need to tap
people’s commitment and capacity to learn at all levels by using five interrelated
disciplines to motivate them. The disciplines were personal mastery, mental
models, shared vision, and team learning which make up the foundation and are
all held together by systems thinking, the fifth discipline. Systems thinking was
the glue that held all disciplines together. (Thompson, 2011, p. 10)
Promotion of students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic
program. As a commitment for the student to continue their four-year academic
program, students may begin to see campus activities in a positive way. “Keeping

11
college students and their professors connected through social media outlets could be key
in boosting graduation rates” (Can Social Media Cure Low Student Engagement?, 2010,
p. 1). Carter (2010) found retention of students in the university may be achieved.
Students stay connected in school, which can result in a possible reduction in dropouts.
Vineet Madan of McGraw-Hill Education and a panel member of The Future of Social
Media in Higher Education, reported that statistics show that only half of today’s college
students will earn their degree in the next six years and there is a disconnect between
teachers and students that can leave the workforce short of qualified workers (Carter,
2010, p. 1). Alumni show their pride by staying connected to the alma mater. Alumni
can continuously use their talents and skills through volunteer efforts (Carter, 2010).
Fostering students believing they are socially connected to the university.
Students believing they are socially connected to the university can be enhanced through
a social network site such as Facebook or Twitter (Carter, 2010). A student’s
inclusiveness and sense of belonging as well a student's achievement and commitment to
study can also be enhanced from messages or classes that can be posted on the social
network site (McCrea, 2010). Twitter and Facebook are shaping global culture (Carter,
2010, p. 1). This communication can inform students on the process for admissions and
engage the student on a personal level. "The use of a social network may help students
stay connected to the university" (Carter, 2010, p. 1) (Thompson, p. 10)
Students can share on-line book sites and form on-line study groups using the chat
feature or instant messaging. Carter (2010) highlights professors and their students can
discuss lesson plans and address homework questions with the pre-populated class rosters
that are generated with the instant messenger feature. Discussion can occur between
classmates who encounter a problem in preparing for tests and quizzes. This method
allows students to increase their positive connection to the campus through more

12
“productive group works, in-depth research, and sufficient studying” (Carter, 2010, p. 2).
They are not isolated from the university. Students can increase their connection with
students who have similar issues.
Promotion of graduation and retention rates. "Demographic trends suggested
that external environments of schools were characterized by growing uncertainty and
importance" (Hoy & Miskel, 2005, p. 242). It takes approximately 3 years to get a
degree (Weingarten, 2010). Also, Weingarten (2010) found many students leave college
early without obtaining their degree and for the last two decades, the number of women
graduates exceed the number of men graduating within the same timeframe. (Thompson,
2011, p. 11)
In summary, improving campus climate would aid in the realization of the
president’s goals to 1) provide mentoring and academic rigor in its programs and
curricula, and 2) have administrators who believe in excellence in education. The
students they produce are ready to assume leadership positions in society (Minority
Serving Institution Compact with Texas University Systems, 2007). The postmodernist
approach emphasizes that a culture’s belief system, such as a culture of entitlement is one
in which everything resulted from psychological, social, or chemical conditioning of its
people (English, 2003). There are many challenges in addressing campus climate. Every
member of the campus community must exhibit a persistent and purposeful effort to
develop policies and initiatives to address campus climate. Campus climate policies
have so many different manifestations and challenges. There is no absolute cure for all.
No one entity can improve campus climate alone. Fullan (2007) found when every
member of the campus community was engaged in improvement, change occurred.
Dual Frameworks

13
This study was framed using two concepts. The concepts were Eight Lessons of
Change and Improvement from Michael Fullan and a Five-Step Process from the
University of Wisconsin-Madison that was developed for improving campus climate
(Thompson, 2011).
Eight lessons to bring about change. Michael Fullan (1982; 1991) found that
change was a process. He recommended eight lessons on change and
improvement (Thompson, 2011). [See Appendix B]. Fullan, (2007) in “The New
Meaning of Educational Change”, found that change occurred at the local,
regional, and national levels. The teacher, principal, student, parent, community,
and the district administrator allowed for change at the local level. Change at the
regional and national levels included the state and federal government.
Meaningful change occurred in building coalitions with other change agents.
Stakeholders who were successful in implementing change had successful
outcomes due to continuous strategies for improvement. Everyone involved in
educational change acted as a change agent (Fullan 1982; 1991; 2007).
(Thompson, 2011, p. 13)
Change was a journey and presents some uncertainty. It may not be
immediate due to its complexity. "The key to success was to use practical change
knowledge as the basis for strategizing" (Fullan, 2007). Prematurely setting plans
can cause blurriness. Change can happen through collaborative interactions.
Isolated individuals cannot bring about change, but feedback from persons at the
low end and high end of the organization was valuable and crucial to success.
The change agents of success were at any level. The system corrected itself at
any level through internal and external feedback. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 13-14)

14
Five steps to improvement of campus climate. Tableman & Herron,
(2004) determined when the climate and culture of the school improved,
student behavior and academic performance improved. Figure 2 illustrates five
steps the researcher at the University of Wisconsin – Madison identified to
improve campus climate. A facilitator was used at each of the five steps. It
was essential to 1) listen and assess progress, 2) have leadership initiatives, 3)
provide opportunities for training and development, 4) develop programs and
efforts, and5) provide and communicate information (The University of
Wisconsin-Madison (2003). [See Appendix C]. This current research sought
to validate these five key activities. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 14)
As stated earlier, postmodernists believe there are multiple forms of truth
emanating from multiple sources of information.
They believe claims to truth are just concealed impositions of authority
masking social structures of domination; everything is relative to history and
culture; we cannot know anything for certain; and an individual’s beliefs
result from psychological, social or chemical conditioning (English, 2003, p.
243).
Postmodernists are in favor of preserving one's ability to make choices. Several
views can exist on a situation. An individual can choose among viewpoints he or she
would want to hold. Postmodernists are in favor of approaches that consider human
diversity and differences a positive viewpoint (English, 2003).
Successful teachers expect all students to learn (Seyfarth, 2008). Everyone
involved in the educational change acts as a change agent. (Fullan,1982; 1991).

15
Allowing feedback to be generated from internal and external stakeholders may be
valuable to success (Fullan, 1999). “Without careful communication and planning,
organizational change was likely to meet with resistance by colleagues. Successful
communication required attention to each group and was likely to be affected by the
planning process and the goals stated in the plan” (Strategic Planning in Higher
Education: A Leaders Guide, 2007, p. 5).
Stacy (1992) clarified Fullan’s ideas of a system perspective that lead to an
emerging culture. Successful change was two-way communication that had pressure,
support, continuous negotiation, and planning. Providing listening sessions, defining
roles, providing training opportunities, and applying effort to identify approaches in
promoting campus climate improvement were imperative in change efforts.
Communicating carefully and with passion, along with assessing any increment of
change were key factors in recognizing that the educational process was complex.
Approaches to truth are temporary and are likely to be modified over and over again
(English, 2003).
Statement of the Problem
The problem identified in this research study focused on a decline in students
graduating or completing their four-year academic program at a Minority Serving
Institution in Texas. For a variety of reasons, graduation rates declined in the past
decade. College student’s current perceptions and attitudes of campus climate at
this Minority Serving Institution had an effect on student academic achievement,
student’s persistence to continue their four-year degree, students believing they
are socially connected to the university, and graduation and retention rates.
(Thompson, 2011, p. 5)
Purpose of the Study

16
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a postmodern
process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI) in Texas.
Research Questions
Four research questions guided this study:
5) Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic
achievement?
6) Is there a relationship between campus climate and a student’s
persistence to continue their four-year academic program?
7) Is there a relationship between campus climate and students
believing they are socially connected to the university?
8) Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and
retention rates of students in the university? (Thompson, 2011, pp.
16-17)
Null Hypotheses
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus
climate and student academic achievement.

H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus
climate and a student’s persistence to continue their four-year
academic program.

H03:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus
climate and students believing they are socially connected to the
university.

17
H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus
climate and graduation and retention rates of students in the
university. (Thompson, 2011, p. 17)

Significance of the Study
This study adds to the knowledge base on the African American culture and its
students in higher education. Schools who seek to develop campus improvement plans
may find this research helpful. This research was an extension of prior research at a
Predominately White Institution for their students of color and has been modified to
include an objective campus climate survey. The findings of this study may generate new
knowledge about people of color and can be extended to other Predominately White
Institutions, Minority Serving Institutions, and/or Historically Black Colleges and
Universities. "This research will increase the knowledge base for customer service
improvement at any level" (Thompson, 2011, p. 17). This research will also add to the
body of knowledge in Educational Leadership. Hubbard & Stage (2009) investigated the
increasing population at elite institutions, also known as Predominately White
Institutions, growing at a stable rate compared to Minority Serving Institutions. They
also investigated the attitudes of faculty and different learning styles at HSIs and PBIs.
They found faculty at Predominately Black Institutions favored teaching undergraduate
students, but additional research was needed on Minority Serving Institutions and its
students.
"Metaphysically, this study can give meanings by which human nature is defined"
(Thompson, 2011, p. 17). "The conscious experiences with structural principles prove
capable of elaboration, as cultural traditions with corresponding symbolic expressions”
(Kritsonis, 2007, p. 96). Lastly, "this study will add to the few existing studies that
currently exist on the ontology of Minority Serving Institutions" (Thompson, 2011). This

18
increase in knowledge, according to Thompson (2011), is an effort to raise consciousness
about critical issues in the goal of education to develop intellectual and moral citizens.
Definitions
Campus or school culture. Campus or School Culture can be defined as “shared
ideas, assumptions, values, and beliefs that give an organization its identity and standard
for expected behaviors" (Hoy & Miskel, 2005, p. 167).
Campus culture. Campus culture is based on "past experience which provides a
template for future action on how we do things in this organization” (Tableman & Herron
2004, p. 1).
Campus or school climate. Campus or School Climate can be defined as
“behaviors within a workplace or learning environment, ranging from subtle to
cumulative to dramatic, that can influence whether an individual feels personally safe,
listened to, valued, and treated fairly and with respect” (Campus Climate Network Group,
2002, p. 1).
Climate is the “atmosphere or ambience of an organization as perceived by its
members. An organization's climate is reflected in its structures, policies, and practices;
the demographics of its membership; the attitudes and values of its members and leaders;
and the quality of personal interactions” (Campus Climate Network Group, 2002, p. 1).
Postmodernism. Postmodernism is neither a unitary view of the world nor a
coherent doctrine about it. Postmodernity is chiefly identifiable by what it is not and
what it rejects (Usher & Edwards, 1996).

19
Postmodernism pans the idea that there is an underlying unity of the world that is
divine or secular, and that any certainty about such matters centers some values, decentering others, and marginalizing persons whose identity and views are automatically
dubbed inferior. Historically, these have been women and persons of color, and those
whose sexual identifies were cauterized as abnormal according to pseudoscientific norms
established in Victorian times. According to Bauman (1992), “postmodernism is marked
by a view of the human world as irreducibly and irrevocably pluralistic, split into a
multitude of sovereign units and sites of authority, with no horizontal or vertical order,
either in actually or potency” (p. 35).
Postmodernism breaks down barriers, calling into question and disrepute the
binaries on which culture and social stratification are based that privilege a class, gender,
sexual identity, and race-based social/cultural differentiated structure. One of its
principal weapons is textual de-construction (English, 2008, pp. 169-170).
Minority Serving Institution. A Minority Serving Institution is any institution
that is described as a Predominately Black Institution (PBI) with 50% of the student
population or greater is Black enrollment and the school is classified as an HBCUs or a
Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) that has a Latino enrollment of 25% or greater
Summary
In summary, four national centers agreed that "school climate was the quality and
character of school life. It was based on patterns of school life experiences and reflects
norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching, learning and leadership
practices, and organizational structures" (The School Climate Challenge, 2008, p. 5).
(Thompson, 2011, p. 6) According to Boland (1995), for over 3 decades, the culture of

20
the American people was penetrated with postmodern perspectives, terms, and
assumptions. Boland found postmodernism captured a plethora of changes that occurred
in people, policies, and how government and business was managed.
A postmodern approach to improving campus climate through strategic thinking
at this MSI would be to interpret the problem and realize there was not any permanent
alternative to the problem. Flaws and assumptions are exposed as irrational thinking
(Lyotard, 1977). Problems are de-constructed to look for hidden silences, contradictions,
and dual messages. Tableman & Herron (2004) suggested that when the behavior and
performance of students change, there would be a change in the culture and climate.
Campus climate policies have so many different manifestations and challenges. There is
no absolute cure for all. No one entity can improve campus climate alone. Fullan (2007)
found when every member of the campus community is engaged in improvement, change
occurred. Every member of the campus community must exhibit a persistent and
purposeful effort to develop policies and initiatives to address campus climate.

Chapter II
Review of Literature
A positive school climate, according to Stelz (2010), was the result of a melting
pot of expertise, enthusiasm, and cooperation from educators who assisted students in
problem solving and learning. When educators care about student learning, students
share a sense of pride in the intelligence they have earned. There are many different
facets to improving the climate of a school. When the media reports school leaders in a
negative light, the school’s image is affected within the school and the local community.

23
American universities are infiltrated with immigrants who make up a diverse student
body. A multicultural society in America is now comprised of people from different
countries such as Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America. Higher education in
this nation is characteristic of serving all of its constituents. Addressing the concerns of a
diverse student population will require changes in the nature of higher education. This
can prompt a review of school climate (The Center for Comprehensive School Reform
and Improvement, 2009).
At a Minority Serving Institution in southeast Texas, the President’s Award for
Excellent Teaching was implemented as a reward system to nurture teachers and their
dedication to teaching and research (Minority Serving Institution Compact with Texas
University Systems, 2007). Each College nominated an individual. One winner was
selected from the nine nominees. All college level winners received some recognition
and reward. The following seven services are offered to students to improve campus
climate.
1. diagnostic testing and disability services
2. career and outreach services
3. intramural and recreational sports
4. special programs & cultural series
5. student activities and leadership
6. educational governing boards

24
7. an all faiths chapel where students are empowered through faith, education and
service.
According to Thompson (2011) "colleges and universities have the task of
providing students with high quality, effective educational experiences. These
experiences prepared students to live as productive citizens in a highly diverse society"
(p. 5). As a continuation of previous work, (Thompson, 2009; 2011), it was deemed
necessary to re-present material from an unpublished class presentation of a proposed
dissertation draft of "A Postmodern Approach to Improving Campus Climate Through
Strategic Thinking" and an unpublished report on "The Center for Educational Reform",
which was submitted to a Minority Serving Institution (MSI) for a comprehensive
examination. These papers were used to frame a new analysis for this current study on
the improvement of campus climate. The purpose of the second report was to "develop a
center to eradicate educational disparities" (Thompson, 2011, p. 2). This study is a
multidisciplinary report. The literature review has evolved from the original framework
to dual frameworks to show interrelated concepts. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 13-16) The
methods section was modified from the first and second report of administering a handdelivered survey to an on-line survey, with a larger population and a larger sample.
(Thompson, 2011, pp. 17-24) The quantitative section of this study consisted of
descriptive and correlation statistics (Thompson, 2011). A narrative analysis will be used
for the qualitative portion of the study and will consist of open ended questions on
campus climate (Thompson, 2011).
The way people communicate and beliefs they hold are shaped by their culture
(Lindsay, Robins, & Terrell, 2003). School culture can be defined as “shared ideas,
assumptions, values, and beliefs that give an organization its identity and standard for

25
expected behaviors” (Tableman & Herron, 2004, p. 1). It was based on what one has
experienced in the past. “Campus or school climate can be defined as the atmosphere, or
ambience of an organization as perceived by its members" (Campus Climate Network
Group, 2002, p. 1).
Patterns of school life experiences consisted of the character and quality of school
life. The climate of the campus reflected what the campus community values, teaching
methods, and leadership style (National School Climate Center, Center for Social and
Emotional Education, and National Center for Learning and Citizenship at Education
Commission of the States, 2008, p. 7). Professional cultures shared a sense of care and
commitment to each (Seyfarth, 2008). As student populations became more culturally
and racially diverse, addressing its concerns became a priority (The Center for
Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009).
Weingarten (2010) reported the U.S. Department of Education found far too few
students completed their degree in a three-year timeframe at a community college.
Also, it was taking six years to complete a degree at four-year universities, many
students dropped out of college, and for the last two decades, they were more
women graduates than men. (Thompson, 2011, p. 6)
Reform efforts for school systems can change the culture and climate of a
school. Effective teaching and learning occurred through leaders who promoted
collaborative, supportive, and stimulating learning communities. When
individuals and the organization were developed as one goal, changing the culture
of the school was sure to follow (Fullan, 2008).

