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Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367

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Food Hydrocolloids
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Interfacial and emulsifying properties of sucrose ester in coconut milk emulsions
in comparison with Tween
Suwimon Ariyaprakai a, *, Tanachote Limpachoti a, Pasawadee Pradipasena b

Department of Food Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology, Assumption University, Ram Khamhaeng Rd. Soi 24, Hua Mak Campus, Bangkok 10240, Thailand
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 2 January 2012
Accepted 6 June 2012

In this study, sucrose esters were presented as a promising alternative to petrochemically synthesized
Tweens for application in coconut milk emulsions. The interfacial and emulsifier properties of sucrose
ester (SE), mainly sucrose monostearate, had been investigated in comparison with Tween 60 (TW), an
ethoxylate surfactant. The interfacial tension measurement showed that SE had a slightly better ability to
lower the interfacial tension at coconut oilewater interface. These surfactants (0.25 wt%) were applied in
coconut milk emulsions with 5 wt% fat content. The effects of changes in pH, salt concentration, and
temperature on emulsion stability were analyzed from visual appearance, optical micrograph, droplet
charges, particle size distributions, and creaming index. Oil droplets in both SE and TW coconut milk
emulsions extensively flocculated at pH 4, or around the pI of the coconut proteins. Salt addition induced
flocculation in both emulsions. The pH and salt dependence indicated polyelectrolyte nature of proteins,
suggesting that the proteins on the surface of oil droplets were not completely displaced by either added
nonionic SE or TW. TW coconut milk emulsions appeared to be thermally unstable with some coalesced
oil drops after heating and some oil layers separated on top after freeze thawing. The change in
temperature had much lesser influence on stability of SE coconut milk emulsions and, especially, it was
found that SE emulsions were remarkably stable after the freeze thawing.
Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Sucrose esters, or sugar-based surfactants, are in current interest
because they are produced from natural resources such as sucrose
and vegetable oil. They are biodegradable and more biocompatible
when compared to other petrochemically synthesized surfactants.
Sucrose esters are non-toxic and safe for food and are approved as
a food additive under food regulations and laws in several countries
i.e. Japan, USA, and EC. It had been reported that sucrose esters have
excellent emulsifying properties and be able to apply in various food
products (Garti, 2001). Their wide range of hydrophilicelipophilic
balance (HLB), depending on degree of esterification of fatty acids
and sucrose, provides ultimate application of sucrose esters to each
product type.
Coconut milk is one of food emulsions that require additional
surfactants or emulsifiers to improve emulsion stability. Several recent
works have been carried out on physicochemical characterization of

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ66 2 300 4553x3796; fax: þ66 2 300 4553x3792.
E-mail address: (S. Ariyaprakai).
0268-005X/$ e see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

coconut milk employing other small molecule surfactants such as
Tweens and sodium dodecyl sulfate (Tangsuphoom & Coupland,
2009a,b), however, data on sucrose esters remain fewer. In those
studies, coconut milk emulsions after addition of surfactants were
reported to smaller in average droplet size, decrease in total surface
protein concentration, and change in droplet surface charges
(Tangsuphoom & Coupland, 2008b, 2009a).
This study aims to gain more understanding on the relationship
between interfacial properties and stability of coconut milk emulsions with addition of sucrose ester. We described the comparative
interfacial and emulsifier properties between sucrose ester (SE),
mainly sucrose monostearate, and Tween 60, or polyoxyethylene
sorbitan monostearate (TW). Their structures were displayed in
Fig. 1. The difference between the carbohydrate and ethoxylate
headgroups provided an interesting comparison. Their adsorption
behaviors at the coconut oil and aqueous interface were investigated by the interfacial tension measurement. The coconut milk
emulsions prepared with SE and with TW were processed at
different temperatures (121  C, 100  C and 20  C) and their
stability was investigated at different pH (2e8) and salt concentrations (0 and 20 mM CaCl2).

