A Dissertation Proposal


Submitted to the Graduate School
Prairie View A&M University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


October 18, 2013

Major Subject: Human Resource Management


In today’s society, teachers face challenges to meet and exceed academic expectations
within schools. Academia is more rigorous year to year and this increases the pressure on
teacher instructional skills and the impact of these skills on student performance. Teachers must
not only focus on instruction but also a reduction in resources, disciplinary problems, and
classroom management. Teachers who struggle with these challenges have more difficulty in
providing an established learning environment for their students. It is important to address these
factors appropriately and be exigent in the process for students to stay on course throughout their
academic experience. This is essential in order to achieve federal, state, district and school goals.
Budget cuts have also been a major factor affecting our schools. They affect the amount of
resources available in a school setting and, most importantly, professional development.
Although of these factors are a reality, teachers are still expected to perform. Professional
Development provides teachers support and nurtures their abilities to impact student
achievement. The lack thereof affects teacher job performance and their level of motivation to
teach their students. Teachers are the core of our schools and not having the well-needed support
not only affects their job performance and motivation, but also the success of our schools.
Research has shown that positive motivation directly influences teacher performance.
Motivation invigorates teachers and pushes them forward to be able to create a great
environment for their students. It is essential for teachers to have the necessary support to be
successful in their classroom.


To my family, friends and colleagues who assisted me in accomplishing my goals and objectives
through the process of completing my dissertation which represents my life’s work.


Thank you to all who have been a positive impact on my journey towards receiving my PhD and
soon becoming Dr. Tamra Wiley Lewis.






Table of Contents


List of Tables


Chapter I: Introduction


Background of the Problem


Statement of the Problem


Purpose of the Study


Research Questions and Hypotheses


The Significance of the Study


Limitations of the Study


Delimitations of the Study




Organization of the Study


Chapter II: Review of the Literature


Literature Review


Historic Perspective


Characteristics of a Rural School District


Definition of Motivation


Motivational Theories


Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation


Motivational Factors


Teacher Motivation


Teacher Job Satisfaction


Teacher Job Dissatisfaction



Teacher’s Negative Attitudes


Teacher’s Attendance


Teacher Retention


Teacher Retention in Rural School Districts


Salary/Merit Pay


Teacher Motivational Impact on Student Achievement


Professional Development


Human Resources


Teacher Responsibilities and Teacher Performance


Administrative Support


Theoretical Framework


Chapter III: Methodology


Identification of the Research Method


Research Design


Description of the Target Population


Sampling of Participants


Sampling Procedure


Description of Instrumentation


Statistical Technique


Guiding Questions


Research Hypotheses














Student motivation represents a key concentration of basic and applied research in
educational psychology, but there is astonishingly limited research on teacher motivation (Butler,
2007). Andrius (2008) noted that motivation is an essential factor in the teacher’s management
of learning and performance in the classroom. The motivating role of teachers incorporates
endeavors to construct environments within a classroom which will invigorate and direct
students’ performance. Gupta and Gehlawat (2013) implicated that researchers assumed
motivation amongst teachers is in miniscule supply and in need of persistent replenishment.
Consequently, if those motivating factors affecting teachers can be identified, it will help
researchers and school administrators appreciate their work. Their efficacy in managing work
requirements will lead to student and school progress which in turn will improve their
commitment to school and job satisfaction (Gupta, Gehlawat, 2013). Huysman (2008)
recognized the most valuable and accessible resources located within a rural school district are
the teaching staff.
Mertler (2001) indicated evidence appeared to support that teachers are largely satisfied
with their jobs and that various teachers are dissatisfied. Conceivably, a fact more significant to
consider is the inconceivable number of students with whom these dissatisfied teachers interact
with on a daily basis (Mertler, 2001). Teachers play a role in the cognitive, social, and
behavioral development of students (McMahon et al., 2010). The profession has touched lives of
children from innumerable backgrounds of cultural and dialectal diversity (Boyer, Gillespie,
2004). Griffin (2010) indicated that teachers have a vast impact on the lives of others, and the


