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2012-09-21

ICS:13.220.20

ΕΛΟΤ CEN/TS 14972
2η Έκδοση

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟ ΠΡΟΤΥΠΟ
HELLENIC STANDARD

Μόνιµα συστήµατα πυρόσβεσης - Συστήµατα υδατονέφωσης - Σχεδιασµός και
εγκατάσταση
Fixed firefighting systems - Watermist systems - Design and installation

Κλάση Τιµολόγησης: 21
ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟΣ ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΥΠΟΠΟΙΗΣHΣ Α.Ε.

© ΕΛΟΤ

Κηφισού 50 •12133 Περιστέρι

ΕΛΟΤ CEN/TS 14972 E2

Εθνικός Πρόλογος

National Foreword

Αυτό είναι το Φύλλο Επικύρωσης
του εγκεκριµένου Ευρωπαϊκού
Προτύπου

This Endorsement Sheet ratifies
the
approval
of
European
Standard

CEN/TS 14972 : 2011

CEN/TS 14972 : 2011

ως Ελληνικού Προτύπου.
Το πρότυπο αυτό διατίθεται στην
Αγγλική, ή Γαλλική ή Γερµανική
γλώσσα από τον Ελληνικό
Oργανισµό Τυποποίησης Α.Ε. Αυτό
το Ελληνικό Πρότυπο αντικαθιστά
τα ΕΛΟΤ CEN TS 14792 :2009.

as a Hellenic Standard.
This standard is available in
English, French or German from
the Hellenic Organization for
Standardization S.A. This Hellenic
Standard replaces
ΕΛΟΤ CEN TS 14792 :2009.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

CEN/TS 14972

SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION

June 2011

ICS 13.220.20

Supersedes CEN/TS 14972:2008

English Version

Fixed firefighting systems - Watermist systems - Design and
installation
Installations fixes de lutte contre l'incendie - Systèmes à
brouillard d'eau - Conception et installation

Ortsfeste Brandbekämpfungsanlagen - FeinsprühLöschanlagen - Planung und Einbau

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 28 September 2010 for provisional application.
The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their
comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.
CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available
promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)
until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. CEN/TS 14972:2011: E

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)

Contents

Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5
1

Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2

Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3

Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 11
General ................................................................................................................................................. 11
Exclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 11
Local applications............................................................................................................................... 12
Volume protection .............................................................................................................................. 12
Other considerations .......................................................................................................................... 13

5
5.1
5.2
5.3

Activation and control ........................................................................................................................ 13
General ................................................................................................................................................. 13
Electrical activation and control ....................................................................................................... 14
Non-electrical activation .................................................................................................................... 16

6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14

Design and installation ...................................................................................................................... 16
General ................................................................................................................................................. 16
Pipes and fittings ................................................................................................................................ 17
Pipe supports ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Hydraulic and pneumatic circuits ..................................................................................................... 17
Non-return valves ............................................................................................................................... 18
Drainage ............................................................................................................................................... 18
Pressure gauges/monitoring ............................................................................................................. 18
Electrical Design ................................................................................................................................. 18
Nozzle ................................................................................................................................................... 19
Air velocity, openings and ventilation .............................................................................................. 19
Hydraulic and pneumatic calculations ............................................................................................. 19
Automatic shut-down ......................................................................................................................... 20
Enclosure requirements ..................................................................................................................... 20

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

Components ........................................................................................................................................ 20
Nozzles ................................................................................................................................................. 20
Piping and fittings............................................................................................................................... 21
Control valves ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Pressure regulating valves ................................................................................................................ 22
Shut-off valves .................................................................................................................................... 22
Check valves ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Safety valves ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Strainers .............................................................................................................................................. 22
Water supply components ................................................................................................................. 23

8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

Water supply, including additives..................................................................................................... 23
General ................................................................................................................................................. 23
Water quality ....................................................................................................................................... 23
Additives .............................................................................................................................................. 24
Duration ............................................................................................................................................... 25
Continuity ............................................................................................................................................ 25
Maximum and minimum water pressure .......................................................................................... 26
Test devices ........................................................................................................................................ 26

2

62 B................................................................... 82 3 .............................................................................................................................................................. 52 Annex B (informative) Guidelines for developing representative fire test procedures for watermist systems .........................1 General ..................9 Type of water supply ........................................ 34 A........................................................CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 8..... 31 10 10..... 64 C.................................. 79 F....................................................................................................................4 Test procedure .......................................................... 60 B......................................................................................................................2 Documentation ...... 32 Documentation for acceptance of design............................................................................ 30 Acceptance test ...................................................... 32 Annex A (normative) Test protocols .............................................2 Fuel packages .............3 Evaluation of the compartment conditions ............................... 73 Annex F (normative) Fire test procedure for certain occupancies Ordinary hazard group OH3 ......................................................... 75 F...................................................................................................................................................... 73 E........................................... 64 C...................................................................................1 9........... 58 B...... 27 9 9............... installation and commissioning...............1 Parameters ............................................................................................................ 58 B.................................................................................8 8.............................................5 Evaluation of the test results ....... 34 A.......................................7 Documentation and interpretation of test results ............3 Fire test protocol for office occupancies of Ordinary Hazard Group 1 .................................................................4 Test protocol for the firefighting performance in commercial kitchen of type deep fat fryers .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Setting up the fire test procedure .................... 26 Pressurization systems ......................1 Test protocol for flammable liquids (control and suppression systems) .....1 Preliminary function tests .................3 Determination of acceptance criteria .................................................................................. 42 A........................ 32 Documentation for system and type approval ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 Annex C (informative) Determination of drop size distribution ........................................................................................................................................ 68 Annex E (informative) Function tests for acceptance and maintenance ...............................................................................................................1 Object of the test .......................... maintenance and training ................................................2 Fire test protocol for cable tunnels (control and suppression systems) ..........................................................................................................2 Evaluation of the fire hazard ..........................3 Data processing .............................................................. 75 F...................... 31 Inspection............................. 58 B..........................................................................................2 9.................................................................................................................2 Test data ............................................................................. 65 Annex D (informative) Testing of nozzles...................................................................... 30 Commissioning report ........... 37 A................................................3 Acceptance tests and maintenance ............................................................................................2 System function operational test .......6 Carrying out the test ........................ 64 C....4 Determining the performance objective..... 60 B.............................................................. 79 F.................................................................................................................................................... 73 E....................... 81 Bibliography ....................................................................1 10.............. 76 F.......................................... 59 B......................................................................................

The CEN members are requested to submit their comments and experiences with the use of these requirements and recommendations to the Secretariat of the responsible Technical Committee CEN/TC 191. Bulgaria. Norway. Greece. Iceland. Croatia. CEN/TC 14972:2008 was reviewed and replaced with this new edition. Slovenia. Lithuania. Luxembourg. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Cyprus. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations. for instance. Slovakia. France. Latvia. Portugal. This Technical Specification (TS) was adopted by CEN for which there is the future possibility of agreement on a European Standard. Italy. Spain.  the subject matter is still under technical development. Finland. Poland.  there is doubt on whether consensus has been achieved.  providing specifications in experimental circumstances and/or evolving technologies. Malta. Hungary. 4 . Estonia. This Technical Specification is established with a view to serving. the purpose of:  publishing aspects of a subject which may support the development and progress of the European market. Czech Republic. Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Belgium. Germany.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Foreword This document (CEN/TS 14972:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 191 “Fixed firefighting systems”. This document supersedes CEN/TS 14972:2008. Denmark. the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria. Sweden. Ireland. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights.  giving guidance to the market on or by specifications and related test methods. but for which at present:  the required support for approval as a European Standard cannot be obtained. the secretariat of which is held by BSI. Romania. Netherlands.

whilst setting a minimum level of acceptable performance and/or safety. It is the approving authority's responsibility to assess and implement the design manual of specific watermist systems against the tests set out in this document. this document is intended to apply to both skidded stand alone and pumped systems. classify and determine the extent of their suitability for intended applications. 5 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Introduction The main purpose of this document is to provide information about the minimum requirements on watermist systems. This document describes a series of specific test conditions to set out criteria capable of verifying performance claims of watermist systems. As individual watermist applications have varied requirements and duty.

Fire detection and fire alarm systems EN 12094 (all parts). Fixed firefighting systems ― Gas extinguishing systems ― Part 1: Design. Reaction-to-fire tests ― Heat release. EN 54 (all parts). For dated references. The fire tests in this document apply to the applications as described in Annex A. Firefighting systems in accordance with EN 12845 and water spray systems are not covered. it is the intent of this document that watermist systems are full-scale fire tested and its system component evaluations are conducted by qualified testing laboratories. in aircraft. the component test report(s) as well as manufacturer's design. Aspects of watermist associated with explosion protection are beyond the scope of this document. installation and testing and gives criteria for the acceptance of fixed landbased watermist systems for specific hazards and provides fire test protocols for a variety of hazard groups. the relevant parts of EN 12094 and EN 15004-1 are applicable. Fixed firefighting systems ― Automatic sprinkler systems ― Design. as different systems have different characteristics and hence follow different design criteria to satisfy their duty requirements. installation. installation and maintenance (ISO 14520-1:2006. Fire protection ― Automatic sprinkler systems ― Part 11: Requirements and test methods for pipe hangers ISO 6182-12. Fire classification of construction products and building elements ― Part 1: Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests EN 15004-1. the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. Fixed firefighting systems ― Components for sprinkler and water spray systems EN 12845:2004+A2:2009. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. The document is not a universal design manual for watermist systems. For undated references. Extrapolation is not covered. Fixed firefighting systems ― Components for gas extinguishing systems EN 12259 (all parts). installation and maintenance EN 13501-1:2007. modified) ISO 5660-1.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 1 Scope This Technical Specification specifies minimum requirements and gives information on design. In the absence of a generalized design method. operation and maintenance manual for the application. If the gas in the system is a significant factor for extinguishment/suppression. only the edition cited applies. The requirements are not valid for watermist systems on ships. on vehicles and mobile fire appliances or for below ground systems in the mining industry. The full system acceptance requires the relevant fire test report. Fire protection ― Automatic sprinkler systems ― Part 12: Requirements and test methods for grooved-end components for steel pipe systems 6 . smoke production and mass loss rate ― Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method) ISO 6182-11.

or a procedure 3. but below 35 bar.7 design pressure maximum working pressure expected to be applied to a system component NOTE 1 The design pressure is an important parameter for the determination of the strength of components.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document.  for medium pressure systems: higher than 12. 3. NOTE 2 The systems are defined by the following values:  for low pressure systems: up to 12.  for high pressure systems: 35 bar and higher. intentionally introduced into the water mist system NOTE The additive can have one ore more of the following purposes:  enhancement of.1 additive chemical or mixture of chemicals.6 deep fat fryer commercially available cooking appliance in which cooking greases in depth are used NOTE Requirements are specified in EN 60335-2-37:2002. 3. 3. the following terms and definitions apply. fire protection requirements. 3. 3.  corrosion protection.8 discharge duration accumulated time during which fire fighting medium is applied NOTE The time is given in minutes.4 cooking grease vegetable shortening incorporating an antifoaming agent NOTE Only new greases are used for the tests.  frost protection. 3.5 cooking oil cooking oil available in market with flash point value of 230 °C to 280 °C and auto ignition point between 330 °C and 445 °C 3. or individual responsible for approving equipment.39.5 bar. office. or compliance with. and installation.3 automatic nozzle watermist nozzle held closed by an integral thermal release element NOTE see 3.5 bar.2 authority having jurisdiction organization. 7 .

The terminology includes the following: a) water only.25).b) and c) with an inert gas or a blend of inert gases used primarily to atomize the water and/or to reduce oxygen concentration at the fire (see 3.10 domestic occupancy individual dwelling for occupation as a single family unit or constructed or adapted to be used wholly or principally for human habitation 3. natural sea water. i. 3. 3. potable and sweet industrial water.e.14 firefighting medium substance which causes fire extinguishment. nitrogen. 3. c) water with fire extinguishing enhancing additive. 3. d) combination of a). and water with additives are relevant. b) water with antifreeze. potable water.9 discharge time time interval between the first appearance of extinguishing agent at the nozzle and the time at which the discharge becomes predominantly gaseous or ceases NOTE The discharge time is expressed in seconds.11 dry pipe system watermist system using automatic nozzles attached to a piping system containing air.12 fire control limitation of fire growth and prevention of structural damages (by cooling of the objects.15 fire suppression sharp reduction in the heat release rate and prevention of re-growth of the fire NOTE The heat release rate decreases. deionized water. or inert gas under pressure.17 inspection most frequent scheduled maintenance procedure 8 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 3.16 flash-over prevention reducing the average temperature inside the protected volume to a temperature where the smoke layer with combustion products do not ignite 3. suppression or control NOTE Media for use in watermist systems: demi water. the release of which (as from an opening of an automatic nozzle) allows the water to flow NOTE The water flows into the piping system and out through any activated nozzles. adjacent gases and/or by pre-wetting adjacent combustibles) NOTE The heat release rate does not grow.13 fire extinguishment complete elimination of any flaming or smouldering fire 3. 3.

25 operating pressure constant or time-dependent pressure at a component during discharge 3.27 pump device consisting of one or more pressurizing units directly connected to a suitable driver 3.20 maintenance combination of all technical and administrative actions. The at least two fryers are separated by at least 5 cm from each other.24 multiple vat deep fat fryer multiple fryers which are mechanically joined together NOTE Each vat incorporates a separately controlled heating source. in which an independent fire detection system in the protected area allows the firefighting medium to flow into the pipework prior to the independent operation and subsequent operation of any automatic nozzle 3. a state in which it can perform a required function [EN 50126-1:1999] 3.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 3.21 manufacturer's design and installation manual document containing design rules for all details of a water mist system based on successful fire tests 3. the associated downstream pipes and nozzles 3.23 mean discharge rate discharge rate calculated dividing the total water amount by the total discharge time 3.26 preaction system dry pipe system. including supervision actions. or restore it to. unenclosed or outdoor condition 3. intended to retain an item in.28 preburn time time from ignition of the fire source till the operating pressure or design flow is available at the hydraulically most remote nozzle 9 .18 installation (watermist) part of a watermist system comprising a control valve set. 3.22 maximum discharge rate ratio of the quantity of extinguishing agent discharged from a nozzle to the discharge time measured within ±1s NOTE The ratio is expressed in litres per minute for the maximum pressure.19 local application system watermist system designed to protect a particular object or hazard in an enclosed. 3.

The at least two fryers are separated by at least 5 cm from each other. NOTE 2 For systems with intermittent discharge it is the sum of the times of discharge and the times without discharge. 3.39 watermist nozzle component with one or more orifices which is designed to produce and discharge watermist 10 .33 supplier qualified company that is responsible for the product.36 user person or persons responsible for use and maintenance of the watermist system 3.32 split vat deep fat fryer fryer that incorporates a dividing partition which splits the fryer in sections NOTE Each split vat fryer incorporates a separately controlled heating source. process or service and is able to ensure that quality assurance is exercised 3.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 3.37 volume protection system watermist system designed to protect all hazards in an enclosed volumetric space 3.31 single fluid system system which generates watermist by passage of water or water with additive through the nozzle 3.30 responsible person person(s) responsible for or having effective control over fire safety provisions adopted in or appropriate to the premises or the building 3. installation and maintenance of fixed watermist systems and fully trained and authorized by the manufacturer 3.35 twin fluid system system which generates watermist at the nozzle by mixing water with an atomizing gas fed from a separate pipe(s) from the water supply 3.90 measured in a plane 1 m from the nozzle at its minimum operating pressure is less than 1 mm 3.29 qualified company company registered by a national body or accepted by the authorities having jurisdiction for design.34 system duration total time for which the supply of fire fighting medium is designed to last NOTE 1 The time is given in minutes. 3.38 watermist water spray for which the diameter Dv0.

11 . the results of the test protocol should be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. their approval sought at an early stage. Annex D describes the testing of watermist nozzles. and the performance objectives for the system. Annex A describes fire test protocols for a variety of hazard groups. ventilation conditions. Where a watermist system or an extension or alteration to a watermist system is being considered within new or existing buildings. In this case. the compartment conditions. If no suitable component standard is available. e. For scenarios where Annex A is not applicable. 4. the relevant parties shall be consulted and. Parameters include room geometry. Watermist systems shall be successfully tested in accordance with these test protocols. where necessary. it is recommended to test watermist systems in accordance with Annex B by a recognized third party laboratory.g. Annex B provides guidelines for defining representative fire test protocols based on a proper fire protection engineering evaluation of the fire hazard. installed and maintained by qualified companies and shall comply with the following requirements. The safe use of a water mist system is limited to applications it has been tested for.40 watermist system entire means of a firefighting system connected to a water supply equipped with one or more nozzles capable of delivering watermist to meet the requirements of this document NOTE Watermist systems may discharge plain watermist or a mixture of watermist and some other agent or agents like gases or additives. the insurer(s) of the building and building contents. Watermist systems shall be tested in accordance with Annex A.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 3.2 4. unless methods being acceptable to the authorities having jurisdiction to interpolate test results can be applied. Parameters used during such tests define the limits of its application. a customized evaluation or review should be carried out based on existing component standards.2.1 General Watermist systems shall only be designed.1 Exclusions General Watermist systems shall be designed and installed in a way that in any case contact between water and the following materials or substances is avoided. For other components. responsible for the acceptance of the system.41 wet pipe system watermist system using automatic nozzles attached to a piping system containing water and connected to a water supply so that water discharges immediately from nozzles operated by the heat from a fire 4 Requirements 4. the fire authority. etc. Water mist systems shall be certified in conformity to all requirements of this document by a recognized authority. case-by-case evaluations should be conducted by qualified testing laboratories. fire load. 3. the water supply authority. The full system evaluation also includes component testing.