26
Successful change occurred over time. Fullan (2007) found an
organization's leader must be personable, truthful, apt to adjust to changing
personalities, transparent and willing to share of his or her own experiences. The
character traits aid in bringing successful change. "Continuous learning, thinking
strategically, empowering members in school, and psychological safety were
levers to success” (Pisapia, 2009, p. 171). Accountability to state and federal
agencies and local school autonomy brought about successful change (Fullan,
2007). (Thompson, 2011, p. 7)
Student Achievement
Unwelcoming climate. A healthy school, according to Hoy & Miskel, (2008),
was identified as one that had continuous and ongoing professional development and
school improvement. On the other hand, negative school climate has to be addressed so
that improvement could take place. Turner (1994) investigated the call for broadening
opportunities for people of color who are faced with an unwelcoming climate at major,
influential research universities, where they were pursuing higher education. Students of
color (for example, African American/Black, Hispanic, Indian, or Asian) at these
institutions were isolated and experienced feelings of defeatism in hopes of obtaining a
position of influence. Several findings emerged in Turner’s study. He found 1) students
of color were culturally insensitive and exclusive of what students of color needed to be
successful in school, 2) a resolution to different dialogues was needed for transformation,
3) it is only when the faculty is educated on diversity, that students feel they would be
accepted , 4) institutions must acknowledge culture differences and allow for the growth
of students, and 5) the institutions core beliefs, mission and vision statement must be
updated to include diversity.

27
A school is a complex system. It is more than people inside a building. When
considering changing a school, one can analyze the effects of change on all parts of the
system. All parts of the system react to changes in any part (Sarason, 1990). Teaching
and learning, organization analysis, administrative problem solving, instruction, student
achievement, and small group learning comprised a healthy school (MacIver & Farley,
2003; Senge, 1990). Leaders were willing and able to adapt to a variety of situations. At
other times they were transparent, able to influence and able guide others in
transformational efforts. In a postmodern environment, the leader overcame obstacles,
responded to and readjusted to an evolving system of learning in the environment
(Pisapia, 2009).
Hoy & Miskel's study (2005, as cited in Thompson, 2011) found assessments of
performance outcomes and an array of transformational processes to a variety of
outputs were needed. Kritsonis' study (2007 as cited in Thompson, 2011) found
students, as field independent learners were empowered by giving them more
control over their own learning through critical thinking or meta-cognition.
Shapiro & Levine's study (1999, as cited in Thompson, 2011) found higher
education not meeting educational imperatives, one of which was to produce
learners who assumed responsibility for their own learning.
In summary, Yukl (1999) found the systems transformation process were
influenced by forces in and outside of the school system. The core of the organization
was teaching and learning. Stakeholders inside and outside of the organization interacted
to collaborate, plan, implement, and revise plans to accomplish the vision set forth by the
organization (Thompson, 1967). A balance between using collaborative, open-door
leadership style and empowering others to experience continuous learning and evaluating
plans was needed (Fullan, 2008a).

28
Instructional leaders and stakeholder support. As barriers to academic
success were revealed in Vogel, Holt, Sligar & Leake (2008), instructional leaders and
stakeholder support were common denominators in increasing learning and improving
campus climate. Thompson (2004) investigated the scrutiny of public schools and the
gaining of interest and public support of private, magnet and charter schools. He found
instructional leaders were challenged from stakeholders to create a climate for student
growth. The study revealed their school benefited from the collaboration of staff,
faculty, and special committees.
Campus leadership, a shared vision, and an inviting stance are needed for reform
efforts to be successful. Research findings by Hoy & Miskel (2005) revealed “sound
interpersonal dynamics in school life were not only important as ends in themselves, but
also predictive of school effectiveness, student achievement, organizational commitment,
humanism in teacher attitudes, and faculty trust in colleagues and in the leader” (p. 193).
“When people scatter themselves in many directions, they dissipate their powers and
remain superficial individuals” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 553). A healthy school has students
who achieve at high levels. Professional development and school improvement at
healthy schools are ongoing. Teachers promoted collaborative relationships with families
and other professionals for ongoing student development (Hoy & Miskel, 2005).
Instructional leaders were confident, persistent, and engaged students in new ways to
achieve goals (Fullan, 2007; Bandura, 1977; Hoy & Miskel, 2005). Green (2009) found
when teachers were motivated to work to their fullest capacity, classrooms were learning
and student centered that allowed for individual achievement. Using various instructional
strategies provided students more opportunities to learn concepts. Accommodations
provided by education reform programs that recognized standards for full inclusion when

29
possible, allowed for students to reach their fullest potential (Thompson, 2011).
Student's Persistence to Continue Their Four-Year Degree
Barriers to academic success. Vogel, Holt, Sligar & Leake (2008) investigated
the growing number of students with disabilities entering higher education. There was a
growing concern and inquiry of a chilly classroom atmosphere regarding barriers to their
academic success. Students with disabilities perceived the faculty intimidated them
because of their negative attitude. The study revealed that the third year was most
beneficial to improving campus climate for students with disabilities. Data collection
was done through surveys. Faculty had to be educated to see the surveys were tools to
classroom improvement. The response rate gave administrators and faculty the
information they needed. The faculty’s knowledge on students with disabilities
increased. The knowledge factor was no longer a barrier. It was found that when the
highest administrative officials administered the surveys, the response rate was favorable
(Vogel, et al., 2008; Thompson, 2011).
A student's persistence to continue their academic program involved whether the
teacher was clear and consistent in classroom procedures. When teacher interactions with
students were favorable, students elevated their own performance (Bandura, 1977).
Herzberg's Motivation Hygiene Needs Theory (1982) suggested when teachers believed
in their ability to be successful teachers, they also believed their students could learn,
grow, and succeed. Teachers set challenging goals and encouraged students to achieve
and excel in their activities. Teacher attitudes increased student achievement.
(Thompson, 2011, p. 8)
Increasing student populations at universities. Tapping people’s capacity to
learn at all levels involved their motivation and teacher-student interactions. If efforts
were not made to improve campus climate for students of color at a Predominately White

30
Institutions, Hispanic Serving Institutions or Minority Serving Institutions, a negative
school climate would include a need for a transformation of the school culture as well as
a re-examination of the mission, values, and belief systems of the organization (Turner,
1994). Hubbard & Stage (2009) investigated the increasing population at elite
institutions, also known as Predominately White Institutions, growing at a stable rate
compared to minority serving institutions. They also investigated various faculty
teaching and learning experiences at Hispanic Serving Institutions and Predominately
Black Institutions because few studies existed about Minority Serving Institutions.
The researchers found that undergraduate students from PBIs and HSIs were
students the faculty preferred to teach (Hubbard & Stage (2009). Findings also revealed
the faculty had a less than satisfactory attitude toward these students and the student’s
career advancement, decision making input, and whether the students were productive.
Additional research was needed to describe MSIs’ campus climate and student’s learning
environments.
Institutional effectiveness. Sulican, Reichard & Shumate (2005) investigated
campus climate and governance at a community college for recording accountability and
accreditation data. They felt that most of today’s leaders use a more democratic approach
to identify problems on campus. When institutional effectiveness’ enhancement focused
on student learning, it benefited the students (Sulican, et al., 2008).
Fullan (1993; 2007) found one of the goals of professional development was to
enhance teaching effectiveness for teachers. The development of student-centered
learning communities should foster academic capacities and learning synthesis.
Matriculating to campus life. Colleges who used a participatory form of
governance invite students, staff & faculty to shape the institution (Sulican, Reichard &
Shumatem, 2005). Institutional agents would assess how students matriculated to

31
campus life. Maramba (2008) investigated how Filipina/o American students
matriculated to campus life at predominately White institutions. Filipina/o American
students felt 1) they were not valued, 2) had no culturally defined curriculum, and 3) felt
voiceless on campus, especially when it came to student services. These findings
presented PWIs with valuable information on student engagement in the campus
environment that needed to be addressed (Maramba, 2008).
Race and ethnic relations. Experience with student services, need for ethnic
courses, student support, culture specific courses, and the need for ethnic representation
were key in Murphy (2008) matriculating to campus life. Students felt voiceless and
their presence was not acknowledged and valued. Maxwell & Shammas (2007)
investigated a theoretical underpinning in research on race relation. There existed an
absence of scholarly research, a gap in literature on diversity and active engagement of
students at community colleges. The researchers found qualitative and quantitative
longitudinal design studies and exploratory ethnographies useful sources to gather data
on race and campus life.
Our society continues to be divided on whether the problem of racism
exists. Individuals were first allowed to claim multiple racial identifies with the
2000 census. According to Hinman (2005), two views currently pervade our
society. African Americans believe that racism has gotten worse. Caucasian
Americans believed racism existed in the past and in this present day, they are not
affected by it. Caucasian Americans now believe their misfortunes are not
attributed to people of color. Also, since they cannot see how people of color
suffer, they experienced a cultural blindness to the suffering of others (Hinman,
2005). Epistemologically, since Caucasian Americans do not experience the

32
effects of racism, they can really never know how other cultures suffer from it.
(Thompson, 2011, pp. 10-11)
“A cultural heritage of racial paranoia continues to exist in America” (Jackson,
2008, p. 95). People who had relatives that were once victims of racism found it hard to
believe that they were free from racism even if they cannot see it. Jackson (2008)
suggested that “race-based paranoia” detected racism that may not become visible since it
is a way of thinking. Outward signs of racism may be a “poker face instead of a
Klansman mask” and “public tolerance does not mean the absence of racism especially in
a politically correct moment” (p.96). Many accepted the appearance of racial equity.
This appearance may just be a mirage of racial equity (Jackson, 2008).
Students Believing They are Socially Connected to the University Campus
Carter (2010) reported that Vineet Madan, of McGraw-Hill Education, believed
that the workforce was faltering. It was found in Carter (2010) that a college
student could expect to graduate in the sixth year. Students felt disconnected to
the university campus. "Lack of engagement was among the top problems in
getting more students through college and university systems. If the problem of
engagement was not addressed, more people were not going to get through the
system" (Carter, 2010, p. 1). Thompson, 2011, p. 11)
Critical Race Theory (CRT). Racism exists on most majority
educational institutions. The institutions claimed their educational practices were
neutral (Villalpando, 2006). Hinman (2005) suggested society's view on whether
racism exists was divided. The early history of racism was a normal and
permanent way of life and was not objected to by every day citizens (LadsonBillings, 1998). Racism in its various forms exposed the social inequalities using
counter-storytelling detailed by the black narrative. "The theory also placed a

33
strong emphasis on the use of narrative and the voice of the black minority ethnic
(BME) population in order to add necessary contextual contours to the seeming
‘objectivity’ of positivist perspectives" (Ladson-Billings, 1998 p. 53). (Thompson,
2011, pp. 11-12)
Minority scholars worked in the legal field of academia in the 1960s. CRT
challenged the way race was represented in society and the legal system (Delgado, 1995).
Reform efforts were slow in granting social equality to minorities. CRT explicitly
focuses on social inequalities arising through race and racism. Laws that once brought an
ounce of justice to the minority population served the interests and ideas of white
supremacy. The ultimate goal of CRT was to address issues that pertained to the learning
of every child and to end oppressive and racist tactics on people of color (Ladson-Billings
& Tate study (1995) as cited in Dixson & Rousseau (2006); Thompson, 2011)
Critical Theory. Barbour (2006) termed period of society from 1930-1970 as the
Critical Theory approach. Critical theorists made humans subservient to impersonal
social forces and realized that confronting those issues presented alarming and daunting
challenges (English, 2008). According to Bohman (1999) “the critical theory could be
applied to any social theory that is at the same time explanatory, normative, practical, and
self-reflective” (p. 195). “The term critical was applied to negative assessments of
current social or educational practices and it includes feminism and queer theory. Critical
theorists wanted to remove barriers to human suffering and obstacles, and relativism
(postmodernism). It espoused scientific procedures and includes historical analysis as
one of its approaches to creating alternative epistemologies” i.e. all situations and
outcomes were open to multiple interpretations (English, 2008, p. 168).

34
Meaningful Educational Change and Improvement. Education prepares
students to succeed. Preparing and developing system leaders included making
“intensive, consistent investments in teacher and leader development” (Education
Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform, 2007). Everyone involved in the educational
change was a change agent. In The New Meaning of Educational Change (2007), Fullan
found that localized change included the teacher, the principal, the student, the parent, the
community, and the district administrator. Change at the regional and national levels
included the state and federal government. Meaningful change occurred in building
coalitions with other change agents. Successful change occurred because of a paradigm
shift. The shift was inclusive of an all encompassing holographic vision (Fullan, 2005;
2007). Successful change included stakeholders who initiated change. They
implemented a plan of continuous improvement to achieve a successful outcome (Fullan
1982, 1991, 2007). Guiding educational change was the key to dealing with the
complexity of school reform. (Fullan, 1999, 2007).
Fullan (2007) proposed there was no single solution to guiding change. Theories
and actions evolved by looking at situations critically. When people experienced
different things, it touched their emotions. When the school was focused and integrated,
program coherence resulted. “In highly successful change efforts, people were able to
help others see their problems, or solutions in ways that influenced their emotions, not
just cognitive thinking” (Deutschman, 2005, p. 2). Incoherence was attacked and
dismantled. Quality school leadership was essential to school capacity. When
collaboration occurred, a new generation of ideas and solutions evolved. Motivation and
engagement of personnel and were needed in cognitive development. "As emotional
intelligence provoked anxiety, emotional safety prevailed" (Fullan, 2007, p. 47).

