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Question 2

Form the term of “constructivism”, it refers to the idea that learners construct or build up
their own understanding or knowledge individually. Thus, we can summarize that
Constructivism is focusing on student-centered learning style. Constructivism is an
educational theory and also a key perspective to inform pedagogy especially in science.
According to Brooks (1993), he mentioned that constructivism is a philosophy of
learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting our experiences, we construct our own
understanding of the world we live in. Based on his statement, we can explain that
learning is not just let teachers stand and lecture in front of the class to give students
some information but we can learn it through our experience or reflection on these
experiences from the reality.
There are few principles of constructivism approach that able to apply in teaching
science. These principles influence how the teachers teach the truth or think seriously
about their pedagogies. The first principle that always integrated in teaching and learning
science is “Learning is an active process”. According to Jean Piaget, who developed the
cognitive learning theory, he felt that children were active learners. They constructed the
new knowledge as they moved through different cognitive stages, building on what they
already knew. He brought out that knowledge is constructed from or shaped by
experience. For example, a child will get the meaning of the word “hot” when he touched
a hot kettle or boiling water. It is a process which emphasizes on problem solving and
understanding. Basically, in order to bring out this principle, we always use authentic
tasks, experiences, settings or assessments. For example, experimentation is one of the
activity that encouraged in constructivist approach in teaching science where the students
perform an experiment individually and come together as a group to discuss the results.
However, the content presented holistically and not separate into smaller parts. In a
classroom, teacher as an instructor will help to negotiate the goals and objectives with
learners. He will pose problems of emerging relevance to students. He also will
emphasize hands-on, real world experiences to seek and value students’ points of view.
Through the coaching, moderating or suggesting, teacher brings out new understandings
to students. Indirectly, he encourages and supports students’ initiative and autonomy.

Secondly, the principle states that the crucial action of constructing meaning is mental.
Through this principle we know that knowledge is built up through our mind. in reality,
students hardly remember what have learned or they will forget about 80% of the
information that they received after one day. Students begin to forget as soon as they stop
learning. It means that besides physical actions like hands on activities, visualizing or
listening, students hardly to “store” the knowledge in their memory. Therefore, Dewey
mentioned that reflective activity is needed to enhance a better learning. Students need
time to reflect on what they have discovered so that the knowledge will move from short
term memory to the long term memory, where it will stay forever. It requires attention,
organization, and repetition to build out their new knowledge. Students discuss the
experiences and reflect upon understandings. Various studies have provided evidence that
the most effective instruction in this area is explicit and reflective, and provide multiple
opportunities for students to work with key concepts in different contexts. After the
lesson, we take the time to reflect and revise. During the lesson, we pay attention to what
happens. There are few questions that lead the learner to do their own reflection. For
example, regarding forces and pressure, students need to think deeper on how to get
maximum pressure and what should we do in order to prevent our structure sink into the
ground. After answering these questions honestly, we revise. In other words, students will
remember the concept that they had learnt in a lesson when they do their own selfreflection.
Moreover, the principle of constructivism also stated that learning is a social activity. It
means that learners can engage to their learning through interaction with their friends.
According to Vygotsky, he stated that attention to the ways in which social environments
influence this learning process. He also proposed the idea that learning and development
take place in the interactions children have with peers as well as with teachers and other
adults. Teachers can guide children learn from each other by creating a learning
environment where there are ample opportunities for student-to-student discussion,
collaboration, and feedback. Strategies they can use to build learning communities to
enhance students learning process. For example, after teacher teaches about the concept
of inertia, teacher can pair up the students or put them in groups. The discussion should
be informal so that students can share their opinion or ideas freely about the positive and