12 . such as benzoyl chloride and aluminum chloride. zirconium. such as lithium. magnesium. NOTE The installation of an automatic door closing mechanism is expected to improve the effectiveness of the system by ensuring that any doors to the volume being protected are kept shut. Where the spread of fire is likely to involve two or more enclosed volumetric spaces. j) cyanates. which boil violently when heated by water. e) halides. such as lithium aluminum hydride. 4.1). f) hydrides.4 Volume protection Volume protection systems shall be designed and installed for the hazards to be protected within the volume. b) metal alkoxides. uranium and plutonium. h) silanes.2.3 These materials are allowed if stored in non-combustible containers. Systems designed to be installed in multiple hazard local application areas. d) carbides. Liquefied gases Watermist systems shall not be used for direct application to liquefied gases at cryogenic temperatures (such as liquefied natural gas).CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 4. These materials include: a) reactive metals. Systems designed to be installed in a multiple hazard application shall be tested and approved for all present hazards in the volume. sodium. such as sodium methoxide. such as sodium amide. c) metal amides. in accordance with the design parameters established through representative fire tests (see 6. potassium. where protection for individual objects is foreseen. NOTE 4. adjacent fire hazards shall be taken into account. such as trichloromethylsilane. titanium. i) sulfides. such as phosphorus oxybromide. such as phosphorus pentasulfide. shall be approved for all associated hazards present in the area.2. 4.3 Local applications Systems designed to be installed in local applications shall be tested for the associated hazard class selected and for the main protection objective/objectives of the applications concerned. such as calcium carbide.2 Materials which react with water Watermist systems shall not be used for direct application to materials that react with water to produce violent reactions or significant amounts of hazardous products. such as methylisocyanate. and the watermist system shall be designed for the combined hazard. g) oxyhalides. If necessary additional systems/nozzles shall be installed to cover all hazards present in that area.

The activation system should fulfil the following requirements. except where the authorities having jurisdiction allow only manual activation. alarm and control systems shall be installed. The safety requirements effected by the gas concentration produced by the watermist system shall comply with national regulations. or electrical.8.1 Activation and control General The detection and activation system can either be mechanical. b) the temperature rating of detector shall be as close as possible to.e. The detection system shall comply with the requirements of 6. Failure of the control panel shall not be able to stop the ongoing watermist discharge or the ongoing discharge sequence. pneumatic.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 4. hydraulic.5. different from air. the working pressure in the system shall not exceed 3.5. In application with open nozzles the firefighting medium shall exit from all nozzles within 30 s after activation. i. but not less than 30 °C above. 4. tested and maintained in accordance with appropriate national standards. 4. 13 . as long as the above agreed principles of system rationale are observed and followed. Watermist systems shall be automatically activated. d) detection lines shall be monitored. The detection system shall be specified based on the results of the fire tests.5. but such systems can be applied in design. opening of the first nozzle. c) when air or inert gas is used. if applicable: a) the detection system shall be installed in all zones protected by the watermist system and shall comply with the data sheet given by the manufacturer of the activation device.2 Selection of detection system If a detection system is used for activation it shall be as specified in the manufacturer's design and installation manual. 5 5.1 Discharge delay For dry and preaction systems with automatic nozzles the firefighting medium shall exit from the nozzle within 60 s after activation. the highest anticipated ambient temperature.3.3 Oxygen depletion Systems discharging into the protected volume a gas. except if otherwise specified by the deluge valve manufacturer.5 bar. shall comply with the safety requirements of EN 15004-1. Details of specific intermittent misting operations of systems and the associated modes of controls re-setting are not specified in this European Standard. actuation. Detection. Watermist systems relying on a control system for the entire discharge duration shall be fire performance tested together with the control system.5 Other considerations 4.

Detection.2. for plant shut down) may be activated. 5. installation and maintenance of electrically activated systems.2 Application of EN 54 The relevant part of the EN 54 series shall be applied to the detection part of watermist systems. b) In the coverage area of the watermist system. When the water discharge of the system depends on detector signal after the first release. no flame detectors or smoke detectors shall be used. provision for manual triggering shall be provided. control and activation systems shall be installed. time delay on activation device. at highly visible locations. control and activation systems shall be able to function either automatically or manually. see relevant parts of EN 54 and EN 12094. Watermist systems activated by fire detection shall be equipped with a manual triggering device. In the case of automatic activation. c) The signal from the (separate) detection system to activate the watermist control system shall be monitored.2 Electrical activation and control 5. e) If monitoring is required (see Table 2). it is recommended to design the system on basis of a 2-detector confirmation. shut down protected processes. for example. the system shall be provided with an emergency triggering device of each individual triggered selector valve for providing direct mechanical actuation of the system. NOTE 1 Watermist systems with automatic nozzles do not require a manual activation. The number of detectors compared to standard rules for spacing of detectors to achieve a quick responding firefighting system shall be doubled.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The system shall be arranged so that there is no possibility of an alarm being produced in an adjacent extinguishing zone by the fire fighting medium. NOTE 1 To reduce the probability of false activation. outside the protected rooms and should be installed at normal operating height. NOTE 2 National standards may require the release to operate after the pre-discharge alarms and time delay. NOTE 3 National standards may require a manual triggering device incorporating a double action or other safety device to restrict accidental operation. In addition to any means of automatic operation. commissioned and maintained in compliance with the relevant national standards.2. the activation temperature of the heat detector shall be close to but at least 30 °C above the maximum temperature to be expected during standard operation. Detection. unless the type of detector has proven its reliability in the presence of watermist. After a "confirming" alarm from a second detector the system release starts on basis of the "programmed" sequence of. d) The output circuit from the watermist control system to the electrical activating device for the water discharge shall be monitored. 5.1 General For the design. The manual triggering device should be located near the exit. the reception of the first signal should be indicated visibly and audibly. with the following additions: a) In case the system is activated after the reception of two or more alarm signals. generated by automatic fire detectors. and also for component requirements in respect of these systems.g. shut down of ventilation. outputs (e. in addition the following active elements of watermist systems shall have their functions supervised for open line and/or short circuit and shall have its status signalled: 14 . On the reception of the first signal. etc.

It shall electrically isolate the electrical activating device. 3) a maintenance isolate switch. 10) alarm functions in accordance with 5. if installed. 5) a level-switch (in case of a water storage container) to monitor the operational status of the system.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 1) the system "discharged" device. to monitor the operational status of the system. several actuators shall be connected within a maximum of eight sections in one loop. Alarms shall be in accordance with the requirements of the authority having jurisdiction. The activation of a watermist system should generate an acoustic alarm and/or an optical alarm. NOTE 2 Indicators for items 2.2.8. The status of this switch shall be clearly indicated on the control panel.3.4. f) If networked ringmains (loops) are used. to electrically isolate the circuitry of the system discharge device. number. 9) a switch. The following minimum requirements for control and indicating equipment shall be implemented: 7) power supply including batteries in accordance with 6.e.3 Power supply The electric power supply shall be independent of the supply for the hazard area and shall comply with EN 54-4. The type (audible. shall be provided to allow for proper testing and maintenance. Audible alarms and where appropriate visible warning signs shall be provided: 15 . 3 and 4 may be combined in one "system-status-indicator". The emergency power supply shall be capable of keeping the system in operation for at least 24 h from first loss of power. 4) the expellant gas pressure-switch. pressure device or flow device. and location of the devices shall be such that their purpose is satisfactorily accomplished. Between adjacent section actuators short circuit isolators shall be installed. 8) supervision of circuits of active elements. The electrical supply shall be exclusively for the detection and control system. 6) the "double-action" manual release device to activate the watermist control system.2. 5. if installed.2. 2) the position of any valves which can inhibit the flow of the fire extinguishing media to the nozzle. The electrical supply isolating switch for the detection and control system shall be clearly marked as follows: DO NOT SWITCH OFF AUTOMATIC FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM The connection shall be made on the supply side of the main electrical distribution board. visual). 5. i.4 Alarm indications Alarms or indicators or both shall be used to indicate the operation of the system or failure of any supervised device.

:  nozzle type. fire pumps. any conditions that may effect either automatic operation. appropriate precautions shall be taken to counteract such occurrence.g. low water level. 5) status "manual" in case of a device being installed for selection of either automatic or manual operation. Such conditions shall include but not be limited to the following: 1) operation of the maintenance override function. 2) failure in the fire detection system. 3) fault in the activation circuit. hydraulic or mechanic control equipment is used. key parts.  minimum flow rate. b) System Operational Status.  number of operating nozzles. flashing light instead of the alert sounder. 4) failure in capacity of the firefighting media.  minimum design pressure. i. 6) failure in power supply. etc. These parameters shall include the following.1.  minimum and maximum nozzle spacing. The alarm for each installation shall be connected to a permanently manned location. pipework. Fault indications shall be connected to a permanently manned location. low pressure expellant gas. the lines shall be protected against crimping and other possible damage. or the effectiveness of the system installed shall cause a visual indication on the system control and indicating device. e.e.  ceiling height/maximum volume. as appropriate. The signal may be by means of visible indication and/or an alert tone. for example. Where installations could be exposed to adverse conditions that could affect the integrity of the installation (electrical cable.1 Design parameters The installation and design shall comply with the parameters used in successful fire tests for the specific hazard as defined in Annex A of this document.).1 General 6. 5.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) a) Fire alarm signal upon the first alarm from one of the installed detectors. 16 . NOTE In case of high noise levels it is advisable to install a "visual attention maker" by means of. 6 Design and installation 6.3 Non-electrical activation Where pneumatic.

17 .2. installation.2 Extinguishing systems Fire extinguishing systems shall meet the following fundamental system requirements: a) nozzle(s) shall be positioned in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual in order to distribute the extinguishing media to all areas where fire either occurs or spreads. 6.3 Control/Suppression systems These systems shall meet the following fundamental system requirements: a) nozzle(s) shall be positioned in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual. by passing vehicles. In such cases sufficient and relevant design information shall be provided to enable the reproduction of the system as tested.1.1. b) after the system duration time the system shall be able to prevent fire re-ignition. for the relevant application. The manufacturer shall describe and/or specify the procedure for the erection of the system. 6. in accordance with the annexes of this European Standard.2 Pipes and fittings The manufacturer shall specify the pipework quality for the intended use. for the relevant application. Special consideration shall be given to possible thermal expansion problems which may occur due to very long straight pipe runs. Special consideration shall be given to systems installed in corrosive environments. All design parameters and any other system constraints crucial to the operation shall be specified in the manufacturer's design. for example by fire. The pipework shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual with the same safety level as described in EN 12845 and shall be protected against corrosion. b) the discharge duration shall be long enough to allow manual intervention to take over fire fighting efforts. 6.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)  additives. by seismic movement (see EN 12845). Due to the large variety of different types of watermist systems and hazard applications. 6. Pipes and fittings shall be installed in such a way that the pipework is not exposed to damage.4 Hydraulic and pneumatic circuits The installation shall be in accordance with 7. some parameters – mainly related to the pressure and flow rate – cannot be provided in a prescriptive manner by single numbers. in accordance with the annexes of this European Standard.3 Pipe supports Pipe supports shall be designed and spaced according to the manufacturer's design and installation manual and with minimum safety as described in EN 12845. see also 8. c) systems shall be capable of fire extinguishment. by frost. c) systems shall be capable of fire suppression/control. 6.4. operation and maintenance manual.

5 times the design pressure in the circuit. all monitoring equipment shall be installed according to the manufacturer's design and installation manual. 18 .5 Non-return valves Non-return valves shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual.8 6. 6.8.2 Electrical equipment All electrical equipment used in the automatically actuated firefighting system shall comply with the relevant national regulations.3 See EN 60079 and IEC 61241. e. Power supplies for operation This requirement is valid for pumps and other directly AC powered equipment without battery backup.8.6 Drainage All system piping and fittings shall be installed in such a way that the entire system can be drained. into the town mains or as a separation between pumps/water sources. 6. Special attention shall be paid to the safe earthing of the piping network. 6. if more than one section is fed by a common supply. 6.g.9 Manual activation Watermist systems shall be equipped with a manual triggering device. Special attention shall be paid to the use of equipment in hazardous classified areas and the appropriate ingress protection grade.1 Electrical Design General The electric installation of automatic extinguishing systems shall comply with the latest relevant standards for high voltage/low voltage. NOTE 6. 6. Non-return valves shall also be installed to prevent backflow. The group isolate switch for the automatic firefighting system shall be clearly marked as follows: DO NOT SWITCH OFF AUTOMATIC FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM 6. On automatically activated watermist systems the power from the public network shall be connected on the supply side of the main switch (or as close as allowed by national standards).7 Pressure gauges/monitoring If monitoring is required.8. The electrical supply for the automatic watermist system shall not be connected to any other type of electric equipment.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) If a pressure relief valve is installed the pressure shall not exceed 1. Watermist systems with automatic nozzles do not need a manual activation.

d) distance from walls and other obstructions. 19 . Wherever possible.. etc. openings and ventilation Air velocity. b) nozzle positioning. e) distance to the risk. based on test results. In those cases where this is not possible or desirable. installation around openings.12. 6.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The manual triggering device should be located near the exit. installation of nozzles to compensate for obstructions. in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. NOTE 1 National standards may require the release to operate after the pre-discharge alarms and time delay. maximum and minimum height and design of the ceiling. the ventilation system shall be shut down before the system operates. the formula of "Darcy-Weisbach" for liquid flow systems. e. the system shall be provided with an emergency triggering device for providing direct mechanical actuation of the system. at highly visible locations.10 Nozzle Distance below ceilings.11 Air velocity.12.g. outside the protected rooms and should be installed at normal operating height.2 Water hammer The effects of possible water hammers shall be considered.1 Pressure loss Only appropriate and validated calculation procedures shall be applied. 6. NOTE 2 National standards may require a manual triggering device incorporating a double action or other safety device to restrict accidental operation. based on test results. 6. maximum and minimum height and design of the ceiling. openings and ventilation shall be taken into account. the air velocity and/or total leakage area shall be within the limits specified by the manufacturer on the basis of tests. minimum and maximum spacing between nozzles. In addition to any means of automatic operation. Nozzles shall be spaced and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual. taking into account at least the following parameters: a) type of hazard. 6. g) nozzle orientation.12 Hydraulic and pneumatic calculations 6. f) distance below ceilings. c) nozzle type with its specific spray characteristics and its flow rate.