role that teachers play in the lives of children is immense. It is vital for teachers to have positive
feelings of job satisfaction and motivation to produce a classroom environment that is favorable
to the overall growth and development of the student. Bennell, Mukyanuzi, (2005) illustrated
that teachers have a perilous role to play in supporting developmental activities in the broader
community. They are under tremendous pressure from legislators, parents, and community
members to provide excellent primary education to all children. Teachers are significant in the
recognition of ambitious national and international education and the reduction of poverty
(Bennell, Mukyanuzi, 2005).
Johnson (2004) argued that teachers build skills while nurturing creativity and a love for
learning, foster development of the “whole child” while closing the achievement gap, and
respond to the individual needs of students while managing the group. Teaching has developed
into a challenging profession; more administration, more bureaucracy and uncontrollable classes
(Relieving Stress Today Newsletter). O’Donnell, Lambert, Christopher, and McCarthy (2008)
emphasized that teaching has been acknowledged as emotionally taxing and potentially
frustrating occupation for many years. As caregivers of education, teachers are expected to do
more with less and still produce a product that will contribute globally, nationally, regionally and
locally to our communities. Teachers are charged with the responsibility of creating an equitable
environment in the classroom for all students while developing test strategies filled with
knowledge for each student to excel within our global society.
Taylor, Zimmer, Womack (2005) examined teachers’ beliefs about the origins of stress
and burnout in a rural Arkansas school district in 2004. A sample of 130 teachers of all grade
levels were studied with a Likert survey of 45 items identifying stressors linked with
administration, stressors connected with students, job satisfaction, professional self-esteem, and


demographic information about the participants. Outcomes of the research reported that overall
respondents were very positive about being teachers; assumed the opportunity, with almost 79%
indicating they would select teaching again as a career (Taylor, Zimmer, Womack, 2005).
Effects of stress on children. According to Tummers (2011) stress educes an
appearance of physical indicators, such as headaches, which are frequently treated without
viewing the root causes. Charles (2011) indicated routine doctor check-ups have long been part
of the back-to-school routine, but now doctors are finding they need to check for school stress.
Clinical depression is unusual in childhood, but for today’s children, stress, anxiety, and
psychosomatic complaints are increasingly common. Other warning signs include feelings of
hopelessness, worthlessness, loss of appetite, changes in sleep habits and decreased interest in
things children used to enjoy. Substantial evidence specifies the far-reaching effects of stress in
our students’ lives (Charles, 2011). Stressors exhibited by elementary students include school
anxieties, separation from parents and being away from family all day, approval of different
authority figures, socializing with a larger group of peers, pressure for academic attainment, and
numerous uncertainties. Middle school students experience academic stress as a main stressor
and is a main cause affecting the middle school student’ psychological health. Stressors
impacting adolescence are pubertal growth, hormonal change, changes in relationships with
parents and peers, and cultural and societal expectations (Tummers, 2011).
According to Berk (2007), various studies conveyed that marital breakup is stressful for
children. Children react with distress and annoyance in response to their less secure home lives;
chastisement may become harsh and unpredictable. Reactions vary with children’s age,
personality, and gender. The family environment of maltreated children impairs the growth of
emotional self-regulation, empathy and sympathy, self-concept, and social skills. Nevertheless,


poverty, homelessness, joblessness, and sexual abuse creates stressors for all ages of children
(Berk, 2007). Overall, academic anxiety is middle school students’ chief stressor and is one of
the central causes of middle school student’s psychological health.
Li, Ferndinandi (2007) emphasized that modern society’s dynamics, and so the vital
factors that impact children’s growth and development change from time to time. Children’s
sense of self also develops and influences how they interrelate with stressors such as academic
difficulties (Li, Ferndinandi, 2007). Jimerson (2003) stated that new stresses such as rapid
population development and teaching students with limited English proficiency are impacting
rural schools. These stresses are not only confined to rural areas but also are shared amongst
other types of schools (Jimerson, 2003).
Impact of stress on teachers and schools. Hinde (2004) noted that stress-related
problems create toxic and negative school cultures whereby teachers are unwilling to change.
The Character Education Partnership (2010) posited that school culture or school climate
nurtures the foundation of all schools. It broadly includes the school wide philosophy and cultur
of individual classrooms, high potential for learning, attainment of a safe and caring
environment, shared values and relational trust, a powerful pedagogy and curriculum, high
student motivation and engagement, a professional faculty culture and partnerships with families
and the community. McNeil, Prater, Bush (2009) further noted strong school cultures have
healthier motivated teachers. Highly motivated teachers influence higher achievement in terms
of student performance and student outcomes through the concentration on improving the
school’s culture by focusing on the relationships between themselves, their teachers, students and
parents (McNeil, Prater, Bush, 2009). Johnson (2004) reported that the environment of the
school ultimately mediates teachers’ ability to find satisfaction (Johnson, 2004).