fasting acidosis. Furthermore. there is a problem posted by Biology teacher to his students stated “Four hundred people at a rock concert collapsed or experienced faintness.negative effect of inertia in our daily life. one of the constructivism principles stated that learning involves language. In order to solve and discover the factors. orthostasis. Besides that. We need prior knowledge before create new knowledge. create and interpret meanings and to establish and . Through the discussion. with possibly as many as six different proximal causes”. reinforced. For instance. Therefore. They discover the new truth or principles through their own exploration rather than direct instruction from the teacher. He also mentioned that learning and development is a social and collaborative activity that cannot be “taught” to anyone. students must reflect on the biology prior knowledge on organ systems such as fasting hypoglycemia. so that students find themselves actually engaged in the problem and not just observers of it. The principle of constructivism stated that one needs knowledge to learn. Lev Vygotsky emphasizes the fluencies of cultural and social contexts in learning. Students work through a series of problems designed to approximate the real world. Osborne (1996) mentioned that learning physics that is more akin to the learning of a foreign language that it is to the learning of historical facts. learning is constructed. Most common teaching methodology in science is discovery learning or problem based learning where the learners draw on their past experience and previous knowledge to discover the facts and new knowledge to be learnt. This understanding of language sees a language not simply as a body of knowledge to be learnt but as a social practice in which to participate (Kramsch. 1994). Thus. and refined. Valsalva pressure from screaming and crowding and so on. hyperventilation-induced cerebral vasoconstriction. teachers as facilitator need to prepare or customize suitable lesson to help their students connect their prior knowledge. Jean Piaget believes that students learn through their experience and they adapt to the situations based on what they have previously learned from other situation. Students discuss and analyze problem using prior knowledge and resources available. Thus. language is needed in order to express. their learning is strengthened. Teachers will recognize that when students work collaboratively to assist one another and take on expert roles easily.

in the lab. As part of learning science.maintain social and interpersonal relationships. the greatest barrier to learning science is the language barrier. we need to go over the information. time is needed for students to observe and analysis their findings. We start to learn since we are born. it is important for students to explore their own views and develop an independent way of thinking. Teacher need to give time to students to accept and “digest” what they have received during the lesson. Through social interactions such as collaborative learning or cooperative learning. Learning is a long term investment in our lives and we could not expect that we achieve the result only in few minutes. Teacher need to lower the barrier by transmitting and interpreting the science knowledge through talking. and with the books. listening and sharing. In addition. We even cannot transform our body without time at the gym. at the computer. use poetry or prose to describe some scientific event. Students should communicate frequently with themselves and teacher. use them frequently even practice it and the process needs time. it involves investigations. and we also cannot transform our mind without spending time in classes. For instance. appropriate time must be given to students in formulating their own research questions. For examples. teacher must provide opportunities to practice the writing skills and social skills of communicating and collaborating. Babies take few months to learn how to crawl and sit. developing procedures to answer . ponder them. Learning takes time. Students need to learn to present the evidence in the style of a scientific paper. Students are not concrete and simplistic thinkers. if a teacher always uses Chinese language to do the explanation then students will understand in Chinese context or students even understand better if the explanation is done by using their mother language. For example. As an active learner. To do this. They need to do a lot of hands on activities in order to explore the phenomena of light and achieve their own understanding about how does the light refract when enter to different density medium. During the grouping activities. Teacher can explore different ways for students to present their written records of the investigation and observation and give them opportunity to show that they understand a scientific concept. in science. It also will help students to increase their language levels if teacher always use a high level of language to discuss with them. For example. it will increase a learner’s level of thinking in his learning process.

principles of constructivism also stated that motivation is a key component in learning. fun. Through motivation. accomplishment. people learn how to learn because they are learning. This principle brings the meaning that learning consists construct meaning and build a system of meaning. sustaining motivation to learn is strongly dependent on the learner’s confidence in his or her potential for learning. The learner is not a blank slate (tabula rasa) but it brings part experiences and cultural factors to a situation. Therefore. Thus. 2008). These feelings of competence and belief in potential to solve new problems are derived from first-hand experience of mastery of problems in the past and are much more powerful than any external acknowledgment and motivation (Prawat and Floden 1994). Everyone has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. Von Glasersfeld (1989) emphasized that learners is constructing their own understanding . For instance. relevance. relate the concept of projectile motion with the “ Angry Bird” game which most of the students enjoy playing this game. curiosity. According to Von Glasersfeld (1989). external rewards and other motivators facilitate ease of learning. and using evidence to reach their own conclusions. The new information or knowledge always linked to the prior knowledge.their research questions. achievement. more conducive environment to learning is created among the learners. Teachers should give a chance to the students to voice out their comment and ideas about the solution on the science problem. collecting and analyzing data. Motivation to do something can come about in many ways. Therefore a person will actively create their mental representations which are subjective. In addition. It can be a personality characteristic or a stable long-lasting interest in something. Teacher should encourage and engage their students with the environment and make the lesson relevant with their experience. learners will feel in control and more confident. The science young children must learn has to be rigorous enough to afford the students the opportunity to move forward in their understanding of key scientific concepts (Butler & Nesbit. Research findings show that teachers who are effective at supporting learners via the affective domain are also able to show improvements in student learning and academic achievement in science. Thus.

