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Technical Reference Documentation

Battery

ElmBattery

de Version: 15. copied. by any means electronic or mechanical.digsilent.2 Edition: 1 Copyright © 2014. without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH. DIgSILENT GmbH.Gomaringen Germany T: +49 7072 9168 0 F: +49 7072 9168 88 http://www. Battery (ElmBattery) 1 . No part of this document may be reproduced. or transmitted in any form.de info@digsilent. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.DIgSILENT GmbH Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9 72810 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Slack Assignment . . .1 IEC 61660 . . .3 Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Model Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 EMT-Simulation 8 6 Harmonics/Power Quality 8 7 Optimal Power Flow 8 List of Figures 9 List of Tables 10 Battery (ElmBattery) 2 . . .Contents Contents 1 General Description 3 2 Load-Flow Analysis 3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DC Short Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AC Load Flow . . . . . 3 2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 4 3 Short Circuit Analysis 4 3. . . . 8 4. . . . . . .2 Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . 4 2. . 6 4 RMS-Simulation 7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Signals . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 ANSI/IEEE 946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ri Ui Li IDC = UDC Figure 1. • Ri is the internal resistance in [Ohm]. • uset is the voltage setpoint in [p. therefore only the internal resistance Ri is considered. • Unom is the nominal voltage of the battery in [kV ].2 Load-Flow Analysis 1 General Description The Battery element is based on the model of a DC voltage source element (ElmDcu). Battery (ElmBattery) 3 . • UDC is the DC voltage in [kV ]. Figure 1.1 Model Equations For AC balanced and unbalanced Load Flow Analysis the internal inductance Li of the battery model is ignored.1 depicts the equivalent circuit of the model composed of an ideal DC voltage source and an output impedance. 2.1. The Battery element can be connected to DC terminals only (Phase technology: DC). The internal voltage is kept constant as described in the equations below: Ui = Unom · uset (1) UDC = Ui − IDC · Ri (2) where: • Ui is the internal voltage in [kV ].u.1: DIgSILENT Battery Model 2 Load-Flow Analysis In Load-Flow Analysis the Battery element supports AC balanced and unbalanced calculations. The model is not considered for DC Load Flow calculations.].1 AC Load Flow 2. • IDC is the DC current in [kA].

3.1.1: Calculation parameters (AC Load Flow) Variable U nom uset ri iRef Element Unit kV p.2 Slack Assignment The priority for the automatic slack assignment algorithm is dependent on the nominal voltage and the corresponding voltage setpoint: P rio = 1015 · Unom · uset 2.1 DC Short Circuit The DC short-circuit calculation considers the battery as a DC source which contributes to the total fault current. From the aspects of the international standards it is being described in the IEC 61660 and in the ANSI/IEEE 946.u. For the DC short-circuit calculation the nominal voltage can be entered in an alternative manner: Unom = cellnum · cellvol The internal resistance is defined as below: Ri = cellnum · cellres The internal inductance is defined as below: Li = cellnum · cellind where: Battery (ElmBattery) 4 . 3 Short Circuit Analysis The battery model is considered only for DC short-circuit calculation. Description Nominal Voltage Voltage Setpoint Internal Resistance Reference Element Symbol Unom uset ri where ri in p. p.3 Short Circuit Analysis 2.1.u.u. is defined as shown below: ri = Ri · 1 U n2 and U n is the rated voltage in [kV ] of the corresponding connected terminal. The parameter iRef Element is set to 1 if the battery is marked as “Slack” for the DC system.3 Calculation Parameters The following calculation parameters are available for Load Flow Analysis: Table 2.