35
Positive school reform (Fullan, 2007) began when there was a shift in how
individual teachers, local, district, regional, and state personnel shifted their thinking
from “my school” to “our school” experiences. Large scale change happened when
stakeholders gained confidence in their roles, were accountable, and did not stray from
the implemented plan (Fullan, 2007).
Graduation and Retention of Students to the University
As stated earlier, "Demographic trends suggested that external environments of
schools were characterized by growing uncertainty and importance" (Hoy &
Miskel, 2008 p. 242). Approximately one-fourth of the community college
student population received a degree in three years (Weingarten, 2010). Also,
Weingarten (2010) found many students left college early without obtaining their
degree and for the last two decades, the number of women graduates exceeded the
number of men graduating within the same timeframe. (Thompson, 2011, p. 11)
Helping Schools with Dropout Rates using Social Networking Tools. McCrea
(2010) reported on the research of Maria Brennan, a graduation success coordinator at
Everett School District in Everett, WA. This was a newly formed temporary position
that was federally funded to help schools with the highest dropout rate. Four of the two
thousand U.S. high schools with the highest dropout rate were in the Everett School
District. Each school had a graduation coordinator for students already enrolled.
Brennan used a combination of traditional methods to improve graduation rates of
potential dropouts and students who were working on their GEDs. Her goal was to
convince all of the students to earn a diploma. Prior efforts and other initiatives
implemented by the district revealed that the overall graduation rate improved from fifty

36
three percent in 2003 to ninety percent in 2009. Eighty percent of Brennan’s contacts
signed up for programs that would help them get a diploma.
The researcher used the student database to locate the student name or nickname
and used the ID number to locate all contact information on the student. Brennan made a
phone contact list of family members who might be able to connect her to the student.
She used students' friend list. Also, she used an alias on Facebook, MySpace, and other
social networking sites. When the students wrote her back, she used her true identity and
let them know why she was contacting them. Brennan reported that 2 students were
unreceptive. The other students were open, receptive, and excited that the researcher
contacted them. MySpace was the most successful site used. Students were contacted 20
times. If the attempt to contact the student was unsuccessful, the researcher moved on to
the next student. Once the connection was made, Brennan and the student developed a
timeline and determined together which setting the student learned best in, a traditional
classroom, on-line learning or home schooling. Students were encouraged to finish
school before they reached 21 years of age because it was of no cost to them. After 21,
they must pay for school themselves. Lastly, Brennan said that social networking along
with other efforts improved graduation rates. Favorable weekly progress reports revealed
that rapport with students was developed in an effective and non-intrusive way by using
Facebook, MySpace, Twitter messaging, and correspondence. This technology was a
graduation rate booster.
Large Scale Change. Maria Brennan reported in (McCrea, 2010) using social
networking tools, along with other efforts, improved graduation rates. Existing
conditions in education required change and improvements. Large scale change can
happen with all stakeholders. Finding meaning was “the ultimate goal of change for

37
people to see themselves as stakeholders in the success of the system as a whole, with the
pursuit of meaning as the elusive key" (Fullan, 2007, p. 303). Learning and improvement
happened with system leaders who collectively become motivated to improve
humankind. “Change involved learning to do something new. New meanings, behaviors,
skills, and beliefs depended significantly on whether teachers were working as isolated
individuals or whether they exchanged ideas, provided support, and positive feelings
about their work” (Fullan, 2007, p. 97).
Cultural Proficiency. Change involved doing something new (Fullan, 2007).
The new approach to diversity was Cultural Proficiency (Lindsey, Robins, & Terrell
(2003). A culturally diverse environment was governed by the policies, values, and
behaviors of individuals and allowed for interaction of everyone in the school
community. Attracting students of different ethnicities was culturally proficient.
Culturally competent people valued diversity and were open to change (Lindsey, et al.,
2003).
Cultural proficient universities attract all races of people who came to school and
found mutual ways of accomplishing their goals in the university. Cultural Proficiency
gave a university the advantage to be inclusive of all groups. Promoting separation or
discrimination in any form was of no interest to a diverse culture because no group is
excluded. It provided a non-threatening, comprehensive, systematic, and systemic
structure for school leaders to deal with the equity, affirmative action, and diversity. Its
application was behavioral, focusing on individual performances as well as on
organizational policies and practices. Students were motivated to learn and grow to reach
their full potential.

38
Lindsey, et al., (2003) found there were four tools of cultural proficiency. They
were the continuum, the essential elements, the guiding principles and the barriers. The
continuum includes cultural destructiveness, cultural incapacity, cultural blindness,
cultural awareness of its limitations, cultural competence, and cultural proficiency. “The
essential elements were behavior standards for measuring growth toward cultural
proficiency. 1) name the differences by assessing the culture; 2) claim the differences by
valuing diversity; 3) reframe the differences by managing the dynamics of difference; 4)
train about differences by adapting to diversity; and 5) change for differences by the
institutionalization of cultural knowledge” (p. 112). The guiding principles included in a
culturally proficient environment include culture as a predominant force. The dominant
culture offered services to other cultures. Group identity, diversity, and barriers were
important and acknowledged. The barriers to cultural proficiency included individuals
who had an attitude of entitlement and these individuals were unaware of their need to
adapt (Lindsey, et al., 2003).
Politically correctness was imperative in reference to culture. Culture involved
much more than race and ethnicity. The heart of cultural proficiency was a sincere effort
to engage within different environments. Culturally proficient educators demonstrated an
understanding of diverse cultures to find or create harmony within the diversity.
Approaches to diversity included a focus of looking at those who are insiders to the
school. This process eliminated those considered outsiders from doing all of the
adapting. The current values and feelings of people were acknowledged and validated.
This process encouraged change without threatening people’s feelings of worth. An
educated staff participated brought about change through active participation in work
group sessions (Lindsey, et al., 2003).

39
Strategic Thinking
Strategic Thinking was the way people think about, assess, view and create the
future for themselves and others (Pisapia, 2009). Horwath (2009) stated that strategic
thinkers evaluate and plan for the future. New insights were generated from reflection of
one’s experience.
Kotter and Rathgeber (2006) gave guidelines for the production of a process for
change in any organization. In the study, penguins illustrated an organized group that
needed a plan of survival when threatened with the possibility of losing their home.
Their habitat was melting. It centered on the culture of a group, teamwork dynamics,
leadership skills, challenges and obstacles of group dynamics. Resistance to change,
open discussions, solution generating, and risk taking were needed to see and implement
change. The authors suggested one should be resilient and use a group of well skilled and
educated people to guide change. It was important to remember, "when barriers arise,
one should act immediately, and with a sense of urgency, even after the first success had
occurred" (pp. 130-131).
Everyone in the organization was an agent of change (Kotter & Rathgeber, 2006;
Fullan, 2007). If a turnaround occurred, the majority of the people in the group agreed on
the change (Fullan, 2007). This leader did not need to be popular, but effective. He
needed to state and communicate the vision with a sense of urgency. If someone other
than the leader could communicate the vision better and with a sense of urgency, then the
leader had to be willing to let others share in the decision making. “As emotional
intelligence provoked anxiety, emotional safety prevailed” (Fullan, 2007, p. 47). Another
person empowered to lead the discussion may have a closer relationship with the workers

40
than the visionary leader. These communication efforts allowed for persons to feel as
comfortable as possible when facing change. The authors make note of the role of
thinking and feeling in promoting change in behavior. When faulty thinking was
changed, behavior changed. This led to better results.
Heroes were presented as those who sacrificed by taking risks in order to discover
new and better ways to deal with their problem. “In highly successful change efforts,
emotions are influenced as people find ways to help others see the problems”
(Deutschman, 2005, p. 2). Pulling at the heartstrings was considered a strategic move. It
allowed for people to be encouraged so they would accept and promote the vision. These
heroes were the guiding coalition that had been empowered to attack problems in order to
achieve a goal. As solutions worked, the success was celebrated. The heroes were
rewarded by receiving medals and promotions. A change in thinking brought change in
how one planned, discussed, and kept focused on the vision.
An effective learning environment was one where communication was open and
honest with lots of interaction and discussion. Learning was maximized when
individuals valued diversity and were respectful of themselves and each other. In
promoting change, everyone has a part to play. “Decision makers never have access to
all the relevant information in problem solving, and it is impossible to generate all the
possible alternatives and their consequences” (Hoy & Miskel, 2005, p. 300).
Strategy involves understanding the big picture, recognizing patterns and trends,
excavating and prioritizing the primary issues, developing and predicting
alternative scenarios, and establishing plan B and even C and D. The strategic
mindset understands tradeoff (Pisapia, 2009, p. 58).

41
Pisapia (2009) reported strategy involved understanding the big picture,
recognizing patterns and trends and understanding tradeoff. During these postmodern
times, linear thinking cannot solve the problems that exist today. Leaders who think
strategically were able to think "cut through the fog", creatively and analytically, and
make sense of things (p. 58).
Fullan (2007) proposed there was no single solution to guiding change. Pisapia
(2009) has found in “postmodern times observing, interpreting, and synthesis were
critical to success” (p. 61). “The mental processes necessary to work in ambiguous,
complex, and problematic situations were described as ways of thinking” (p. 61) (See
Table 1.).
Thinking is a mental activity that uses facts to work toward an end; seeks
meaning or an explanation. It is self reflective and uses reason to question
claims and make judgments. Cognition is the way thinking is done
(Pisapia, 2009, p. 62).
Strategic leaders look at situations critically. They work from a mental model of
the complete system. Theories, interdependencies, patterns, and actions can evolve by
looking at situations critically and holistically. Pisapia (2009) stated that strategic
thinking included three types of cognitive skills: Reflecting, reframing, and systems
thinking. When information was processed, new knowledge was created. Reflection
allowed for the knowledge that was gained to be applied to practical and real situations.
Reframing involved using skills to collect, organize, and reorganize information to define
situational possibilities. Systems thinking consisted of providing options for actions. It
also consisted of being able to collect, and think through and beyond information, with an

42
understanding of systems dynamics. Creating new ideas was critical. When people
experienced new things, it touched their emotions.
When the school was focused and integrated, program coherence resulted. “In
highly successful change efforts, people found ways to help others see problems or
solutions to problems” (Deutschman, 2005, p. 2). These ways influenced their thoughts
and emotions. Incoherence was attacked and dismantled. Quality school leadership was
essential to school capacity. When collaboration occurred, a new generation of ideas and
solutions evolved. Motivation of personnel and engagement were needed in cognitive
development. As emotional intelligence provoked anxiety, an understanding of a sense of
well being and emotional safety evolved (Fullan, 2007, p. 47).
In summary, failure to follow-up on progress made and to ensure that plans were
effectively implemented, were downfalls of reform efforts (Fullan, 2007). Senge (1990)
found a new mindset, a metanoia, occurred in strategic thinking and systems thinking.
The aspects of the life of the organization included planning and formal ways of doing
business. Conducting business included the unplanned and informal ways of the
organization's life. (Getzels & Guba, 1957). Thinking strategically involved cognitive
functions. The use of reflection, framing and reframing, and systems thinking was used
to see systems holistically, while allowing for a feedback system (Pisapia, 2009; Senge
1990).

43

Table 1. Mental Processes Necessary to Work in Ambiguous, Complex and Problematic
Situations as Ways of Thinking
analytical-logical
or emotionalintuitive
Cohen et al., 1993;
Kets de Vries, 2001)

conceptual
Chilcoat, 1995;
Magee & Somervell,
1998)

strategic thinking
Bonn, 2001

holistic thinking
Senge, 1990

sensemaking
Weick, 1995

ecological thinking
Capra, 2002

practical thinking
Fallesen, 1995

contextual
thinking
Capra, 2002

process thinking
Capra, 2002

critical thinking
Pisapia, 2009

opportunity or
obstacle thinking
Godwin, Neck &
Houghton, 1999;
Neck & Manz, 1992

creative thinking
de Bono, 1996;
Kendall, 1990

Note: Mental Processes Necessary to Work in Ambiguous, Complex and Problematic
Situations as Ways of Thinking. Adapted from The Strategic Leader: New Tactics for a
Globalizing World (p. 72), J. R. Pisapia, 2009, Charlotte, NC: Information Page
Publishing, Incorporated. Copyright 2009 by Information Age Publishing, Incorporated.
According to Bolman & Deal (1991) the right frame to view problems was
crucial. This was the responsibility of the leader. Continuous improvement is embedded
in postmodernism and there is continuous monitoring for institutions to be effective
(English, 2008, pp. 90-91). The process was futuristic for strategic thinkers. Educators

44
examined what went wrong and implemented plans for the future based on that
information (Pisapia, 2009). (Thompson, 2011, p. 12)
Extension of Prior Research
This study proposed to "validate prior research at the University of Wisconsin –
Madison on the Campus Climate project at that school for people of color" (Thompson,
2009, p. 8). The project addressed improving campus climate for students of color. The
project findings of improving campus climate will be applied to a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI). In a 2007 interview with Dr. Peter Spear, Provost at the University of
Wisconsin – Madison, Dr. Spear stated:
There is little doubt that campus climate means different things to different
people. An African-American student may encounter a very different campus
climate than his white counterpart. A faculty member may be exposed to a
climate not encountered by someone on the classified staff. A woman may
experience a different climate than a man. Climate is the way it feels to be here,
the way people interact with each other. It's the working and learning
environment of the university. It translates to students, faculty and staff being
valued and respected regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual
orientation, age, job, class, ability/disability, or any other characteristic that makes
us different (Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership,
2007, p. 1). (Thompson, 2009, p. 8)
There appeared to be a relationship between improving student behavior
and academic performance and changing school climate and school culture
(Tableman & Herron, 2004). The University of Wisconsin-Madison identified

45
five key steps to improve campus climate. The five-step process for improving
campus climate included listening, leadership, training and development,
developing concrete programs and effort, providing and communicating
information (The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003). (Thompson, 2009,
pp.12-16; 2011, p. 14-16)
Theoretical Frameworks
This study was framed using two concepts. The concepts were Eight Lessons for
Complex Change from Michael Fullan and a Five-Step Process from the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, a Predominately White Institution (PWI). The PWI developed a
five-step process for improving campus climate at their school for students of color
(Thompson, 2011).
8 Lessons to bring about change.

Michael Fullan (1982; 1991) found change

was a process. He recommended eight lessons on change and improvement
(Thompson, 2011). [See Table 2; Appendix B]. In “The New Meaning of
Educational Change”, change occurred at the local, regional, and national levels.
The teacher, principal, student, parent, community, and the district administrator
allowed for change at the local level. Change at the regional and national levels
included the state and federal government. Meaningful change occurred in
building coalitions with other change agents. Stakeholders who were successful
in implementing change had successful outcomes due to continuous strategies for
improvement. Everyone involved in the educational change acted as a change
agent (Fullan 1982; 1991). (Thompson, 2011, p. 13)
Change was a journey and presented some uncertainty. It may be not be
immediate due to its complexity. "The key to success was to use practical change

46
knowledge as the basis for strategizing" (Fullan, 2007). Prematurely setting plans
can cause blurriness. Change could happen through collaborative interactions.
Isolated individuals cannot bring change, but feedback from persons at the low
end and high end of the organization was valuable and crucial to the success of
the organization. The change agents of success were at any level. The system
corrected itself at any level through internal and external feedback. (Thompson,
2011, pp. 13-14)
Fullan’s eight lessons on change and improvement guided the execution of the
research and the interpretation of the results. In Lesson 1, depending on the
significance of the results concerning campus climate and student perceptions,
change may be complex and does not happen immediately. In Lesson 2, if change
happened as a journey, when new issues arose, there would be some uncertainty
as what in particular had changed and the affect it presented. Lesson 3 suggested
that problems are our friends. Lesson 4 allows for change to evolve as long as
there were not too many rules, premature planning, or prematurely setting the
vision without thoughtful collaboration. If the vision and planning were set too
soon, it may actually keep one from seeing what was actually happening when
change needed to occur. Lesson 5 allowed for collaboration and for no one
person or group to work in isolation.

47

Table 2. Eight Lessons for Complex Change

Lesson 1.
You cannot mandate what
matters.
The more complex the change,
the less
you can force it.

Lesson 4.
Vision and strategic planning
come later. Premature visions
and planning
blind.

Lesson 7.
Connection with the wider
environment is critical for
success. The best
organizations learn externally
as well as internally.

Lesson 2.
Change is a journey not a
blueprint. Change is nonlinear, loaded with
uncertainty and excitement
and sometimes perverse.

Lesson 5.
Individualism and collectivism
must have equal power. There
are no onesided solutions to isolation and
group-think.

Lesson 8.
Every person is a change
agent. Change is too important
to leave to the experts.
Personal mind set and mastery
are the ultimate protection

Lesson 3.
Problems are our friends.
Problems are inevitable. You
can't learn without
them.

Lesson 6.
Neither centralization nor
decentralization works.
Both top-down and bottomup strategies are
necessary.

Note. Eight Lessons for Complex Change. Adapted from Change Forces: Probing the
Depths of Educational Reform (pp. 21-22), M. Fullan (1993), London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Copyright 1993 by RouteledgeFalmer.
Lesson 6 allowed for persons at both the grassroots of the university system
and persons at the top of the system to provide feedback which may be valuable to
change and improvement. Lesson 7 allowed for success to happen with individuals
and organizations outside of the system. Lesson 8 allowed for an evaluation to see if
every person at any level was an agent of change.
Five- Steps to Improvement of Campus Climate. When the climate and
culture of the school improved, student behavior and academic performance improved

48
(Tableman & Herron, 2004). Figure 2 illustrates 5 steps the researcher at the
University of Wisconsin – Madison identified to improve campus climate. A
facilitator was used at each of the five steps. It was essential to listen and assess
progress, have leadership initiatives offer opportunities for training and development,
develop programs and efforts, and provide and communicate information (University
of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003) [See Appendix C]. This current research sought to
validate these five key activities. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 14) As presented earlier in
this chapter, improving student behavior and academic performance generally requires
changing school climate and school culture (Tableman & Herron, 2004). Five key
activities were identified to improve campus climate at the University of Wisconsin–
Madison on the Campus Climate project at that institution. They were: 1) listen and
assess progress, 2) take leadership, 3) provide training and development opportunities,
4) develop concrete programs and efforts, and (5) provide information and
communicate information (The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003). This
current research seeks to validate these five key activities.

