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Technical Reference Documentation

**AC Current Source
**

ElmIac

2 Edition: 1 Copyright © 2014.Gomaringen Germany T: +49 7072 9168 0 F: +49 7072 9168 88 http://www. No part of this document may be reproduced. AC Current Source (ElmIac) 1 . or transmitted in any form. without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.de info@digsilent. 9 72810 .digsilent. DIgSILENT GmbH.DIgSILENT GmbH Heinrich-Hertz-Str.de Version: 15. by any means electronic or mechanical. copied.

. . . . . . . . .Contents Contents 1 General Description 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 A Parameter Definitions 10 B Signal Definitions 10 List of Figures 11 List of Tables 12 AC Current Source (ElmIac) 2 . . . . . . . . . 3 3 2 Load Flow Analysis 3 3 Short-Circuit Analysis 4 4 Harmonic Load Flow 5 5 Frequency Sweep 5 6 Dynamic Simulation 7 6. .1 RSM Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. . . .2 EMT Simulation . .1 Model Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . .

1: Positive sequence AC current source model I2 2 U2 Load Flow Analysis The parameters that should are listed in Table A. as it does not support 2 phase and single phase systems. In contrast with the AC voltage source where it is possible to define negative and zero sequence voltages. 1. zero and negative sequence circuit of c) Zero the model.2 Load Flow Analysis a) Positive Sequence Network 1 General Description The AC Current Source model represents a constant current injection in the system. It should be connected to 3 phase AC terminals. in the AC current source the current injection is always in positive sequence.1. The current injection for both balanced and unbalanced calculations is always in positive sequence.1 Model Diagrams Figures 1. Output Isetpbe defined for load G2flow calculations B2 current is given by the following equation: ( (Isetp × Cosφ + U1 × G1 ) + j(Isetp Sinφ + U1 × B1 ) if pf Capacitive b) Negative Sequence Network I1 = (Isetp × Cosφ + U1 × G1 ) − j(Isetp Sinφ + U1 × B1 ) if pf Inductive (1) I0 U0 AC Current Source (ElmIac) Isetp G0 B0 3 .2 and 1. ElmIac could be used for balanced and unbalanced calculations and could be useful for: • Wind turbine modelling • HVDC system modelling • Photovoltaic modelling b) Negative Sequence Network • Injection of harmonic currents in the system • General circuit analysis In the Basic Data page of the AC Current Source the main parameter to be entered is the Rated Current Ir. although the negative and zero sequence internal admittances are considered.1. 1. I1 U1 Isetp G1 B1 a) Positive Sequence Network Figure 1.3 depict theSequence equivalentNetwork positive.

negative and zero sequence are needed. For unsymmetrical faults. it behaves as a constant current source in the positive sequence network and as a constant admittance in the negative and zero sequence networks. In the Complete Short-Circuit calculation data of the internal conductance and susceptance for positive.3: Negative sequence AC current source model I0 U0 I0 = U0 × G0 + jU0 × B0 G0 (2) B0 I2 = U2 × G2 + jU2 × B2 (3) Equations 1 to 3 are used for unbalanced load flow calculations.G2 B2 c) Zero Sequence Network 3 Short-Circuit Analysis b) Negative Sequence Network I0 I1 U0 U1 G0 Isetp G1 B0 B1 c) a) Zero Sequence Network Positive Sequence Network Figure 1.2: Zero sequence AC current source model I2 U2 G2 B2 b) Negative Sequence Network Figure 1.Zero Sequence Network considers equation 3 Short-Circuit Analysis For VDE/IEC and ANSI Short-Circuit calculation there is no defined short-circuit contribution for AC Current Sources. The balanced option only c)1. The ElmIac behaves as a constant current source for symmetrical faults. AC Current Source (ElmIac) 4 .

deg/Hz) and the corresponding frequency dependent characteristic allows for the definition of an internal current according to equations (4) and (5). dφdf in p.2. Unbalanced and according to IEC61000 representation as shown in Figure 4. 5 Frequency Sweep In the frequency sweep calculation the internal current of the current source is set to 0 A and 0 deg (open-circuit). for more information regarding how to define a spectrum refer to User’s Manual ”Definition of Harmonic Injections”.1 shows how to define the harmonic currents injection.1: Harmonic Current Definition For the Harmonic Current Definition. Figure 4.5 4 Frequency Sweep Harmonic Load Flow The AC current source can be used to define harmonic current injections into the network. The parameter ”Spectral Density of the Current Magnitude/Angle” (didf./Hz. Figure 4. the selected type can be chosen between Balanced.u. The harmonic current can be referred to either the fundamental or rated current. AC Current Source (ElmIac) 5 . To define the harmonics it is possible to select a spectrum which contains the harmonic currents.

