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Technical Reference Documentation

**Three-Winding Transformer
**

ElmTr3,TypTr3

DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9

72810 - Gomaringen

Germany

T: +49 7072 9168 0

F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de

info@digsilent.de

Version: 15.2

Edition: 1

**Copyright © 2014, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.
**

No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means

electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3,TypTr3)

1

. . . 12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 YN-yn-d connection (Grounded wye-grounded wye-delta) .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5 Relation between input parameters and absolute impedances . . . . . . 8 2.3 YN-d-d connection (Grounded wye-delta-delta) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Contents 1 General Description 3 2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 3 2. . . . 11 2. . . . . . .3. . . . . .2. . . .1 Zero-sequence Input parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Zero sequence models . . . . . . 3 2. . . . . 12 2. . . . . . .4 Magnetizing impedance measurement .3 LV-HV Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7 YN-d-zn (Grounded wye-delta-grounded Z) .2 MV-LV Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. . . . . . .2.3. . . 7 2.1 Positive and Negative sequence models . . . . . . . . .2. .8 YN-d-y(Grounded wye-delta-wye) . . . . . . . 4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. . . 10 2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3.TypTr3) 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 YN-yn-d auto-transformer (Grounded wye-grounded wye-delta auto transformer) . 10 2. . . . . .3. . . 13 3 PowerFactory Handling 14 4 Application in Power Systems 15 5 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models 17 List of Figures 19 List of Tables 20 Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. .2 Positive sequence input parameters . . . . . . . . . . .2 D-d-d connection (Delta-delta-delta) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 HV-MV Measurement . . 5 2. . . .5 YN-yn-yn connection (Grounded wye-grounded wye-grounded wye) . . .

Figure 2.1) to the terminal sides (Figure 2.2) with the default position being the star point. 2 2. PowerFactory comes with a built-in model for three-winding transformers explained in this document. The models also include a magnetisation reactance and an iron loss resistance designated respectively by xM and rF e . The magnetisation reactance and the iron loss resistance can be modelled at different positions (default: star point. and LV windings has a resistance and a leakage reactance designated by rCu and Xσ together with the corresponding winding initials.1 and Figure 2.TypTr3) 3 . Each of the HV. More Specific PowerFactory handling issues are explained in Section 3. Also the position of the taps can be changed from the star point (Figure 2. The negative-sequence models are identical to the positive-sequence models. MV-Side or LV-Side). Section 2 presents the sequence equivalent models of the three-winding transformer including generalized tap-changers (for phase and magnitude). The input parameters are also covered in this section. MV. taps modelled at star point Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3. An ideal transformer with a 1:1 turns ratio links the three windings at the magnetic star point.2.1 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters Positive and Negative sequence models The detailed positive-sequence models with impedances in per unit are shown in Figure 2.1: PowerFactory positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer. HV-Side. Section 4 discusses typical applications of three-winding transformers in power systems.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 1 General Description The 3-winding transformer is a 3-port element connecting 3 cubicles in the network.

MV-LV. ur.sc.sc.T. PCu.HV . usc. Ur.TypTr3) 4 .M V . X/R ratio of path HV-MV. SrT.HV . usc.LV −HV ur. ur.HV −M V .M V . SrT.LV usc.M V −LV . LV-HV kW Copper losses of path HV-MV. Ur.HV −M V .LV −HV X/RHV −M V .T. LV-HV % Relative short-circuit voltage. MV-LV. resistive part of paths HV-MV. LV-HV Relative short-circuit voltage.2: PowerFactory positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer. related to rated current at HV side No-load losses The following sections briefly describe the measurements performed in order to determine the parameters of a three-winding transformer.T. PCu. LV-HV % kW No-load current.HV −M V .M V −LV .LV SrT. MV-LV. X/RLV −HV i0 PF e kV Rated voltages on HV/MV/LV side MVA Rated power for the windings on HV/MV/LV side % Relative short-circuit voltage of paths HV-MV. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters Figure 2. X/RM V −LV .LV −HV PCu.M V −LV . MV-LV.2 Positive sequence input parameters Ur. taps modelled at terminals 2.sc.

HV −M V = Usc.HV · 100% UrT.1 HV-MV Measurement Figure 2.HV −M V · 100% M in(SrT.HV −M V = Usc.HV −M V Ur.HV −M V = PCu.M V in kA The positive-sequence short-circuit voltage HV-MV can be calculated from the measured voltage on the HV-side: usc.M V = M in(SrT.HV .HV −M V X/R ratio for HV-MV: X/RHV −M V = Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3. SrT.M V ) · 1000 with PCu in kW.sc.2. • X/R ratio: Imaginary part of the short-circuit voltage HV-MV: q 2 2 ui.sc.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 2.M V ) √ 3 · UrT. SrT. open-circuit on LV-side The short-circuited winding (MV-side) should carry the nominal current according to: IN.HV .HV The real part of the short-circuit voltage can be specified in different ways: • Copper Losses in kW: The measured active power flow in kW can be directly entered into the corresponding input field • Real part of short-circuit voltage in %: ur.HV −M V − Ur.3: Short-circuit on MV-side.HV −M V 5 .TypTr3) Ui.