We learn and gain our new knowledge from our experience or social interaction. The social interdependence perspective has the assumption that the way social interdependence is structured determines how individuals interact. At the same time that students become more aware of and take more responsibility for their own thinking. For example. Sense-making discussions promote children’s awareness of the learning and concept development and facilitate the restructuring of alternative ideas into scientific mental models. this is seldom done in isolation. This. allow students to make connections between what they already know and what they are learning. determines what is accomplished by the group (Johnson & Johnson. 1995). in turn. Learners are motivated to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members. However. Each meaning that we construct will makes us able to give better meaning to other sensations that can be loaded in the same pattern. Meaningful science activities. they increase their understanding and appreciation of other people’s thinking. our prejudices and our fears. As a learner. . We do not isolate facts from the situations and environments in which they are relevant. which are relevant to students’ daily lives. 1986. It became clear as this is a consequence of the idea that learning is active and social. Driver. citizens.and that they do not simply mirror and reflect what they read. and workers. Intrinsic motivation is generated by interpersonal factors and joint aspirations. Each person constructs his or her own mental frameworks and conceptions using preferred learning styles. It means that we are learning about what else we know. we can learn the function of baking soda when we use it not only for baking cake but also use it to clean the dirty stain of the tiles. we focus on learning the standard values. if we learn to identify lags in the timetable in mathematics. 1995. For example. As a conclusion. Learning is also contextual. what we believe. 1994). We cannot avoid the learning of daily life. all the principles of constructivism are related with each other. we will learn the meaning of the timetable at the same time. von Glasersfeld. and the knowledge of the society by raising questions and accepting challenges to find out the solutions. Language passing back and forth between individuals in written and oral forms is viewed as indispensable for the development of understanding (Belenky et al.

Sandoval & Morrison. 2003. Dogan & Abd-El. arrangements and classroom experiences on nature of science understandings of students. Science is a way of knowing. What is nature of science? It is important to clarify what it is about the nature of science that we want our students to understand. This goal is in line with the national education to produce students who are creative and innovative. 2006. there are few misconceptions occurred among the teachers and students which caused them unable to possess the nature of science well. and psychology of science affect science teaching and learning. Thus. and Almazroa (1998).QUESTION 3: Science is a tool that brings human to know more about the world. Walker. the teacher’s understanding on nature of science is directly affects students’ mindset. 2003. However. 1997. Their conclusions are changeable. transform the world and also to meet their needs. Unfortunately. Blanco & Niaz. Nature of science is not so much defined by a concise statement. Tsai. Thye & Kwen. The idea or science concepts are unchangeable from the time to time. Nature of science as a school subject is not understood well enough by students. They also thought that with a depth of understanding on the nature of science. 2006. McComas. People have ideas about science based on personal experiences. in reality scientists develop their ideas based on evidence and they change their ideas when new evidence becomes available. sociology. Sackett and Simpsons (1999). Clough. One of the main misconceptions is all the science knowledge that we learn now is a fact. popular media and peer culture. the teaching of science associated with knowledge of the philosophy of science and current developments is able to attract students to do science subjects. Many of these ideas are commonly held misconceptions or myths about the nature of science. teachers and teacher educators (Irez. Dagher & Boujaoude. but rather defined more by its components. the nature of science is that the philosophy. According to Zeidler. 2005. students were able to give their views on issues that are struggling with moral dilemmas and ethics in science perspective.Khalick. According to McComas. 2003. and there are values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman 1998). history. previous education. Teachers as a curriculum implementer in the classroom play important role for policy. In . 2008).