AC Current Source (ElmIac) 6 . A common application is the analysis of the transfer function of a part of the system or the propagation of a current impulse in frequency domain. The angle ∆φIi accounts for the angle deviation between the current and the system reference voltage angle.char (ωh ) − ∆φIi (5) ∆φIi = φIi − φIref (6) where and didf and dφdf are constant input parameters used to scale the frequency characteristics ichar and φI. The characteristics can be either polynomial (using the PowerFactory ChaPol object) or a vectorial characteristic (using the ChaVec object) with a frequency scale (using the TriFreq object).5 Frequency Sweep Figure 4. To do this the amplitude and phase of the spectrum current can be defined and using the frequency sweep function.2: Harmonic Current Definition Type ii (ωh ) = didf · ichar (ωh ) (4) φIi (ωh ) = dφdf · φI. the voltage at the remote end can be calculated.char in (4).

I0) and G2 B2 frequencyc)(f0.1: RMS and i0 EMT AC current source model. phii is calculated internally by PowerFactory and can change if the network conditions change. B and C components using the signals: I A. G0 isetpB0 b) Negative Sequence Network i = i0 cos(2πf 0t + phiiI+ dphii) + j sin(2πf 0t + phii + dphii) I0 (7) 1 I1 U 0 U1 U1 Also is possible independently control magnitude and phase for A. I2 I2 U2 U2 The current source gives an injection with current phase angle defined as follows: G2 B2 AC Current Source (ElmIac) b) Negative Sequence Network G2 B2 7 . phii C and dphii. For RMS and EMT simulations there is the option for balanced and unbalanced models as shown in Figure 6.1 RSM isetp Simulation I2 U2 G0 B0 For RMS simulation the user has the option to control the current source in two different ways depending of which signals from defined in Table B. The power factor set point defines the steady state initial value of dphii. input are connected together with the additional angle magnitude. b) Negative Sequence Network i1 isetp G1 B1 isetp G1 i0 i1 u1 u0 u1 isetp B1 G0 B0 Positive sequence (b) ZeroNetwork sequence a) Positive(a) Sequence Network c) Zero Sequence a) Positive Sequence Network i2 i2 u2 isetp G2 B2 isetp G2 u2 I1 B2 Isetp b) Negative Sequence Network (c) Negative sequence b) Negative Sequence Network U1 G1 B1 Figure 6.1 are used. I C.isetp G1 B1 a) Positive Sequence Network 6 Dynamic Simulation i2 u2 6 Dynamic Simulation isetp G2 B2 For the RMS/EMT simulation we can independently control the phases A. fref is automatically set and should not be connected. Transformation to worksGwith dq0 for phase A can be configured with Isetp G1 TheBangle 1 the input parameter dphii and the internal reference phii. both in rad.1. Please note that this is not the case of the LDF calculations. i0 u0 a) Positive Sequence u0 Network 6. The derivative of phii is being changed if there is a Zero Sequence Network Positive Sequence Network the derivative ofc) frequencya)change: f0 is connected. B and C. f0 is not a) Positive Sequence Network connected. phii is set to 2 ∗ P I ∗ f ∗ (f 0 − f ref ). The resulting output current is defined by equation 7. the derivative of phii is set to 2 ∗ P I ∗ F 0Hz − 2 ∗ P I ∗ f ∗ f ref . phase ZeroF0Hz) Sequence Network c) Zero Sequence Network and frequency of the AC current source are controlled. PowerFactory internally applies the Park G0 B0 Isetp 1 B1 components. phii B. When the current (i0. I B.