HV −M V = = xσ.4: Short-circuit on LV-side.2 MV-LV Measurement Figure 2.M V The real part of the short-circuit voltage can be specified in different ways: • Copper Losses in kW: The measured active power flow in kW can be directly entered into the corresponding input field • Real part of short-circuit voltage in %: ur. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.M V · 100% UrT.LV 100% rCu.HV −M V = 2. SrT.HV + rCu.HV −M V = rCu.TypTr3) 6 .2.M V .M V 100% ui.sc.LV ) √ 3 · UrT. SrT.M V −LV = Usc.M V .LV The positive-sequence short-circuit voltage MV-LV can be calculated from the measured voltage on the MV-side as: usc.LV = M in(SrT.sc.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters The short-circuit voltage and impedance are referred to the minimum of the HV-side and MVside rated powers. open-circuit on HV-side The short-circuited winding (LV-side) should carry the nominal current calculated as: IN.HV −M V xσ.M V −LV · 100% M in(SrT.HV + xσ.LV ) · 1000 with PCu in kW.M V −LV = PCu.sc. ur.

M V −LV = xσ.HV . SrT.LV The positive-sequence short-circuit voltage LV-HV can be calculated from the measured voltage on the HV-side as: usc.LV −HV = Usc.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters • X/R ratio: Imaginary part of the short-circuit voltage HV-MV: q 2 2 ui. open-circuit on MV-side The short-circuited winding (LV-side) should carry the nominal current calculated as: IN.M V −LV Ur.M V −LV = = xσ.M V −LV = rCu. rCu.M V −LV = Usc.LV = M in(SrT.M V −LV − Ur.sc.sc.5: Short-circuit on LV-side.M V −LV X/R ratio for HV-MV: X/RM V −LV = Ui.M V + xσ.LV 100% ui.HV The real part of the short-circuit voltage can be specified in different ways: • Copper Losses in kW: The measured active power flow in kW can be directly entered into the corresponding input field Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.2.TypTr3) 7 .M V −LV 2.sc.LV ) √ 3 · UrT.HV · 100% UrT.LV 100% LV-HV Measurement Figure 2.M V + rCu.M V −LV The short-circuit voltage and impedance are referred to the minimum of the MV-side and LV-side rated powers.3 ur.

LV −HV − Ur.2.LV + xσ.LV ) · 1000 with PCu in kW.LV −HV The short-circuit voltage and impedance are referred to the minimum of the LV-side and HV-side rated powers.sc.LV −HV = xσ. rCu.LV −HV 2.LV −HV = PCu.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters • Real part of short-circuit voltage in %: ur.LV 3·UrT .LV · SrT . SrT.LV −HV = Usc.HV 100% ui.LV Sref × 100% with Ir.6: Measurement of iron losses and no load current on LV-side The no-load current in % referred to the HV-side rated power is calculated according to the following equation:: i0 = I0 Ir. • X/R ratio: Imaginary part of the short-circuit voltage LV-HV: q 2 2 ui.sc.LV in kA I0 measured no load current in kA PF e measured iron losses in kW Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.LV = √ SrT .HV .sc.LV −HV = rCu.4 ur.sc.LV −HV X/R ratio for LV-HV: X/RLV −HV = Ui.LV −HV · 100% M in(SrT.TypTr3) 8 .HV 100% Magnetizing impedance measurement Figure 2.LV −HV Ur.LV + rCu.LV −HV = = xσ.

LV · M in(SrT .M V · M in(SrT .M V −LV = ZM V. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.LV ) 2 UrT .TypTr3) 9 .HV .HV ) 2 UrT .HV −M V = ZHV.M V Impedance ZLV −HV seen from the LV-side: usc.2.M V ) 2 UrT . The option is only possible if one side (HV.SrT .LV Zero sequence models The zero-sequence model of a three-winding transformer depends on the vector group of each winding.3 M in(SrT .SrT .HV · 2.SrT .2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters Sref = Sr. xM = rF e = 2.M V × 100% with ZLV −HV in Ohm referred to UrT. Please note that the dashed connections to the neutral terminals exist only if the option External Star Point is enabled (see transformer dialogue).LV . The following sections describe the different vector groups.HV in MVA → reference power in PowerFactoryis equal to HV-side rated power The measured active power PF e in kW is entered directly into the corresponding PowerFactory input field.LV −HV = ZLV.LV Impedance ZM V −LV seen from the MV-side: usc. the measurement of the zero-sequence data and the input parameters.HV × 100% with ZHV −M V in Ohm referred to UrT.M V . MV or LV) is on grounded star (grounded wye) or grounded Z connection.HV × 100% with ZM V −LV in Ohm referred to UrT.5 Sref PF e · 1000 100% i0 PF e in kW and Sref in M V A Relation between input parameters and absolute impedances The relation between the input parameters in the type and element dialogs and the absolute impedances are described in the following: Impedance ZHV −M V seen from the HV-side: usc.

