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DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

FACULTY OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
SSCE 1793 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1.

2.

3.

Solve the following homogeneous equations.
a. 2y 00 + 7y 0 − 4y = 0

b. 4y 00 − 4y 0 + y = 0

c. y 00 + y = 0

d. y 00 − 4y 0 + 7y = 0

Solve the given initial value problems.
a. y 00 + y 0 = 0;

y(0) = 2,

y 0 (0) = 1

b. y 00 − 4y 0 + 3y = 0;

y(0) = 1,

y 0 (0) = 1/3

c. w00 − 4w0 + 2w = 0;

w(0) = 0,

w0 (0) = 1

d. y 00 − 2y 0 + y = 0;

y(0) = 1,

y 0 (0) = −2

e. 2y 00 − 2y 0 + y = 0;

y(0) = −1,

y 0 (0) = 0

Solve the following boundary value problems.
a. y 00 − 10y 0 + 25y = 0;

y(0) = 1,

y(1) = 0

b. y + 4y = 0;

y(0) = 0,

y 0 (π) = 1

c. 2y 00 + y 0 − 6y = 0;

y(0) = 0,

y 0 (1) = 1

00

4.

Solve the following nonhomogeneous equations using the method of undetermined coefficients.
a. 2x0 + x = 3t2 + 10t

b. y00 − y0 + 9y = 3 sin 3x

c. y00 + y0 + y = 2 cos 2x − 3 sin 2x

d. θ00 − 5θ0 + 6θ = rer

e. θ00(t) − θ(t) = t sin t

f. y00 − 2y0 + y = 8ex

g. y00 − y = −11x + 1

h. y00 + 4y = sin 2θ − cos θ

i. y00 + 2y0 + 2y = e

−θ

j. y00 − 3y = x2 − ex

cos θ

k. x00 − 4x0 + 4x = te2t
5.

l. y00 − y = (5x + 1)e3x

Solve the following initial value problems using the method of undetermined coefficients.
a. y 0 − y = 1;
00

y(0) = 1
z(0) = 0,

z 0 (0) = 0

c. y 00 + y 0 − 12y = ex + e2x − 1;

y(0) = 1,

y 0 (0) = 3

d. y 00 − y = sin θ − e2θ ;

y(0) = 1,

y 0 (0) = −1

b. z + z = 2e

6.

TUTORIAL 2

−x

;

Determine the form of a particular solution to the differential equations.
a. y 00 − y = e2x + xe2x + x2 e2x
b. y 00 + 5y 0 + 6y = sin x − cos 2x
c. y 00 − 4y 0 + 5y = e5x + x sin 3x − cos 3x
d. y 00 − 4y 0 + 4y = x2 e2x − e2x
e. y 00 + y 0 − 6yy = e−3x + x cos 3x − sin 2x

Solve the following nonhomogeneous equations using the method of variation of parameters. 9. When the equation of motion is of the form displayed in (a). k = 250kg/sec2 . Find the frequency of the oscillation for the spring system of part (a). A vibrating string with damping can be modelled by the differential equation my 00 + by 0 + ky = 0.3m and y 0 (0) = −0. Compare the results of this problem to Question 8 and determine what effect the damping has on the frequency of oscillation.1m/sec. y 00 + y = sec x b. a. y 00 + 3y 0 + 2y = sin ex i. b = 60kg/sec. the motion is said to be oscillatory with frequency β/2π. Find the equation of motion of the system. . find the equation of motion for this system. y 00 + y = cos2 x c. 2y 00 − 2y 0 − 4y = 2e3t 8. Find the equation of motion. c. The system is governed by the differential equation mx00 + bx0 + kx = F0 cos γt where F0 and γ are nonnegative constants. and 0 < b2 < 4mk. find the equation of motion for this system. The motion of a certain mass-spring system with damping is governed by y00(t) + 6y0(t) + 16y(t) = 0 y(0) = 1. What other effects does it have on the solution? 10. y 00 − y = cosh x d. y(0) = 0. b. y 00 + 2y 0 + y = e−x ln 2x k. If m = 10kg. y 00 + 3y 0 + 2y = 1+ ex ex 00 0 h. y 00 + y = sec x tan x 1 f. Determine the equation of motion for an undamped system at resonance governed by d2 y + 9y = 2 cos 3t dt2 y(0) = 1. a. y0(0) = 0. b. Sketch the solution. Find the frequency of the oscillation. q k m. a. dt2 y(0) = y0(0) = 0. l. y 00 + 4y = 2 tan x − ex g. y0(0) = 0. y − 2y + y = 1 + x2 j. y(0) = 0. If m = 10kg. 11. y 00 + y = 3 sec x − x2 + 1 e. y 00 + 4y = csc2 2x A vibrating string without damping can be modelled by the differential equation my 00 + ky = 0. An undamped system is governed by m where γ 6= ω = 13.2 7. 12. Consider the vibrations of a mass-spring system when a periodic force is applied. d2 y + ky = F0 cos γt.3m and y 0 (0) = −0. k = 250kg/sec2 .1m/sec.