Emulsion samples were dropped and diluted in the test chamber that filled with distilled water in order to prevent multiple light scattering effects. Distilled water was used for emulsion preparation throughout experiment. sodium hydroxide. The fat contents of the obtained coconut milk were determined by using Rose-Gottlieb method (AOAC. YS2-H. hydrochloric acid. 2. Japan).4. Nikon Corporation. Germany) for 3 min at the speed of 11. The mixture was manually pressed and filtered through filter cloth to remove solid residues. Thailand) and Thai Vegetable Oil Public Company Limited (Nakhonpathom.4. Material and methods 2. Staunton..33 for water and 1.25 wt%. A few drops of emulsion were put on a glass slide and fully covered with a cover slid. Each reported z-potential was an average from five replicates. sucrose disterate 12e14 %. Coconut milk emulsion preparation Coconut milk was produced by adding distilled water to ground coconut meat at a weight ratio of 2:1. Droplet size measurement The particle size distributions of emulsions were measured by using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer (Mastersizer 2000. Chemical structures of (a) sucrose monosterate (SE) and (b) Tween 60 or ethoxylated sorbitan monostearate (TW). Each emulsion was further homogenized by using a high speed homogenizer (Ultra-turrax. sucrose alkylate 5e10% and other ash and moisture. 1. The microscope magnification of 100 was employed..4.3. The surfactant concentration of 0. Ground coconut meat was purchased locally. sodium azide (NaN3).1. USA). The SE solutions had to be preheated to 70  C due to its difficulty to dissolve in water. Thailand). Ryoto S1670 contained mainly of 50e53% sucrose monostearate with sucrose monopalmitate 18e20%. Sodium azide 0. 2. 2.200 rpm. the tube was left on a tube stand for 10 min. Taiwan) with a software (DinoCapture Software) installed on a computer. The size distributions of emulsions were obtained via a best fit using Mie theory. Coconut oil and soybean oil were supplied by Tropicana Oil (Nakhonpathom. d32 ¼ P P ni d4i = ni d3i . the solution was poured into a measurement vessel and coconut oil was overlaid on top of the aqueous layer.4.S.2. Tween 60 (Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate). 2. The direction and velocity of emulsion droplets that move in the applied electrical field were observed under a microscope and the charge or z-potential on emulsion droplets was calculated. Germany). Taipei.2. Interfacial tension measurement Coconut oilewater interfacial tensions were measured according to Du Nouy ring method at 25  C using a digital tensiometer (K10. Zeta-Meter. Japan) equipped with a microscope eyepiece camera (AM423 Dino-Eye USB. Optical microscopy The emulsion microstructure was examined by using a standard optical microscope (Alphaphot-2. z-potential measurement The electrical charges on emulsion droplets were determined by using a particle electrophoresis instrument (Zeta-Meter System 3. The extracted coconut milk was further diluted with either distilled water or surfactant aqueous solutions to a final fat content of 5 wt% and a final surfactant concentration of 0 or 0. and Oil Red O were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company (St. P P ni d3i = ni d2i . Ariyaprakai et al. MO. respectively. The refractive indices of 1. The particle sizes were reported as surface-volume average diameters. Worcestershire. sucrose dipalmitate 5e6%. After gently mixed by inversion. with a dualwavelength detection system. The emulsion sample after 1/100 dilution was put into an electrophoresis cell that had electrodes at both ends.4. calcium chloride (CaCl2). Measurement of emulsion properties 2. Inc. VA. Kruss Scientific. and volume-weighted average diameters. 2. Hamburg. 2. Malvern Instruments Ltd. The ring was cleaned with ethanol and distilled water and flamed with a Bunsen burner before each measurement. A series of SE and TW aqueous solutions at different concentrations were prepared and kept in plastic bottles prior measurements.02 wt% was added to prevent microbial growth. 2000). UK).1. The appearance of the emulsion sample was closely captured by a digital camera. Each measured point was an average from at least two replicates. 2.4. IKA Labortechnik. where di is the midpoint of the size interval i d43 ¼ and ni is the number of particles in that interval. Before each measurement. Louis. USA).15 for coconut oil were employed as optical properties of emulsions. AnMo Electronics Corporation.3.25 wt% was chosen because this concentration had been proven to provide sufficient stability to coconut milk emulsions (Tangsuphoom & Coupland.0þ. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 359 CH OH O O HO HO OH O O O O O O HO HC O OH HO O O O O O OH HO O O O O O OH O O O O O O O O Fig. The height . Materials Ryoto sucrose esters (S1670) were supplied by MitsubishiKagaku Foods Corporation (Tokyo. 2009a). Visual appearance and creaming index measurement The emulsion sample (10 g) was transferred into a standard test tube and tightly sealed with a cap.