1 NOTE Nozzles General See Annex D.1 7.2 Open nozzles Open nozzles shall be equipped with a blow off cap or other protective device.14 Enclosure requirements Fire resistance.1. Nozzles shall be made of corrosion resistant material. This point shall also be taken into consideration when specifying the operating period. if the environment is prone to allow clogging of the exit port(s) by foreign material. Minimum supplies for emergency running systems are an exception. if the environment is prone to allow clogging of the exit port(s) by foreign material.1. gas turbines) 6. 7.13. 7 Components 7. motor test beds. These devices shall provide an unobstructed opening upon system operation and shall be arranged in such a way as to prevent injury of personnel. model number. with the exception of the minimum supply for emergency running systems.13. and shall not be prone to be damaged by mechanical impact.3 Automatic nozzles Automatic nozzles shall be equipped with a heat sensitive device designed to react at a pre-determined nominal release temperature. 20 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 6. pressure relief openings. year of manufacturing. Automatic nozzles shall be equipped with opening devices which are colour coded in accordance with EN 12259-1 to indicate their temperature rating. Automatic nozzles shall be equipped with a blow off cap or other protective device. 7.1.2 Power supply to equipment in the protected area Normally. and/or component identification.1 Fuel and other combustibles used in the protected area During a fire incident provision shall be made to stop any supply of combustible substances as part of the shut-down emergency procedures (product and raw materials feed). the approval mark(s).g. power supplies to the equipment in the affected area shall be switched off upon activation of the system or detection of a fire. Nozzles shall be permanently marked to identify the manufacturer. 6. obstructions shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual. This interlock is application-dependant (e. These devices shall provide an unobstructed opening upon system operation and shall be arranged in such a way as to prevent injury of personnel.13 Automatic shut-down 6.

 vibration. Pipe supports shall be suitable for the environmental conditions. Pipe supports which are in accordance with ISO 6182-11 are considered to meet this requirement. Where applicable.4 Flexible hoses The length of the hose shall be limited to the minimum necessary taking into account the installation guidelines and restrictions of the hose manufacturer.  heat resistance. pipe joints shall comply with ISO 6182-12.g. If no applicable European Standards are available. e. Other piping materials than those listed above may be used if proven to be suitable by applicable tests.2 Piping and fittings 7.2. The chosen material shall be suitable to withstand the anticipated temperatures. Alternative solutions (materials. 7. for the expected temperature. and be able to withstand the anticipated dynamic and static forces. synthetic material and/or other system measures) shall be possible if the same level of safety in respect to clogging of the chosen nozzle and filters due to corrosion can be proven. 7.3 Pipe supports The manufacturer shall prove that the following basic requirements are complied with:  load.  vibration.  water hammer.  heat resistance.2. 21 .2.2. the manufacturer shall prove that the components comply with the following basic requirements:  minimum bursting strength. including the stresses induced in the pipe work by temperature variations.  corrosion. and this has to be proven by a hydrostatic test at 150 % of the design pressure.2 Piping Pipework materials shall be of stainless steel or of at least equivalent quality in respect to corrosion. 7. Flexible hoses intended for use in watermist systems used to protect occupancies containing flammable liquids are to be made of fire-resistant materials and reinforced with wire braid or other suitable material.1 General The pipework shall be able to withstand at least four times the design pressure. The piping and fittings should be suitable for the applied pressure system.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 7. Components for higher operating pressures than referred to in ISO 6182-12 shall provide the same safety level. copper and zinc coated steel.

over the full range of operating pressures that will be experienced over the course of the discharge period. 7. or having corrosion resistant finishing. shall include an "open–shut" indicator. System strainers shall be installed in each water supply connection. This excludes the temperature requirements. Valves. metallic materials shall be used. 7. The valve shall have a clear mark to indicate the correct way of installation. They shall be in accordance with the acceptance criteria of the essential features of the tests as listed in the relevant part of EN 12259. temperatures and environment imposed on them. The flow direction shall be given on the body of system strainers. with a minimum of 12.5 bar. hydraulic type. The design pressure shall be equal to the system operating pressure. and a permanent marking shall indicate the adjustment. where used shall be capable of providing a stable regulated output at the rated flow capacity and design setting.7 Safety valves Pressure relief valves are to be designed to withstand a pressure equal to 1. 7. point-adjusting mechanisms on the pressure regulating valve shall be tamper resistant. the specifications of the actuator shall match the valve operation criteria.5 times the design pressure of the system.3 Control valves Control valves shall be suitable for the pressures. Valves shall be protected against unauthorized tampering. and they shall be in accordance with the acceptance criteria of the essential features of the tests as listed in EN 12845. which can not be tampered with. or electrical type. For pressure bearing parts and for the sieve. 22 . Pressure set.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Flexible hoses shall fulfil the relevant requirements of pipes and fittings. 7. 7. such as pneumatic type.8 Strainers Strainers shall be made of corrosion resistant materials. The valve shall be made of corrosion resistant material. If shut-off valves are installed for systems operating above 12. Permanent markings shall indicate the inlet and outlet connections of the pressure regulating valve.5 bar. 7. the shut-off valve shall be suitable for the applicable pressure class. All parts shall be constructed in such a way that wrong mounting will be obvious.6 Check valves Check valves shall be suitable for the applicable pressure class. It shall be possible to take out the sieve and the dirt particles of system strainers without having to remove the strainer housing.4 Pressure regulating valves Pressure regulating valves. Strainers shall be designed in such a way that spheres with a diameter of more than 0. if the flexible hose is installed in the water supply. For control valves with actuator mechanism. which are not required to be in compliance with the standards mentioned above.8 times the minimum nozzle waterway dimension cannot pass the strainer.5 Shut-off valves Shut-off valves shall meet the requirements of the relevant parts of EN 12259 for systems up to 12.5 bar design pressure. The pressure regulating valve's set point shall be set by the manufacturer. A means to indicate evidence of tampering shall be provided.

the design shall be such that a sphere with a diameter of 3 mm can pass the waterways between the inner surface of the pipe fitting and the outer surface of the strainer. The water shall be free from fibrous or other matter in suspension liable to cause accumulations in the system piping. The water supply can also be from a pressurized container. and pumps shall be: a) the suitable metal alloy or composite material to provide adequate protection against corrosion and sludge development. vessels with external expelling gas.9 Water supply components The components of low pressure systems shall be in accordance with EN 12259. If sea water is used. The components of systems with higher pressure shall fulfil the same safety level as given in EN 12259. including additives General The water supply can be based on either potable service water or water for other firefighting systems or sea water. The water supply can be from a connection with the public water distribution system taking into account the requirements and restrictions from the Water Distribution Authorities. The installation of the pressurized container should be in accordance with EN 12845. b) compatible with the specific watermist system as proven by the performance standard outlined in the test protocols in Annex A. or by a functional acceptance test.1 See also European Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC). no part of the strainer shall protrude into that pipe. 23 . 7. provision shall be made to precharge the system with fresh water. i. Water supply. These strainers shall be designed to prevent any particles carried in the discharge pipework from clogging the discharge orifices. NOTE 8 8. If sea water is used for a closed head system. Salt or brackish water shall not be retained in installation pipework. Pressure vessels. provisions shall be made to allow a thorough flushing of the system piping with fresh water after a functioning. The fire pump installation should be in accordance with EN 12845. The pressure loss of the strainer shall be taken into account during hydraulic calculation.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Nozzles with waterways that cannot be passed by a 4 mm sphere shall be equipped with upstream strainers.e. The water supply can be from an automatic starting fire pump. If the nozzle strainer is projecting from the nozzle inlet into the pipe fitting.2 Water quality The water quality shall be specified in the manufacturer's design and installation manual. The free flow through the range pipe shall not be obstructed by the strainers of nozzles installed directly into a pipe fitting. 8.

 method of mixing the additive with water. Systems using additives to enhance fire suppression capability shall have a supply of additive sufficient to cover at least twice the duration as manufacturer has used in the test.3. whereas a method of mixing the additive with water is used. inhalation toxicity and toxicity on human beings.3. eye irritation. the system of mixing shall also be tested. 8. The listing shall at least include:  specific type of additive. NOTE 24 Foam extinguishing media are specified in EN 1568.3 Safety requirements Watermist systems using additives shall not be used in normally occupied areas unless they have been evaluated to be safe for human exposure at the maximum concentration of the additive that can be reached upon system discharge.4 Listing in the manufacturer's design and installation manual Additives that can be used with a specific watermist system shall be listed in the manufacturer's design and installation manual. 8.3 Additives 8.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 8.3. Systems using additives to enhance fire suppression capability be tested with the specific additive in the specific concentration. 8. Evaluation shall include at least skin irritation.  specific concentration.3.  enhancing fire suppression capabilities. The effects of the additive shall be explained in the system manual.2 Identification Watermist using additives shall be clearly identified by means of container labels. Additives can be used in watermist systems for various reasons including the followings:  preventing freezing in containers and system piping (wet systems). The manufacturer shall assess the use of the additive and shall prove that it does not adversely affect the fire fighting capability of the system. Systems using sea water as emergency supply shall not be considered as systems with additives. and by including Material Safety Data Sheet of the additive in the design and installation manual. if applicable.  preventing water/container deterioration. .  preventing corrosion.1 General A watermist system shall be considered a system with additives when components other than those normally present in fresh water are added to the water in significant percentages as specified by the manufacturer.

drought. flooding or any other conditions that could reduce the flow or effective capacity or render the supply inoperative. 8. minimum 10 min.2 Frost protection The stored water and the feed pipe and the control valve set shall be maintained at a minimum temperature of 4 °C.1 Duration General Table 1 shows the minimum discharge duration. pre-fabricated in the manufacturer's workshop. i.1 Continuity General All practical steps shall be taken to ensure the continuity and reliability of water supplies. Suppression and control systems Minimum capacity for the duration 30 min/60 min depending on the hazard in accordance with EN 12845.2 Self-contained systems For self-contained accumulator systems in unmonitored spaces and/or spaces with delayed access it is recommended to install a backup system for a second full discharge. If this is not possible. A water supply shall not be affected by possible frost conditions. The water supply shall be capable of ensuring the necessary minimum pressure and the minimum water flow of the system during the discharge.4. via acceptable additives.g.4 8.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 8. 25 . Table 1 — Minimum discharge duration Systems Duration Extinguishing systems Discharge duration at least twice the extinguishment time in the relevant fire tests.4. The water supply shall provide the hydraulically most favourable operating area over the minimum duration. This second discharge shall automatically be generated within the required minimum time given in Table 1. those areas where the maximum flow would be delivered. NOTE A self-contained system often has no connection to an external water source and typically comprises a set of cylinders or a skid mounted pressure tank. 8. NOTE Water supplies should preferably be under the control of the user. Water supplies shall be capable of maintaining at least the required pressure/flow conditions of the system. e.5. unless otherwise specified in the relevant test protocol. Fire tests in accordance with Annex B Annexes A and B Intermittent systems shall repeat the discharge sequence throughout the required discharge duration. or else the reliability and right of use should be guaranteed by the designated organisation having control. 8.5.e. including tampering.5 8. measures have to be taken to ensure that the frost has no adverse effects on the system reliability.

5. The testing apparatus shall be of adequate capacity and shall be installed in accordance with the supplier's instructions. pressure tanks and gravity tanks. or a high degree of protection. this Table 2 shall be applied in analogy.7 8.3 Housing of equipment for water supplies Water supply equipment. Local application water supplies shall be installed outside hazardous areas.2 Pump and town main supplied systems Watermist installations shall be permanently provided with means for measuring pressure and flow. The choice of the type of the water supply depends on the protection criteria and risk which is protected. Each supply to the installation shall be tested independently with all other supplies isolated. At least one suitable flow and pressure measuring arrangement shall be permanently installed on the pump pressure side and downstream the filter. They shall be equipped with a means to permanently check the pressure or weight of pressurized cylinders. 8. 26 . 8. It is required to provide means to measure the inflow to a non full capacity tank of the watermist system. e.7. All components of the water supplies and control valve sets shall be installed such that they are secured against tampering and are adequately protected against freezing.6 Maximum and minimum water pressure The maximum and minimum pressure of the water supply shall be within the approved limits of operating pressure for the nozzles specified by the manufacturer in consideration of the static pressure difference and the pipe hydraulic pressure loss. For special hazards. stop valves and control valves shall be installed such that they are safely accessible even in a fire situation.1 Test devices Self-contained systems Self-contained systems shall be equipped with means to test the cylinder valves unless the system can be tested via full discharge tests. shall not be housed in buildings or sections of premises in which there are hazardous processes or explosion hazards. see Table 2. if present.g.8 Type of water supply The choice of the water supply depends on the necessary reliability of the system. The intention of the following table is to give some guideline for the necessary water supply. such as pumps. personal safety a water supply with higher reliability is required.7. 8. The water supplies. 8. They shall be equipped with means to check the water content. The choice of the water supply should be based on the risk analysis of the area to be protected.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 8. The electric supply system shall be available at all times. If a type of watermist system is not covered by Table 2.

diesel pump (additionally: battery and engine data). gravity tank: water level. means shall be provided to prevent leakage from the manifold if the system is operated. water networks (sufficient pressure). NOTE 3 The determination of the critical and high risk shall be determined by the owner or by the designated authorities. Charged cylinders shall be tested for tightness before shipment in accordance with an approved procedure. This may be done by doubling the pilot battery. cylinders shall be mounted and supported in a rack provided for this purpose.9. tested. each with multiple activation circuits X(M) X(M) X Direct connection to water networks (including town mains) Pressurised gas/water tank or cylinder system Gravity tank NOTE 1 M indicates acceptable monitoring with alarm (electrical pump: power available (all phases). NOTE 4 8. External heating or cooling shall be an approved method to keep the temperature of the storage container within desired ranges. Pressurization systems Cylinders and storage tanks Pressure containers or cylinders shall be constructed. provisions should be made to ensure that the system operation is not adversely affected by its location. and marked in accordance with recognised International Standards. When the storage container(s) is placed in the hazard area being protected. When any cylinder is removed for maintenance. Containers shall be secured to prevent container movement and possible physical damage. start failure. Where manifold. This European Standard does not address domestic occupancies or similar small occupancies as life safety occupancies. NOTE 2 S indicates redundant means for the electrical actuation and for the mechanical actuation (moving parts) shall be provided.9 8. pump running. each with an actuation circuit X(M) X(M) X Multiple pumps and 2 tanks. Storage temperatures shall be maintained within the range specified by the manufacturer.) The alarm is transmitted to a permanently manned station. 27 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table 2 — Guidance on the minimum choice of water supply Application Type of water supply Life safety Property Protection Critical risk High risk Single feed   X Double feed X(M) X X X(M)(S) X(M) X X(M) X X 1 pump and 1 tank   X(M) Multiple pumps and 1 tank   X(M) 1 pump and 1 reserve pump and 1 or 2 tanks X(M) X(M) X Multiple pumps and 1 reserve pump and 1 or 2 tanks X(M) X(M) X 2 pumps and 2 tanks. including facilities for convenient individual servicing or weighing of contents.1 X means that the requirement is acceptable. pump on demand.

e. NOTE 2 Certain system features. Over-pressure shall not exceed the design pressure of any component that may be in contact with water. NOTE 1 Positive displacement pumps.2 Centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumpsets shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of EN 12845 and EN 12259-121) 8. Centrifugal pumps are used in low pressure and medium pressure systems. 8.9.9. Pumpsets shall be equipped with means to test flow rate and the developed pressure. the flow and pressure characteristics are quite different than those of a centrifugal pump. The pump itself should meet the requirements of technical standards.2.g. The pump inlet shall be provided with vacuum/pressure gauge and the pump outlet shall be provided with a pressure gauge.2. location and sizing of circuit breakers.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) NOTE The relevant regulations of the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC) or the Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive (99/36/EC) and its related standard might be applicable. such as the electrical power supply connections.2. Pumps supplying watermist systems shall be automatically started. Water flow driving through the pressure relief valve shall never be directed back to the pump suction line in order to prevent heating of the water.9.1 Pump systems General Pumps used in watermist systems are usually of centrifugal or positive displacement type. Pressure relief valves shall be able to circulate the total amount of flow given by the pumps at system component design pressure. 8. Non-return valve rated for the design pressure shall be installed in the pump outlet port. Pumps supplying watermist systems shall be of sufficient capacity (flow and pressure) to meet the requirements for the system supply. In contrast to the centrifugal pump.9. are similar to conventional fire pump installations. Pressure tanks and cylinders shall be internally protected against corrosion. and supervision. Flow may be directed back to the tank or to the drainage line of the system.3 Positive displacement pumps Pumpsets shall be fitted with pressure relief valves and flow by-pass arrangements in order to avoid damage to the pump and system.2 8.g. Pumps capable of over-pressurising the system shall be provided with approved means of pressure relief to prevent excessive increase in pressure. hence. whereas positive displacement pumps are used in medium and high pressure systems. e. piston pumps and. For low pressure storage tanks the relevant clauses of EN 12845 shall be applied. 1) 28 under preparation . the flow rate of a positive displacement pump does not depend on system back pressure but is proportional only to pump speed. All valves of the pump system that may alter correct functioning of the system shall give signal of its position (closed/opened) or at least shall be of locked position. EN ISO 14847.

2) loss of power. 8.4 Tanks Water tanks shall be supervised for the following conditions: a) water level. b) water temperature (for tanks located in unheated areas). It should not have sufficient flow capacity to sustain the pressure in the system above the pressure required to initiate the main watermist pump(s) when the smallest and/or most remote nozzle is operating.2. for maintenance purposes. Tanks shall be provided with some venting to atmosphere to avoid over/under pressure. one or more phases. diesel-driven pumps with: 1) pump running. between tank and pumps.g.5 Connections to water networks Connections to water networks shall be provided with a strainer. A valve shall be placed at the outlet of the tank. Tanks shall include a name plate with volume and liquid contained. nonreturn valve shall be installed between the jockey pump and the pipe system to avoid breakage of the jockey pump due to the main pump operation controller.2.2. A test valve shall be provided for test purposes at the jockey pump outlet.9. This venting shall include a screen to avoid particles.9. 8.9.9.6 Jockey pumps Jockey pumps shall be able to supply the system with sufficient pressure to open an activated automatic nozzle. 3) phase reversal.7 Monitoring of pumps Monitoring shall include the following: a) b) electric pumpsets with: 1) pump running. e. Some protection devices. The connection to the water network shall have a capacity to provide the maximum system demand at the minimum pressure required. Tanks shall be provided with a drain valve and an overflow outlet.g. 29 . Pumps shall start automatically upon system actuation. e.2. NOTE It is not applied to pressurised tanks. 8. 4) controller not in automatic position. Manual activation system shall be provided.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 8.