An RLC series circuit has an elctromotive force given by E(t) = sin 100t volts. and a capacitor of 2 farads. we are led to an initial value problem of the form q dI + RI + = E(t) dt C q(0) = q0 .001 henrys.3 a. Then use equation (1) to determine dI dt at t = 0. Hint: Differentiate both sides of the differential equation to obtain a homogeneous linear second order equation for I(t). RLC Series Circuit. In the study of an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor.02 ohms. R is the resistance in ohms. E(t) is the electromotive force in volts. L (1) where L is the inductance in henrys. inductor. R = 20ohms. I(0) = I0 . and I = dt Find the current at time t if the charge on the capacitor is initially zero. Show that the general solution to the nonhomogeneous problem is given by ! √ 4mk − b2 F0 (−b/m)t x(t) = Ae sin t+φ + p sin(γt + θ). 2m b. a resistor of 0. C = 6260−1 farads and E(t) = 100volts. an inductor of 0. Show that the general solution to the corresponding homogeneous equation is ! √ 4mk − b2 (−b/m)t xh (t) = Ae sin t+φ . 15. at time t. q(t) is the charge in coulombs on the capacitor dq is the current in amperes. . the initial current is 0. C is the capacitance in farads. capacitor. and an electromotive force. L = 10henrys. determine the current in the circuit for t > 0. If the initial current and the initial charge on the capacitor are both zero. 2m (k − mγ 2 )2 + b2 γ 2 14.

g. 2 2 x x e. θ = c1 e2r + c2 e3r + er + rer . y = 3 − e−x . e. √ √ d. y = (c1 + c2 t)e2t + t3 e2t . y = ex/2 (sin − cos ). 6   5 11 3x x −x l. y = √ e(2+ 2)x − e(2− 2)x . b. y = c1 cos 2θ + c2 sin 2θ − θ cos 2θ − cos θ. y = −3/2 . y = e + e − ex − e2x + . a.4 SOLUTIONS TO TUTORIAL 2 1. yp = A cos x + B sin x + C cos 2x + D sin 2x. √ j. 8 32 5. d. y = e + e − sin θ − e2θ . y = c1 e + c2 e + x− e . 7 7 3e + 2e−2 t t 4. 1 1 h. y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x. y = sin 2x. c. b. y = (c1 + c2 x)ex + 4x2 ex . 3 3 d. y = (c1 + c2 x)ex/2 . 12 4 2 3 6.  √ √ 1  c. 3 5 2 1 k. d. 7 θ 3 −θ 1 1 d. θ = c1 e + c2 e − t sin t − t cos t. 60 6 10 6 12 b. y = e2x (c1 cos 2 3x + c2 sin 2 3x). yp = Axe−3x + (Bx + C)(D sin 3x + E cos 3x) + F sin 2x + G cos 2x. y = c1 ex/2 + c2 e−4x . b. y = c1 e 3x √ + c2 e− 3x 1 2 1 − x2 − + ex . y = e − e . 2. y = (1 − 3x)ex . y = c1 cos √ + c2 sin √ + 3t2 + 10t − 12. y = e c1 cos 2 2 3 1 d. y = c1 ex + c2 e−x + 11x − 1. 2 √ 2 ! √ 35 35 x/2 x + c2 sin x + cos 3x. 2 e2x − e−3x 2 3x/2 2 −2x c. y = e c1 cos 2 2 √ √ ! 3 3 −x/2 x + c2 sin x + sin 2x. y = e−θ (c1 cos θ + c2 sin θ) + θe−θ cos θ. yp = (Ax2 + Bx + C)e2x b. c. a. 4 3 i. y = ex − 1. y = − cos x + sin x + e−x . yp = x2 (Ax2 + Bx + C)e2x . 4 2 1 1 −t t e. a. . y = 1 3. a. a. y = e5x − xe5x . b. a. 1 −4x 7 3x 1 1 1 c. c. 2 2 4 x 1 3x e − e . yp = Ae5x + (Bx + C)(D cos 3x + E sin 3x). 2 2 f.

y = c1 e2x + c2 e−x − e−2x sin e2x .5 7.2 sin 4t).3 cos 5t − 0. 5   105 95 20 95 cos 20t − sin 20t − cos 100t + sin 100t. 2 1 3 −x −x i. y = cos ωt + sin γt. y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x + x cos x + sin x ln | sec x|. 2 4 j. y = cos 3t + t sin t. 4 1 l. y = e−3t (0. 5/2π. y = c1 e−x + c2 e−2x + (e−x + e−2x ) ln(1 + ex ). y = 0. 7 1 11. 2 6 1 1 c. ex 1 − cos 2x ln | sec 2x + tan 2x|. b. 1 h. 1 k. 4 4 d. m(ω 2 − γ 2 ) m(ω 2 − γ 2 ) 2 −t e sin 25t. a. a. 4 8. e.3 cos 4t + 0. y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x + − cos 2x. I = e−10t 9. y = c1 e2t + c2 e−t + e3t . 15. a. I = . y = c1 cos 2x + c2 sin 2x + (cos 2x ln | csc 2x + cot 2x| − 1).425 14. 5 2 f. y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x − x2 + 3 + 3x sin x + 3 cos x ln | cos x|. 2 −F0 F0 12.425 18.8Hz 9. c.425 9. y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x + x sin x + cos x ln | cos x|. y = c1 e + c2 xe + x2 e−x ln 2x − x2 e−x . 1 1 b. y = c1 cos 2x + c2 sin 2x − g. y = c1 ex + c2 xex − [ex ln(x2 + 1) + xex tan−1 x]. Exponential factor (damping factor)   √ √ 3 10. b. y = c1 ex + c2 e−x + xex − xe−x . 0.02 sin 5t. y = e−3x cos 7x + √ sin 7x .85 9.