49

1. Listen and
Assess
Progress

5. Provide and
Communicate
Information

4. Develop
Concrete
Programs and
Effort

2. Take
Leadership

3. Provide
Training and
Development
Opportunities

Figure 2. Five Key Activities Identified for Improving Campus Climate, The University
of Wisconsin-Madison (2003). Campus Climate. Madison, WI: Author.
Summary
Guiding educational change was the key to dealing with the complexity of school
reform. (Fullan, 1999, 2007). Using strategy to solve complex issues arising from
barriers to academic success, instructional leaders and stakeholder support, an
unwelcoming climate, increasing student populations at universities, institutional
effectiveness, matriculating to campus life, race and ethnic relations, and cultural
proficiency provides many challenges.
“Strategy involved understanding the big picture, recognizing patterns and trends,
excavating and prioritizing the primary issues, developing and predicting
alternative scenarios, and establishing plan B and even C and D. The strategic

50
mindset understands tradeoff and was willing to turn down current opportunities
for growth if those opportunities were not wholly consistent with the long-term
strategy” (Pisapia, 2009, p. 58).
Pisapia (2009) suggested that during these postmodern times, linear thinking
cannot solve the problems that exist today. Leaders who think strategically are able to
think creatively and analytically which helped them to “cut through the fog to gain
conceptual control and make sense of a vast array of forces, situations, ideas and
problems” while reflecting on their main responsibilities (p. 58).
Positive school reform began when there was a shift in how individual teachers,
local, district, regional, and state personnel shift their thinking from “my school” to “our
school” experiences. Investing in success meant better implementation plans. Staying
the course, being accountable, the establishment of positive pressure, and the building of
confidence in stakeholders were insights into the change process allowing for large scale
change (Fullan, 2007).
In postmodern times, strategic thinking was critical in observation,
interpretation, and synthesis of situations and events (Pisapia, 2009). Existing
conditions in education require change and improvements. Large scale change can
happen with all stakeholders. Finding meaning in “the ultimate goal of change was for
people to see themselves as stakeholders in the success of the system as a whole, with
the pursuit of meaning as the elusive key (Fullan, 2007, p. 303). Learning and
improvement happened with effective system leaders who became motivated to
collectively improve humankind.
“Change involved learning to do something new. New meanings, new
behaviors, new skills, and new beliefs depended significantly on whether

51
teachers were working as isolated individuals or were exchanging ideas,
supporting one another, and whether they had positive feelings about their
work” (Fullan, 2007, p. 97).
Chapter III
Methodology
The design of this study was a qualitative-quantitative model also known as
exploratory mixed-methods. As a continuation of previous work, (Thompson, 2009;
2011), it was deemed necessary to re-present material from an unpublished class
presentation of a proposed dissertation draft of "A Postmodern Approach to Improving
Campus Climate Through Strategic Thinking" and an unpublished report on "The Center
for Educational Reform", which was submitted to a Minority Serving Institution (MSI)
for a comprehensive examination. These papers were used to frame a new analysis for
this current study on the improvement of campus climate. The purpose of the second
report was to "develop a center to eradicate educational disparities" (Thompson, 2011, p.
2). This study is a multidisciplinary report. The literature review has evolved from the
original framework to dual frameworks to show interrelated concepts. (Thompson, 2011,
pp. 13-16) The methods section was modified from the first and second report of
administering a hand-delivered survey to an on-line survey, with a larger population and a
larger sample. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 17-24) The quantitative section of this study
consisted of descriptive and correlation statistics (Thompson, 2011). A narrative analysis
was used for the qualitative portion of the study and consisted of open ended questions on
campus climate (Thompson, 2011).
A survey of campus climate was to begin in late spring 2012 semester at a
Minority Serving Institution (MSI) in Texas, but was delayed to fall 2012 due end

53
of the semester rush, low summer enrollment, and registration log-on problems
the first three weeks of the semester. Steps in the process of this study were 1) to
gather responses on perceptions and attitudes of students on campus climate, 2) to
gather responses to include in the final questionnaire design, and 3) to find out in
advance of more changes that need to be made to the questionnaire or procedures.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a postmodern
process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority
Serving Institution in Texas. The dependent variables were student academic
achievement, student's persistence to continue their four-year academic program,
students believing they are socially connected to the university, and graduation
and retention rates. The independent variables were student perceptions and
attitudes on campus climate. (Thompson, 2011, p.18)
Research Questions
Four research questions guided this study:
1) Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic
achievement?
2) Is there a relationship between campus climate and a student’s persistence to
continue their four-year academic program?
3) Is there a relationship between campus climate and students believing they are
socially connected to the university?
4) Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and retention
rates of students in the university? (Thompson, 2011, pp. 16-17)
Null Hypotheses
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and student academic achievement.

54
H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and a student’s persistence to continue their four-year academic program.

H03:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and students believing they are socially connected to the university.

H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and graduation and retention rates of students in the university.
(Thompson, 2011, p. 17)

Research Design
The design of this study was a qualitative-quantitative model also known as
exploratory mixed-methods. Terrance Willet, author of the Gavilan College Campus
Diversity Climate Survey (2002), granted permission to the researcher to use the survey
for the quantitative method. [See Appendix F]. A pilot study was not needed. A pilot
study was not needed. Descriptive and correlation statistics will describe the data. "A
correlation co-efficient decimal number between -1.00 and +1.00 will indicate the degree
to which two variables are related” Isaac & Michael, 1997, p. 202). The quantitative
method and the qualitative method will be analyzed using NSurvey and SPSS. This
explorative mixed methods approach allows for multiple methods providing for more
credibility than if the research was using one method. The student entered the last four
digits of his student ID number as a code. “This allowed for data to be rearranged into
categories that facilitate comparisons between things in the same category and aid in the
development of theoretical concepts” (Maxwell, 2005, p. 96).
Correlation statistics determined whether or not a there was a relationship
between a dependent variable and an independent variable. Correlation statistics
determined at how well one variable predicts the other variable. A correlation coefficient
was determined called the Pearson r. Correlation research was important because in a

55
regression analysis, two important objectives are (1) to determine the degree of
relationship between a customarily continuous criterion measure (the dependent variable)
and in a predictor (the independent variable) and (2) to predict the standing of individuals
in a sample on the criterion variable from scores earned in a weighted linear of predictor
variable, along with an indication of an expected margin of error (Isaac and Michael,
1997).

Fraenkel & Wallen define “correlation research as research done to determine

relationships among two or more variables, and to explore their implications for cause
and effect" (2003, p. 12).
The independent variable for this study was the variable that was the expected
outcome, which is the campus climate. The dependent variables in this study were the
factors such as the student academic achievement, student’s persistence to complete a
degree program, social connectedness, and graduation rates. One believes that one or all
of the factors have an impact on the campus climate. A perception of campus climate
depends on student academic achievement, students’ persistence to continue four-year
degree, students believing they are socially connected, and graduation and retention rates.
Maybe one or all of these factors can be used as a predictor of campus climate
perceptions. The target population was 600 students (480 undergraduate and 120
graduate) randomly selected from the total population (8,781). Data on the independent
and dependent variables was generated from an on-line survey using the NSurvey
Feedback Server and transferred into SPSS. NSurvey helps to manage, shape and make
sense of unstructured information such as interview responses. It had tools for
classifying, sorting and arranging information, allowing for time to analyze your
materials, identify themes, glean insight and develop meaningful conclusions. The SPSS
software is a “powerful tool that is capable of any type of data analysis used in the social
science, natural sciences, or in the business world” (George & Mallery, 2007, p. 1).

56
“Descriptive statistics described the data gathered from student responses using
summaries about the sample, measures of central tendency, and measures of spread”
(Isaac & Michael, 1997, p. 202). The qualitative method included a narrative response to
four open ended questions.
Quantitative Method
Quantitative Participants. Six hundred (480 undergraduate and 120 graduate)
randomly selected names were be identified from the university database to participate in
an on-line survey on campus climate. The general population of the student body was
8,781 students. The students were from STEM (Science, technology, engineering and
math) disciplines totaling 3,792 students. These disciplines makeup the economic sectors
of our society. The National Science Foundation documented math, science, and
technology work in universities is an "essential [part of the] foundation for U.S.
competitiveness in a global economy”. [NSF - Division of Science Resources Statistics,
Research and Development: Essential Foundation for U.S. Competitiveness in a Global
Economy. Arlington, VA (NSB08-03), January 2008]. The participant university was a
Minority Serving University in Texas.
Quantitative Sampling Procedures. Six hundred (480 undergraduate and 120
graduate) randomly selected undergraduate and graduate names from STEM (science,
technology, engineering and math) disciplines were be identified from the university
database to participate in an on-line survey on campus climate. The on-line survey tool
that was used was NSurvey. The subjects for the qualitative and quantitative sections
entered the last four digits of his/her ID number as a code. “This allowed for data to be
rearranged into categories that facilitate comparisons between things in the same
category, and aid in the development of theoretical concepts” (Maxwell, 2005, p. 96).

57
The researcher’s telephone number and email address was listed at the end of the survey.
Students were be stratified randomly by gender, ethnicity, level, and the day versus
evening students so that respondents would be represented. (Thompson, 2011, p. 19)
The general population of the student body is 8,781 students. The National Science
Foundation has documented, math, science, and technology work in universities is an
"essential [part of the] foundation for U.S. competitiveness in a global economy”. [NSF Division of Science Resources Statistics, Research and Development: Essential
Foundation for U.S. Competitiveness in a Global Economy. Arlington, VA (NSB08-03),
January 2008]. The participant university is a Minority Serving University (MSI) in
Texas.
The students read the informed consent letter and checked an identified box at the
beginning of the survey allowing for informed consent. The researcher requested to
conduct the research and to use the university’s database system from the Institutional
Research Board (IRB). The IRB is the granting board who gives researchers permission
to conduct human research. This board has ethical guidelines that must be strictly
followed in human research. These guidelines were set up to protect subjects from harm.
The researcher used a modified version of a survey that was previously used by Gavilan
College (2002). Permission to use the survey was obtained from its author. [See
Appendix E].
During the Summer 2012 semester, an on-line campus climate survey designed
using NSurvey, was administered to undergraduate and graduate students. The
researcher’s telephone number and email address was be listed at the end of the survey.
The results were be summarized and presented in Chapter IV of the final dissertation
study.

58
Quantitative Instrumentation. An on-line survey designed using NSurvey will
administered to 600 (480 undergraduate and 120 graduate) students. The content
questions on the campus climate survey included 53 statements on a 5-point Likert scale
with 1 = strongly disagree; 2 = somewhat disagree; 3 = somewhat agree; 4 = strongly
agree; and 5 = no opinion. The categories students surveyed on include the quality of
customer service and support, graduation and retention, student achievement, educational
and student activities, diversity, sense of belonging, and social connectivity to the
university. The participants indicated their level of agreement to each statement as well
as the importance of that statement. The 5-point Likert importance scale included 1 = not
at all important; 2 = somewhat unimportant; 3 = somewhat important; 4 = very important;
and 5 = no opinion. Demographics were also included on the survey. The survey took
approximately 20 minutes to complete.
Data from the previous study included Cronback's Alpha = 0.923 on agreement
items. There were 270 valid responses on agreement items. Cronback's Alpha = 0.947
on importance items. There were 234 valid responses on importance items. The survey
instrument had face validity. [See Appendix F]. (Thompson, 2011, pp. 20-21)
Qualitative Method
Qualitative Participants. For the purpose of the qualitative study, a random
selection of 10 students provided a narrative response for four open ended interview
questions on student perceptions and attitudes on campus climate (Thompson, 2011).
The participant university was a Minority Serving University in Texas (Thompson, 2011,
pp. 18-19).
Qualitative Sampling Procedures. Ten of 600 (480 undergraduate and 120
graduate) students provided answers to four open ended questions on students’

59
perceptions and attitudes about campus climate. Reponses were confidential and coded
for anonymity. All corresponding data will be kept under lock and key in Room 338 of
the Engineering Technology Building. The results were be summarized and presented in
Chapter IV of the final dissertation study. (Thompson, 2011, p. 20)
Qualitative Instrumentation. There were four open-ended interview questions
relating to describing campus climate, finding if a need existed to improve campus
climate, describing customer service and support of educational goals. Respondents read
a definition of campus climate and wrote responses to each of the questions. [See
Appendix D].
Validity and Reliability. Validity and reliability had already been established
because the survey was previously used. “Validity was the amount of systematic, or
built-in error in measurement” (Norland, 1990, p. 1). Reliability indicated how accurate
or precise the measuring instrument was (Norland, 1990). In Willett (2002), the
reliabilities were Cronback's Alpha = 0.923 on agreement items (270 valid responses) and
Cronback's Alpha = 0.947 on importance items (234 valid responses).
The researcher allowed for the examination of competing explanations and
discrepant data. Respondent validation was evident regarding the validity which was
done by systematically soliciting feedback that ruled out the possibility of misinterpreting
the meaning of what participants said and did and the perspective on what they were
doing (Maxwell, 2005).
Data Analysis
Quantitative Data Analysis. Descriptive and correlation statistics described the
data. A modified version of the Gavilan College Campus Diversity Survey (Willett,
2002) was used to gather student information on the perceptions and attitudes of campus

60
climate. Data was be collected that described and detail factual information. Problems
were identified and comparisons and evaluations were be made for future plans and
direction. The extent of relationships between one factor and one or more factors was
investigated based on a correlation coefficient. The data set was summarized using
descriptive and correlation statistics (Isaac & Michael, 1997). A correlation coefficient
will be determined called the Pearson r. All data was anonymous and coded for sorting.
Qualitative Data Analysis. The design of the qualitative study was a narrative
analysis derived from student responses to open-ended interview questions that addressed
campus climate. The researcher had another person to randomly select 10 students, from
the 600 (480 undergraduate and 120 graduate) quantitative participants to answer 4 open
ended research questions to gather responses on student perceptions and attitudes on
campus climate. The data was stratified on current program. Research software like
NSurvey helped to manage, shape and make sense of unstructured information such as
interview responses. NSurveys’ tools for classifying, sorting and arranging information,
allowed for time to analyze materials, identify themes, glean insight and develop
meaningful conclusions. All data was anonymous and coded for sorting.
Summary
In summary, the purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a
postmodern process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a
Minority Serving Institution in Texas. Dual frameworks guided this study to gain new
knowledge or expand existing knowledge on the university’s customer service, culture,
and climate. This chapter outlined the format that the investigator followed to answer the
research questions. The following chapters provide the analysis of data, summary,
conclusions, and recommendation.

Chapter IV
Results
Introduction
In the summer of 2012, a modified version of the Gavilan Campus Diversity
Climate Survey was sent to graduate and undergraduate students at a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI) in Texas. This climate included perceptions of the quality of seven
areas for service and support of student goals. They were customer service and support,
graduation and retention, student achievement, educational and student activities,
diversity, a sense of belonging and socially connected to the university. Results of this
survey would be used to inform college personnel of areas that may need attention. The
survey consisted of two parts: an objective survey with demographics and a narrative
analysis of open ended interview questions.
Method
STEM disciplines were used to participate in this mixed-methods study which
included science, technology, engineering and math majors. Stratified random sampling
identified a list of 600 (480 undergraduate and 120 graduate) STEM students from a
combined STEM list of 3,792 students during the spring 2012. The student population
was 8,781. Students were emailed an invitation to participate in an on-line survey on
campus climate in the summer 2012 semester. The reminder to participate in the survey
carried over into the fall 2012 semester so that students who did not have access to their
email account during the summer 2012 semester would have the opportunity to check
their student email account and have their password reset if needed. Student response in
the summer semester was expected to be slower than a regular semester. Stratified
random sampling ensured that the respondents would be proportionately representative
by gender, ethnicity, age, and day versus evening students.