EB is set to: • for IEC 61660 method to EB = fB · Unom • for ANSI 946\IEEE method to EB = Unom 3.3 Short Circuit Analysis • cellnum is the number of cells. 1 = δ RBBr LBBr 2 + 1 TB (4) 1 δ and are shown on the (5) Figure 3. The battery time constant is taken as fixed TB = 30 ms. The operational voltage depends on the DC short-circuit standard chosen.1. • cellvol is the cell nominal voltage in [kV ]. • cellind is the inductance per cell in [mH]. The decay-time constant is τ2B = 100 ms. 3.1 shows the time constants as provided in the Figure 10. IkB = 0. • cellres is the resistance per cell in [Ohm].1 · RB (3) The peak short-circuit current is calculated as in equation (4). of the IEC 61660:1997 standard.95 · EB RBBr + 0. then a default value is calculated as shown in equation (6). RB = EB 100 · I8hrs (6) The maximum short-circuit current and the quasi steady-state current are described in equation (7).2 ANSI/IEEE 946 If the internal resistance is set to 0. ipB = EB RBBr The time to peak tpB and the rise-time constant τ1B depend on the Figurefig:fig10. Battery (ElmBattery) 5 .1.1 IEC 61660 The quasi steady-state short-circuit current is calculated using equation (3) and is usually taken as the current one second after the fault has occurred.

3 Short Circuit Analysis Figure 3. RR = EB LBBr (8) The battery time constant is calculated based on equation (9).1.3 LBBr RBBr (9) Calculation Parameters The following calculation parameters are available: Battery (ElmBattery) 6 . TB = 3.1: Time to peak tpB and rise-time constant τ2B IkB = ipB = EB RBBr (7) The initial rate of rise of the short-circuit current is described in equation (8).

u. • Li is the internal inductance in [H].4 RMS-Simulation Table 3. • dIDC /dt is the derivative of the DC current in [kA/s]. • IDC is the DC current in [kA]. • Ri is the internal resistance in [Ohm]. • UDC is the DC voltage in [kV ].1: Calculation parameters (DC Short Circuit) Variable Unom EB RB LB RBBr LBBr δ TB tpB τ1B τ2B fB ipB IkB RR Unit kV kV Ohm mH Ohm mH 1/s s ms ms ms Description Operational System Voltage Operational Battery Voltage Battery Resistance Battery Inductance Branch Resistance (up to the fault location) Branch Inductance (up to the fault location) Decay coefficient (for IEC 61660) Battery time-constant Time to peak (for IEC 61660) Rise-time constant (for IEC 61660) Decay-time constant (for IEC 61660) Battery voltage coefficient (for IEC 61660) Peak short-circuit current Quasi steady-state short-circuit current Rate of rise (for ANSI/IEEE) kA kA kA/s RBBr is the internal battery resistance added to the resistance of the line to the fault location. RBBr = RB + RBr (10) LBBr is the internal battery inductance added to the inductance of the line to the fault location.1 Model Equations The internal voltage Ui is kept constant as in the equations below: Ui = Unom · uset UDC = Ui − IDC · Ri − (12) dIDC · Li dt (13) where: • Ui is the internal voltage in [kV ].]. • Unom is the nominal voltage of the battery in [kV ]. LBBr = LB + LBr 4 (11) RMS-Simulation 4. • uset is the voltage setpoint input signal in [p. Battery (ElmBattery) 7 .

u.1: Calculation parameters Parameter U nom ri li Unit kV p. 6 Harmonics/Power Quality The Battery element is ignored for harmonic load flow and frequency sweep calculations. p.2 Calculation Parameters The following calculation parameters are available: Table 4.3 Signals The following signals are available: Table 4. Battery (ElmBattery) 8 . 4.u. Description Nominal Voltage Internal Resistance Internal Inductance where ri and li in p.u.u. are defined as follows: ri = Ri · li = 1 U n2 Li 1 · 1000 U n2 and U n represents the rated voltage in [kV ] of the corresponding connected terminal. 7 Optimal Power Flow The model equations described in Section 2 apply for Optimal Power Flow.2: ElmBattery Signals Parameter usetp 5 Unit p. IN/OUT IN Description Voltage Setpoint EMT-Simulation For EMT-Simulation the same model is used as in Section 4.7 Optimal Power Flow 4.

. . .List of Figures List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . .1 DIgSILENT Battery Model . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Battery (ElmBattery) 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Time to peak tpB and rise-time constant τ2B . . .

. .2 ElmBattery Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Calculation parameters (DC Short Circuit) . . . 4 3. . . . . . . . . 7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Calculation parameters . . . . . . . . .List of Tables List of Tables 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Battery (ElmBattery) 10 .1 Calculation parameters (AC Load Flow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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