Indirectly. science teachers should give students an opportunity to reflect. they will think that mass is energy. Some of them do not dare to students’ to solve the doubt about science concepts that they learn in the classroom. Mohamad Azmi (2001) reported that science teachers still have misconceptions about science in alternative frameworks such as those held by pupils are taught. There are few studies stated that many teachers teaching of science in schools. Teacher should dare to take it as challenge in order to build up the science content. For example. students develop similar positivist perspectives about science and learning. In fact. In their teaching belief. lack of experience in teaching also cause them just follow whatever in the textbook without finding out or update the current They even lack of confidence due to poor science knowledge. 1999). Students will confuse about these two principle. As a consequence of such beliefs and practices held by teachers. However. they behave as information providers. This is because they have a myth that science ideas are unchangeable. because of the examination oriented system. it also makes students’ ideas very “schema”. mostly hold a naïve and inadequate science philosophy (naïve epistemology). This kind of actions causes students feel that science is very dull as need to memorize a lot of the facts. Most of the time. when teacher posts a question that what kind of liquid which will cause the object float. For example. Einstein pointed out that there is a type of energy that causes inertia to occur. do not get adequate training in the field of science (Lay. Although teacher as facilitator in the classroom but quite a number of science teachers do not have a deep understanding of science content. Newton was well known with his laws of motion such as inertia is affected mass. Students adopt rote learning that leads them to memorization and meaningless learning. When this kind of situation happened. In addition. questioning and guide them to think deeply about this two principle in order to develop the students’ understanding and do not stop them to question and force them to accept them as the facts. many teachers ignore the importance of the science process skills which need to be integrated among the students. most of the students will give “salt water” as their answer. Although some ideas of science are well established and reliable and supported by . not only salt will causes the water become denser but sugar or different dissolvable impurities too.

method. drawing conclusions and reporting results. testing the hypothesis. but these ideas may be will replaced or reinterpreted by new evidence. Scientific knowledge is tentative which means that science knowledge is durable and it will change from time to time. A teacher needs to master all the science . Many science teachers begin activities by introducing this procedure as the single scientific method in their instruction (Gallagher.accumulated evidence which are hardly been replaced. 1991). making observations. science teachers thought that there is a universal scientific method. This may have relationship with the level of conception of science and science process skills among teachers and confidence to deliver and apply them in their learning process. Teacher need to prepare themselves well with the new information as scientific theories can change. regarding Einstein’s principle about relativity. students used to get idea about the solar system through teacher but recently scientists have just decided that there will be tenth planet. they keep on repeating doing same research. since they cannot do a classical experiment since cannot control the environment. ignorant cause teachers lack of considerations on scientific theory in their teaching instruction. Scientists always take different pathways by conducting investigation with different disciplines. This resulted in a polarization of frequency of science process skills and different types of science process skills that are do not exist in the planning. The steps usually include defining the problem. Furthermore. many scientists wish to prove his theory is wrong. hypothesis. Thus. students can be seen writing up the aim. Moreover. when scientists study the relationships among inorganic and organic components of the environment. forming a hypothesis. there are many methods to investigate the problem statement. with a common series of steps that scientists follow. In fact. On the other hand. Most of the time teachers do not plan comprehensive scientific skills in the lesson and just focus on the repeating science process skills. hoping to discover different evidence. For example. For example. results and conclusion. Scientists are working out hardly to prove or find out new evidence about a certain concept. In classrooms. but scientist can do the stimulation in the laboratories by controlling the ratio of the compound so that they can assess the effects without going outside.