TypTr3) 10 . LV-HV % Zero-sequence magnetizing reactance.M V −LV .3. X/R ratio of path HV-MV. resistive part of paths HV-MV. It is recommended for a D-d-d transformer to set the zero-sequence short-circuit voltage equal to the positive sequence short-circuit voltage. MV-LV. ur. u0sc. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.LV −HV ur.7: Zero-sequence model of D-d-d transformer According to Figure 2.sc.2 % Relative zero-sequence short-circuit voltage of paths HV-MV. LV-HV % Relative zero-sequence short-circuit voltage. no load current D-d-d connection (Delta-delta-delta) Figure 2.LV −HV X/RHV −M V . X/RLV −HV i0M 2.7 the zero-sequence impedances have no influence on the zero-sequence voltage. u0sc. MV-LV.M V −LV . X/RM V −LV . MV-LV.3. ur.HV −M V .2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 2.sc.sc. LV-HV Relative short-circuit voltage.HV −M V .1 Zero-sequence Input parameters u0sc.

2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 2.3.9: Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-d transformer Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.3.4 YN-yn-d connection (Grounded wye-grounded wye-delta) Figure 2. Both delta windings are short-circuited in the zero-sequence system.TypTr3) 11 . 2.3 YN-d-d connection (Grounded wye-delta-delta) Figure 2.8 shows that the LV-side and the MV-side have no zero-sequence connection to the terminals.8: Zero-sequence model of YN-d-d transformer Figure 2.

5 YN-yn-yn connection (Grounded wye-grounded wye-grounded wye) Figure 2.11: Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-d auto transformer Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.10: Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-yn transformer 2.TypTr3) 12 .3.3.6 YN-yn-d auto-transformer (Grounded wye-grounded wye-delta auto transformer) Figure 2.2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 2.

3.7 YN-d-zn (Grounded wye-delta-grounded Z) Figure 2.8 YN-d-y(Grounded wye-delta-wye) Figure 2.13: Zero-sequence model of YN-d-y transformer Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.12: Zero-sequence model of YN-d-zn transformer 2.TypTr3) 13 .2 Model Diagrams and Input Parameters 2.3.

however only one of the tap changers can be controlled in the load-flow calculation. for a 60/60/10 MVA.1). In entering positive and zero sequence voltages for a three-winding transformer. Checking this option shows a table where data from measurements can be directly entered (Figure 3. 132/22/11 kV transformer. Then.3 3 PowerFactory Handling PowerFactory Handling In PowerFactory each winding of a transformer can have taps. By clicking on the right-arrow in the load-flow specification page of a transformer element. For example.24 primary Ω 10M V A It is possible to use manufacturers or any other available measurement data for load-flow calculation. in the load-flow command ”Basic Options” page. the option Automatic Tap Adjust of Transformers must be enabled. the user goes to a new window where the option According to Measurement Report is displayed.1 × (132kV )2 = 29.TypTr3) 14 . Note that in order to have the load-flow algorithm adjust the taps while trying to find a solution. one must note that they are referred to the minimum rated power of the two windings. Figure 3. a value of 10% is specified both for the HV-MV and LV-HV positive-sequence short-circuit voltages.04 primary Ω 60M V A while the impedance value (referred to HV-side) of the impedance between HV and LV terminals is 0. The specification of the tap changers for each winding is done in the load-flow page of the transformer type.1 × (132kV )2 = 174. The impedance value (referred to HV-side) of the impedance between the HV and MV terminals is 0. in the load-flow page of the element a tap changer is specified for automatic control.1: Measurement data input page for three-winding transformer Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.