5) high water temperature. 30 .1 Acceptance test NOTE Annex E.1 a) b) c) This clause specifies minimum requirements for the acceptance of the watermist firefighting system. or by 2) a validation of pressure and flow of the water supply and free passage to all watermist nozzles by utilising alternative ways. 2) Check of completed system against approved documentation.5 times the design pressure for at least 2 h to ensure that no leakage and fault to pipework and components occur. provided this is allowed by the authority having jurisdiction.1. 2) During pressure testing appropriate safety rules shall be followed in order to avoid any risk to people around the test area. rupture or leakage.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 2) power failure. The performance of the completed watermist system shall be proven by the following: 1) The watermist system shall be pressurized 1. On completion of the acceptance procedure. such as permanent distortion. 7) over speed. 4) low oil pressure. The temperature change shall be taken into account. 3) controller not in automatic position. site conditions and risk limitations. with the physical verification of protected risk system design. operational and alarming functions. 9 Acceptance tests and maintenance 9. 6) failure to start/overcrank. see also Criteria for acceptance The completed system shall be commissioned in accordance with at least the following: 1) Validation that the pipework is cleaned and free of swarf and debris. Watermist system test shall be carried out either by: 1) a full discharge test. shall be corrected and the test shall be repeated. a certificate of compliance shall be submitted by the installer/supplier. In case of automatic detectors in accordance with EN 54 there shall be a check by activating every individual detector. with recording of system and supply pressure. 8) fuel level (set at 75 % capacity). 9. 3) Perform a full functional check of the system subsequent verification of all required output. Any faults disclosed. performance observation. Loss verification may be done by pressure gauge or visibly on the system.

2.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 9. 9.1 Inspection At least annually.3. 9. The inspection report with recommendations shall be filed with the owner.14): a) results of the hydrostatic testing.2 User's program of monitoring The installer shall provide the user with a monitoring program for the system and components in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual. 9.3.3. b) that the necessary flushing and cleaning operations have been conducted so that pipe work are free of swarf and debris that could cause the nozzles to block. or more frequently as required by the authority. all systems shall be thoroughly inspected and tested for proper operation by competent independent personnel. d) verification of components. c) system design and nozzle positioning in accordance with the accepted design documentation.2 Acceptance of watermist systems The acceptance of a watermist system should be carried out by an independent authority having jurisdiction which declares the suitability and extinguishing capability of the system for the existing risk. e) function test and additional acceptance tests.3 Inspection.3.2. maintenance and training 9. b) documentation. The relevant requirements of EN 12845 and EN 15004-1 shall be followed. Minimum once a year the system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions by a company authorised by the manufacturer.1 Maintenance General The maintenance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual of the manufacturer. 9. The user's inspection program is intended to detect faults at an early stage to allow rectification before the system may have to operate.2 9. The program shall include instructions on the action to be taken in respect of faults. c) results of the functional tests.1. The following items shall be verified: a) fire risk and resulted requirements for the watermist system.2 Commissioning report The installer of the system shall provide the user with the commissioning report containing the following (see also 6. 31 .

5) full installation and commissioning instructions. and regarding safety issues. c) system design parameters and hydraulic calculations (water or other medium).CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 9. installation. installation and commissioning shall include at least the following: a) confirmation by the authority having jurisdiction of the fire test report(s) by an internationally recognized fire testing laboratory in accordance with Annex A. 32 . type and hazard application with any restrictions. comments and subsequent system and type approval. installation and commissioning The documentation shall be submitted to the responsible person for the acceptance of this installation. 7) full maintenance schedule and instructions.3 Training All persons who may be expected to inspect. operation and maintenance manual providing at least the following information: 1) system identification. 3) hydraulic and pneumatic calculations or other dimensioning methods (pre-engineered systems. 10.3. d) drawings and/or data sheets for component identification. The documentation for acceptance of design. including system identification. type and application as well as hazard limits. 2) system design parameters. The documentation for the system approval or recognition purposes for a specific hazard shall include at least the following: a) fire test report(s) by an internationally recognized fire testing laboratory in accordance with Annex A. 4) full functional system description. 10 Documentation 10. b) component test report(s) by an internationally recognized testing laboratory. test. b) full project information. Personnel working in an enclosure protected by watermist shall receive training in the operation and use of the system. accumulator systems). 6) full operation instructions. or operate firefighting systems shall be trained and kept adequately trained in the functions they are expected to perform. maintain. e) manufacturer's design.1 Documentation for system and type approval The documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for investigation.2 Documentation for acceptance of design. c) system line diagrams and parts lists.

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) d) commissioning and acceptance requirements. 5) all warning and instruction signs. 10. abort functions.4 Maintenance A full maintenance schedule including the user's program of inspection and service schedule shall be provided upon acceptance testing. If field conditions necessitate any change from approved documentation. 3) all devices of the alarm and control system. the change with justification shall be submitted for approval. g) full package schematic diagrams. 10. 4) all controlled devices. 7) plans including full detail of all system pipework and equipment. such as dampers. 6) isometric view of the complete system. maintenance switches and all other relevant items). time delays. 33 .12 or in accordance with (authorized) instructions of the manufacturer. 8) justification that the hazard falls within the system type approval or recognition applications. valves. nozzles and all hangers and supports.3 Documentation of system calculations Hydraulic and pneumatic calculations shall be carried out using either the methods as given in 6. size and locations.. All calculations shall be provided. 9) system line diagrams and parts lists. etc. shutters. including a summary of calculations. h) plan and sectional view of the protected area showing the lay-out of: 1) zone divisions. f) nozzle locations and identification. and shall be referenced to a drawing showing the locations of reference nodes in the system. 2) all piping. including all point to point connections within the entire system. 10) drawings and/or data sheets for component identification. e) full functional system description (to include operating sequence.

the nozzle configuration shall reflect the one used in the tests. 34 .  minimum nozzle spacing.  maximum size of ventilation opening. Examples of such hazards include stationary combustion engines (reciprocating of gas turbine engines).  minimum closed-cup flashpoint of flammable liquids in the protected space. Watermist nozzles shall be installed to protect the entire hazard volume. The fire performance of volume protection systems shall not depend on the relative positioning of the watermist nozzles and the fire hazard.  maximum nozzle spacing. processes handling flammable liquids above atmospheric pressure. The installation specification provided by the manufacturer shall include at least:  minimum operating pressure.1. electrostatic coating and cleaning processes. palletized or in rack) of flammable liquids.  maximum operating pressure. Typical fire scenarios in these hazards include pool and spray fires of flammable liquids. such as hydraulic fluid systems and cutting oil systems. Zoned activation is permitted. This test protocol is not applicable to storage (e.1 Test protocol for flammable liquids (control and suppression systems) A.1 General This test protocol is intended for evaluating the fire performance of watermist firefighting systems intended for the protection of industrial flammable liquid hazards. such as dipping.  maximum enclosure height.g.1.2 Test protocol for volume protection compartment systems (control and suppression systems) A.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex A (normative) Test protocols A. 3 This test protocol is only applicable to minimum test volumes of 100 m .  maximum enclosure volume.1 General This test protocol is applicable for water-based firefighting systems.1. processes involving flammable liquids at atmospheric pressure. The test protocol is intended for watermist nozzles mounted on the ceiling or along the perimeters of the enclosure. A.2. The criteria of the fire test are extinguishment but the systems are classified as control/suppression systems because of the installation variables (test protocols for firefighting systems are under development). In actual installations.

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)

maximum degree of obstruction between the fires and the watermist nozzles;

the need for additional local application systems for areas of high hazard inside the enclosure;

allowable openings and their locations;

nozzle locations and positioning;

detection and activation time;

use of additives;

obstacles.

A.1.2.2

Test set-up

The test enclosure shall be made of non-combustible materials. The floor area, the ceiling height and the
maximum size of the ventilation opening of the enclosure shall be specified by the manufacturer. These shall
be considered as maximum values for installations.
A square-shaped steel plate, with a nominal thickness of 5 mm, measuring X m × X m (minimum 1 m × 1 m,
maximum to be specified by the manufacturer), shall be positioned at 1,5 m height above floor level. If the
manufacturer does not specify additional nozzles to be installed below obstructions, a second test with the
steel plate in a distance to be specified by the manufacturer from the nozzles shall be conducted. This
distance is used at the minimum distance between ceiling mounted nozzles and obstructions of the size of the
steel plate.
The value of X shall be specified by the manufacturer. In addition, the manufacturer may specify permissible
obstructions (such as beams, columns or HVAC ducts) and their relative positioning to the nozzles, which
shall be used in the fire tests.
A single fuel type shall be used for the tests. The fuel shall be chosen by the manufacturer. The hazards
protected may involve fuels with a similar or higher closed-cup flash point than used in the fire test.
The method of activation shall be specified by the manufacturer and shall be verified by the authorities. The
mode of operation shall be specified by the manufacturer and shall be used in the tests.
A.1.2.3

Test methods

A.1.2.3.1
a)

Fire test 1 – small pool fire

Test fire:
2

A square-shaped 1 m pool fire located on the floor, centrally under the steel plates; the plates shall be
positioned either under one or between four nozzles, choosing the location of smaller water discharge density
at the fire location.
b)

Fuel: diesel oil or heptanes.

c)

Preburn time:

d)

1)

fire test 1a: 20 s;

2)

fire test 1b: 120 s.

Criteria:
1)

the fire shall be extinguished within 15 min from system activation;

35

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)

2)

there shall be no re-ignition within 30 min from system activation;

3)

the average gas temperature shall remain below 100 °C after 3 min from system activation. The
average temperature is the average of two gas temperature measurements performed at 3 m
horizontal distance from the pool centre, one at 2 m above the floor and the other 1 m below the
ceiling.

A.1.2.3.2
a)

Fire test 2 – small spray fire

Test fire:

A horizontal spray positioned 1 m above the floor under the steel plate. The distance along the spray axis from
the table edge to the fuel spray nozzle shall be 1/3 times X; the distance perpendicular to the spray axis from
the table edge to the fuel spray nozzle shall be ½ times X (where X is the side length of the table). The fuel
spray shall have a nominal fuel pressure of 8,5 bar, and the spray nozzle shall be of the wide spray angle
(80°), full cone type. The fuel flow rate shall be (0,03 ± 0,005) kg/s.
b)

Fuel: diesel oil or heptanes.

c)

Preburn time: 20 s.

d)

Criteria:
1)

the fire shall be extinguished within 15 min from system activation;

2)

there shall be no re-ignition within 30 min from system activation;

3)

the average gas temperature shall remain below 100 °C after 3 min from system activation. The
average temperature is the average of two gas temperature measurements performed at 3 m
horizontal distance from the pool centre, one at 2 m above the floor and the other 1 m below the
ceiling.

A.1.2.3.3

Fire test 3 – effect of fire location

The most difficult of fire tests 1a, 1b and 2 shall be repeated by changing the location of the obstructed fire to
either under one nozzle or to between four nozzles.
A.1.2.3.4
a)

Fire test 4 – large pool fire

Test fire:
3

2

1)

for enclosure volume < 250 m : a square-shaped 2 m shielded pool fire located on the floor,
centrally under the steel plate; during the preburn, the enclosure shall be ventilated through a vertical
rectangular door of measures 1 m × 2 m (width × height); in the beginning of system discharge, the
specified ventilation condition has to be arranged;

2)

volume ≥ 250 m : a square-shaped 4 m shielded pool fire located centrally under the steel plate;
during the preburn, the enclosure shall be ventilated through a vertical rectangular door of measures
2 m × 2 m (width × height); in the beginning of system discharge, the specified ventilation condition
has to be arranged.

3

2

The location of the pool shall correspond to the most difficult location encountered in fire tests 1 to 3.
b)

Fuel: diesel oil or heptanes.

c)

Preburn time:
1)

36

Fire test 4a: 20 s;

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)

2)
d)

Fire test 4b: 120 s.

Criteria:
1)

the fire shall be extinguished within 15 min from system activation;

2)

there shall be no re-ignition within 30 min from system activation;

3)

the average gas temperature shall remain below 100 °C after 3 min from system activation. The
average temperature is the average of two gas temperature measurements performed at 3 m
horizontal distance from the pool centre, one at 2 m above the floor and the other 1 m below the
ceiling.

The fire performance of the system is deemed adequate if all criteria are met in all tests. Additional local
application systems for areas of high hazard are required if the extinguishment time of one or more fires is
longer than 15 min but less than 30 min, and all other criteria are met.
Additional criteria (for all fire tests) may be applied if required by the installation. Examples of such criteria are:
e)

maximum surface temperatures or maximum heating/cooling rates of chosen constructions;

f)

maximum gas temperatures at chosen locations;

g)

maximum allowed concentrations of toxic gases;

h)

minimum allowed concentration of oxygen;

i)

maximum pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the enclosure.

A.2 Fire test protocol for cable tunnels (control and suppression systems)
A.2.1 General
This test protocol is only applicable to mainly horizontal (max. 10°) cable tunnels.
NOTE

Horizontal cable tunnels relate to the orientation of the tunnel, not to the cable orientation.

This test protocol does not include testing of the function of the cable.
The test protocol is applicable to systems only, where the manufacturer's design and installation manual
considers the following principles:
An appropriate test or an approved calculation method taking into account the type of the detection system
shall be mandatory in order to prove that the spatial resolution of the detection system relative to the section
length is satisfying.
The detection system is not part of the scope of the system.

A.2.2 Purpose
This test protocol describes the requirements and test methods for the application of watermist systems in
cable galleries.

37

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)

A.2.3 Test configuration
A.2.3.1

Fuel

The fire load shall consist of different sized cables. The fire load shall be given by the manufacturer and the
test laboratory.
For bigger fire loads the distribution percentage of different sizes shall be kept. Cables with bigger diameters
shall be preferably positioned in the lower cable trays.
The cable insulation should consist of Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE) or similar burning material. All
cable types shall have low fire resistance characteristics and shall not be specifically protected fire
propagation.
Table A.1 — Cable arrangement describing the fire load
Tray number

Outer diameter
mm

Number of cables

1 (top)

≤ 12

40

2

12 to 14

40

3

14 to 20

40

4

14 to 20

30

5

20 to 30

30

6

20 to 30

15

7

30 to 40

10

8 (bottom)

> 40

5

Arrangements of more cable trays each above the other are up to the applicant.
A.2.3.2

Arrangement

Nozzle or nozzle-head and piping arrangement is up to the applicant as long as the following restrictions are
fulfilled:
a)

a minimum of eight cable trays above each other shall be used. The maximum number of cable trays
above each other protected per nozzle supply line shall be given in the manufacturer's design and
installation manual;

b)

if only a single line of nozzles is to protect cable trays on both sides of the enclosure, if it sufficient to
provide loaded cable trays only on one side of the enclosure during testing. On the other side plastic (e.g.
PE, PP) cable insulation material shall be provided on otherwise empty trays to prove that the fire does
not spread from the source side to the target side.

Tests shall be done both with the minimum and maximum nozzle to tray distances and maximum nozzle
spacing.
Nozzles or nozzle-heads and supply lines have to respect an obstacle-free walk way running parallel to the
cable trays
The gas burner shall be placed in the middle between two adjacent nozzles (heads).

38

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) A. The enclosure shall be of non-combustible material (class A1 in accordance with EN 13501-1:2007). but at least 2.  width: Minimum 1 600 mm.1. Dimensions in metres a) Side view b) Top view 39 .  length: Given by the minimum length of cable trays required to be able to detect at least 0. Examples are given in Figure A.5 m of unaffected cables at both ends plus 2 m at the side of air entrance and 1 m at the side of air outlet.2 m. All machinery needed to establish the ventilation shall be placed outside of the above described minimum length. The minimum size of the enclosure shall be as follows:  height: Minimum 200 mm above the top tray.3.2.3 Enclosure An enclosure is required.