Next. student’s learning is not just focused on theory only. Yerrick et al. teachers need to ensure the application of these skills is ongoing and teachers also need to master and embrace those skills. For example. when there is a student who is curious and doubt about the concept. Therefore. Thus. The science process skills are not taught significantly in the syllabus but is inset and deposit that lasts all year and lasting. To realize the teaching and learning of science in an active and effective. (1997) consistently found that most teachers set up their science instruction around fixed knowledge. asking about the reasons why his experiment result is rejected as it is different with the actual value. . Science process skills can encourage effective teaching methodology and student-centered learning in the classroom. Nowadays. and scientific work as creative. Both science process skills and science concepts must be proportional to produce better teaching and learning in order to deliver the correct understanding of nature of science. Teacher is teaching science as “telling science” instead of teaching as a process.process skills before able to deliver it effectively to students Matters such as misconceptions and lack of confidence when asked can be overcome. It will cause the science students lost their interest in science and they only will know the method of memorization when they come across the science concept. teachers need to master the science process skills with good understanding of science concepts. teachers concerned with the construction of scientific knowledge will also be interested in teaching the process of science. science as a way of thinking. They overemphasize the factual basis of science with traditional assessment formats and fail to characterize scientific knowledge as tentative. those teacher will give a response that “only this answer can be accepted although there is a problem with your experiment result”. It is because they believe that the scientific knowledge is the facts and truths that need to deliver to the students. most of teachers focus on students’ academic performance. It is given emphasis in the implementation and assessment activities practical work of students such as PEKA. due to our Malaysia education system. they stress on the product of science instead of the process of science. which leads them to pay more attention to their students’ interpretation. Therefore.

Although some teachers have developed a real understanding of the nature of science. Firstly. they were actually referring to technology. Besides that. it is not necessary that their teaching approaches are totally committed to communicating this understanding to help promote their students’ conception of the nature of science due to the conditions under which teachers work such as curriculum constraints. When teachers fail to develop appropriate conceptions of the historical. many teachers stress on teacher centered approach or “chalk and talk’ to deliver their lesson due to the pressure of class time and lack of the facilities such as LCD projector. philosophical. 1993).Teachers’ teaching belief affects their classroom practices. students’ naïve theories. the germ theory of disease and continental drift. For example. The goal of science is to study and gain knowledge of science concepts while technology aims to create products that solve problems and enhance human life. and sociological foundation of science. Some examples of scientific ideas that were initially rejected because they fall outside the accepted paradigms including Sun-centered solar system. administrative policies. While teachers’ epistemological commitments to the nature of science affects their role in building students’ conception of scientific knowledge. preexisting knowledge. the new interpretation of the evidence is not automatically accepted by the scientific community. When they were talking about science. For example. students will ignore the science process skills easily during their learning. a number of successful students chose different majors (Tobias. 1990). They prefer on how to design a tool to solve the problem instead of concerning the factors or the reason why does the problem occurs. This is because science and technology are the words often used interchangeably. some teachers have a misunderstanding that acceptance of scientific knowledge is straightforward. and school infrastructure. apply Newton 3rd law to make the stones can be stacked up statically. In fact. emphasized transmission of knowledge. student unable to held appropriate understanding about nature of science due to students’ perspectives confused science with technology. the teachers largely practice the traditional teaching method with closely controlled activities. and considered students as simple receptors of that knowledge. Therefore. Science Is very concerned . They hardly connect the science knowledge with the real life situation. and experiences have an impact on science learning (Edmondson & Novak. As a result.

students nowadays do not aware of the influence of scientists’ values including religious. 1982). scientists invent new medicine by referring and review on traditional medicine or herbs to cure dengue. 1993) because of their naïve epistemological commitments. Hewson. in their point of view. Chemistry. They learn the facts without understanding and interpreting underlying principles (Posner. Besides that. imagination. then the learner does not feel a need to change the current conception. or developed from natural world materials and substances to satisfy human needs and wants. Even when the current conception does not successfully solve some problems. ethical. (1982). Geology and so on. However. students also have a naïve view of science focus on factual knowledge which leads students ignore the imagination and creativity in scientific knowledge construction. the learner may make only moderate changes to his or her conceptions. if a learner’s current conception is functional and if the learner can solve problems within the existing conceptual schema. we need human inference. the truth. technology is the practical application of science. Technology is very concerned with what can or should be designed. they accept the presented knowledge coming from textbook and from teachers even if the scientific knowledge conflicts with their own experiences. and creativity in order to construct the scientific knowledge. For example. Scientific knowledge is understood as collection of facts.with what is (exists) in the natural world such as Biology. Strike. The invention of explanation and theoretical entities requires a great deal of . Physics. & Gertzog. Astronomy. Social and cultural influences the development of scientific knowledge which establishes rules of practice and evidence. made. In addition. Therefore. understanding the science has been likened to memorize formulas. masculine and feminine factors on scientific knowledge construction. laws and calculations in the minds of students. students often accept scientific knowledge without reasoning and questioning (Edmondson & Novak. and the formula and not a conceptual structure that allows us to generate alternative hypothesis to the test. In fact. In short. According to Posner et al. For example. For example. student accepts the fact that the earth is round even though his own observations and experience of different that the earth is flat.