The charges on the emulsion droplets were determined from z-potential measurement and the stability of emulsion was analyzed by z-potential measurement. Coconut oilewater interfacial tensions vs.360 S. and with addition of 0. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 of aqueous layer left after the emulsion droplets creamed to the top and the height of initial total sample in the tube were measured.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). The creaming index was determined from the percentage of the height of the aqueous layer over the height of the total sample. Noted that the normal pH of extracted coconut milk was w6 before the adjustment.5. For the salt experiment. 4. Emulsion thermal stability The emulsion samples (10 g each) were transferred into standard test tubes and kept in an autoclave at 121  C for 10 min. 2. . Coconut milk emulsion stability 2.1. Emulsion stability against pH and salt concentration The emulsion sample (10 g) was transferred into a standard test tube and adjusted to the specified pH values (2. 2. logarithm of concentration (log C) isotherms for (D) sucrose ester (SE) and (B) Tween 60 (TW). and 8) by using 0. (a) White creamy emulsion. 6.1 and 1 M HCl or 0. (c) Destabilized oil layer (free oil). with addition of 0.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after thermal treatments at different temperatures. Ariyaprakai et al. Fig.5. or in a freezer at 20  C Fig. CaCl2 salt was also added to a concentration of 20 mM.1 and 1 M NaOH.2.5. 2. or in a boiling water bath at 100  C for 20 min. and optical micrograph. 3. creaming index measurement. Visual appearance of phase separation of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). (b) Coagulated solid particles.

USA) at a wavelength of at 520 nm. & Qinghui. A series of coconut oil solutions were obtained by adding different amounts of coconut oil to the stock OilRed O solution. Pongsawatmanit. 2003. most likely due to this commercial SE also contained some proportion of diesters. with addition of 0. The absorbance of the solution series was measured by using an ultravioletevisible spectrophotometer (Spectronic Genesys 5. it approached a constant as surfactants started forming micellar aggregates. To determine amount of free oil in emulsions. Model PLC-012. Shufen. Rochester. 2 were approaching to 0. 2004). NY. Gemmy Industrial Corporation. the minimum interfacial tension for SE was too small to be measured precisely from our existing instrument. The gradually decrease in the measured interfacial tension was observed as surfactant concentrations increased. (b) Coalesced oil droplets. The employed Oil-Red O is colored oil that only dissolves in free oil but does not dissolve in emulsified oil droplets. The stability of emulsion was analyzed from droplet size measurement. Fig. Milton Roy company. Our results agreed with the reported CAC value of 0. and with addition of 0. the emulsion sample (35 g) was added with 3 g of the stock Oil-Red O solution. The colored oil on the upper layer was transferred by a micro-pipette into a plastic cuvette and measured its absorbance. (a) Extensively coalesced oil drops. 2 is the plot between the measured interfacial tensions of SE and TW aqueous solutions at various concentrations.5 mN/m (Soultani. Ognier.0015 wt% Oil-Red O in soybean oil was initially prepared. 2003). Taipei. 2004b).1. SE tended to have a slightly better ability than TW in reducing the oilewater interfacial tension.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after thermal treatments at different temperatures.S. Optical micrographs of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). freeze thaw stability of emulsions was assessed by measuring amount of free oil (destabilized oil) after three freezethaw cycles (each cycle: 20  C for 22 h and 30  C for 2 h) using the principle of dye dilution method (Palanuwech. After the interfacial tensions reduced to a minimum value. Engasser. Thanasukarn. and centrifuged at the speed of 5500 rpm for 5 min (Universal centrifuge.05 wt% for SE and around 0. After removal from each storage conditions. & Coupland. . the emulsions were stored to reach room temperature prior further analysis. vortexed for 30 s. The critical aggregation concentrations (CAC) at those minimum interfacial tensions in Fig. The plot between the measured absorbance and the coconut oil concentrations was used as a calibration curve. Coconut oilewater interfacial behavior The basic information about the interfacial properties of SE and TW at coconut oilewater interface was obtained from the interfacial tension measurement.05 wt% SE at the liquid paraffinewater interface (Yanke. The minimum interfacial tensions for SE and TW were <2 mN/m and 8 mN/m. Unfortunately. & Ghoul. (c) Coagulated solid particles. Potineni. Jinzong. In addition. Taiwan). and optical micrograph. The lower value of CAC indicated more hydrophobicity of SE. A stock solution of 0.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). Roberts. It had reported that the lowest interfacial tension of SE at the rapeseed oilewater interface was 1. Results and discussion 3. Fig. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 for 14 h. 4. respectively. The measured absorbance was converted to weight percent of free oil by using the prepared calibration curve. Ariyaprakai et al. & McClements. 361 3. visual appearance.11 wt % for TW.

/ Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 a b c d e Fig.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE). and with addition of 0.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after thermal treatments at different temperatures. . (b) At 121  C for 10 min. Particle size distributions of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). (c) At 100  C for 20 min. Ariyaprakai et al.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). (d) At 20  C for 14 h. (e) All thermal treatment results for coconut milk emulsions with addition of 0. (a) At room temperature.362 S. 5. with addition of 0. The arrows indicate extra peaks from coagulated solid particles.

From the optical micrographs. 7.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW).175 0.327 114.996 3. 4) confirmed that the particle sizes of coconut milk emulsions containing SE or TW were smaller than Control coconut milk. optical micrographs (Fig.228 3. (b) After pH adjustment and addition of 20 mM CaCl2 salt.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after 1.891 58. & Siriwattanayothin.3 (mm) 25.746 7. Fig. and SE coconut milk. Percentage of destabilized oil (free oil) in coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control).2 and d4.710 11.155 1. three coconut milk emulsions (Fig. 2006.967 7.275 29. (B) with addition of 0.222 5. (a) After only pH adjustment.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW).336 3. 4). Stability of coconut milk emulsions after heating Further investigation was assessing thermal stability of coconut milk emulsions by heating the emulsions at 121  C for 10 min. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 363 Table 1 The average particle sizes (d3.441 0.2 (mm) 0. The presence of such solid aggregates had also been reported in other studies (Chiewchan.284 23.2. 5. Even though SE had a better ability than TW in reducing the interfacial tension between coconut oil and water interface. The results from the optical micrographs (Fig.533     SE coconut milk d4.S. Fig.1.2. Emulsion droplet charge (or z-potential) of () coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control).25 wt% sucrose ester (SE). .264 0.541 0.326 0.3 (mm) 1.103 7. 4) and as an extra population on the right to the size distribution of emulsion population (arrows in Fig.698 0. Tangsuphoom & Coupland. 6. appeared as white creamy emulsions. 2 and 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Phungamngoen.057 16.272     5.2 (mm) d3.285     d4. 5b).467 8. and (D) with addition of 0. The bulky headgroup of TW seemed to effectively provide steric barriers that prevented droplet flocculation in TW emulsions. TW coconut milk. Emulsion thermal stability 3.366 Means  standard deviation of at least two replicates.894 0.8 microns.3 (mm) 0.2.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after thermal treatments at different temperatures.858     0.624 6.535 12.274 8.2 (mm) 28  C (Room temp.344 42. 3).964 33. 3 shows that all three types of emulsions: Control coconut milk (without addition of any surfactant).25 wt% Tween 60 (TW).522 16.702     d3. 2009b). More droplet flocculation in SE emulsions was suggested to be the reason of SE emulsions having larger average size than TW emulsions.3) of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control).839 0. Thermal treatments Control coconut milk TW coconut milk Temperature Holding time d3. respectively (Table 1). and with addition of 0. Coconut milk emulsions at room temperature Coconut milk emulsions were prepared with and without addition of SE or TW and kept at room temperature (w28  C) before determining their characteristics from visual appearance (Fig.078 25.001 22. After the heating.155 72.800 8. Those particles were denatured proteins which were detected as solid substance in the optical micrographs (arrows in Fig.5 microns. this was not enough to observe its effect on emulsion droplet size. with addition of 0. and particle size measurements (Fig.2.112 13. the coagulated white solid particles were observed in all Control coconut milk TW coconut milk SE coconut milk b % Destabilized oil (free oil) 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 Number of freeze-thaw cycles Fig. Their average sizes (d3.482 5.340 7. with addition of 0. Ariyaprakai et al.600 5.0 microns. and 8.298 0.866 1.628     1.266 d4. some large coalesced oil drops were observed in Control coconut milk that were significantly larger than oil droplets in a 3.785 125.2) were 10. 5a and Table 1). and with addition of 0. 3. 3).) 121  C 100  C 20  C e 10 min 20 min 14 h 10.