61

Survey returns resulted in 70

usable surveys. The qualitative sample of 10 students were selected by a person other
than the researcher from the 600 students in the quantitative method. These students
were stratified on level.
Data Analysis
Quantitative Data Analysis. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used to
describe the data (Isaac & Michael, 1997). A modified version of the Gavilan College
Campus Diversity Survey (Willett, 2002) was used to gather student information on the
perceptions and attitudes of campus climate. Data was collected that described and
detailed factual information. Problems were identified and comparisons and evaluations
were be made for future plans and direction. The extent of relationships between one
factor and one or more factors was investigated based on a correlation coefficient. A
correlation coefficient was determined called the Pearson r [See Appendix L]. All data
was anonymous and coded for sorting.
Qualitative Data Analysis. The qualitative study consisted of a narrative
analysis derived from student responses to open-ended interview questions on student
perceptions and attitude toward campus climate. The researcher had another person to
randomly select 10 students from the 600 quantitative sample to answer the 4 questions
on campus climate which were stratified on current program. Responses were classified,
sorted and arranged in order to analyze and identify themes, glean insight, and develop
meaningful conclusions about campus climate, finding if a need existed to improve
campus climate, describing customer service, and support of educational goals. The
respondent read a definition of campus climate and wrote an answer to each question.
Fifty percent of the responses were returned. All data was anonymous and coded for
sorting.
Data Entry and Analysis
62

The researcher and assigned staff entered and screened the survey data used in
this analysis. Data was accumulated using the NSurvey Feedback Server. Feedback
server is a web software tool created by Data Illusion in 2010 and is based on
Microsoft.NET framework. It is used to create web based surveys, collect feedback, and
export or analyze the results of the survey (Data Illusion, 2012). Data that was collected
using feedback server is kept in a database which can be accessed online by authorized
personnel. Data was collected and analyzed using NSurvey and SPSS. Analyses
included descriptive and correlation statistics.
Findings
Quantitative Findings
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a postmodern
process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI) in Texas. The problem identified in this research study focused on a
decline in students graduating or completing their four-year academic program at a
Minority Serving Institutions in Texas. For a variety of reasons, graduation rates declined
in the past decade. College students' current perceptions and attitudes of campus climate
at this Minority Serving Institution was investigated to see if there was an relationship
between campus climate and whether it had an effect on student academic achievement,
student’s persistence to continue their four-year degree, students believing they are
socially connected to the university, and graduation rates (Maramba, 2008; McCrea,
2010; Carter, 2010; Weingarten, 2010; Tableman & Herron, 2004).
Four research questions guided this study:
(1)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic
achievement?

63

(2)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and a students’ persistence
to continue their four-year academic program?

(3)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and students believing they
are socially connected to the university?

(4)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and
retention rates at the university?

The null hypotheses are:
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and student academic achievement.

H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and a student’s persistence to continue their four-year academic program.

H03:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and students believing they are socially connected to the university.

H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and graduation and retention rates of students in the university.
(Thompson, 2011, p. 17)

The survey also included 53 specific statements that participants indicated their
agreement with the statement and their assessments of the importance of the statement.
The climate included perceptions of the quality of seven areas for service and support of
student goals. They were customer service and support, graduation and retention, student
achievement, educational and student activities, diversity, a sense of belonging and
socially connected to the university. Campus Climate questions addressed safety, quality
of instruction, educational environment being positive and supportive, buildings and
grounds being maintained, computing facilities being available, and satisfaction with
ethnic and cultural events. Question #1 was answered using questions on student
64

academic achievement which addressed skills student gained, examples given in class on
how theories apply to real life, advising, having at least one faculty member to talk to,
up-to-date information on subject matter, student’s having an active voice, information on
scholarships, staff and faculty being sensitive to student concerns, and if starting over, if
the student would choose this same university. Question #2 was answered using student
centered questions and educational and student activities questions which addressed
temperatures in class, adequate accommodations for people with disabilities, convenient
courses and time, a variety of courses and interests to choose from, and sexual
orientation, appreciation for different groups, involvement in student activities, being
comfortable with the assessment process, media coverage, and catalog accessibility.
Question #3 was answered using questions that addressed customer service from
the bookstore, cafeteria, health services, and from the university counselor, diversity,
sense of belonging and socially connected to the university, adequate assistance during
registration, and participation of persons with disabilities. Question #4 was answered
using questions that addressed areas that lead toward graduation and helped students to
succeed, such as academic support, learning occupational skills needed, excellent quality
of instruction, and getting the education needed toward graduation.
RQ1. Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic
achievement?
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and student academic achievement.

Respondent’s agreement and importance items on campus climate and student
academic achievement revealed a strong correlation and statistically significant
relationship. The null hypothesis was rejected. The data in Table 3 show a calculation of
a One-Way ANOVA which revealed a statistically significant relationship between
65

campus climate and student academic achievement: F(3, 66) = 6.18, p = .001. The p
value is less than or equal to the alpha level .05. The null hypothesis, H01, was rejected.
Therefore, there was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
student academic achievement.
Table 3. One-Way ANOVA Tested the Null Hypothesis. H01 was rejected.
Sum of Squares

df

Mean
Square

F

Sig.

6.167

.001

Between Groups

2.155

3

.718

Within Groups

7.688

66

.116

Total

9.843

69

The percentage of respondents for importance of campus climate and importance
of student academic achievement was x 2(9, N =70) = 17.12, p = .047. The percentage of
respondents for agreement of campus climate and agreement of student academic
achievement was x 2(6, N =70) =72.45, p = .000.
RQ2. Is there a relationship between campus climate and a students’ persistence
to continue their four-year academic program?
H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and a students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic program.

The data in Table 4 show, after calculating a One-Way ANOVA, a strong
correlation and statistically significant relationship was revealed between campus climate
and a students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic program, F(2, 67) = 6.28,
p = .003. The null hypothesis, H02, was rejected. Therefore, there was a statistically
significant relationship between campus climate and a student’s persistence to continue

66

their four-year academic program. The p value was less than or equal to the alpha level .
05.
Table 4. One-Way ANOVA Tested the Null Hypothesis. H02 was rejected.
Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups
Within Groups

1.554

2

.777

6.281

.003

8.289

67

.124

Total

9.843

69

The percentage of respondents for importance of campus climate and importance
of a students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic program was

x

2

(8, N =70) = 74.95, p = .000. The percentage of respondents for agreement of campus

climate and agreement of a students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic
program was x 2(4, N =70) = 70.91, p = .000. Results indicated the two variables,
campus climate and a students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic program
were strongly correlated.
RQ3. Is there a relationship between campus climate and students believing they
are socially connected to the university?
H03:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and students believing they are socially connected to the university.

The data in Table 5 show, after calculating a One-Way ANOVA, a strong
correlation and statistically significant relationship was revealed between campus climate
and believing they are socially connected to the university, F(2, 67) = 6.28, p = .003. The
null hypothesis, H03, was rejected. Therefore, there was a statistically significant

67

relationship between campus climate and students believing they are socially connected
to the university. The p value was less than or equal to the alpha level .05.
Table 5. One-Way ANOVA Tested the Null Hypothesis. H03 was rejected.
Sum of
Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

1.554

2

.777

6.281

.003

Within Groups

8.289

67

.124

Total

9.843

69

The percentage of respondents for importance of campus climate and importance
of students believing they are socially connected to the university was

x

2

(12, N =70) = 83.08, p = .000. The percentage of respondents for agreement of

campus climate and agreement of a students’ persistence to continue their four-year
academic program was x 2(4, N =70) = 38.71, p = .000. Results indicated the two
variables, campus climate and students believing they are socially connected were
strongly correlated.
RQ4. Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and
retention rates in the university?
H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and graduation and retention rates of students in the university.

The data in Table 6 show, after calculating a One-Way ANOVA, a strong
correlation and statistically significant relationship was revealed between campus climate
and students graduation and retention rates at the university, F(1, 68) = 16.89, p = .000.
The null hypothesis, H04, was rejected. Therefore, there was a statistically significant

68

relationship between campus climate and student graduation and retention rates at the
university. The p value was less than or equal to the alpha level .05.

69

Table 6. One-Way ANOVA Tested the Null Hypothesis. H04 was rejected.
Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

1.958

1

1.958

16.889

.000

Within Groups

7.885

68

.116

Total

9.843

69

The percentage of respondents for agreement of campus climate and agreement of
a student persistence to continue their four-year academic program was

x

2

(4, N =70) = 74.42, p = .000. Results indicated the two variables, campus climate and

student graduation and retention rates at the university, were strongly related.
Demographics [See Appendix K] revealed the most frequent major responding to
the survey was electrical engineering (20%). Figure 3, shows (20%) of the respondents
normally enrolled in evening courses, (40%) enrolled in the daytime courses, and (40%)
normally enrolled in a combination of day and evening courses.
Most of the respondents were in the age group of 18-23 (48.6%). More males
(57.1%) than females (42.9%) took the survey. Race/Ethnicity revealed that (82.9%) of
the respondents were African/American/Black, (3%) Caucasian, (5%) were Asian. Total
household income highest percentage was (32.9%), where the income total was equal to
$15,000 per year. The second highest was income in the range of $16,000-$26,000
(22.9%). Most respondents came from the city (30%) and most of the respondents come
from a medium sized community (28.6%).
Figure 3. Courses Normally Enrolled In

70

The current program of respondents revealed (58.6%) were seeking a bachelor’s
degree, (37.1%) were seeking a master degree, and (2.9%) were seeking a doctorate
degree. Lastly, the comment section revealed the most frequent topic was the financial
aid office needing a complete overhaul. Another comment was to increase
advertisements of the minority serving institution at the airports and more internet
advertisement.
Qualitative Findings
The sample selected for the qualitative study included a selection of 10
respondents of the 600 (480 undergraduate and 120 graduate) students that were
randomly selected and stratified on class level to provide answers to four open ended
questions on students’ perceptions and attitudes about campus climate. There was a 50%
return rate.
1. How do you describe your campus climate?
2. What are your experiences at this Minority Serving Institution (MSI) that
would demonstrate a need exists to improve campus climate?
3. Describe the customer service at your campus.

71

4. Does this Minority Serving Institution (MSI) support your educational
goals? Please explain your answer.
The respondents to the qualitative questions were responses from master students
(60%), junior students (20%), and doctoral students (20%). Several themes emerged
from the qualitative study.
Question #1. How do you describe your campus climate? The themes that
emerged were 1) to provide an environment where outstanding educational service can be
achieved, 2) an increase in diversity, 3) concern and increase in security, 4) cultivation
and awareness of not just undergraduates, but master and doctoral students, 5) create a
culture of hard work with rewards for achievement and penalties for unethical behavior,
6) create a climate that promotes continuous and 7) improvement of customer service in
financial aid, create more internships and jobs with corporations.
Question #2. What are your experiences at this Minority Serving Institution
(MSI) that would demonstrate a need exists to improve campus climate? The themes that
emerged from question #2 included 1) improvement of mode of instruction, 2) more
mentoring on what to expect when venturing outside of the minority serving institution,
3) provide more resources for graduate students who need financial aid, 4) allow a
student who works fulltime to use his or her company health benefits to satisfy the
insurance requirement, 5) “an air of entitlement of some departments such as HR,
parking, financial aid, registrar and some senior administration believe they are doing
students a favor by serving them”, and 6) enrollment in clubs and organizations should be
open to anyone who wants to join.
Question #3. Describe the customer service at your campus. Themes that
emerged were 1) needing and receiving help on who can fix the students’ problem and 2)

72

putting the customer first, for example, the student needs should be a priority. Comments
included why there is not a sense of fairness in customer service. Student who do not
know anyone in the department they are seeking help from are not given the same
expedient service as those who do know someone.
Question #4. Does this Minority Serving Institution (MSI) support your
educational goals? Please explain your answer. A theme that emerged was the
professor’s response to students who worked off campus was excellent, such as having
night and Saturday classes.
Summary
In summary, the purpose of the study was to investigate the applicability of a
postmodern process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a
Minority Serving Institution (MSI) in Texas. Based on the criterion value of p < .05, the
researcher rejected the null hypotheses 01, 02, 03, 04. Quantitative results indicated
there was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and student
academic achievement, campus climate and a student’s persistent to continue their fouryear academic program, campus climate and student’s believing they are socially
connected to the university, and campus climate and student graduation and retention
rates at the university. Qualitative findings revealed several themes which included areas
of concern with the educational environment, diversity, security, cultivation and
awareness of all students to include undergraduate, graduate and doctoral students, a
culture of hard work and rewards, customer service improvement and fairness.

73

Chapter V
Conclusions and Recommendation
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of a postmodern
process for improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority Serving
Institution (MSI) in Texas. The problem identified in this research study focused on a
decline in students graduating or completing their four-year academic program at
Minority Serving Institutions in Texas. For a variety of reasons, graduation rates declined
in the past decade. College students' current perceptions and attitudes of campus climate
at this Minority Serving Institution had an effect on student academic achievement,
student’s persistence to continue their four-year degree, students believing they are
socially connected to the university, and graduation rates (Maramba, 2008; McCrea,
2010; Carter, 2010; Weingarten, 2010; Tableman & Herron, 2004).
The first part of Chapter V contains a summary, findings, and conclusions for
each research question and hypothesis that was included in the study. These findings and
conclusions are based on data in Chapter IV and supported in the review of literature in
Chapter II regarding postmodernism, campus climate, and strategic thinking.
Research Questions
The research questions that guided the study were as follows:
(1)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and student academic
achievement?

(2)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and a students’ persistence
to continue their four-year academic program?

(3)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and students believing they
are socially connected to the university?

74

(4)

Is there a relationship between campus climate and graduation and
retention rates at the university?

Null Hypotheses
H01:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and student academic achievement.

H02:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and a student’s persistence to continue their four-year academic program.

H03:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and students believing they are socially connected to the university.

H04:

There is no statistically significant relationship between campus climate
and graduation and retention rates of students in the university.

Conclusions
Research Question 1 and H01
There was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
student academic achievement. Null Hypothesis H01 was rejected.
Research Question 2 and H02
There was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and a
student’s persistence to continue their four-year academic program. Null Hypothesis H02
was rejected.

.

75

Research Question 3 and H03
There was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
students believing they are socially connected to the university. Null Hypothesis H03 was
rejected.
Research Question 4 and H04
There was a statistically significant relationship between campus climate and
student graduation and retention rates at the university. Null Hypothesis H04 was rejected.
Concluding Remarks
In conclusion, meaningful change occurred in building coalitions with other
change agents. Stakeholders who were successful in implementing change had
successful outcomes due to continuous strategies for improvement. Everyone involved in
the educational change acted as a change agent (Fullan 1982; 1991). (Thompson, 2011,
p. 13) The findings in this study suggested that when campus climate was positive,
students wanted to achieve academically. They wanted and needed mentoring, an
environment of continuous improvement, and they valued a positive and supportive
environment for academic achievement. A healthy school, according to Hoy & Miskel
(2008), was identified as one that had continuous and ongoing professional development
and school improvement. A postmodern approach to improving campus climate through
strategic thinking at this MSI would be to interpret the problem and realize there was not
any permanent alternative to the problem (Lyotard, 1977). Problems were de-constructed
and hidden silences, contradictions, and dual messages were looked for. Tableman &

76

Herron (2004) suggested that when the behavior and performance of students changed,
there would be a change in the culture and climate.
A positive campus climate was strongly correlated to students being persistent in
student academic achievement, students continuing their four-year academic program,
students being socially connected to the university, and students receiving help that lead
to success toward graduation and retention of students.
Recommendations for Further Study
In an effort to improve diversity and campus climate for all students at the
Minority Serving Institution (MSI), recommendations of the researcher include:
1) A study could be conducted to gather views on creating an office of
ombudsman (complaints) for faculty and staff.
2) A study could be conducted to examine why students and faculty leave the
university.
3) A student could be conducted for faculty which would generate feedback from
a faculty’s point of view to help improve campus life.
4) A study could be conducted on how a MSI can improve cultural proficiency
and campus climate for all, on a continuous basis.
5) A study could be conducted by monitoring a campus through listening
sessions to show which initiatives are working and which are not working.
6) A study could be conducted that is inclusive of all students at the university
and compare the results with another HBCU.
77

7) A study could be conducted in developing a social network page, such as
FACEBOOK or Twitter, by level (Undergraduate - UG, Graduate - GR,
Doctorate -DR, Post Bach - PB) to keep students socially connected to the
university.