3.3. This requirement as specified in 6. Testing under forced ventilation does not mean that the ventilation system does not have to be shut off in the real installation.3.4 Ventilation All tests shall be carried out under a forced ventilation of at least 1 m/s longitudinal ventilation.3 Carrying out the test without any fire alarm system (manual release system) After the 15 min pre-burn time the watermist system shall be released.2. The ventilation shall be adjusted to the chosen value before the fire tests start and shall be kept constant during the performance of the fire test. Performing the tests under higher wind velocities is up to the applicant.2.3.5 A. A. A.5. During these 5 min a 250 kW gas burner shall be placed on the floor underneath the cable trays and shall be constantly burning.1 Carrying out the test General The pre-burn time shall be 5 min.2.2.5. After this 5 min the gas burner shall be turned off. 40 .1 — Example for minimum dimensions of the fire test room with the arrangement of cable trays and watermist nozzles A.2.5.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) c) Front view Key T1 to T15 1 2 thermocouple gas burner pressure device Figure A.3.2 Carrying out the test with an automatic fire alarm system The release of the watermist system shall take place 5 min after ignition.11 is still valid. A.

The test can be carried out either with one set of cable trays on one side of the enclosure or with two sets of cable trays on both sides of the enclosure. For wind velocities up to 2 m/s one line shall be placed in a 100 mm distance underneath the ceiling. After a duration of water spray of 15 min the system shall be turned off. The vertical distance between two cable trays of one set shall be at least 200 mm. No re-ignition is allowed.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) A reference test of the worst configuration shall be conducted.7 System design and applications covered Along the length of a cable gallery of more than 60 m sectioning will be reasonable.6 Pass/fail criteria After 5 min from start of the water spray the 5 s temperature average of all temperatures measured shall be below 100 °C.5 Description of measuring equipment Velocity of wind due to ventilation shall be measured in the middle of the virtual volume of the free space of the walk-way.4 Description of test apparatus The cable trays shall be of non-combustible material (class A1 according to EN 13501-1:2007). A thermocouple shall be placed within the plume of the initiating gas burner and the measured temperature shall be recorded all the test. After turning off the system no visible flames and no smouldering fires are allowed.2. A. Thermocouples shall be placed every 2. The water flow rate shall be measured and recorded throughout the test at a place between the supplying apparatus and the first nozzle. NOTE Specifications for cable trays are under preparation. one line shall be placed on the top of the set of cables in the second tray from the top. The use of cable trays with a greater width is up to the applicant. A. At least 0.2. The surveillance time for the check of re-ignition shall be at least 15 min. Horizontal distance between the set of cable trays and the side wall of the enclosure shall be 200 mm.5 m along the cable trays in three lines. The cable trays shall have a width of at least 600 mm.5 m of cables at both ends shall be unaffected by the fire. For wind velocities higher than 2 m/s an additional line shall be placed on the top of the set of cables in the fourth tray from the top. A. If the sections are separated by a constructed fire-barrier of REI 90 (according to EN 13501-1:2007) the water supply and water storage has to be designed for a simultaneous release of one section only. 41 . Thermocouples type K (shielded 3 mm) shall be used. A. Maximum sampling time shall be 2 s.2. Position of the tray nearest bottom shall be at least 300 mm above floor.2. The water pressure in the supply line shall be measured and recorded during all the test at a place in the line which is distanced from the supplying apparatus at least as far as the hydraulically most unfavourable nozzle.

switch gears) on the opposite side of the set of cable trays and not exceeding a maximum depth of 300 mm are covered by the test protocol without further testing provided those do not encumber the water spray. The test protocol is applicable for horizontal. A mandatory statement that this does not include any protection of the equipment inside the obstacle or to the obstacle itself shall be given to the customer. solid.  smaller width of enclosure.g. A relatively realistic office fuel package is employed in the test.  smaller wind velocities. it is sufficient to replicate the office fuel 42 . Thus. Obstacles of non-combustible material (e. As the fuel package is rather complex.  fewer fire loads and plastic insulation material.3 Fire test protocol for office occupancies of Ordinary Hazard Group 1 A.  cable trays smaller in width. when setting up a test series. the reference testing with a prescribed sprinkler system serves also to indicate the baseline performance at each different test facility and set-up. Test results are valid for applications which show:  a smaller number of trays. If the test was performed with one set of cable trays each above the other an extrapolation for two sets of cable trays on both sides of an enclosure is not allowed but has to be considered as two independent single configurations.  higher pressures at the nozzle(head) with the lowest pressure than used in the test. A.3. flat ceilings with heights of 2 m and above.  bigger water rates than used in the test.  smaller heights of enclosure. The test protocol is applicable to ceiling mounted automatic nozzles to be used in unlimited volumes with a minimum hydraulic demand area of 72 m² or four nozzles in any case whichever requires the most water and a minimum duration in accordance with EN 12845. In case of virtual sectioning particular attention shall be given to the choice of the detection system with specific consideration of the maximum possible wind speed inside the cable gallery.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) If the sectioning is done virtually (no existing fire barrier between the sections) the water supply and water storage has to be designed for a simultaneous release of up to two sections. The purpose of the test protocol is to ensure an equivalent level of firefighting performance for the watermist system in the test as described in this annex as compared to sprinkler systems installed in accordance with EN 12845.1 General This test method is intended for evaluating the fire performance of watermist systems equivalent to the fire performance of a sprinkler system for office and school occupancies belonging to Ordinary Hazard Group 1. as defined in EN 12845:2004+A2:2009. up to the maximum ceiling height tested.  vertical distance between two cable adjacent trays greater as tested.

e) plywood walls surrounding the tables.2 — Office fire load Combustible material Wood Item Table plates 56 Wall panel 30 Drawer 15 Chair (frame) Paper Polyether foam Electronics typical mass kg Filed paper 6 90 Books 5 Newspaper 1 Chair (padding) 1 Simulated files 1 Monitor and keyboard 16 A photograph of a typical fuel package is shown in Figure A. all fuel packages shall be identical (make. type). A.3.1 General The office fuel package shall consist of typical office workstations with associated fuel loading. The fuel package consists of the following elements: a) two table plates. a monitor and a keyboard on the table.2.2 Office fuel package A. within one test series. However. f) a gas burner and a wood crib for ignition. Below. b) a padded wooden-frame chair. each element is described in more detail. books. The typical masses of the individual components shall be as listed in Table A. The complex geometry of the fuel package implies both horizontal and vertical spray shielding and substantial potential for fire growth beyond the initial sprinkler operation.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) package as closely as practically possible. NOTE The tolerance of all dimensions is 5 %. d) files. Table A. 43 .3.2. c) a wooden drawer under one table.2.

Also shown in Figure A.3 are the stands to which the table tops shall be attached by screws.3. which also serves to support the table tops.2 — Overview of the office fuel package A. 44 . one measuring 304 cm × 76 cm × 76 cm. as given in Figure A. the other 152 cm × 108 cm × 76 cm.2 Tables The tables shall be constructed of two plain uncoated 22 mm thick chipboard plates.3. and the position of the wooden drawer.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Figure A.2.

2.3 Padded chair The padded wooden chair shall be constructed of a plain wooden chair by attaching to it a 40 cm × 100 cm piece of cotton-covered polyether foam mattress with screws and washers. The frame of the bunk beds should be of steel nominally 2 mm thick.3.3.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Dimensions in centimetres Figure A. the polyether foam should give results as given in Table A. The front edge of the chair shall be positioned flush with the edge of table 1. 45 . When tested in accordance with ISO 5660-1. The polyether foam and the cotton cover shall as follows: The mattresses should be made of non-fire retardant polyether and they should have a density of 3 approximately 33 kg/m . The cotton fabric should not be fire retardant treated and it should have an area 2 2 weight of 140 g/m to 180 g/m .3 — Schematic presentation of the table construction A. and there shall be a 20 cm gap between the chair and table 2.

simulated plastic files.3 — Cone calorimeter test for foam in accordance with ISO 5660-1 Test conditions Irradiance: 35 kW/m 2 Horizontal Position Sample thickness: 50 mm No frame retainer should be used Test results A. a computer monitor and a keyboard. and have the approximate measures of 40 cm × 42 cm × 58 cm and an approximate weight of 14.5 Items on the table The combustible material on the table shall consist of paper packed in cardboard files.2. Steel supports shall be mounted to the bottom of the drawer to give the required elevation. books.3. A newspaper weighing approximately 900 g shall be placed above the ignition source. The items shall be arranged on the table as shown in Figure A.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table A. cut out of the polyether foam of the fire test mattresses.4 Time to ignition: 2 s to 6 s 3 min average Heat release rate HRR.6 kg. A. The drawers shall be attached centrally 20 cm from the end of the large table by four screws through the top of the table plate.2.3. q180: (270 ± 50) kW/m Effective heat of combustion: (28 ± 3) MJ/kg Total heat release: (50 ± 12) MJ/m 2 2 Wooden drawer The drawer shall be made of 20 mm thick veneered chipboard.4. The simulated plastic files shall be of size 30 cm × 30 cm × 10 cm. 46 .

4 — Layout of the combustible items on the table A.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Figure A. and a 10 cm air gap shall be left between the table plate and the wall. A. as obtained by storage indoor at (20 ± 5) °C for two weeks.3. The heat release rate of the burner shall be 30 kW.8 The ignition source The ignition shall be accomplished by a gas burner and a wood crib.7 Conditioning of the fuel load The fuel package elements should have a normal humidity content prior to the test.2. The wood crib shall be made of 16 wood (spruce or fir) sticks measuring 38 cm × 38 cm × 250 mm and arranged in four layers of alternating orientation inside a square steel pan of 30 cm × 30 cm × 10 cm.6 Walls The plywood walls shall stand on the floor and be made of 4 mm thick uncoated plywood panels measuring 125 cm × 180 cm.2.2.3. Each wall shall extend 250 cm from the corner. 47 . A. measuring 125 cm × 180 cm. The plywood panels shall be attached to solid non-combustible plates.3.

with the pan edge flush with the drawer edge. The fire shall be ignited by applying a flame over the gas burner and switching on the gas flow. independent of a sprinkler or watermist nozzle activation.3 Reference sprinkler system A. .5 — The positioning of the gas burner and the wood crib with respect to the drawer A. The burner shall be operated for 300 s.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 250 ml of heptane shall be poured into the pan to ensure the ignition of the crib.1 General The sprinkler system used in the reference tests shall be characterised as follows: a) 48 classification: Ordinary Hazard 1.5.3. Figure A. A photograph of the ignition arrangement is shown in Figure A.3.3. The pan and crib shall be placed on the floor between the drawer and the wall.

3) nominal K factor: 80. the flowing water pressure shall be maintained at a system operating pressure of 0. The water flow shall be shut-off 30 min after the activation of the first sprinkler.2.3 Watermist system tests The tested system shall either be: a) pressurised to its minimum operating pressure specified by the manufacturer. Any remaining fire shall be manually extinguished and the fire damages shall be recorded.2. 49 .3. The delay time until the minimum operating pressure is reached shall correspond to the delay time expected in an actual installation.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 2 b) water flux: 5 l/min/m . 4) temperature rating: 68 °C.2 Reference sprinkler tests The sprinkler system shall be pressurised to be capable of supplying 0.2.3.56 bar immediately after operation of the first sprinkler. e) sprinkler: 2 1) type: pendent spray sprinkler in accordance with EN 12259-1. 2) thermal sensitivity: special response as specified in EN 12845.56 bar. the specifications listed above shall be modified accordingly. the flowing water pressure shall be gradually increased to the minimum operating pressure. b) pressurised to the minimum stand-by pressure specified by the manufacturer.3. The water supply shall be capable of supplying a flow rate of at least 300 l/min at an operating pressure of 0. Upon activation of the first nozzle.3. c) protected area per sprinkler: 12 m .563 bar. For systems with non constant operating pressure the pressure characteristics used in the test shall resemble the conditions of a real installation when supplying the required 72 m² and shall resemble the last 30 min of the operating time of the system. A.3.3. reflecting the maximum allowed time delay of water pressure build up of the system. maximum spacing and minimum discharge condition. The system shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's design and installation manual.5 m spacing). surface mounted on the ceiling with a flat escutcheon.2 A. Should that European Standard be modified. A.1 Test protocol General The tests with the watermist system shall be conducted at maximum ceiling height. These values represent the minimum values specified in EN 12845. d) sprinkler arrangement: square grid (3. specified by the manufacturer.3. An evaluation test of the worst case watermist configuration shall be conducted. the flowing water pressure shall be maintained at the minimum operating pressure for systems using a constant operating pressure. Upon activation of the first nozzle. Upon activation of the first sprinkler. A.3.

sprinklers shall be installed in locations Sp 1 to Sp 5. if the system is to be used in rooms with unlimited size: Ceiling area 80 m².CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The water flow shall be shut off 30 min after the activation of the first nozzle.3. A. which are denoted as Sp 1 to Sp 9. but their symmetry shall be in accordance with Figure A. 50 .4 shall be conducted.3) shall involve tests with ignitions under one nozzle and between four nozzles.3.4 Test arrangement The test programme (see 4. For fire tests with ignition between four nozzles. Key 1 crib 2 burner TC Thermocouple locations 3 monitor 4 plate thermocouple locations Sp 1 to Sp 5 ignition under one nozzle Sp 6 to Sp 9 ignition between four nozzles Figure A.6. The other locations depend on the spacing X.2. Nine nozzle locations shall be used.6 — The arrangement of the nozzle grids.3. For fire tests with ignition under one nozzle. The location of Sp 1 is fixed and it is directly above the wood crib.5 Fire tests The four fire tests as given in Table A. the fire load and the ceiling thermocouples A. minimum 1 m from ceiling rim to test facility wall.2. sufficient ventilation or space. sprinklers shall be installed in locations Sp 6 to SP 9. Minimum test facility requirements. The nozzle grids shall be installed with respect to the fire load as shown in Figure A. Any remaining fire shall be manually extinguished and the fire damages shall be recorded.3.6. The sprinklers shall be installed with their yoke arms parallel to the chair backrest. the watermist system shall only be installed in rooms with a maximum size equal to the limits of the facility they are tested in. If these conditions are not met.

The total damages of the tests REF-1 and REF-2 shall be compared to the total damages of tests WM-1 and WM-2. The damages of each individual WM test shall be less than the damage in the worst of the REF tests. The average ceiling gas temperature shall be determined as the average over the three peak temperatures. The evaluation shall consider at least the following items:  the extent (by area) of consumed material and charring in the wall panels (50 %). above corner and above the monitor) with 0. Each thermocouple shall be installed at the ceiling directly above the gap between the table plate and the wall panel.3.4 — Fire tests A. The temperature curves measured during the test shall be averaged over 30 s (maximum time between measurements 1 s). 51 .3.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table A.5 mm bare K-type thermocouples (see Figure A. There shall be no direct impingement on the thermocouple by the nozzles.  water pressure at the ceiling level. The percentages given in the brackets describe the extent to which the criterion goes into the pass/fail evaluation.2. The average ceiling gas temperatures of each individual WM test shall be less than the average ceiling gas temperature in the worst of the REF tests. The evaluation shall reflect the overall performance of both systems. The tests shall be recorded on video. and they shall appear as part of the test report.3.3 Evaluation of test results The performance of the tested watermist system shall be evaluated against the performance of the reference sprinkler system.3. The damages to the wall panels and the items on the table shall be photographed after each test.  the number of combustible items on the table which have suffered fire damages (at least charring) (50 %). Due to the complexity of the fuel package. and the peak temperatures shall be determined from the averaged curves.6 Test Ignition location Suppression system REF-1 under 1 Reference sprinkler system REF-2 between 4 Reference sprinkler system WM-1 under 1 Tested watermist system WM-2 between 4 Tested watermist system Instrumentation The following quantities shall be measured during the tests:  gas temperature 75 mm below the ceiling surface at three locations (above ignition. Critical judgement shall be exercised when evaluating the damages. the damages to the office fuel package shall be evaluated quantitatively. A.4).

A. NOTE 2 In some countries it may be necessary that a copy of the approval certificate is present at the location.4. A.4. height). Specific test methods are described in A.4. NOTE 1 For fixed fire protection systems for professional kitchens national regulations can be available. A product that contains features.2. pool size (length.4.4.2. Its intention is also to reduce the hazard to personnel under fire conditions.2. width. and that involves a risk of fire shall be evaluated using the appropriate additional component and end-product requirements as determined necessary to maintain the level of safety for the user of the product as originally anticipated by the intent of this standard. and having a maximum cooking surface area as specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions. including cooking oil capacity.2. oil depth.1 General This annex covers the performance during fire tests of fire extinguishing system units intended for the protection of commercial deep fat cooking fryers.1 The dimensions of the appliance being tested shall correspond to the maximum dimensions specified in the installation instructions. national regulation and EU-regulation 1935/2004/EC2)).CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) A. A. components. with maximum manufacturer specified oil depth.4.1.2 The dimensions of the appliance being tested shall correspond to the maximum dimensions specified in the installation instructions. the 2) REGULATION (EC) No 1935/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 October 2004 on materials and articles intended to come into contact with food and repealing Directives 80/590/EEC and 89/109/EEC.3. Manufactures shall specify all maximum and minimum dimensions.1 The deep fat fryer used for this test shall be a representative mock up. The protocol covers the area of the fryer and its close vicinity only and does not include surrounding areas beyond that the system is intended to cover.4.4.4. characteristics.2 Extinguishing Tests A. materials.4 Test protocol for the firefighting performance in commercial kitchen of type deep fat fryers A.2 and A.4. Per test a confirmation test shall be conducted. extinguishing containers there are relevant regulations for food production operations (e. or systems new or different from those in use when the standard was developed.1. or the like. This test protocol includes protection of the cooking area. filters and exhaust hood and duct against fires originating from the fryer.2.g. A.2.2 Cooking area − Description A. detectors. NOTE 3 For all visible pipes. Water mist systems that are not able to protect all these fire hazards shall be installed with additional fire fighting equipment. nozzles.g.4. For a deep fat fryer with an integral drip board.1 General A.2. It is e. Manufacturers shall apply to this protocol for free standing fryers or wall placed fryers separately.1. fittings.3 Prior to the conduct of each extinguishing test the appliance shall be cleaned and provided with a new cooking grease and oil. 52 .4.2.2. assumed that the ventilation system is automatically shut off immediately after system activation.