The same argument goes for network transformers for example in distribution networks. if the terminals are brought out of the transformer tank. Let us assume a third-harmonic source at the HV side and a load at the MV side. The impedance of the middle leg is normally much less than that of the right leg which is why the third-harmonic current content of the load is reduced.2: Small tertiary winding for zero-sequence and reactive compensation Step-up transformers especially for hydro power plants can be three-winding transformers where there is one high-voltage side. This is cost-effective because then only one switchgear is needed for the high-voltage side (Figure 4.2. Figure 4. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.1: Zero-sequence load connected to the secondary of YN-yn-d transformer Figure 4. the magnetizing and grounding impedances are ignored.11.TypTr3) 15 . however. or SVCs (Figure 4.4 4 Application in Power Systems Application in Power Systems the impact of third-harmonic currents from one star-connected side to the other star-connected side is reduced because these currents see the delta-connected side as a short-circuited winding. However. this application is common also in case of autotransformer.3). the circuit in Figure 4. then the tertiary winding can also be used to connect shunt reactors. For simplicity. the star-connected windings are shown as separate windings.1 is obtained.2). and two low-voltage sides with the same voltage rating.9 and Figure 2. If the MV and LV winding resistances and leakage reactances are referred to the HV side. The effect can be explained using the zero-sequence diagrams in Figure 2. In this application the tertiary winding can be internal with no terminals provided for connection. In Figure 4. capacitors.

the 30◦ phase shift between a star-connected winding and a delta-connected winding is employed (Figure 4. In HVDC systems. and 11kV are to be connected together.TypTr3) 16 .3: Tertiary winding to save on the high-voltage switchgear Another application of three-winding transformers is when at some location in the network three different voltage levels for example 132kV.4 Application in Power Systems Figure 4. In this application.4). 22kV. three winding transformers are used to combine two 6-pulse rectifiers into a 12-pulse one to give a smoother dc voltage. Figure 4.4: Tertiary winding for 30◦ phase shift Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.

3: State Variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation Parameter Description Unit psim r psim i psim 0 Magnetizing flux (Real Part) Magnetizing flux (Imaginary Part) Magnetizing flux (Zero-Sequence) p. I0rDelta m I0rDelta l I0iDelta h I0iDelta m I0iDelta l kA. p. kA. Real Part Circulating Current in MV-Delta-Winding. Real Part Circulating Current in HV-Delta-Winding. Imaginary Part Circulating Current in LV-Delta-Winding.TypTr3) 17 . kA. Real Part Circulating Current in LV-Delta-Winding. controller input Tap position (MV).2: Signals of RMS transformer model Parameter Description Unit I0rDelta h Circulating Current in HV-Delta-Winding. Table 5.1: Input/Output Definition of 3-winding transformer model for RMS and EMT simulation Table 5.5 5 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models Figure 5. controller input Unit Table 5. controller input Tap position (LV). Imaginary Part kA.u.u. p. Imaginary Part Circulating Current in MV-Delta-Winding. Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.1: Input Variables of RMS and EMT transformer model Parameter Description nntapin nntapin nntapin Tap position (HV). kA.u. kA.

4: Signals of EMT transformer model Parameter Description Unit I0Delta h Circulating Current in HV-Delta-Winding Circulating Current in MV-Delta-Winding Circulating Current in LV-Delta-Winding Zero-Sequence Current in HV-Delta-Winding Zero-Sequence Current in MV-Delta-Winding Zero-Sequence Current in LV-Delta-Winding kA I0Delta m I0Delta l i0 h i0 m i0 l Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3.5 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models Table 5.TypTr3) kA kA kA kA kA 18 .

. . . taps modelled at star point . . 11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Measurement of iron losses and no load current on LV-side . . 6 2. . . . . .2 PowerFactory positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer. . . . . . .1 Zero-sequence load connected to the secondary of YN-yn-d transformer . . 13 3. . . . . . . . . . 8 2. . . . . taps modelled at terminals . . . . . . . . . 3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. . . . .4 Tertiary winding for 30◦ phase shift . . . .9 Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-d transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open-circuit on MV-side . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures List of Figures 2. . . . . . . . .11 Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-d auto transformer . . . . . 16 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.13 Zero-sequence model of YN-d-y transformer . . . . 11 2. . . .1 Input/Output Definition of 3-winding transformer model for RMS and EMT simulation 17 Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3. . . . . . . . 14 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Short-circuit on MV-side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Short-circuit on LV-side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open-circuit on HV-side .3 Tertiary winding to save on the high-voltage switchgear . . 15 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Small tertiary winding for zero-sequence and reactive compensation . 7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .TypTr3) 19 .10 Zero-sequence model of YN-yn-yn transformer . 16 4. . . . . open-circuit on LV-side . . . . . . . . . . .1 Measurement data input page for three-winding transformer . . 13 2.4 Short-circuit on LV-side. .1 PowerFactory positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer. . . . 5 2. . . . . . . . .8 Zero-sequence model of YN-d-d transformer . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. . . . . . . . . 10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Zero-sequence model of YN-d-zn transformer . . . . . . . .7 Zero-sequence model of D-d-d transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5. . . . . . . . . 17 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5. . .1 Input Variables of RMS and EMT transformer model . . . . .4 Signals of EMT transformer model . . . . . . . . .TypTr3) 20 . . .3 State Variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation . . . . . . .List of Tables List of Tables 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Signals of RMS transformer model . 18 Three-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3. .

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