78

References
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
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Appendix A
Key Tests and Epochs Impacting Leadership Thought on a Continuum of Premodernity
and Postmodernity from the Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and
Accountability (English, F. W., 2003, p. 147)

PREMODERN

MODERN

POSTMODERNI
SM

PROTO-SCIENTIFIC EPOCH
PREMODERN
1. Plutarch’s Parallel Lives
2. Suetonius’ Twelve Ceasars
3. Machiavelli’s The Prince
4. Shakespeare’s Tragedies
PSEUDO SCIENTICIF EPOCH
MODERN
5. Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management
6. Henry Fayol’s General Management Principals
7. Mary Parker Follett’s Work - Conflict resolution, Power Sharing
8. Chester Barnard’s Functions of the Executive
9. Herbert Simon’s Administrative Behavior
Behaviorism Epoch
10. Douglas McGregor’s The Human Side of Enterprise
11. Katz & Kahn’s Social Psychology of Organizations
12. James Thompson’s Organizations in Action
Structuralism Epoch
13. Henry Mintzberg’s Structure in Fives
14. Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Organizations
15. Kathy Ferguson’s The Feminist Case Against Bureaucracy
Feminist & Critical Theory Epoch
16. Jurgen Habermas Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action
17. Richard Delgado’s Critical Race Theory
Critical Race Theory Epoch
Queer Theory Epoch
18. Bill Tierney’s Academic Outlaws: Queer Theory and Cultural Studies in
the Academy
19. W. Edwards Deming’s Total Quality Management
POSTMODERN EPOCH
POSTMODERN
20. Jean-Franncois Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition: A Report on
Knowledge
21. Jacques Derrida Of Grammatology

88

Appendix B
Eight Lessons for Complex Change from Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational
Reform. (Fullan, M., 1993, pp. 21-22).
Lesson 1.

You cannot mandate what matters. The more complex the change, the less
you can force it.

Lesson 2.

Change is a journey not a blueprint. Change is non-linear, loaded with
uncertainty and excitement and sometimes perverse.

Lesson 3.

Problems are our friends. Problems are inevitable. You can't learn without
them.

Lesson 4.

Vision and strategic planning come later. Premature visions and planning
blind.

Lesson 5.

Individualism and collectivism must have equal power. There are no onesided solutions to isolation and group-think.

Lesson 6.

Neither centralization nor decentralization works. Both top-down and
bottom-up strategies are necessary.

Lesson 7.

Connection with the wider environment is critical for success. The best
organizations learn externally as well as internally.

Lesson 8.

Every person is a change agent. Change is too important to leave to the
89

experts. Personal mind set and mastery are the ultimate protection

90

Appendix C
The Five-Step Process for Improving Campus Climate
1. Listen and Assess Progress. Providing opportunities for all members of the
campus community

to attend listening sessions in order to define what campus climate

meant was important. How campus climate was experienced, participating in new
initiatives, assessing the information and determining what direction to continue in are
topics that need to be addressed (The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003).
(Thompson, 2011, p. 15)
2. Take Leadership. Effective leaders who can influence workplace and
classroom climates through their words and actions are needed to reinforce the
importance of developing a positive campus climate. They must communicate the
university's goals, values, and decision-making processes regularly and effectively.
Defining leadership roles and responsibilities was essential to a plan’s effectiveness
(Center for School or Organizational Development and Leadership, 2007). (Thompson,
2011, p. 15)
3. Provide Training and Development Opportunities. Providing training and
learning opportunities for campus leaders, faculty, staff, and students at all levels was
important. Staff in the Provost's office or other assigned office, worked with other
campus organizations to assess the need for additional opportunities, propose additional
training, disseminate information through workshops and new development activities
(The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003). (Thompson, 2011, p. 15-16)

91

4. Develop Concrete Programs and Effort. A plethora of initiatives that
address campus climate evidenced an awareness of the importance of this issue. The
focus was on identifying existing or planned efforts that were coordinated centrally to
identify tools and approaches to improve climate (The University of Wisconsin-Madison,
2003). (Thompson, 2011, p. 16)
5. Provide and Communicate Information. A communication strategy for
campus climate and climate-related activities included disseminating information using a
website, plans to assess and track progress, and the generation of a Campus Climate
Report. The communication strategy was multilayered, and demonstrated a reflective
viewpoint that acknowledged different perspectives on the issue (The University of
Wisconsin-Madison, 2003). Without careful communication planning, organizational
change was likely to meet with resistance by colleagues (Reezigt, 2001). (Thompson,
2011, p. 16)

92

Appendix D
Qualitative Interview Questions
Circle one:

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Master

Doctoral

Definition
Campus or School Climate
Campus or school climate can be defined as behaviors within a workplace
or learning environment, ranging from subtle to cumulative to dramatic,
that can influence whether an individual feels personally safe, listened to,
valued, and treated fairly and with respect. Climate can be described as
the atmosphere or ambience of an organization as perceived by its
members. An organization's climate is reflected in its structures, policies,
and practices; the demographics of its membership; the attitudes and
values of its members and leaders; and the quality of personal interactions
(Campus Climate Network Group, 2002 p. 1).

2. How do you describe your campus climate?

5. What are your experiences at this Minority Serving Institution (MSI) that would
demonstrate a need exists to improve campus climate?

6. Describe the customer service at your campus.
93

7. Does this Minority Serving Institution (MSI) support your educational goals? Please
explain your answer.

94

Appendix E
Objective Survey
Objective Survey
A modified version of Willett’s, (2002) The Gavilan College Campus Diversity Climate Survey
For each question, please circle the number to what degree you agree with each statement and then how important that statement is to you.

Agreement
Importance
Statement #

(16)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
(4)
17
18
19
20

1=strongly disagree; 2=somewhat disagree;
3=somewhat agree; 4=strongly agree; 5= no
opinion
1= not at all important; 2=somewhat
unimportant; 3=somewhat important; 4=very
important; 5= no opinion

Statement

Agreement

Customer Service and
Support
I received adequate assistance during the
registration process.
My university counselor was responsive to
my needs.
I am comfortable in approaching a
university administrator if I have a concern.
It is easy to see my instructors during their
office hours.
People with disabilities are given ample
opportunities to participate in activities.
Students at the university show respect for
each other.
I received adequate assistance from faculty
and staff about career and transfer activities.
My instructors have been responsive to my
individual needs
I have received good customer service at the
university bookstore.
My instructors encourage women to
participate in class as much as men.
I have had difficulty getting around campus.
Health services staff provided me with good
customer service.
The cafeteria staff provided me with good
customer service.
I am safe on campus, day and night.
My instructors use teaching methods that I
respond to positively.
This university has a reputation of quality in
my community.
Graduation and Retention
Student academic support services have
helped me succeed.
I am learning the occupational skills that I
expected to learn.
The quality of instruction is excellent at my
university.
I am getting the general education
background toward my graduation that I
expected.

95

Importance

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

(continue to the next page)
Agreement
Importance
Statement #

(11)
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
(6)
32
33
34
35
36
37

1=strongly disagree; 2=somewhat disagree;
3=somewhat agree; 4=strongly agree; 5= no
opinion
1= not at all important; 2=somewhat
unimportant; 3=somewhat important;
4=very important; 5= no opinion
Statement
Student Achievement
The courses that I take teach skills that will
benefit me throughout my lifetime.
Instructors give practical examples of how
theories apply to real life.
I received the assistance I needed in
academic advising and educational
planning.
There is at least one faculty member I know
well enough to talk to if I am having
difficulty with success at the university.
My instructors provide me with up-to-date
information in the subject they teach.
People with diverse backgrounds have an
active voice in student government.
I received adequate assistance in obtaining
information on student scholarships.
I have found my university to be a positive
and supportive educational environment for
the pursuit of an education.
The buildings and grounds at this university
are well maintained.
Faculty and staff are sensitive to the needs
of students of diverse backgrounds.
If I were starting over, I would attend this
university.
Student Centered
Classrooms have comfortable temperatures
and lighting for learning.
Classrooms and other buildings have
adequate accommodations for people with
disabilities.
Courses that I need are offered at the times
that are convenient to my schedule.
From my experience, this university offers a
variety of courses to meet my needs and
interests.
The availability of student computing
facilities meets my needs.
I would be comfortable in class with
someone whom I knew was gay, lesbian, or
bisexual.

(continue to the next page)

96

Agreement

Importance

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

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2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

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2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

Agreement
Importance
Statement #
(5)
38
39
40
41
42
(4)
43
44
45
46
(7)
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

1=strongly disagree; 2=somewhat disagree;
3=somewhat agree; 4=strongly agree; 5= no
opinion
1= not at all important; 2=somewhat
unimportant; 3=somewhat important;
4=very important; 5= no opinion
Statement
Educational and Student
Activities
Educational activities at the university
reflect an appreciation for different groups
of people, including ethnic and disabled
people.
I am involved in organized student activities
at my university.
The assessment process was a comfortable
experience for me.
The way the university is presented in the
media is a clear and accurate reflection of
the university.
I was able to easily access my university's
catalog, schedule of classes and website.
Diversity
The university promotes an understanding
of and concern for issues of equality and
diversity.
I am satisfied with ethnic/cultural events
sponsored by the campus.
University personnel respond to students in
a fair and objective manner.
My instructors treat students of diverse
backgrounds with equal respect.
Sense of Belonging and Socially
Connected to the University
I have been made comfortable here by other
students.
All students, regardless of ethnicity, gender,
age, disability or sexual orientation have an
equal chance of reaching their goals at my
university.
Most students experience a sense of
belonging and are socially connected here.
I would encourage others to attend this
university.
The Financial Aid staff provides good
customer service.
I value making friends with students of
other cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
My instructors incorporate into their classes
materials that acknowledge the
contributions of women and people from
diverse backgrounds.

(continue to the next page)

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Agreement

Importance

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

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2

3

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2

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2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

1

2

3

4 5

Part II. Demographics.
Major
Do you normally enroll in:
circle one

1) daytime courses

2)evening courses 3) both day and evening courses

circle one

Age

≤ 17

18-23

24-29

30-35

36-41

42-47

48-53

54-59 > 60

circle one

Gender: male

female

circle one

Race/Ethnicity:
African American/Black

Caucasian

Asian

Pacific Islander

Hispanic

Other

circle one

Status:
married
living with partner
Total household income:

single

live with parent(s)

circle one

≤ 15,000 16,000-26,000 27,000-36,000

37,000-46,000

47,000-56,000 >57,000

Circle all that apply

Childhood Community: small / medium / large / rural /

city /

suburb

circle one

Respondents’ current program: Bachelor’s Degree

Master’s Degree

Doctorate

circle one

Class Level:

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Graduate

Major: ____________________
How many semesters have you been in school including this semester? _________
Total hrs. earned overall___________

Comments:

Thank you for completing my survey!
Appendix F
Original Survey

98

No Opinion

Very important

Somewhat important

Not at all important

Importance
Somewhat unimportant

No Opinion

Strongly Agree

No

Somewhat Agree

Yes

Strongly Disagree

For each question, please indicate to what degree you agree with each statement
and then how important that statement is to you. Please fill in bubbles
completely.

Somewhat Disagree

Gavilan Community College 1
Campus Diversity Climate Survey

Agreement

1. I received adequate assistance during the registration process.





2. My college counselor was responsive to my needs.





3. I feel comfortable in approaching a college administrator if I have a concern.





4. It is easy to see my instructors during their office hours.





5. People with disabilities are given ample opportunities to participate in activities.













8. My instructors have been responsive to my individual needs.





9. I have received good customer service at the college bookstore.





10. My instructors encourage women to participate in class as much as men.





11. I have had difficulty getting around campus.





12. Health Services staff provided me with good customer service.





13. The Cafeteria staff provided me with good customer service.





14. I feel safe on campus, day and night





15. My instructors use teaching methods that I respond to positively.





16. This college has a reputation of quality in my community.





17. Student academic support services have helped me succeed.





18. I am learning the occupational skills that I expected to learn.





19. The quality of instruction is excellent at my college.





20. I am gaining the general education background that I expected.





21. The courses that I take teach skills that will benefit me throughout my lifetime.





22. Instructors give practical examples of how theories apply to real life.





23. I received the assistance I needed in academic advising and educational planning.





Agreement

Importance

6. Students at the college show respect for one another.
7. I received adequate assistance from faculty and staff about career and transfer
options.

Gavilan Community College
100

1





5. People with disabilities are given ample opportunities to participate in activities.





6. Students at the college show respect for one another.





Campus Diversity Climate Survey
For each question, please indicate to what degree you agree with each statement
and then how important that statement is to you. Please fill in bubbles
completely.

Yes

No

No Opinion

4. It is easy to see my instructors during their office hours.

Very important



Somewhat important



Not at all important

3. I feel comfortable in approaching a college administrator if I have a concern.

Somewhat unimportant



No Opinion



Strongly Agree

2. My college counselor was responsive to my needs.

Somewhat Agree



Strongly Disagree



Somewhat Disagree

1. I received adequate assistance during the registration process.









26. People with diverse backgrounds have an active voice in student government.





27. I received adequate assistance in obtaining information on student scholarships.





28. If I were starting over, I would attend this college.





















































41. I am satisfied with ethnic/cultural events sponsored by the campus.





42. College personnel do not respond to students in a fair and objective manner.





24. There is at least one faculty member I know well enough to talk to if I am having
difficulty with success in college.
25. My instructors need to provide me with more up-to-date information in the subject
they teach.

29. Classrooms have comfortable temperatures and lighting for learning.
30. Classrooms and other buildings have adequate accommodations for people with
disabilities.
31. Courses I need are offered at the times that are convenient to my schedule.
32. From my experience, this college offers a variety of courses to meet my needs and
interests.
33. The availability of student computing facilities meets my needs.
34. I would feel comfortable in class with someone whom I knew was gay, lesbian, or
bisexual.
35. Educational activities at this college reflect an appreciation for different groups of
people, including ethnic and disabled people.
36. I am involved in organized student activities at my college.
37. The assessment process was a comfortable experience for me.
38. The way the college is presented in the media is a clear and accurate reflection of
the college.
39. I was able to easily access my college's catalog, schedule of classes and website.
40. The college promotes an understanding of and concern for issues of equality and
diversity.

101





5. People with disabilities are given ample opportunities to participate in activities.





6. Students at the college show respect for one another.

















Agreement

Importance

43. My instructors treat students of diverse backgrounds with equal respect.
44. I have found my college to be a positive and supportive educational environment
for the pursuit of an education.
45. The buildings and grounds at this college are well maintained.

Gavilan Community College 1
Campus Diversity Climate Survey
For each question, please indicate to what degree you agree with each statement
and then how important that statement is to you. Please fill in bubbles
completely.

Yes

No

No Opinion

4. It is easy to see my instructors during their office hours.

Very important



Somewhat important



Not at all important

3. I feel comfortable in approaching a college administrator if I have a concern.

Somewhat unimportant



No Opinion



Strongly Agree

2. My college counselor was responsive to my needs.

Somewhat Agree



Strongly Disagree



Somewhat Disagree

1. I received adequate assistance during the registration process.













49. Most students feel a sense of belonging here.





50. I would encourage others to attend this college.





51. The Financial Aid staff provides good customer service.





52. I value making friends with students of other cultural and ethnic backgrounds.









46. Faculty and staff are sensitive to the needs of students of diverse backgrounds.
47. I have been made to feel comfortable here by other students.
48. All students, regardless of ethnicity, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation
have an equal chance of reaching their goals at my college.