6 The grease temperature during testing shall be measured with two thermocouples. The average heating and cooling rates shall be determined by heating the oil in an uncovered fryer.4. with each nozzle positioned in the most difficult location (in respect to the vertical and horizontal distance from the fire source) and orientation allowed by the manufacturer's installation instructions. The thermocouples shall be located not closer than 75 mm from any side of the fryer.5 The fryer shall be filled with new. A. The test enclosure should be sufficiently large and provided with adequate natural or forced ventilation during the fire test to ensure that enclosure effects (oxygen depletion.3 Multiple vat and split vat deep fat fryers shall be separately tested with the discharge nozzle positioned in the most difficult location and orientation allowed by the manufacturer's installation manual. shape and position of hoods and shall specify ventilation conditions (automatic shutoff included).3 to A.4. When the temperature of the oil reaches 325 °C the fryer's energy source shall be immediately shut off and the cooling rate of the oil (in degrees Celsius per minute) shall be measured (when the temperature of the cooking oil returns to 315 °C) between the temperatures of 315 °C and 260 °C.1 and A. if possible.3.3.4. unused cooking oil until the cooking oil level is 75 mm below the top edge of the fryer.3. non-porous and non-combustible.2.2.4 Split vat fryers shall be tested wherein a vat(s) adjacent to the vat to be spontaneously ignited is filled with oil and heated to 175 °C to 190 °C. A.2 All deep fat fryers mock ups tested in accordance with A.4. the oil level shall be at the fryer wall/drip board interface.8 shall demonstrate a heating rate of not less than 7 °C and an average cooling rate of not more than 3 °C/min measured by means of a thermocouple.4. encapsulation of mist inside the walls) do not assist in the performance of the water mist nozzles.9 Test shall be conducted with minimum pressure at the unfavourable nozzle and with maximum spacing between nozzles.2 Manufacturer shall specify size.4.3. A. The thermocouple monitoring the oil temperature shall be installed as indicated in A.2.6.2.2.4. A. 53 . A.2. but in no case less than 75 mm below the top edge of the fryer.4.3. shall be as indicated in the manufacturer's installation instructions.4.2.2. The fire shall burn freely for a period of 2 min. A.3.2. A.2.2.8 Test shall be conducted at minimum discharge rate condition. Energy shall be shut off for all vats after extinguishing system is actuated. A.4.2.3.4.4.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) calculated cooking area.3 Fire testing criteria A. at a height in level with the top edge of the fat. or the like. The heating source shall be shut off after the extinguishing system is actuated. After the free burn period the extinguishing system unit shall be manually discharged.4. and should not be less than 20 % per volume at the time of system discharge. one located 25 mm below the surface and one located 25 mm above the bottom of the fryer.3.2.7 The cooking oil in the fryer shall be heated until auto-ignition occurs. along with the drip area. The floor of the test enclosure shall be flat.2.3.4.4.3. when the cooking oil is at a temperature of 175 °C to 190 °C.3.3.1 Manufacturer shall specify if deep fat fryer shall be mounted near a wall or in the open or even in the corner. For a deep fat fryer with an internal drip board.2. A. The time required to heat the cooking oil from 260 °C to 315 °C shall be used to calculate temperature rise of the appliance.2.3. The oxygen concentration shall be measured at a position half-way from the closest wall − that is not attached to the deep fat fryer − to the centre of the fat of the tested fryer. A. The mock up shall be tested with an ambient temperature of (21 ± 5) °C throughout the duration of the test.

1 The filter frame shall be a "V" type extending the full length of the hood.4.4.2 to A. as evidenced by the presence of burning droplets of oil dispersed outside the fryer.1.4.4.3. the cooking appliance shall be located below the hood and filters. The hood and filters shall extend beyond each end of the appliance. The oil temperature during testing shall be measured with a thermocouple as specified in A.5 The fryer shall be filled with oil until the cooking oil level is 75 mm below the top edge of the fryer.2.8 When the extinguishing system unit has been discharged the discharge effects shall be observed to determine compliance with the requirements in A.7. shall be at least 34 °C below its observed auto-ignition temperature.7 A clean surface at least 300 mm wide shall be prepared around the cooking appliance to detect splashing oil.5 Filters A.4.4 A.3.2.2.4.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) NOTE In the case of self contained systems the minimum pressure for the testing is the minimum starting pressure specified by the manufacture. A.2.2.4. NOTE The filter frame is not required to be a "V" type when another type of filter frame configuration.4.4. The bottom portion of the filter frame shall be constructed of 50 mm × 50 mm angle iron having a minimum thickness of 3 mm.5.2 The deep fat fryer used for this test shall be as specified in A. see Figure A. A.6 A.2.4.2. A.2.4. considering all the oil mixed.3. A. At the end of 2 min free burn the fryer's internal heating source is shut off and the extinguishing system shall be actuated.6. A. 54 .2. is specified in the installation instructions.2.4.2.4 The nozzle shall be located at the minimum height specified by the manufacturer's installation manual and positioned in the orientation most likely to create splashing of hot oil.3 The splash test shall be conducted using the maximum discharge rate condition (maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer).2.4.3. Filters shall be installed at a (45 ± 10)° inclined position on both sides of the "V".4..4.1 Splash testing criteria When tested as described in A. Upon end of discharge of the extinguishing agent the oil temperature shall be measured for at least 20 min and temperature after thermal equilibrium. A.2.4.4.4.4. A.3.2. During the extinguishment tests.7.4.4.4.2.2.4. and  cause no splashing of burning oil due to the extinguishing system unit operation.4. Steel mesh type filters 50 mm thick shall be installed in the frame.4. A. such as one using a single bank of filters.2. The cooking oil in the fryer shall be heated until auto-ignition occurs. an extinguishing system unit shall:  cause the fire in a deep fat fryer to be completely extinguished.10 The system shall cause the flames to be extinguished within 2 min and shall not permit re-ignition of the oil. A. The expected pressure declining over time should be taken into account.

7 mm) − optional angle iron supports to minimize warping (typical) Access ports. A. The filters shall be loaded with a minimum of 2 3.7 — Typical example for the test apparatus A.2 Filters shall be loaded with cooking grease.4.4 When ignition occurs.4.5. Gas burners. provided every 2.3 The ignition of the grease shall be initiated by external heat sources.4.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Dimensions in metres Key 1 2 filters (thickness 50. all around view A Figure A.2.5.5. 2. the ignition sources shall be shut down. After the free burn period the extinguishing system unit shall be manually actuated.5 Test shall be conducted at minimum discharge rate condition. 55 .08 m/s air velocity through duct sealant welded seam. A.2.8 mm) hood 6 7 3 4 5 dam (12.7 kg/m of filter area.2. A.54 m/s to 5.4.2. After all filters are involved in flames a 30 s free burning time shall be applied.5. hand held propane torches or similar items are sources of ignition.43 m or less 8 9 X damper blower capable of providing min.

A.4.6. Previous testing has indicated that external heating sources applied under the hood and generating a heat output of between 15 800 kJ/min and 21 100 kJ/min is capable of igniting the hood area. such as diesel fuel or gasoline are not to be used as ignition sources for the hood and duct.5 m along the duct to permit inspection and greasing of the duct.1 Filters shall be loaded with cooking grease. An extinguishing system unit to be used with round ducts only shall be tested using a round duct only.6 Exhaust duct shall be fuelled with cooking grease.3. The ignition occurs when the temperature at the 3. hand held propane torches or similar items are sources of ignition.2. Gas burners. Ignition is defined when all thermocouples inside exhaust duct are above 870 °C.2.6. Where changing of directions in the ducts take place this should be tested or additional nozzles shall be required by the manufactures design and installation manual.6.6 Exhaust duct and filters A.2.4 Exhaust duct mock up shall include a 1 m high riser at one end.4. A. whichever occurs first.6 m thermocouple reaches at least 871 °C or when the temperature at the 3. the ignition sources shall be shut down.9).6 m thermocouple reaches at least 649 °C.4.7 kg/m of filter area.6. The filters shall be loaded with a minimum of 2 3.4.6. After all filters are involved in flames a 30 s free burning time shall be applied.4.6. Maximum duct cross sectional area shall be specified by manufacturer. The duct shall be rectangular or round.4.3.2.2.7 Upon complete discharge of the extinguishing agent the system shall cause the flames to be completely extinguished. 56 .5.9). After the free burn period the extinguishing system unit shall be manually discharged. and an extinguishing system unit tested using a rectangular duct is capable of being used with a round duct having a circumference equal to or less than the perimeter of the rectangular duct.7. The ignition of the grease in the deep fat fryer shall be made using the fryer's internal or an external heating source.6. defined by the manufacturer.6 Test shall be conducted with maximum spacing between nozzles.6.4. A. with each nozzle positioned in the most unfavourable location (in respect to the vertical and horizontal distance from the fire source) and orientation allowed by the manufacturer's installation instructions (see A.2. Blower shall be able to provide the maximum air speed. A.3 The minimum length of the exhaust duct mock up shall be the maximum distance of two nozzles specified by manufacturer but not less than 6. A. Other end shall be connected to an extract system or remain open to avoid accumulation of smoke inside exhaust duct. Filter shall be examined and grease shall be present to the extent that the grease was capable of sustaining the fire had it not been extinguished. A.2.4. A.5 Systems designed to provide fire protection with exhaust blower connected during discharge shall include.6.7 The ignition of the grease shall be initiated by external heat sources. Flammable liquids.2.4.10 Test shall be conducted with maximum spacing between nozzles.2.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) A.4.2. A. with each nozzle positioned in the most unfavourable location (in respect to the vertical and horizontal distance from the fire source) and orientation allowed by the manufacturer's installation instructions (see A. A.9 Test shall be conducted at minimum discharge rate condition.2.2.8 When ignition occurs. A.6.2.4. an exhaust blower and damper to permit adjustment of air velocity through the filters and duct. at the outlet of the duct.2 The duct perimeter shall be the maximum as specified in the installation instructions. A.4. See Figure A.2.4.4.2.5.4.1 m access port shall be provided at least every 2.

 discharge pressure during the test.  trade name and identification code or number of the extinguishing system tested. heat capacity).  observation and classification corresponding to A. The units for all measurements shall be clearly stated in the report. in kilograms per second.4. flash point.11 Upon complete discharge of the extinguishing agent the system shall cause the flames to be completely extinguished.  discharge temperature of the agent during the test in degrees Celsius.3.4. as applicable.  date of the test. A.3.2. Exhaust duct shall be examined and grease shall be present to the extent that the grease was capable of sustaining the fire had it not been extinguished.2 The following essential information.  discharge rate during the test.3 Test report A.2.  name and address of manufacturer/supplier.  any remarks observed during testing.  operator of the test.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) A. A.2. 57 .4. shall also be given in the test report:  name and address of test laboratory.4. dimension and precise deep fat fryer used.1 The test report shall be as comprehensive as possible and shall include any observations made during the test and comments on any difficulties experienced during testing.  type.  type and properties (auto ignition temperature.4. in megapascals at the most unfavourable nozzle.6.

b) are developed. flowing fire. and interpreted by qualified fire testing laboratories. Where possible. pile. These guidelines provide information on developing. gas). and as contained in engineering textbooks and technical literature. The chart identifies the steps of the process. The basic design and installation parameters of all watermist systems should therefore be obtained from performance tests.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex B (informative) Guidelines for developing representative fire test procedures for watermist systems B. the steps are discussed in more detail. wood.1 General Current understanding of the performance of watermist systems does not warrant the design of systems from first principles. and the performance objectives for the watermist system. 58 . flammable liquid. carried out. spray).g.1 shows the process as a simple flowchart. b) arrangement (e. e) ignition source/procedure. B. area of the pool. as defined in EN 12845. c) size (dimension of the fuel array. correlations and computer models. empirical data. an application specific test procedure should be preferred to a generic procedure. The design of a test procedure should be in accordance with the established scientific and engineering principles of fire protection that incorporate widely accepted methods. The design fires should be defined at least in terms of: a) fuel (e. calculations. plastics. the compartment conditions. crib. Performance test procedures may be generic to a certain fire hazard class.g. Fire safety engineering. pool. cable. or they may be particular to an application within a fire hazard class. carrying out and documenting a fire performance test procedure for a representative application. Below.2 Evaluation of the fire hazard The evaluation of the fire hazards should result in a list of possible design fires. The intent of these guidelines is to encourage the development of fire test procedures that: a) are based on a fire protection engineering evaluation of the fire hazard. shelved storage. d) obstructions to water sprays. or flow rate of a flowing or a spray fire). as well as the main output from each step. Figure B. as exemplified by the ISO/TR 13387-1 to ISO/TR 13387-8 series.

1 — Process of developing a fire test procedure B. or dedicated local application protection systems. The key enclosure parameters are the following: 59 . the properties are pronounced for fires that are large with 3 3 respect to the enclosure volume (of the order of 1 kW/m to 2 kW/m or larger). It has been shown that in such cases. For such applications. watermist has properties that are somewhat similar to gas fire extinguishing systems. The case of ventilation controlled fire applies to fires inside enclosure that may be fully closed or that may have small ventilation openings.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Figure B. the test protocol should be designed to demonstrate that a fire can be controlled or suppressed involving nozzles within a certain design area.3 Evaluation of the compartment conditions From a fire dynamics point of view. used as one of the basic parameters for hydraulic dimensioning. The case of fuel controlled fires may apply either to sprinkler-type area protection applications. the term "compartment conditions" is primarily related to whether the fire is fuel controlled (an open fire) or ventilation controlled (an enclosed fire).