25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). We found that SE stabilized emulsions seemed to be more heat stable than TW emulsions as the average sizes of SE emulsions (d3.or volume-weighted average diameter. Noted that we chose the surface-volume average diameter (d3. and after being thawed at room temperature. This was accompanied by the results from the optical micrographs (Fig.2. suggesting that the degree of protein denaturation was lesser at this lower temperature (100  C). Table 1 shows that the average particle size (d3. and with addition of 0. 4) showing that SE and TW emulsions still appeared as small oil droplets but Control coconut milks became large coalesced oil drops. the average particle size of SE emulsion was still around 8e9 microns showing no significantly change (Table 1 and Fig.2) instead of d4.0 to 22.5 to 12. was calculated from volume distribution and more representing the average size of larger particles (with more volume) which could be the size of flocculated droplets or solid aggregates.3.3. 8. No coagulated solid particles floated in TW or SE emulsions as observed in TW and SE coconut milk at 121  C (Fig.2) of Control coconut milk increased from 10. We observed large coalesced oil drops in Control coconut milk after heated at 121  C or 100  C as oil droplets that come in close proximity undergo extensively coalesce. D4.3).2 was based on area distribution and better representing the average size of smaller particles (with more surface area) which supposed to be emulsion droplets in this case. Optical micrographs of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). their Fig. after coconut milk emulsions were kept at the temperature of 100  C for 20 min. Lesser degrees of droplet coalescence in SE and TW emulsions when compared with Control coconut milk indicated that heating stability of coconut milk enhanced by addition of SE or TW.364 S. Coconut proteins.2) and TW coconut milk increased from 5. 3). but SE emulsions remained the same average size of 8e9 microns (Table 1 and Fig.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after pH adjustment (a) Extensive flocculation. D3. 5e). .2) did not significantly alter after the heating at both temperatures (Table 1 and Fig. 5e).3. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 either SE and TW emulsions (Fig. 4). the average sizes of Control coconut milk emulsions increased by a factor of 1. The properties of SE had been reported to be lesser sensitive to temperature variation when compared to other nonionic surfactants with oxyethylene groups (Stubenrauch.6 and the size of TW emulsions slightly increased by a factor of 1. However. a natural coconut milk emulsifier. 3. when denatured by heat lose their ability to stabilize emulsion droplets. Stability of coconut milk emulsions after freeze thawing Coconut milk emulsions were kept at freezing temperature of 20  C for 14 h. (b) Some flocculation.7 microns (or by a factor of 2.3 to analyze our results of multi-modal distributions here. Similarly. Ariyaprakai et al. 5c and e). with addition of 0. 2001).1 microns (or by a factor of 2.