teach with NOS. The assumption that undergirds the teaching with NOS notion is that the ways students develop their understandings of scientific knowledge bear some resemblance (though by no means a one-to-one correspondence—see Abd-El-Khalick 2008) to the ways scientific communities of practice generate and validate such knowledge. teachers equipped with such understandings can be enabled to enact learning environments corresponding with those that approximate authentic scientific practice. For example.g. that teachers can use inquiry to help precollege students develop informed NOS understandings. and who seriously entertain the importance of these aspects to scientific practice. teaching with NOS asserts that teachers with informed NOS understandings are better positioned to enact inquiry learning environments in their classrooms. Starting with such an assumption.creativity. science teachers who have internalized robust understandings of key aspects of NOS. . are more likely to abandon some ‘old orientations’ (Anderson 2007) or traditional science teaching practices (see for e. AAAS 1990) in favor of practices that would bolster authentic science learning environments.. Bohr’s model of the atom is created to explain the energy level and the atomic spectral lines. Instead of continuing to assert—in the face of evidence to the contrary. Equally important. that is.

Ultimately. teacher can bring students go to stadium and ask them to have a 200m race. maximize the interest but also allow students to face the real perception of life and able to have a better adaptation in the future society. why we often feel out of breath and even feel back pain? Can you trace the route of air reaching the alveoli of our lungs?” The above questions help to engage students and promote active participation. Our teaching should focus on creating integrated. in order to engage the students in the lesson. As teacher. teacher should post a question that “after a long distance race. Students might give the answer based on their prior knowledge such as “due to insufficient supply of oxygen during the long distance . Firstly. It would seem we need to find ways to initiate teaching based on societal situations and then develop the conceptual learning that allows students to appreciate the relevance of the science (Holbrook. Relating science to the developments in society is not new. students have the perception that there is no crossover between the subjects such as science and language. cross. 1. authentic and valuable in their lives. 1994). Physics) relevant. Relating science to the developments in society is not new. Thus. Chemistry. isolated subjects.curricular approach Most of the time. this enables students to achieve higher level of critical thinking and collaborative skills. cross.curricular instruction between multiple subjects so that our students will able to view knowledge as interdependent and connected rather than as individual. By using topic of “human breathing system” in Biology as example.Question 4: Relevancy means connecting the processes and products that we utilize in society or make use of the scientific principles in solving a problem or making a decision. After the run. we need make sure that students are actively engaged so that the learning is relevant. there are few instructional strategies that can be used to make the teaching of science subjects ( Biology. teacher can bring out ideas of mechanism of breathing in and out through physical education. The importance of making learning relevant not only to reduce the difficulty of learning.

The teacher acts as a facilitator that explains concepts and addresses misconceptions. Excess accumulation of lactic acid cause people back pain. Students are allowed to be grouped into smaller groups and explain the mechanism as how breathing takes place (how inhalation and exhalation are affected). the teaching and learning will be more structured. a film of moisture  appears on its surface. teacher requires students do some research on the features of alveoli for which allow efficient gaseous exchange. Besides that.” Next. strength training and stretching circuits that they have done during their physical education. A model of human lung to show the mechanism of breathing is built by using plastic bottle. the students should be able to explain the mechanism of breathing. balloons and rubber sheet. After that. What do we  exhale? Do we exhale only carbon dioxide or a mixture of gases along with it? You must have also observed that if you exhale on a mirror. teacher can request student to find out and explain the mechanism of breathing. Before the lesson end. push the rubber/plastic sheet up and observe the balloons. the students are also able to find out the features of blood capillaries that allow them for efficient gas exchange.race. pull the rubber sheet from the base downwards and watch the balloons. Student can design an experiment to measure the rate of breathing due to different action such as cardio. Did you see any changes in the balloons? What do the balloons in this model represent? What does the rubber sheet represent? Now. When the skills and information gained by students are interconnected. Next. Students may extend concept to the new situations. It allows the transfer of metacognitive knowledge from one situation to another become easier as it supports the progressive development of student too. teacher evaluates their understanding through summative assessment. These questions are given to stimulate students’ thinking:  You are aware that the air we inhale or exhale is a mixture of gases. This topic is supported by practical activity or demonstration. cell body will encounter a small amount of anaerobic respiration that produces lactic acid. . Where do these droplets come from? To understand the expansion of the lungs.