The set of test fires should include: 60 . moisture. special attention should be given to maximise the probability of fire extinguishment in real applications. as defined in Clause 3. For both fuel and ventilation controlled fires. such as thermocouple data. b) air exchange rate for forced ventilation. Another issue is related to differentiating between "suppression" and "control".5 Setting up the fire test procedure The fire test procedure should make use of the list of design fires. fire suppression and fire control. gas-based firefighting systems are generally regarded as fire extinguishing systems. When a watermist system is tested for the purpose of fire extinguishment. One way of doing this is to test against a number of fire and ignition scenarios. Such a reference system could be for example a sprinkler system. Depending on the test objective.  visibility. These include:  structural integrity. air flow) surrounding the hazard. and be instrumented so as to quantitatively verify system performance.  tenability. it should be understood that no system can be 100 % reliable in practice. and to use a range of watermist system parameters to find out the optimum range for installations. even though they can fail due to conditions that do not correspond to the test case (such as an open door). The use of oxygen consumption calorimetry in a fire test would be the quantitative way to measure the performance with respect to suppression or control. and judgement on suppression or control may be based on indirect instrumental evidence. or a deluge water spray system. and the fire resistance and tightness of structures close to the hazard need to be evaluated. Thus. the ambient conditions (temperature. Regarding fire extinguishment.  water damage. c) vent dimensions and orientation for natural ventilation.  smoke damage. but this may be unavailable or difficult to implement. For comparison. and/or extent of fire spread in the fuel array.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) a) enclosure volume. All relevant aspects of the preceeding evaluation steps should be considered in setting up the fire test procedure. systems that are nominally tested for fire extinguishment in a fire performance test have a finite probability of failing to extinguish a fire in the real installation. B. other parameters might be included to evaluate system performance in addition to the above-mentioned performance objectives. B. Sometimes tests can be conducted for a reference system to establish the required performance.  damage to sensitive equipment or systems.4 Determining the performance objective This European Standard defines the firefighting performance objective of a watermist system in terms of fire extinguishment.  flash-over prevention.

 minimum pressure at nozzles. to test for a possible weak point in the water distribution. the test should be carried out in a sufficiently large enclosure to prevent oxygen depletion from favourably affecting the performance of the tested system. However. It should be understood that fires falling under a) will not necessarily be the same fires that will fall under b). but quite easy to extinguish with a suitable watermist system. The free-burn test serves to indicate that the fire load will provide a challenge to the tested watermist system. which could be severe with respect to the enclosure. a free-burn test should be included in the fire test procedure.  maximum ceiling height. and between four nozzles. as intended to be used in real installation. and thereby to give guidance on how to interpret the test results and possibly extend the field of applicability of the results. fire tests should be conducted with the ignition point located under one nozzle. An example is provided by a large fire in an enclosure of limited volume. 61 .  additives. it should be clear that a fire test procedure should include several different fire scenarios.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) a) the anticipated worst-case fires with respect to possible consequences. The fire test procedure should also consider the possibility of different ignition scenarios.  the maximum pressure at nozzles. Normally. such as sloped or curved ceilings. If necessary to fully determine the limits of installation parameters (typically for local application systems). b) fires of greatest challenge to the tested watermist system with respect to the particular application. The fuel package should be defined in detail so that the test can be reproduced. Care should be taken to consider all aspects of the evaluations in the fire test procedure. or maximum distance to hazard. Using several different test fires will ensure that a watermist system is not optimised to perform well in one favourable fire scenario. or minimum distance to hazard. and it will also provide a baseline for evaluating the effectiveness of the watermist system. and the test should be appropriately instrumented to verify this. The watermist system should be operated in the tests using:  maximum nozzle spacing. It is important that the same type of nozzle is subjected to all tests included in the series. Where possible. There should be no tailoring of nozzle designs to particular scenarios within a test series. if the test fires are fuel controlled fires. the fire development may be significantly affected by the size of the ignition source. a fire test procedure involves one standard way of igniting the test fires. For example. Where applicable (such as in open space fire tests).  minimum horizontal and vertical distance and size of obstructions close to nozzles. Additional tests should be carried out for special conditions. From the above.  the minimum ceiling height. between two nozzles. or even the number of ignition sources. fire tests should also be conducted using:  the minimum nozzle spacing. The purpose of b) is to find the performance limits of the tested system.

or by physical obstructions close to the nozzle. d) name and address of the client. g) the date of receipt of the test item(s) where this is critical to the validity and application of the results. Relevant requirements are given in EN ISO/IEC 17025. watermist system specifications should include the shortest and the longest detection times within which the system can control. for example due to clogging of the nozzle. Depending on the application the failure mode testing can be considered as an option. i) test results with. The design of the fire detection system should ensure that appropriate nozzles are activated and that the detection times are in accordance with the limits found in a fire test. B. and that it is technically competent and able to generate technically valid results. unless the laboratory has valid reasons for not doing so: a) title.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The intention of this document is not to cover testing of fire detection system. These time limits should be derived from fire performance tests conducted using different pre-burn times. B. b) name and address of the laboratory.10 of EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In a failure mode test. if different from the address of the laboratory. c) use of appropriate instrumentation and methodology to verify the compliance or non-compliance with the pass/fail criteria. Of particular importance with respect to testing of watermist fire suppression systems are the following: a) comprehensive understanding of watermist technology. suppress or extinguish the fires in accordance with the fire performance objective. The most common failure mode test is a disabled nozzle test.7 Documentation and interpretation of test results The results of the fire test series should be documented in a test report prepared in accordance with 5. the units of measurement. h) reference to the sampling plan and procedures used by the laboratory or other bodies where these are relevant to the validity or application of the results. and a clear identification of the end of the test report. 62 . criteria developed for normal mode tests can be relaxed. and the location where the tests were carried out. and the date(s) of performance of the test. c) unique identification of the test report (such as the serial number). b) ability to properly condition and characterize the fuels. Where a deluge watermist system is activated automatically.6 Carrying out the test The facility carrying out the tests should demonstrate that it operates a quality system. The test report should contain at least the following information. where it is assumed that one nozzle close to the fire fails to effectively deliver watermist. f) description. where appropriate. and on each page an identification in order to ensure that the page is recognized as a part of the test report. condition and unambiguous identification of the item(s) tested. e) description of the method used.

e. include the following: m) information on specific test conditions. clients or groups of clients. n) where applicable. opinions and interpretations. When opinions and interpretations are included. environmental conditions.g. 63 . Also. a statement to the effect that the results relate only to the items tested. as these guidelines are intended to be used for developing new fire test procedures. Opinions and interpretations should be clearly marked as such in a test report. the laboratory should document the basis upon which the opinions and interpretations have been made. function(s) and signature(s) or equivalent identification of person(s) authorizing the test report. t) guidance used for improvements. l) where relevant. a statement on the estimated uncertainty of measurement. Opinions and interpretations included in a test report can comprise. or when the uncertainty affects compliance to specification limits. k) name(s). where necessary for the interpretation of the test results. In addition. information on uncertainty is needed in test reports when it is relevant to the validity or application of the test results. whereas EN ISO/IEC 17025 lists statement of compliance or non-compliance as an optional item. when a client's instruction so requires. s) recommendations on how to use the results. but not be limited to: q) an opinion on the statement of compliance/non-compliance of the results with requirements.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) j) statement of compliance/non-compliance with requirements and/or specifications. p) additional information which can be required by specific methods. r) fulfilment of contractual requirements. j) is considered mandatory in this context. It should be noted that e) contains the word "description" instead of "identification". o) where appropriate and needed. test reports should.

of total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter. i More common representative diameters are: D 10 linear mean diameter. at locations illustrated at Figure C. i.1 measured at a plane 1 m from nozzle. equals the total area of the sample. C. the diameter of a drop whose ratio of volume to surface area. ∑ p q is the summation of Di or Di representing all drops in the sample.e. Dkub upper-boundary diameter of drops in the k size class.1 Mean diameters n ( p −q ) = D pq ∑D i −1 n p i ∑D q i i −1 where n is the number of drops in sample. p are the integers 1.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex C (informative) Determination of drop size distribution C. 64 . size class widths.e. D 32 volume/surface mean diameter (Sauter Mean Diameter SMD). Drop size distribution measurements should be carried for each watermist nozzle. i. D 30 volume mean diameter. characteristics drop sizes and dispersion measure of drop size distribution i. at least. equals the total volume of the sample.2 Representative diameters Dvf drop diameter such that the fraction.1. the diameter of a drop whose volume.2 Test data This annex gives guidance to calculate appropriate sample size. i. th th C. D 20 surface area mean diameter. if multiplied by the number of drops. Dklb lower-boundary diameter of drops in the k size class. the diameter of a drop whose area. th q.e. f. 2. if multiplied by the number of drops. 3 or 4 p > q.1. Di is the diameter of the i drop.1 Parameters C. is the same as that of the entire sample.

3 Data processing The following calculations should be made at every location. All of the drops of the sample at the large-drop end of the distribution should be measured.0 example : 6 532 3 6 109 × 1 832. and the class boundaries.4 3 x 100 = 0. Mean values should be obtained from data of all locations to obtain representative values of a spray.74 < 1. The ratio of the volume of the largest drop to the total volume of the liquid in the sample should be less than the tolerable fractional error in the desired representation (usually less than 1 %). D 3 max 3 n × D30 x 100 < 1.1 — Droplet size measurements locations C.0 65 . Figure C. the number of drops in each size class.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The accuracy of and correction procedures for measurements of drops using particular equipment are not part of this practice. Report the largest and smallest drops of the entire sample.

in percent Figure C. . in percent volume.  Calculate relative Span which gives notion on distribution dispersion: SPAN = 66 Dv 0. The criteria may be relaxed for measurements where the degree of accuracy is unattainable: th  (Dkub . D20. For the majority of size classes.  Calculate D32 D30. 5 .1 Dv 0.9 − Dv 0.25.Dv0.1.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) 99 % of the volume of liquid represented by data should be in size classes such that no size class has boundaries with a ratio greater than 1.Dklb)/(Dkub + Dklb) multiplied by the liquid volume in the k class and divided by the total volume of liquid in the sample should be less than 0.2 — Calculation of the volume fraction  Calculate Dv0.9 from graph or by curve fitting distribution to a mathematical function. this ratio should not exceed 1.05 for every class.  Calculate volume percentage in each class: NK Volume % K = ∑D i −1 N ∑ 3 i × 100 Di3 i −1 where NK is the number of drops in class K. D10.  Calculate cumulative volume percentage: Key 1 2 cumulative volume.Dv0.5.5.

9762E+12 15.006 0.25 1 5.0761E+09 5.5 1. % Cum.0 360.0 1 045.0 5 226.2035E+12 21.021 0.25 990 1.3421E+09 3.0 535.6411E+12 9.63 Dv0.1452E+11 0.0 6 532.567 4 181.0 1 713.8774E+04 4.22 67 .885 99.0 878.25 297 8.5 112.4705E+07 2.8790E+03 3.9466E+08 3.000     6 109 8.5 703.108 562.40 Dv0.25 629 4.5782E+09 5.8195E+04 1.0 1.0570E+11 0.1745E+05 5.0028E+09 0.0 669.0515E+11 0.437 1 371.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table C.9722E+05 3.0 836.547 100.0 1.687 18.812 2 676.0 1.5 = 2 587.0 342.0 4 181.0 1.0 1.5943E+05 1.0 1.0473E+10 0.1892E+12 21.024 2 141.8832E+12 5.25 981 1.0 3 345.25 579 1.0 274.202 3.0 1 097.1769E+05 1.0 1.5137E+09 1. % Di Di 2 Di 3 in Class by Vol.3839E+05 8.22 SPAN = 0.3945E+06 3. 288.5 1.081 0.25 111 4.1060E+04 6.82 D20 = 1 646.788 55.637 3 345.9704E+07 3.0 140.79 D32 = 2 269.826 77.2381E+09 0.7587E+13   Typical calculation results: D10 = 1 459.027 450.25 825 1.7028E+09 8.9599E+07 8.0 2 141.25 65 2.25 119 4.0 1 306.0 562.0 2 676.453 5 226.0 1.6483E+08 1.900 34.5898E+06 3.25 410 2.837 1.5127E+06 2.0 1.62 Dv0.1 = 1 550.0 90.2121E+12 5.0 428.0 72.3130E+08 8.8515E+06 2.280 0.124 1 713.9876E+12 15.9412E+05 2.427 1 097.0 1.006 360.6564E+10 3.33 D30 = 1 832.1 — Sample data calculation Diameter µm Class Width Ratio Drops Sum of Di r in each size class Vol.388 703.9 = 3 585.6649E+08 2.25 21 9.25 232 1.0 175.0 1 371.9169E+06 1.225 878.010 8.2217E+06 1.0 219.0 450.930 93.0 1.3725E+09 8.2761E+11 2.0 1.25 849 8.

4) Water droplet size Water droplet size should comply with nozzles used in fire tests ± 10 %. with nozzles in installation positions advised by the manufacturer for the nozzle type.  The lower tolerance limit of bulb strength (0. 125 % of the recommended minimum operating pressure. K= Q/√P K= Q/√P where P = pressure. 100 %. 125 % of the recommended minimum operating pressure. No lodgement of release parts after 10 s.1 gives the tests for open and closed nozzles. 100 %.99 confidence for 99 % of samples). Water droplet size should comply with nozzles used in fire tests ± 10 %.2 % between load bearing points after being subjected to twice the average service-load. 5) Functional tests Tests conducted at 75 %. Operation within 5 s after response of release element.1 — Nozzle tests Test Open Nozzles X ± (0.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex D (informative) Testing of nozzles Table D.99 confidence for 99 % of samples) > twice the upper tolerance limit of the bulb/nozzle assembly load including the highest calculated water pressure on nozzle (0. Tests conducted at 75 %.62) °C 1) Operating temperatures  2) Water flow Closed Nozzles where X = normal release temperature. 3) Water distribution Water distribution of nozzles should comply with distribution of nozzles from fire tests. Q = litres per minute. where P = pressure. with nozzles in installation positions advised by the manufacturer for the nozzle type. Q = litres per minute. Table D. 7) Strength of release element 68 . in bar. Water distribution of nozzles should comply with distribution of nozzles from fire tests. 6) Strength of nozzle body  The nozzle should not show permanent elongation of more than 0.035 X + 0. Protection cap released within 5 s of nozzle operation. Protection cap released within 5 s of nozzle operation. in bar.

4. No damage may occur. 5 × fully assembled nozzles. Temperature should then be increased with 1 °C/min until air-bubbles disappear. 35 °C for a period of 30 days. No damage may occur. when tested at 1. pray with 20 % mass sodium chloride. Hereafter the nozzles should be functional tested in accordance with function test (5). 6.  No damage to release element when tested at (20 ± 5) °C below nominal release temperature in water bath (< 93 °C). Stress corrosion Stainless steel (Boiling magnesium chloride solution). Test to be conducted four times with four nozzles. Stress corrosion Stainless steel (Boiling magnesium chloride solution). 5. Hereafter the nozzles are tested to comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. 4. 11) Stress Corrosion 12) Salt spray corrosion 5 × fully assembled. After tests the nozzles are exposed to the maximum water pressure recommended for the nozzles in 30 min. Hereafter the nozzles are tested to comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. and non-coated nozzles and nozzle parts are exposed to the following tests: 5 × fully assembled. 9) Heat exposure 10) Thermal shock  24 nozzles heated to (10 ± 2) °C below normal release temperature. Ten nozzles are exposed to a saltspray with 20 % mass sodium chloride. 35 °C for a period of ten days. Stress corrosion: Brass (mercury test). minimum 30 bar. 35 °C for a period of 30 days. 4. Nozzles for corrosive environments Nozzles for corrosive environments Ten nozzles are exposed to a saltsTen nozzles are exposed to a saltspray with 20 % mass sodium chloride. 35 °C for a period of ten days. Stress corrosion: Brass (mercury test). Stress corrosion: Brass (Ammonia test). 5.5 times the design pressure.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table D. 4. Hereafter the nozzles are tested to comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. After tests the nozzles are exposed to the maximum water pressure recommended for the nozzles in 30 min. 3. 5. 5. and non-coated nozzles and nozzle parts are exposed to the following tests: Stress corrosion: Brass (Ammonia test). Hereafter the nozzles are tested to comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. 3. 6. 5 × fully assembled nozzles. 3. 69 . No damage to glass bulb may occur. 3. 6. 6. Nozzles for non-corrosive environments Nozzles for non-corrosive environments Ten nozzles are exposed to a saltspray with 20 % mass sodium chloride. or oil (> 93 °C).1 (continued) 8) Leak resistance  No sign of leakage rupture operation or release of any parts. Bath temperature increase < 20 °C/min. After 5 min nozzles are moved into a (10 ± 1) °C water bath.

4. 5. After the test the nozzles should show no visible deterioration and should meet the requirements of tests 2. or any changes exceeding 10 % in discharge characteristics of water droplets and droplet velocity at lowest operating pressure. A nozzle is placed on the nozzle inlet on a concrete base. 8. A nozzle is placed on the nozzle inlet on a concrete base. and standard response requirements. 4. 4. One open nozzle body should be heated in an oven at 800 °C for a period of 15 min with the nozzle in its normal installed position. or any changes exceeding 10 % in discharge characteristics of water droplets and droplet velocity at lowest operating pressure. . is aimed to hit the nozzle with a free fall from 1 m above the nozzle. change in flow constant K of more than 5 %. 5. The nozzles should comply with test 5. Five nozzles are vibration tested in accordance with EN 12259-1.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table D. (95 ± 4) °C for 90 days. humidity.1 (continued) 13) Moist air exposure Ten nozzles are exposed to (98 ± 2) % Ten nozzles are exposed to (98 ± 2) % humidity. C) 16) Resistance to heat 17) Resistance to vibration 18) Impact Test 70 One nozzle body should be heated in an oven at 800 °C for a period of 15 min with the nozzle in its normal installed position. After the exposure the nozzles should comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. when tested in accordance with EN 12259-1 and should operate within the limitations of test 5) at the minimum operating pressure. change in flow constant K of more than 5 %. 3. 8. A ball of steel. The nozzles should comply with tests 5 and 8.  Nozzles should not leak when subjected to pressure surges from 4 bar to 1. Five nozzles are tested. They should show no signs of mechanical damage. 6. The water bath should not heat more than 5 °C from the hot nozzle. 4. 3. After the test the nozzles should show no visible deterioration and should meet the requirements of tests 2. Five nozzles are vibration tested in accordance with EN 12259-1. Nozzle should visually not show more than 5 % variance in spray angle. 3. The nozzle should not show: Visual breakage or deformation. (95 ± 4) °C for 90 days. 3. The water bath should not heat more than 5 °C from the hot nozzle. After the test the nozzles should show no visual damage.5 times the design pressure with the minimum of 30 bar. Hereafter the nozzle is quickly immersed in a 15 °C water bath. Five nozzles are tested. with the mass similar to the nozzles. 14) Water hammer 15) Dynamic heating (RTI. After the exposure the nozzles should comply with the acceptance requirements of tests 2. After the test the nozzles should show no visual damage. special response. A ball of steel. Nozzle should visually not show more than 5 % variance in spray angle. Hereafter the nozzle is quickly immersed in a 15 °C water bath. 6.  The time response index and the RTIvalue should be measured in accordance with EN 12259-1 to be characterised within the corresponding fast response. 5. is aimed to hit the nozzle with a free fall from 1 m above the nozzle. with the mass similar to the nozzles. 5. The nozzle should not show: Visual breakage or deformation.