2 ϕB = ϕA − 120◦ (11) ϕC = ϕA + 120◦ (12) EMT Simulation In EMT studies positive. 6. the user can use a Fourier source ElmFsrc to inject harmonic currents during an EMT simulation. F0Hz are connected the current injection is the same as defined by equation 7 but there is also a negative sequence current defined by the differential equation 13.2 could be used to control the current injection into a system. i0 (t) = G0 u0 (t) + B0 ∂ u0 (t) 2πf ∂t (13) When magnitude and phase signals are connected the model is defined as in RMS simulation.3 are considered. The use of input and output signals from the dynamic model shown in Figure 6.6 Dynamic Simulation ϕA = phii + dphii (8) Angles of phase B and C are relative to the angle of phase A. For more information please refer to Fourier Source Technical Reference. AC Current Source (ElmIac) 8 . negative and zero sequence models shown in Figures 1.1 to 1. With the help of a composite model. f0. ϕB = ϕA + phii B (9) ϕC = ϕA + phii C (10) If the two angle signals phii B and phii C are not connected. I0. the program will use a default 120◦ shift to calculate the two angles. And as for RMS simulation it is possible to control the source in two different ways. This is useful to model a current impulse source or to define a lightning current standard model. When inputs i0.

2: Input/Output Definition of AC Current Source (RMS-Simulation) xspeed Simulation I_C i0 phii_B I0 phii_C f0 dphii F0Hz fref I_A EMT Simulation I_B I_C dphii i0 I0 f0 F0Hz I_A EMT Simulation I_B I_C dphii Figure 6.6 Dynamic Simulation i0 I0 f0 F0Hz I_A I_B I_C RMS Simulation xspeed phii_B phii_C i0 I0 dphii f0 fref F0Hz I_A I_B RMS Figure 6.3: Input/Output Definition of AC Current Source (EMT-Simulation) AC Current Source (ElmIac) 9 .

EMT RMS. Angle.B A Signal Definitions Parameter Definitions Table A.u.u. EMT RMS. IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN OUT RMS.1: Parameters of AC Current Source B Parameter Description Unit loc name outserv chr name for name bus1 bus1 bar cpZone cpArea Ir isetp cosini i cap G1 B1 G2 B2 G0 B0 dcurdf fchardcur dphidf fchardphi phmc icurref iAstabint cTypHmc Inom Name Out of Service Characteristic Name Foreign Key Terminal (StaCubic) Terminal Zone Area Rated Current Positive Sequence Current Setpoint Positive Sequence Power Factor Positive Sequence Reactive Power Positive Sequence Internal Conductance Positive Sequence Internal Susceptance Negative Sequence Internal Conductance Negative Sequence Internal Susceptance Zero Sequence Internal Conductance Zero Sequence Internal Susceptance Spectral Density of Current Magnitude Frequency Dependency Spectral Density of Current Angle Frequency Dependency Harmonic Current Injections Harmonic Current Injections Referred to A-stable integration algorithm Harmonic Current Injections: Type of Harmonic Sources Harmonic Current Injections: Rated Current A p.u. EMT RMS.u. Phase c Additional Angle Reference Frequency Frequency p. kA p. Magnitude Current. Phase b Current.1: Input/Output signals Name Description Unit Type Model i0 I0 f0 F0Hz IA IB IC phii B phii C dphii fref xspeed Current-Input Current-Input Frequency-Input Frequency-Input Current. S S S S S S p. EMT RMS.u./Hz A deg/Hz Signal Definitions Table B. EMT RMS. Magnitude Current.u. EMT RMS RMS AC Current Source (ElmIac) 10 . EMT RMS RMS RMS. Angle. p. Magnitude Current. Hz kA kA kA deg deg rad p. EMT RMS.

. . 9 AC Current Source (ElmIac) 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. . . . . . . . .1 Positive sequence AC current source model .2 Harmonic Current Definition Type . . .3 Input/Output Definition of AC Current Source (EMT-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . .List of Figures List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6. . . . . . . . . .2 Zero sequence AC current source model . . . . .2 Input/Output Definition of AC Current Source (RMS-Simulation) . .1 Harmonic Current Definition . .1 RMS and EMT AC current source model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Negative sequence AC current source model . . . . . . . . 7 6. . . . . 3 1. . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 AC Current Source (ElmIac) 12 . . . .1 Input/Output signals . . 10 B. . . .List of Tables List of Tables A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters of AC Current Source . . .

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