53. My instructors incorporate into their classes materials that acknowledge the
contributions of women and people from diverse backgrounds.

102

54. To me, the term diversity includes:

(choose one).

Please mark the box or boxes that best describe you:

Ethnicity
~

All human differences

~

Primarily racial differences

~

…American Indian/Alaskan Native

~

Primarily cultural differences

~

…Asian

~

Both racial and cultural differences

~

…Black; Non-Hispanic

~

…Filipino

~

…Hispanic

~

…Pacific Islander

~

…White; Non-Hispanic

~

…Other

55. To me, the words “cultural diversity”
(choose one)

~
~

~

apply to:

Group experience based on the ethnicity and/or race
of people
Group experience based on geographic location of
people
The shared experience of all individual groups,
including those based on race, ethnicity, veteran
status, physical ability, religion, sexual orientation,
etc.

Day/Evening Enrollment Status

56. At this college, the general “campus climate” is
one of respect for differences in: (select all that apply)

~

…Race/Ethnicity

~

…Gender

~

…Physical Disability

~

…Age

~

…Sexual Orientation

~

…Native Language

~

…Religion

~

…Day

~

…Night

~

…Both

Gender

~

…Female

~

…Male

Current Class Load

~

0 to 3 units

~

4 to 6 units

~

7 to 9 units

~

10 to 12 units

~

13 to 15 units

~

16 or more units
1

103

Please mark the box or boxes that best describe you:

My age group is:

Educational Goal: (Mark any that apply)

~

…17 or younger

~

…18 – 20

~

…21 – 24

~

Transfer to a
four-year college

~

AA Degree

~

…25 – 29

~

AS Degree

~

…30 – 34

~

Certificate

~

…35 – 39

~

Job Skills

~

…40 – 44

~

Personal Interest

~

…45- 49

~

Other

~

…50 – 59

~

…60 or older

Physical Disability?
What was your total family income last year
not including loads, grants, or scholarships?
~

…Yes

~

…No

How many semesters have you attended this
college, including this semester?

~

…$0 - $7,499

~

…$7,500 - $14,999

~

…$15,000 - $18,999

~

…$19,000 - $24,999

~

…One semester

~

…$25,000 - $29,999

~

…Two semesters

~

…$30,000 - $39,999

~

…Three semesters

~

…$40,000 - $49,999

~

…Four semesters

~

…$50,000 - $59,999

~

…Five or more semesters

~

…$60,000 or more

In your classes, are you:

How many family members live in your
household?

~

Very Successful

~

…Myself only

~

Somewhat Successful

~

…2

~

Not Very Successful

~

…3

~

Not al All Successful

~

…4

~

…5

~

…6 or more
1

104

Thank you for completing this survey!

Appendix G
INFORMATION LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS
A POSTMODERN APPROACH TO IMPROVING CAMPUS CLIMATE
THROUGH STRATEGIC THINKING AT A MINORITY SERVING
INSTITUTION IN TEXAS
You are invited to be in a research study on improving campus climate. You were selected
as a possible participant because you were identified as majoring in one of the following
STEM areas: Science, Technology, Engineering, or Mathematics. We ask that you read
this form and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study. You
may email your question to bathompson@pvamu.edu. Your responses are anonymous
and confidential. Participation in this study is voluntary. Your decision whether or not to
participate will not affect your current or future relations with the university. If you
decide to participate, you are free to not answer any question or withdraw at any time
without affecting those relationships. The survey will be coded with the last four digits of
your student ID number so that each survey is unique and sorted appropriately. Enter the
last four digits here ________.
Please check the box to give your consent to participate in this study and that you
understand your participation is voluntary and will be kept confidential.
This study involves research and is conducted by: Barbara Ann Thompson, a doctoral
student at Prairie View A&M University, College of Education, Educational Leadership
and Counseling Department. The research will be conducted May 14, 2012 through May
13, 2013.
Background Information
The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of a postmodern process for
improving campus climate through strategic thinking at a Minority Serving Institution
(MSI) in Texas.
Campus or school climate can be defined as behaviors within a workplace or
learning environment, ranging from subtle to cumulative to dramatic, that can
influence whether an individual feels personally safe, listened to, valued, and
treated fairly and with respect. Climate can be described as the atmosphere or
ambience of an organization as perceived by its members. An organization's
climate is reflected in its structures, policies, and practices; the demographics of
its membership; the attitudes and values of its members and leaders; and the
quality of personal interactions (Campus Climate Network Group, 2002 p. 1).
Significance of the Study:
This study adds to the knowledge base on the African American culture and its students
in higher education. Schools who seek to develop campus improvement plans may find
this research helpful. This research is an extension of prior research at a Predominately
White Institution for their students of color and has been modified to include an objective
campus climate survey. The findings of this study can generate new knowledge about
people of color and can be extended to other Predominately White Institutions (PWIs),
Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), and/or
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). This research will add to the
body of knowledge in educational leadership. This study will also add to the few existing
105

studies that currently exist on the ontology of Minority Serving Institutions" (Thompson,
2011). This increase in knowledge, according to Thompson (2011), is an effort to raise
consciousness about critical issues in the goal of education to develop intellectual and
moral citizens and customer service improvement at any level.
Procedures:
If you agree to be in this study, we would ask you to do the following things:
Check the consent box, complete the entire survey, and submit it promptly. The survey
will take about 20 minutes to complete.
Risks and Benefits of being in the Study:
There are minimal risks or discomforts associated with this study. The benefits to
participation are that you will have the opportunity to voice your concerns which may be
helpful in improving campus climate at this university. The results may lead to an
improvement in campus climate, promotion of student achievement and commitment to
study, promotion of students’ persistence to continue their four-year academic program,
fostering of students feeling socially connected to the university, an increase in
graduation and retention rates.
Compensation:
There is no compensation involved in this study.
Confidentiality:
The records of this study will be kept private. In any sort of report we might publish, we
will not include any information that will make it possible to identify a subject. Research
records will be stored securely on a password protected computer and in a secure cabinet
in Room 338, SR Collins Engineering Technology Building. Only the researcher will
have access to the records. The researcher will keep the data for 7 years. After 7 years,
the data will be shredded.
Voluntary Nature of the Study:
Participation in this study is voluntary. Your decision whether or not to participate will
not affect your current or future relations with the university. If you decide to participate,
you are free to not answer any question or withdraw at any time without affecting those
relationships.
Contacts and Questions:
The researcher conducting this study is: Barbara Ann Thompson. You may ask any
questions before you begin. Email your question to bathompson@pvamu.edu. If you
have questions later, you are encouraged to contact me at S.R. Collins Engineering
Technology Building, 3rd Floor, Room 338, 936-261-9896, bathompson@pvamu.edu.
The advisor for this study is Dr. Patricia Hoffman-Miller, Professor, Educational
Leadership, 936-261-3602, phmiller@pvamu.edu. If you have any questions or concerns
regarding this study and would like to talk to someone other than the researcher or
advisor, you are encouraged to contact Marcia Shelton, PhD, (mcshelton@pvamu.edu or
research@pvamu.edu) in the Compliance Office, Office for Research and
Development P.O. Box 519; MS 1200, Prairie View, Texas 77446
Phone 936.261.1588; Fax 936.261.1599 .

106

Appendix H
Document Granting Permission to Use the Gavilan College Campus Diversity
Survey

107

Hi Barbara,

Sorry it took me a bit to get into the archives. Here are the reliabilities:
Cronback's Alpha = 0.923 on agreement items (270 valid responses)
Cronback's Alpha = 0.947 on importance items (234 valid responses)
I am attaching the survey document. If you do not have the OCR font loaded the
bubbles will look funny but you will be able to get at the text of the questions.
Good luck with your project have a Happy Thanksgiving!
T
-----Original Message----From: Thompson,Barbara [mailto:bathompson@pvamu.edu]
Sent: Wednesday, November 09, 2011 7:30 AM
To: Terrence Willett
Subject: RE: A copy of original survey and Reliability and Validity numbers
needed on Climate Survey
Importance: High
Thank you. bt
Barbara A. Thompson
Graduate Affairs & Research
College of Engineering
Prairie View A&M University
P.O. Box 519
Room 338, Mail Stop 2502
L.W. Minor Street
Prairie View, TX 77446
936-261-9896 tel
936-261-9868 fax
Solving Problems through Communication
________________________________________
From: Terrence Willett [twillett@calpass.org]
Sent: Tuesday, November 08, 2011 1:45 PM
To: Barbara A. Thompson
Cc: rbrown@calpass.org; Thompson,Barbara
Subject: RE: A copy of original survey and Reliability and Validity numbers
needed on Climate Survey

108

Hi Barbara,
I will have to go back into my archives to pull the survey I used when I was at
Gavilan. I will get back to you soon with that.
T
-----Original Message----From: Barbara A. Thompson [mailto:barbarat@quikus.com]
Sent: Sunday, November 06, 2011 7:42 PM
To: Terrence Willett
Cc: rbrown@calpass.org; bathompson@pvamu.edu; barbarat@quikus.com
Subject: A copy of original survey and Reliability and Validity numbers needed on
Climate Survey
To: Mr. Terrance Willett and Mr. Randy Brown:
Thank you for the use of your survey. To further the research I am doing, can you
send to my email address at bathompson@pvamu.edu the following information?
1. a copy of the original survey
2. the validity and reliability numbers
I will create some interview questions from the original survey for the qualitative
survey.
Thank you so much. bt
Barbara A. Thompson
Graduate Affairs & Research
College of Engineering
Prairie View A&M University
P.O. Box 519
Room 338, Mail Stop 2502
L.W. Minor Street
Prairie View, TX 77446
936-261-9896 tel
936-261-9868 fax
Solving Problems in Conversation
Hi Barbara Ann,
Forgive the delay in my response. I am ccing my colleague, Randy Brown, who is
the current research director at Gavilan College. We have conferred and agree
you are free to use the survey. We would like to see the fruits of your research
when completed. Good luck on your project!
T
-Terrence Willett
Director of Analytic Applications
twillett@calpass.org

109

(831) 277-2690

From: Barbara Thompson [mailto:barbarat@quikus.com]
Sent: Saturday, October 22, 2011 5:17 PM
To: Terrence Willett
Subject: Seeking permission to use the Gavilan College Campus Diversity Climate
Survey
Importance: High
Hello, Mr. Willett:
I am a doctoral student at Minority Serving Institution (MSI) in Texas. I would like
to gain permission from you to use your campus diversity climate survey tool,
"The Gavilan College Campus Diversity Climate Survey".
May I hear from you soon?
Thank you for your consideration.
Barbara Ann Thompson
Prairie View A&M University
Doctoral Student
7283 Chasewood, Bldg. 34
Missouri City, TX 77489
281-804-2365 cell
936-261-9896 direct work line
barbarat@quikus.com<mailto:barbarat@quikus.com>
bathompson@pvamu.edu<mailto:bathompson@pvamu.edu>
Solving Problems Through Communication

110

Appendix I
IRB Approval Letter
June 5, 2012
To:

APPROVED
Barbara A. Thompson, Doctoral Candidate, EDLC, Principal
Investigator - dissertation
Patricia Hoffman-Miller, PhD, Assistant Professor, EDLC, Advisory Chair

From:
Marcia C. Shelton, PhD, Director, Research Regulatory Compliance
(signature on file)
Title: A Postmodern Approach to Improving Campus Climate Through
Strategic Thinking at a Minority Service Institution in Texas
Protocol Number:

2012-0501-104 Year *1 of 3 *
Continuing Review submission required for subsequent

years
Review Category: Full Board Review Approval Date: May 14, 2012
Funding Source – N/A
_______________________________________________________
The approval determination was based on the following Code of Federal
Regulations: 45 CFR Subpart B. Specifically, Code of Federal Regulations: 45
CFR 101 Subpart B(3).
Research involving the use of educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic,
aptitude, achievement), survey procedures, interview procedures, or
observation of public behavior that is not exempt under paragraph (b)(2) of
this section, if:
(i) the human subjects are elected or appointed public officials or
candidates for public office; or (ii) federal statute(s) require(s) without
exception that the confidentiality of the personally identifiable information
will be maintained throughout the research and thereafter.

Remarks:
The Institutional Review Board – Human Subjects in Research, Prairie View
A&M University has reviewed and approved the above referenced protocol.
Your study has been approved for one year. As the principal investigator of
this study, you assume the following responsibilities:
Renewal: Your protocol must be re-approved each year to continue the
research. You must also complete the renewal forms in order to continue the
study after the initial approval period.
Adverse events: And adverse events or reactions must be reported to the
IRB immediately
Amendments: Any changes to the protocol, such as procedures,
consent/assent forms, addition of subjects, or study design must be reported
to and approved by the IRB.
Informed Consent/Assent: All subjects should be given a copy of the
consent document approved by the IRB for use in your study.

111

Completion: When the study is complete, you must notify the IRB office and
complete the required forms.
Education: All investigators must submit proof electronic course
completion and to do so go to: www.citiprogram.org

112

Appendix J
Lists of Codes
CCLI

Campus Climate Importance

CCLA

Campus Climate Agreement

SAA_A

Student Academic Achievement Agreement

SAA_I

Student Academic Achievement Importance

SAAC

Student Academic Achievement Climate

CCLAC

Campus Climate Agreement Climate

SBSCI

Sense of Belonging Socially Connected Importance

SBSCA

Sense of Belonging Socially Connected Agreement

SBSCC

Sense of Belonging Socially Connected Climate

SGRI

Student Graduation Retention Importance

SGRA

Student Graduation Retention Agreement

SGRC

Student Graduation Retention

SPCI

Student Persistence Continue Importance

SPCA

Student Persistence Continue Agreement

SPCC

Student Persistence Continue Climate

Day/Eve

Day/Evening

Race/Eth

Race/Ethnicity

Totalhd

Total Household Income

ChdComm

Childhood Community

Currprog

Current Program/Level

113

Appendix K
Demographics Tables and Graphs
Major
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

AGRI

1

1.4

1.4

1.4

ANSC

1

1.4

1.4

2.9

ARCH

3

4.3

4.3

7.1

BIOL

6

8.6

8.6

15.7

CHEG

1

1.4

1.4

17.1

CHEM

1

1.4

1.4

18.6

CPEG

4

5.7

5.7

24.3

CPIS

5

7.1

7.1

31.4

CPSC

7

10.0

10.0

41.4

CRJS

2

2.9

2.9

44.3

CVEG

6

8.6

8.6

52.9

ELEG

14

20.0

20.0

72.9

ELET

1

1.4

1.4

74.3

GNEG

3

4.3

4.3

78.6

HUSC

3

4.3

4.3

82.9

JPSY

1

1.4

1.4

84.3

MCEG

4

5.7

5.7

90.0

NURS

1

1.4

1.4

91.4

POLS

1

1.4

1.4

92.9

PSYC

5

7.1

7.1

100.0

Total

70

100.0

100.0

Day/Evening Courses
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

daytime courses

28

40.0

40.0

40.0

evening courses

14

20.0

20.0

60.0

both day and evening

28

40.0

40.0

100.0

70

100.0

100.0

courses
Total

113

Age
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

= 17

1

1.4

1.4

1.4

18-23

34

48.6

48.6

50.0

24-29

19

27.1

27.1

77.1

30-35

7

10.0

10.0

87.1

36-41

3

4.3

4.3

91.4

42-47

4

5.7

5.7

97.1

48-53

1

1.4

1.4

98.6

54-59

1

1.4

1.4

100.0

Total

70

100.0

100.0

Gender
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Female

30

42.9

42.9

42.9

Male

40

57.1

57.1

100.0

Total

70

100.0

100.0

Race/Ethnicity
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

African American/Black

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

58

82.9

82.9

82.9

Caucasian

3

4.3

4.3

87.1

Asian

5

7.1

7.1

94.3

Hispanic

2

2.9

2.9

97.1

Other

2

2.9

2.9

100.0

Total

70

100.0

100.0

114

Total household Income
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Valid Percent