1 (continued) 19) Lateral discharge test  20) Thirty-day leakage test  Two nozzles are installed in accordance with the installation guidelines of the manufacture. 71 . During the 30 days the nozzles may show no leaks.043 153  3 400 544 640 Total a Sieve designations correspond with those specified in the standard for wire-cloth sieves for testing purposes. see ISO 565.2 — Contaminant for contaminated water cycling test Sieve designation a Contaminant (± 5 %) b Nominal sieve opening g mm Pipe scale Top soil Sand No. 50 0. 200 mesh and 325 mesh.074 81  21 No.150 84 6 89 No. 325 0. 50 mesh. 21) Vacuum test  Three nozzles are submitted to a vacuum of 0. 25 0. 200 0.5 times the design pressure with the minimum of 30 bar for 30 days at an ambient temperature of (20 ± 5) °C.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table D. Following this test each sample is leakage tested in accordance with test 8). 100 0.706  456 200 No. b The amount of contaminant may be reduced by 50 % for nozzles limited to use with copper piping and by 90 % for nozzles limited to use with stainless steel piping. It is checked that watermist from the open nozzle does not wet the paper at any water pressure. 100 mesh. and the heat sensitive element is removed from the other sensitive element. Hereafter the nozzles are functional tested in accordance with test 5). Table D.61 MPa applied to the nozzle inlet for 1 min at a temperature of (20 ± 5) °C. and any position of the nozzles within the manufactures guidelines. sieve sizes 25 mesh. Five nozzles should be installed on water (water with agent) filled test line maintained under a constant pressure of 1. A piece of paper is fitted around the heat sensitive element of the one nozzle.297 82 82 327 No.

1 — Clogging test apparatus 72 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Key 1 pressure gauge 2 check valve 3 flow control valve 4 5 6 flow meter fresh water supply pump 7 8 9 air line for agitating contaminated water nozzle port container Figure D.

across all circuits. All alarm functions should occur according to the design specification. Notify all concerned personnel at the end-user's facility that a test is to be conducted and instruct them as to the sequence of operation.  Operate the necessary circuits to initiate a second alarm circuit if present.  Where fitted.  Check all supervised circuits for correct fault response. notify the station that the fire system test is to be conducted and that an emergency response by the fire department or alarm station personnel is not required.  Check each resettable detector for proper response. operate hold switch.  Operate each type of alarm condition. Verify that functions occur according to design specifications.  Check that all end-of-line devices have been installed. where required. Verify that manual release functions occur according to design specifications. check pneumatic equipment for integrity to ensure proper operation.  Function-check all resettable valves and activators.  Check that polarity has been observed on all polarised alarm devices and auxiliary relays. Verify that an alarm signal is received at remote panel after device is operated. operate one of each type of input device while on Standby power.  Remote monitoring operations (if applicable).  Operate manual release device. and verify receipt of fault condition at the remote station. E.2 System function operational test  Operate detection initiating circuit(s).1 Preliminary function tests  Where a system is connected to a remote central alarm station. unless testing the valve will release extinguishant. E. Verify all second alarm functions occur according to design specifications.  Disconnect primary power supplies.  Confirm that visual and audible supervisory signals are received at the control panel. 73 .CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex E (informative) Function tests for acceptance and maintenance NOTE See Clause 9.  Control panel primary power source.  Reconnect primary power supply.  Where appropriate.

CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E)  Verify that the control panel is connected to a dedicated appropriate circuit and labelled properly. the report of the door fan test.  Completion certificate and documentation: The installer should provide to the user a completion certificate. with the system fully operated on standby power. This panel should be readily accessible. notify the central alarm station and all concerned personnel at the end-user's facility that the fire system test is complete and that the system has been returned to full service condition by following the procedures specified in the manufacturers' specifications. calculations and drawings showing the system as installed. The certificate should give the design concentrations and if carried out. yet restricted to unauthorised personnel. a complete set of instructions. 74 .  Completion of functional test: When all functional tests are complete return the system to its fully operational design condition. and giving details of any departure frown appropriate recommendations.  Test a primary power failure in accordance with the manufacturer's specification. and a statement that the system complies with all the appropriate requirements of this standard.

service rooms.  technical centres.g. 2 The following occupancies are covered. consumer markets with "storage" up to the limits as given in the conditions in a) to e) and Table F.  small radio and TV communication studios. file rooms.1. e) the ceiling shall have a maximum height as tested. with not less than 2. libraries.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Annex F (normative) Fire test procedure for certain occupancies Ordinary hazard group OH3 F. stores (except for selling rooms for furniture with expanded plastics). d) the ceiling slope shall be less than 10°. if the conditions in a) to e) are fulfilled:  shops. b) the maximum storage areas shall be 50 m for any single block. f) the ceiling shall be free of obstructions which may influence the spray pattern and fire loads.  archives. shopping centres.1 shall not be exceeded. cable trays. 75 .1 Object of the test F. but not exceeding 8 m with a minimum clearance of 1 m. store areaways.1.  selling rooms.4 m clearance around the block. suspended open ceiling. c) storage with movable racks or shelves are excluded. lighting. book stores.1 General This test method is intended for evaluating the fire performance of water mist fire protection systems for certain occupancies. if the following conditions are fulfilled: a) the maximum storage heights shown in Table F. e.

with each layer divided into 24 compartments by overlocking corrugated cardboard partitions.2 1. F. When compartmented. the fuel packages of Figures F.1a) and F.  category II: more than 3 200 kW up to 5 100 kW. to allow safe rescue and/or evacuation from the building. Standard EUR fire test commodities are used. cardboard boxes (thickness nominally 4 mm.  category IV: more than 5 700 kW up to 9 000 kW.1 — Maximum storage height Maximum storage height m Storage Category a Free standing or block storage (ST1 ) All other cases (ST2 to ST6) I 4. NOTE The fuel packages used in the fire test procedure are chosen based on the occupancies in the scope of the document to provide generic. lightweight. e.0 3. It is not within the scope of this method to evaluate the reliability of the watermist system. It is not within the scope of this method to evaluate whether the requirements of local building regulations are fulfilled.2 General approach The purpose of the test procedure is to test if a watermist system shows.1c) shall be lowered accordingly.7 IV 1.2. placed upside down.  category III: more than 5 100 kW up to 5 700 kW.  The second commodity is made up of empty. the cartons are divided into five layers by corrugated sheets. stored inside with the moisture of (14 ± 2) %. The category of the commodities has been determined using the Nordtest method NT049 [2] as follows (max.2 a See classification in EN 12845:2004+A2:2009. F.1 Commodities for the fire loads Two different commodities shall be used in the tests:  The first commodity is called the EUR standard plastic commodity. 120 cups per carton.0 2. and are made of single-wall. If the test procedure will be applied to ceiling heights lower than 4 m. 1 min total heat release rate):  category I: up to 3 200 kW. forming a total of 120 compartments where the plastic cups are placed.1 1.1. Annexes B and C. corrugated cardboard.  category Special Hazard: more than 9 000 kW.6 III 2.2 Fuel packages F. well-defined fuel packages. The cartons measure 600 mm × 400 mm × 500 mm (L × W × H). It consists of empty polystyrene cups without lids. type "C-flute") placed on wooden pallets with dimensions in accordance with ISO 6780.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Table F. To this end. an equivalent level of fire fighting capability as traditional sprinkler systems run at its minimum limit. as a minimum requirement.5 II 3. 76 . in compartmented cartons. fire tests shall be conducted using both a traditional sprinkler system and the tested water mist system. The test procedure is applicable to ceiling mounted automatic nozzles to be used in unlimited areas with a maximum ceiling height as tested according to this fire test procedure.g.

NOTE 1 In this configuration the free standing target array should be supported from the back to prevent its collapse e. and two different storage heights. These are combinations of two different commodities.1c).g. The four different fuel packages are shown in Figures F. Table F. 77 .2 Test set-up This test procedure utilizes the maximum storage allowances within OH3 as given in Table F.1. yielding a fairly comprehensive span over the allowed storage configurations in OH3. two different storage categories. This set of fuel packages is applicable for testing ceiling heights of 4 m and above.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) F.1 ST4 (palletized rack storage) II 2. top view on the right.2.2 presents the four different scenarios that shall be tested. due to wetting.1a) to F. Table F.7 The solid shelves shall have a solid back wall in the ST5 configuration and both shall be made of 2 mm thick steel. NOTE 2 End view on the left.6 ST5 (rack with solid shelves) III 1.2 — Storage heights used in the fire tests Test set up Storage category Storage height m ST1 (block storage) III 2.

0 m an additional test for scenario b) with a clearance of 1 m shall be done. c) ST4 Cat II top view (left) and side view (right) with ignition point Figure F. The ignition at 1 m to 4 m. The ignition at 1 m to 4 m. b) ST1 Cat III top view and side view with ignition point NOTE The top view (left) also illustrates that the boxes are empty. a) ST5 Cat III top view (left) and side view (right) with ignition point NOTE The top view also illustrates that the boxes are empty. The ignition at 1 m to 4 m.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) NOTE The top view also illustrates that the boxes are filled with polystyrene cups.1 — Schematic drawings of the fuel packages In the case that the ceiling height at the tests exceeds 5. 78 .

The test protocol is applicable to ceiling mounted automatic nozzles that are used in unlimited volumes with a minimum hydraulic demand area of 216 m². a minimum 1 m distance from ceiling rim to test facility wall and sufficient ventilation or space to ensure that the fires will not become ventilation controlled. 4) temperature rating: 68 °C.3 Determination of acceptance criteria The reference sprinkler system shall be specified as follows. b) design density with of 8 mm/min.2. 79 .1).5 m.5 m/3 m/2. For Category III ST1 tests the tray shall be placed so as to touch the cartons. The tray shall be positioned at the floor level between the third and fourth cartons of the main fuel stack (see Figure F.4 Test procedure F. F.5 m ceiling height. If these conditions are not met. F. 2) thermal sensitivity: Special Response (RTI 50 to 80). the water mist system shall only be installed in rooms with a maximum size equal to the limits of the facility they are tested in.5 m × 12. 3) nominal K factor: 80.1 General The tests with the water mist system shall be conducted at maximum ceiling height. 5) in accordance with EN 12259-1.5 m high. The reference tests shall be conducted at the same ceiling height. the ST5 Cat II fuel package shall be 2. the Cat II fuel packages should be lowered by removing topmost layers: For up to 3.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) NOTE 3 For lower ceiling heights. the minimum test facility requirements include a minimum ceiling area of 12.0 m/1. f) sprinkler specification chosen by the authority having jurisdiction: 1) type: pendent spray sprinkler. maximum spacing and minimum nozzle pressure. d) installed at a distance of (150 ± 10) mm from the ceiling. a) classification: Ordinary Hazard 3 (OH3).4.3 Ignition source The ignition shall be performed using a 20 cm × 20 cm × 2 cm (high) steel tray filled with 120 ml of heptane. c) sprinkler arrangement: square grid (3. F. If the system is used in rooms with unlimited size.5 m/2. For other tests the tray shall be positioned that the wall of the tray is half under the wooden pallet or the steel rack to achieve better contact between the flame and the front surfaces of the cartons.5 m spacing). e) sprinklers of two manufacturers shall be used.

Table F. The pipework shall be designed as to minimise pressure losses.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The fire test report should include details of the ventilation test. F.3 Instrumentation The following quantities shall be measured during the tests:  Gas temperature 75 mm below the ceiling surface at four locations 1.5 mm bare K-type thermocouples. F. or alternatively.3 shall be conducted.2 Fire tests The fire tests as given in Table F. 80 . The tests shall be run for 30 min after activation. Any remaining fires shall be extinguished manually.3 — Fire test program Storage configuration ST1 Category of commodity Cat III Suppression system REF Location of ignition Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a MIST Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a ST5 Cat III REF Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a MIST Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a ST4 Cat II REF Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a MIST Under 1 sprinkler Between 4 sprinklers Between 2 sprinklers a a Ignition at the mean point between two sprinklers and the commodity should be arranged perpendicular to the line of sprinklers.  Water pressure at the ceiling level at minimum four sprinklers next to the ignition point.5 m from ignition shall be measured with 0. reference should be provided to a ventilation test that was performed at the same configuration and ventilation conditions.4. The water flux shall be adjusted based on the lowest measured pressure. The sampling interval shall not exceed 1 s. There shall be no direct water spray impingement on the thermocouples by the nozzles.4. if conducted as a part of the test series.

3 Temperature Temperature evaluation shall be based on the four ceiling gas thermocouples surrounding the point of ignition at 1.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) The tests shall be recorded on video.2 Damage In Category II tests. An average curve shall be calculated of the four curves and this curve shall further be reduced to a single number by calculating an average over a period of 20 min starting from the activation of the first nozzle. A cup shall be judged to be damaged by the fire if a hole has appeared in it.5.5. In each of the three scenarios the average damage of the MIST test shall not exceed the average damage of the corresponding REF set of tests. F. F.5.5 m radius. the damage to an individual carton shall be estimated based on the internal compartments of each carton touched by the fire. or if the liquid capacity of the cup has decreased by more than 50 %. F. 81 . For each scenario the highest temperature of the three MIST tests shall be less than the lowest temperature of the three REF tests. and the photographs shall appear as part of the test report. A tolerance of 5 % is in the accuracy of the damage estimation. In Category III tests the basis for damage evaluation shall be the polystyrene cups only. The damage to the fire load shall be photographed after each test. If individual cartons cannot be readily resolved (often the case with ST1).5 Evaluation of the test results F. internal divisions shall be collected to piles corresponding to the material contained by one carton.1 General The firefighting performance of the tested watermist system shall be evaluated against the performance of the reference sprinkler system.

Railway applications ― The specification and demonstration of Reliability. Fire safety engineering ― Part 8: Life safety ― Occupant behaviour. Fire safety engineering ― Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires [12] ISO/TR 13387-3:1999. Council Directive 1999/36/EC of 29 April 1999 on transportable pressure equipment 82 . perforated metal plate and electroformed sheet ― Nominal sizes of openings [9] ISO 6182-9. Fire protection ― Automatic sprinkler system ― Part 9: Requirements and test methods for water mist nozzles [10] ISO/TR 13387-1:1999. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) [7] IEC 61241 (all parts). location and condition [18] 97/23/EC. Fire safety engineering ― Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models [13] ISO/TR 13387-4:1999. Rotary positive displacement pumps ― Technical requirements (ISO 14847:1999) [6] EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Fire safety engineering ― Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents [14] ISO/TR 13387-5:1999. Availability. Household and similar electrical appliances ― Safety ― Part 2-37: Particular requirements for commercial electric deep fat fryers (IEC 60335-2-37:2002) [2] EN 1568 (all parts). Fire extinguishing media ― Foam concentrates [3] EN 50126-1:1999. Fire safety engineering ― Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin [16] ISO/TR 13387-7:1999.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) Bibliography [1] EN 60335-2-37:2002. Explosives atmospheres [5] EN ISO 14847. Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) ― Part 1: Basic requirements and generic process [4] EN 60079 (all parts). Fire safety engineering ― Part 5: Movement of fire effluents [15] ISO/TR 13387-6:1999. Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust [8] ISO 565. Test sieves ― Metal wire cloth. activation and suppression [17] ISO/TR 13387-8:1999. Fire safety engineering ― Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives [11] ISO/TR 13387-2:1999. Fire safety engineering ― Part 7: Detection. Directive 97/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 May 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning pressure equipment [19] 99/36/EC.

ISSN0284-5172 4) 3) Obtainable from Nordic Innovation Centre. 4) Obtainable from SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute.I. OROE5. August 1990 3) [21] NT FIRE 049. 2002.RR. Fire Products Collector Test Procedure for Determining the Commodity Classification of Ordinary Combustible Products.A. P. A.CEN/TS 14972:2011 (E) [20] Chicarello. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute. 0170 Oslo. SP report 2002:03. J.. Nordtest 1995. M. Nordtest Method..J. FMRC J. Box 857. Technical Report. ISSN 0283-7188 2) [22] Arvidson. 83 . and Lönnemark. Commodity classification tests of selected ordinary combustible products. and Troup.M. Combustible Products: Commodity classification – Fire test procedure. SE-501 15 Borås. Stensberggata 25.