Most of the activities can be performed with materials commonly found in the students' everyday environment. there would be no scientific facts. Also included in this section are clear and concise answers to the questions. Each set of activities is preceded by a concise introduction giving students a foundation on which to build their understanding. The book emphasizes the "process-dimension" of science. These activities. we discuss applications of the investigated principles to their everyday lives. Consequently. Activities included in the book have been successfully implemented and tested in the classroom by experienced and novice science teachers. Some require equipment found in the typical science classroom or inexpensive equipment available from scientific supply houses. or laws. measuring. It also serves as a resource book for teachers and students. Bringing the ‘real world’ into the lab This resource contains intriguing investigations designed to provide an activity-oriented approach to learning science and to engage students in a genuine pursuit of science. Following the questions is a section developed especially for the teacher in which concepts are explained in greater detail and directions are provided for converting some of the student activities into impressive classroom demonstrations. Because students often have difficulty seeing the relevance of science. Every effort has been made to ensure teachers and students will enjoy the activities so they will become meaningfully engaged in the processes of science. theories. The activities provide meaningful interactions between students and their world in a manner encouraging sound scientific reasoning. coupled with the explanation of the underlying concepts. Without processes such as observing. Science is not merely something a scientist does in the laboratory or a rhetoric of conclusions to be gleaned from a textbook or lecture and soon forgotten. Many of the activities produce unexpected or dramatic results that capture student interest. show that science is composed of two dimensions . Thought provoking questions follow each set of activities.content and process. they .2. including a discussion of major concepts related to the activities. and hypothesizing.

Activity 1 : Discussion: the concept involved In order to elaborate or introduce the concept of electromagnetic induction. the process of generating electricity from renewable energy is related to the concept of electromagnetic induction in Physics. This lesson also stresses the benefits of using green technology to produce electricity. Then. situations and experiences to address a concept effectively. It involves learning which allows students to experience or practice the concepts and skills. student handouts and assignment in engaging lessons that also the concept of electromagnetic induction. As engagement activity (induction set). Teaching based on real world connection is drawing from or upon actual objects. For example. bicycle dynamo and generator is shown by using stimulation video clips. making real world connections in the teaching promotes student achievement through the authenticity of the learning. Teacher combines the experiential learning activities.will acquire knowledge and understanding of basic science concepts and the application and relevance of these to their everyday lives. Students need to use a graphic organizer to explore the source of different forms of energy. complexity and motivation of the real world to learning. a video clip regarding solar energy ( everything comes from the Sun) is shown to students. renewable energy and sustainable development. It is not only generating many issues or questions to pursue through inquiry but it also provides more opportunities to learn how out communities and society work. Activity 2: Making a Model Wind Turbine . It brings the relevance. 3. teacher will introduces and explain the concept of electromagnetic induction. students are expected to discover the involving concept and point it out. Besides that. This approach utilizes the problems or issues which are similar to the one that have encountered in life. The process of generating electricity by using wind turbine is shown by using video clip. Real world connection. Through the discussion between group and teacher. the working principle of the wind turbine.