Percent

= 15,000

23

32.9

35.9

35.9

16,000-26,000

16

22.9

25.0

60.9

27,000-36,000

6

8.6

9.4

70.3

37,000-46,000

7

10.0

10.9

81.3

47,000-56,000

4

5.7

6.3

87.5

>57,000

8

11.4

12.5

100.0

64

91.4

100.0

6

8.6

70

100.0

Total
Missing

Percent

System

Total

Status
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Total

Valid Percent

Percent

single

52

74.3

76.5

76.5

married

13

18.6

19.1

95.6

living with partner

1

1.4

1.5

97.1

live with parent(s)

2

2.9

2.9

100.0

68

97.1

100.0

2

2.9

70

100.0

Total
Missing

Percent

System

115

Childhood Community
Frequency
Valid

small

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

8

11.4

11.6

11.6

20

28.6

29.0

40.6

large

5

7.1

7.2

47.8

rural

3

4.3

4.3

52.2

city

21

30.0

30.4

82.6

suburb

12

17.1

17.4

100.0

Total

69

98.6

100.0

1

1.4

70

100.0

medium

Missing

Percent

System

Total

Current Level
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

41

58.6

59.4

59.4

Master’s Degree

26

37.1

37.7

97.1

2

2.9

2.9

100.0

69

98.6

100.0

1

1.4

70

100.0

Total
Total

Valid Percent

Bachelor’s Degree

Doctorate

Missing

Percent

System

116

117

(Total hours earned overall?)
Frequenc
y
Percent
7
10.0

Valid
0
12
15
16
18
24
27
28
30
31
32
33
36
39
42
48
50
56
58
60
63
68
71
72
74
8
81
82
85
9
90
94
97
Total

2
1
4
1
4
2
2
1
2
1
3
4
4
2
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
1
70

Valid
Percent
10.0

Cumulative
Percent
10.0

2.9
1.4
5.7
1.4
5.7
2.9
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
4.3
5.7
5.7
2.9
4.3
1.4
1.4
2.9
1.4
2.9
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
4.3
2.9
1.4
100.0

12.9
14.3
20.0
21.4
27.1
30.0
32.9
34.3
37.1
38.6
42.9
48.6
54.3
57.1
61.4
62.9
64.3
67.1
68.6
71.4
74.3
75.7
78.6
80.0
81.4
82.9
85.7
87.1
90.0
91.4
95.7
98.6
100.0

2.9
1.4
5.7
1.4
5.7
2.9
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
4.3
5.7
5.7
2.9
4.3
1.4
1.4
2.9
1.4
2.9
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
2.9
1.4
2.9
1.4
4.3
2.9
1.4
100.0

Appendix L
Correlations and Descriptive Statistics Tables

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

SAA_I

3.37

.663

70

118

Correlations
CCLI
CCLI

Pearson Correlation

SAA_I
.350**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.003

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

35.943

11.543

.521

.167

70
.350**

70
1

Covariance
SAA_I

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

.003

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

11.543

30.343

.167

.440

70

70

Covariance
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

SAA_A

3.53

.631

70

119

Correlations
CCLA
CCLA

SAA_A

Pearson Correlation

1

.005

Sig. (2-tailed)

.964

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

SAA_A

3.943

.057

Covariance

.057

.001

N
Pearson Correlation

70
.005

70
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.964

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

.057

27.443

Covariance

.001

.398

70

70

N
Correlations

SAAC
SAAC

Pearson Correlation

CCLAC
.322**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.007

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

23.371

4.886

.339

.071

70
.322**

70
1

Covariance
CCLAC

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

.007

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

4.886

9.843

.071

.143

70

70

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

SBSCI

3.39

.804

70

120

Correlations
CCLI
CCLI

SBSCI

Pearson Correlation

.534**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
SBSCI

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

35.943

21.371

.521

.310

70
.534**

70
1

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

21.371

44.586

.310

.646

70

70

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

SBSCA

3.83

.450

70

Correlations
CCLA
CCLA

Pearson Correlation

SBSCA
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
SBSCA

.358**

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

3.943

2.657

.057

.039

70
.358**

70
1

.002

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

2.657

13.943

.039

.202

70

70

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

121

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

SGRI

3.19

.804

70

Correlations
CCLI
CCLI

Pearson Correlation

SGRI
.719**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

35.943

28.771

.521

.417

70
.719**

70
1

Covariance
SGRI

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

28.771

44.586

.417

.646

70

70

Covariance
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

SGRA

3.96

.266

70

122

Correlations
CCLA
CCLA

SGRA

Pearson Correlation

.437**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
SGRA

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

3.943

1.914

.057

.028

70
.437**

70
1

.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

1.914

4.871

.028

.071

70

70

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

SGRI

3.19

.804

70

SGRA

3.96

.266

70

SGRC

3.63

.487

70

Correlations
SGRI
SGRI

SGRA

.735**

.044

.000

44.586

3.557

19.829

Covariance

.646

.052

.287

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

70
.241*
.044

70
1

70
.323**
.006

3.557

4.871

2.886

.052
70
.735**

.071
70
.323**

.042
70
1

.000

.006

19.829

2.886

16.343

.287

.042

.237

70

70

70

1

Sig. (2-tailed)
Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

SGRA

SGRC

SGRC

.241*

Pearson Correlation

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

123

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

SPCI

3.31

.713

70

SPCA

3.87

.378

70

SPCC

3.71

.486

70

Correlations
SPCI
SPCI

SPCA
.206

SPCC
.639**

.087

.000

35.086

3.829

15.286

Covariance

.508

.055

.222

N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

70
.206
.087

70
1

70
.587**
.000

3.829

9.843

7.429

.055
70
.639**

.143
70
.587**

.108
70
1

.000

.000

15.286

7.429

16.286

.222

.108

.236

70

70

70

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)
Sum of Squares and Crossproducts

SPCA

SPCC

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

SPCI

3.31

.713

70

SPCA

3.87

.378

70

SPCC

3.71

.486

70

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

124

Correlations
SPCI
SPCI

Pearson Correlation

SPCA
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

SPCA

SPCC

CCLI

CCLA

.206

SPCC

CCLI
**

.639

CCLA
**

-.032

.626

.087

.000

.000

.795

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

35.086

3.829

15.286

22.229

-.371

.508
70
.206
.087

.055
70
1

.222
70
.587**
.000

.322
70
.029
.813

-.005
70
.280*
.019

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

3.829

9.843

7.429

.543

1.743

.055
70
.639**
.000

.143
70
.587**
.000

.108
70
1

.008
70
.431**
.000

.025
70
.053
.660

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

15.286

7.429

16.286

10.429

.429

.222
70
.626**
.000

.108
70
.029
.813

.236
70
.431**
.000

.151
70
1

.006
70
-.055
.650

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

22.229

.543

10.429

35.943

-.657

.322
70
-.032
.795

.008
70
.280*
.019

.151
70
.053
.660

.521
70
-.055
.650

-.010
70
1

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

-.371

1.743

.429

-.657

3.943

-.005
70

.025
70

.006
70

-.010
70

.057
70

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

SBSCI

3.39

.804

70

SBSCA

3.83

.450

70

SBSCC

3.71

.486

70

125

Correlations
CCLI
CCLI

CCLA

SBSCI

SBSCA

SBSCC

CCLA

SBSCI

SBSCA

SBSCC

1

-.055
.650

.534
.000

.003
.983

.348**
.003

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

35.943

-.657

21.371

.057

8.429

.521
70
-.055
.650

-.010
70
1

.310
70
.134
.270

.001
70
.358**
.002

.122
70
.178
.140

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

-.657

3.943

1.771

2.657

1.429

-.010
70
.534**
.000

.057
70
.134
.270

.026
70
1

.039
70
.105
.385

.021
70
.732**
.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

21.371

1.771

44.586

2.629

19.714

.310
70
.003
.983

.026
70
.358**
.002

.646
70
.105
.385

.038
70
1

.286
70
.502**
.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

.057

2.657

2.629

13.943

7.571

.001
70
.348**
.003

.039
70
.178
.140

.038
70
.732**
.000

.202
70
.502**
.000

.110
70
1

8.429

1.429

19.714

7.571

16.286

.122
70

.021
70

.286
70

.110
70

.236
70

Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

**

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CCLI

3.17

.722

70

CCLA

3.97

.239

70

SAA_A

3.53

.631

70

SAA_I

3.37

.663

70

SAAC

3.54

.582

70

CCLAC

3.87

.378

70

126

Correlations
CCLI
CCLI

CCLA

SAA_A

SAA_I

SAAC

CCLAC

CCLA

SAA_A

SAA_I

SAAC

CCLAC

1

-.055
.650

.562**
.000

.350**
.003

.396**
.001

.720**
.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

35.943

-.657

17.657

11.543

11.486

13.543

.521
70
-.055
.650

-.010
70
1

.256
70
.005
.964

.167
70
.159
.188

.166
70
.113
.351

.196
70
.280*
.019

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

-.657

3.943

.057

1.743

1.086

1.743

-.010
70
.562**
.000

.057
70
.005
.964

.001
70
1

.025
70
.425**
.000

.016
70
.786**
.000

.025
70
.411**
.000

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

17.657

.057

27.443

12.257

19.914

6.757

.256
70
.350**
.003

.001
70
.159
.188

.398
70
.425**
.000

.178
70
1

.289
70
.709**
.000

.098
70
.251*
.036

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

11.543

1.743

12.257

30.343

18.886

4.343

.167
70
.396**
.001

.025
70
.113
.351

.178
70
.786**
.000

.440
70
.709**
.000

.274
70
1

.063
70
.322**
.007

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

11.486

1.086

19.914

18.886

23.371

4.886

.166
70
.720**
.000

.016
70
.280*
.019

.289
70
.411**
.000

.274
70
.251*
.036

.339
70
.322**
.007

.071
70
1

Sum of Squares and Crossproducts
Covariance
N

13.543

1.743

6.757

4.343

4.886

9.843

.196
70

.025
70

.098
70

.063
70

.071
70

.143
70

Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

127

Appendix M
Vita

BARBARA A. THOMPSON
bathompson@pvamu.edu
(936) 261-9896 work
(936) 261- 9868 fax
(281) 804-2365 cell

CURRICULUM VITA
EDUCATION
Prairie View A&M University
PhD Student, Educational Leadership, Anticipated Graduation Date: 2012
M.A., Counseling, College of Education
M.S., Human Sciences, (Marriage & Family Therapy (MFT) Concentration)
University of Houston Central Campus, University Park
B.S., Psychology; Minor, History

2012
2011
2005
1987

CERTIFICATION
Prairie View A&M University Alternative Teacher Certification Program
EC-12 Special Education. Coursework/Testing completed.

2007

INTERNSHIP
An in-depth internship at Prairie View A&M University, Roy G. Perry College of
Engineering, Office of the Dean. A-BET Accreditation Project.
Supervisor, Dr. Shield B. Lin, Associate Dean
2010
TRAINING
Certified CPR/AED/First Aid
Chemical Dependency Counselor Training, Crystal Clear, Inc., Houston, TX.
Professional Management Supervisory Skills Training
How to Deal with Difficult People, Dress for Success, Guilt-Free
Assertiveness, The Woman Manager, The Exceptional Assistant, EEO Process
HONORS / AWARDS
PVAMU Poster Contest Winner. 1st Place. The Spirit of Healing
PVAMU Scholarship Winner – Special Education Teacher Recruitment & Retention.
Promotion to Fundraising Researcher, Texas Children’s Hospital
Employee Super Star Award, Texas Children’s Hospital
Scholarship Winner – Association of Professional Researchers for Advancement.
ASSOCIATIONS
Chi Sigma Iota, International Honor Society for students, professional counselors and
counselor educators.
Chi Sigma Iota, Epsilon, Local Chapter Honor Society, Prairie View A&M University.
HARDWARE

PC, IBM Compatible, Laptop, Scanner, Laminator, Copier, Fax, Calculator,
Multi-Line Phone

128

2009
1997
1995
1986

2011
2007
2000
2000
2000

SOFTWARE

Microsoft Suite (Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher)
Quicken, Print Shop Deluxe II

COMMUNITY VOLUNTEER
 Houston Arts Festival
 Hispanic Gala
 Nutcracker Market
 Galveston Port Cruise Ship
 Houston Ballet
Inspector
 Houston Children’s Festival
 Quilting Society

 PUBLICATIONS
 Thompson, B. A. & Kritsonis, W. (2010). Making National, State, District, and Local
Plans Work

Using the Six Realms of meaning as it Relates to Strategic Planning. National
FORUM of

Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

 Thompson, B. A. & Kritsonis W. (2010). Making National, State, District, and Local
Plans Work

Using the Six Realms of meaning as it Relates to Strategic Planning in
Educational

Leadership. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 506733). Retrieved
from

http://www .eric.ed.gov/

 Thompson, B. (2009). Review of Ali, M. (2003). I shook up the world: The incredible
life of
 Muhammad Ali. The Counselor’s Bookshelf. (2). Greensboro, NC: Chi Sigma Iota,
International.

 Thompson, B. (2009). Review of Davis, S., Jenkins, G., & Hunt, R. (2002). The pact,
Three
 young men make a promise and fulfill a dream. The Counselor’s Bookshelf. (2).
Greensboro, NC: Chi Sigma Iota, International.

 Thompson, B. (2009). Review of How psychotherapy really works: How it works when
it works
 and why sometimes it doesn't. The Counselor’s Bookshelf. (2). Greensboro, NC: Chi
Sigma Iota, International.

 Thompson, B. A. & Kritsonis W. (2009). Ayn Rand: selfishness – Your way to individual

triumph. Doctoral Forum National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring
Doctoral Research,

6(1)

 Thompson, B. A. & Kritsonis W. (2009). Ayn Rand: Effective educational leadership traits
compared to selfishness. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 506359). Retrieved
from http://www .eric.ed.gov/

 BOOKS

129

 Cultivating a Diving Relationship during the Millennium and beyond...A Personal
Devotional Prayer Journal for Disciples of Christ. 2000. Self-help. Devotional.
Christian Living. Self-Published. Library of Congress TXU 959-760.

 Heart to Heart, My Life for Christ. 1991. Self-help paperback. Self-published. Library
of Congress TXU 646-372.


 POSTER PRESENTATION AND DISPLAY
 1st Place Winner: The Spirit of Healing and Helping. The 19th Annual Waymon T.
Webster Professional Growth Conference, The Spirit of Healing and Helping Conference,
March 4, 2011, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX.

 Developing a Process for Improving Campus Climate at a Historically Black University.
29TH Annual Conference RAMP 2010, Research in Education, Engineering, Health, and
technology: Pathways to Possibilities for Minorities, Research Association for Minority
Professors (RAMP), February 4-6, 2010, Hilton Houston Westchase Hotel, Houston, TX..

 Self Love - Selfishness: Your Way To Individual Triumph. The 18th Annual Waymon T.
Webster Professional Growth Conference, The Essence of Self-Love Conference, March
6, 2010, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX.

 POST BACH
12/2012
 Modern School Business Administration Course

 WORK EXPERIENCE

Prairie View A&M University, Prairie
View, TX.
10/03 - current
 College of Engineering, Administrative Assistant for the
 Dean and Associate Dean. College Graduate Affairs and Research Coordinator
 and College Banner Best Expert Database Coordinator.

 Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX.
 Administrative Assistant to the Assistant Director of Major Gifts
09/97 – 12/02
 Promoted to: Development Research Assistant, Development Department
10/99 - 12/02
 Texas Southern University, Houston, TX.

02/97 - 09/97

 Legal Receptionist - Thurgood Marshall School of Law.
 Texas Department of Human Services, Houston, TX.

01/96 - 09/96

 Caseworker for Income Assistance.

 Housing Authority of the City of Houston, Houston, TX.
 Administrative Assistant to the Director of the Houston Section 8 Program.

130

12/94 - 01/96

 Xerox Corporation, Houston, TX.
 Administrative Assistant: Customer Service Operations Manager, Executive
 Sales Managers, and Marketing Manager.





132

02/86 to 03/94