Thanasukarn. the electrostatic repulsion provided by coconut proteins was sufficient to prevent aggregation of droplets and no creaming was observed. . Docking. and n-alkanes emulsions prepared from SDS and Tween 20 (Cramp. The optical micrographs in Fig. & McClements. 2008). 5d) and average sizes (d3. 2005. 6 clearly demonstrated that the amounts of destabilized oil coming out from SE emulsions after each freezing cycle were much lesser than from Control and TW emulsions. Fig. 10 show that salt addition induced droplet flocculation at pH of 6 and 8.. (B) with addition of 0. almost no destabilized oil was detected in SE emulsions. the results should be accurate enough for comparing relative amounts of oil coming out from each emulsion. 7a). some oil layers were accumulated on top of Control and TW coconut milk emulsions. the charges on droplets were still dominant and sensitive to the pH condition since nonionic surfactants would provide steric stability and remove electrostatic effect of proteins. 9. The highest creaming rate was accompanied by the highest flocculation shown in the micrographs at pH 4 in both emulsions (Fig. but in a sharp contrast. The z-potential of SE and TW emulsions decreased from a positively charge at pH 2 to a negatively charge at pH 8 with a net zero charge at pH close to 4 (Fig. SE and TW emulsions only creamed at pH 4 with the creaming index after ten-minute storage of 8% for SE emulsions and of 50% for TW emulsions (Fig. numbers of freeze-thaw cycles were increased up to three and the amounts of destabilized oils were determined after each cycle. Several researchers aim to understand the destabilization mechanism in order to improve freeze-thaw stability of emulsions (Cramp et al. 2003) might not be very precise to quantify amounts of oil. We suspected that our SE coconut milk contained some unfrozen water and this was the reason that SE coconut milk emulsions were still stable after the freeze thawing. 10). coconut milks prepared from Tween 20 (Tangsuphoom & Coupland.2) (Table 1) of Control and TW emulsions were significantly altered from their original emulsions at room temperature. 2004. Ghosh & Coupland. From the graph. Such unfrozen water protects other compounds dissolving in the aqueous phase from the freeze damage. 8) and after salt addition (Fig. 2009). This deviation should be reasoned that some oil droplets in emulsions were already coalesced and separated out as oil layers and those oil droplets were not detected during the size measurement. Vittayanont. The flocculation was obvious when comparing the micrograph before (Fig. 365 net charge gradually reduced to zero when pH approached to the value of 4. The unfrozen water in emulsions protects oil droplets from penetration of growing ice crystal that would disrupt the interfacial membrane and cause droplet coalescence. while 93% and 68% of destabilized oils were obtained from Control and TW emulsions. it is very interesting here to discover that emulsions prepared from SE were more freeze-thaw stable than TW emulsions. Cramp. We noticed that those emulsions that prepared from Tweens were prone to be unstable similarly to our TW result. 2009b). Sucrose has been known to have a cryo-protective property coming from sucrose ability to lower the freezing point of water. 2004). Creaming index after ten-minute storage of () coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). the percentage of destabilized oils in SE emulsions was three times lesser than in Control or TW emulsions. 7b) and 3. Srigam. Pongsawatmanit. 2004b. 2004).. 2008a). 8) and creamed rapidly with the creaming index of 42% after ten-minute storage (Fig. TW and SE emulsions. 2006). The much lower in creaming index of SE emulsions suggested that SE might also alter rheological property of emulsions and beneficial as a creaming stabilizer. 4) and its particle size distribution remained the same (Fig. and (D) with addition of 0. More investigation on the role of droplet charges was by addition of 20 mM CaCl2 salt. no oil layer was observed in SE coconut milk. Differently. After the third cycle. palm oil emulsions prepared from Tween 20 (Thanasukarn et al.. The particles size distributions (Fig. 2004a. Ghosh. 5e) with the average size w8 microns closed to its original size (Table 1). 4 show some coalesced oil droplets in the Control and TW samples. The result of pH effect for SE and TW coconut milk was relatively invariant to Control coconut milk. The presence of flocculated droplets had been attributed to ability of salt to screen charges of coconut proteins (Fig. 8). for example. the Control emulsion droplets became extensively flocculated (Fig. It was a little surprising that. At other pH values.3. & McClements. To ensure our results. If the proteins on emulsion droplets were completely displaced then the properties of the emulsion should be the same as the replacing surfactants (McClements.S. the Fig. corresponding to the PI of coconut protein reported in other literatures (Onsaard. SE emulsified droplets appeared the same as their originally prepared emulsions (Fig. Noted that even though this dye-dilution method (Palanuwech et al. From their visual appearance (Fig. Thanasukarn. Thus. Pongsawatmanit. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 characteristics were examined. Ariyaprakai et al. A number of studies have reported that the presence of sucrose increased freeze-thaw stability of emulsions (Ghosh. revealing good emulsion stability. respectively. Asakura. Emulsion stability against pH and salt concentrations The charge characteristics of coconut protein on oil droplets were investigated by exposing emulsions to different pH conditions. 7a shows that the z-potential of Control coconut milk droplets changed from a positively charge of þ16 mV to a negatively charge of 28 mV when increasing the pH from 2 to 8.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). We found that there was also a report about the presence of unfrozen water in the aqueous solution of sugar-based surfactant and its possible cryo-protective effect (Ogawa.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after adjustment to different pH conditions. & Coupland. After the first cycle. & Coupland. 2006). 9). & Osanai. Tangsuphoom & Coupland. similarly in Control.. 3). 2006. after addition of nonionic surfactants such as SE and TW. & McClements. The micrographs from Fig. Many other studies have shown that their emulsions also destabilized into oil layer after freeze thawing. Fig. When proteins lose their net charge at this pH. 9). Thanasukarn et al.