4. student also need to state out the problem and various ways to improve wind turbine performance. Inquiry based approach Inquiry connects the learning to the students’ own experience and knowledge by providing a context to develop the critical thinking skills besides encourages problem solving. it will guide students to have meta. Students will feel familiar. Collaborative learning is applied in this situation. build a vents for the gas stoves. and how water is converted into useful energy. By using the information that collected from the experiment. They test their designs with regards to the workability of the blades and discuss why some turbine designs work better than others. teacher needs to give simple and clear experimental procedures for students to investigate the force of water.Students design and create a model wind turbine. they are able to identify the problems and have desire to solve the problem. By using topic of “ the condition of combustion” as example. employment. Therefore. the various sources of water. Students explore the energy in water. Students also need to answer response questions related to key concepts. Students build a device from 1L milk cartons to investigate how hydroelectric facilities use the energy stored in bodies of water to create hydrostatic pressure. Students need to discuss in their own small group. teacher can connect the real life situation or living situation with the content to develop a chemistry experiment. empty the firewood rack. Teacher will assess the product according to the rubrics. students need to design a suitable hydroelectric generator. Activity 3: Design: how do we make electricity from flowing water? By applying the concept of electromagnetic induction. students need to consider the magnitude of the water force and design a generator that enable to generate electricity by using the flowing water. It is an important learning strategy for developing engaged citizenship and entrepreneurial. In addition. in particular. Moreover.cognition and found out the problems. in chemistry lesson. teacher also can bring the “real world situation” into the laboratory. need to provide assessment tools and rubrics including related discussion questions. Inquiry involves . For instance. Besides that. through the familiar scenes or actions such as turn off the Bunsen burner. community and interpersonal skills. teacher as facilitator.

is embedded in the cycle. with an emphasis on science inquiry skills. teacher provide the link of the website regarding the information of acid rain such as news or article. in chemistry lesson. In order to engage the students in the lesson. formative and summative assessment practices.Iodine” in biology . research and communication skills. Teachers need to create a situation which is more intuitive. Elaborate and Evaluate phases. Anderson & Shymansky. create solution to solve the problems.students to: handle the real. can arouse the students to discover the problem and have the desire to solve the problem. develop a deep understanding of content knowledge and participate in the public creation and improvement of ideas and knowledge. teacher can make use of technology to explore the problem. Posting questions is the most important part in the inquiry approach as it able to prompt students to have the motive or initiative to explore deeper. 2005). Explore. we also can use multimedia technology to create a problem situation. Explain. For example. Investigating scientifically. By using teaching the topic “ acid rain” in chemistry as example. as are diagnostic. collaborate with each problem. 5. sulfuric acid and the process of other chemical production. After watching the video clips. issues and controversies. is a constructivist model for planning and implementing science. chemical composition and chemical reaction . in the topic of “mineral. The 5E learning cycle. The vivid stimulation will give students a strong visual experience and mental stimulation so that students understand the necessity of research on iodine chemistry knowledge. especially the causes of acid rain. chemistry teacher can guide students to understand the social issues which are related to chemistry through internet and explore related content. . For example. with its Engage. Besides that. teacher can play video clips about iodine and human health during carry out the lesson as engagement activity. vivid. students are required to write their opinion and comment based on the message of the video clips. students will raise the questions about sulfur dioxide. 5E instructional model This model embraces personal and social constructivist learning emphases (Yore. develop the questioning.

. Extension: Teacher lead a class discussion on the topic “Erosion And Deposition. deposition mounds of dirt. Exploration: Construct a rainmaker model to investigate how these changes may have occurred. When it is finished raining have the students observe the final effects of the rain on their landscape. Have students go back to their predictions and record what actually happened. etc.) Upon returning to the classroom make a list of the sites where soil was worn away or collected.puddles. in the topic of “erosion and transportation”.Help Or Hindrance?” Evaluation: Assessment such as multimedia presentation. hollowed out areas. collection of soil or other materials in a certain spot. Hold the rainmaker about 4 inches above the upper end of the landscape and slowly move it back and forth so the water "rains" down on the model landscape. For example. Before going on the walk. teacher may requires students to explain what they will look for or what are the signs that soil has worn away or built up? (Suggested answers may include: erosion . One student pours a cup of water all at once into the rainmaker.In Biology lesson. Observe what happens to the landscape. transportation and deposition through 5E instructional model. Explanation: The process of erosion and deposition is explained through discussion with students based on their model. digital poster and reseacr papers is given by teacher. Engagement: Teacher Takes students on a walk outside the school building and ask them to note where the soil is worn away or seems to have collected. areas that dip or are lower that the surrounding area. Once students have constructed their models have them diagram and label their models and make a prediction as to what will happen if it "rains" on their landscape. provide materials so the students can construct their own model of a landscape. teacher need to make sure that students are able to describe the process of erosion.