We postulated that SE or TW molecules stayed on oil droplet interface together with coconut protein stabilizing emulsions by both steric and electrostatic repulsion. & Carrera Sanchez. 10. Optical micrographs of coconut milk emulsions without addition of any surfactant (Control). Decker.25 wt% Tween 60 (TW). 2012) from the oilewater interface even at some high surfactant/protein ratios. and with addition of 0. & McClements. Conclusions This work clearly showed that sucrose ester (SE) exhibited interesting interfacial and emulsifying properties when compared with Tween 60 (TW). Gabriele. The interfacial characteristics are governed by structure and thickness of proteinesurfactant films. proteins on droplets of coconut milk emulsion were not completely displaced by the SE or TW content of 0.25 wt% sucrose ester (SE) after pH adjustment and addition of 20 mM CaCl2 salt. Especially. it was likely that the addition of SE or TW did not completely displace proteins on oil droplets to remove their electrostatic interaction. 2004). We noticed that the oil droplets did not flocculate after addition of salt at pH 2 where amino acids were mostly protonated and proteins had highly net positively charge. Lupi. Further investigation on interfacial behaviors when coconut proteins coexist with these surfactants is suggested. The stability and surface charge characteristics of coconut milk emulsions emulsified with 0. & de Cindio. The sensitivity to pH and salt confirmed the presence of proteins at interfacial droplets in SE and TW emulsions. with addition of 0.25 wt%. 4. / Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 358e367 Fig. & Vaslin. Some literature also evidenced that Tween 60 only partially displaced sodium caseinate (Dalgleish. Ariyaprakai et al. 2005). 2007). Rodriguez Nino. & Singh. in the present case. Baldino. The presence of either SE or TW had a distinct effect on the thermal characteristics of coconut milk emulsions: coconut milk emulsions emulsified with SE were more thermally stable than TW emulsions. and the proteinesurfactant interactions (Rodriguez Patino.366 S. the interfacial ratio of protein to surfactant. reduced electrostatic repulsion between oil droplets. A previous study showed that addition of sucrose ester decreased the interfacial tension and the interfacial elasticity of milk protein membrane in corresponding to the surfactant/protein ratio (Rouimi. Thus. Valentini.25 wt% of nonionic SE or TW strongly depended on pH and salt environments. (a) Extensive flocculation. It seemed that oil droplets were most repulsive at this low pH condition as also observed in emulsions stabilized by other protein (Kim. SE was slightly better in lowering the interfacial tension between coconut oil and water interface. 1995) and albumin (Seta. we found . Thus. Srinivasan. Schorsch.

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