According to Haberman (2004) when coping mechanisms fail to stem the difficulties,
then stress upsurges and impacts the teachers’ mental and physical wellbeing eventually leading
to teacher resignation or burn out. Various conditions determine teacher efficiency that lie
outside of their control, and because a high level of constant alertness is mandatory, teaching is,
and will continue to be a high stress job. Some stress is unavoidable and may be advantageous.
Teacher efforts and passion for their profession has an affirmative impact on student learning.
Researchers used a behavioral definition of burnout and delineated it as a condition in which
teachers remain as salaried employees but discontinue functioning as professionals.
Implications of teacher burnout. Moomaw (2006) explicated that educators deem that
recognizing teaching as a profession and developing professional teachers is a possible resolution
to teachers’ lack of motivation and satisfaction, proficiency, and empowerment, as well as
teacher stress (Moomaw, 2006). Teachers experiencing burnout go through the motions of
teaching with no passionate commitment to the job and no sense of effectiveness. Stressed
teachers believe that what they can do will make no substantial modification in the lives of their
students and see no motivation in disbursing any additional effort. Teachers experiencing
burnout are detached job holders who feel neither answerable nor accountable for students’
performance or learning (Haberman, 2004).
Taylor, Zimmer, Womack (2005) investigated what teachers believe contributes to the
occurrences of teacher stress and burnout in schools in the Arkansas River in North Central
Arkansas and identified probable resolutions to stress and burnout. With an increasing national
focus on the need for quality teachers, comprehending the factors that lead to teacher
dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout is significant. The researchers noted the following stressors in
educational research:


A deficiency of administrative support as a central point to teacher job

Teachers experience a lack of control in the decision making process
Teachers suffer student conflict daily
Teacher are overwhelm with many tasks and play too many roles in education
The problems faced by society has become the problem of schools (Taylor,
Zimmer, Womack, 2005).

Burnout results in physical exhaustion and may manifest itself through frequent
headaches, nausea, body pain, changes in eating habits, and weight gain or loss. Burnout
resulting in emotional fatigue may be illustrated by moods of depression, desperateness, and
emotions of being imprisoned. Mental exhaustion is suppressed as deleterious feelings escalate
about oneself, feelings of insufficiency and incompetence. It triggers a reducing of goals and
objectives, a blaming of students when facilitating efforts were not operative, and generally
cumulating in skepticism regarding clients and people in general. There is also a discernible
emotional detachment in the affiliation with the student as evidenced by a decline for the
wellbeing of others (Taylor, Zimmer, Womack, 2005).
Schwarzer, Hallum (2008) pointed out that burnout can be defined as a prolonged state of
fatigue due to elongated interpersonal stress within human service careers. It relates to feelings
experienced by individuals whose professions entail repetitive exposure to emotionally charged
societal circumstances (Schwarzer, Hallum, 2008). Brown, Roloff (2011) pointed out that
regardless of such extraordinary and honorable expectations, long and odd work schedules and
teacher burnout can impede a teacher’s well-being and obligation to the profession. Teachers
devote elongated hours into their work. They spend 1,913 hours on teaching per year and take
on extra-role activities well into their personal evenings and weekends. They guide students,


lead student organizations and training teams while devoting their personal resources into what
we term extra-role time behavior. Joined with the already heavy work load, these high levels of
this extra investment of personal resources can encroach on the teacher’s time with family and
friends, sleep, household chores, and exercise (Brown, Roloff, (2011).
Wright, Ballestero, 2012 surveyed randomly selected Eastern Kentucky teachers
(Elementary, Middle, and High School) to gather data about stress in public schools. The
conclusion of the survey was as follows: A bulk of the teachers (95%) felt the financial condition
of a school district creates a dissimilarity in the level of stress for teachers and school
administrators. A clear majority (84%) of teachers felt age creates a dissimilarity in the level of
stress for both teachers and school administrators. The 21-30 and 31-40 age group of school
administrators were recognized as suffering the most stress. Stress is one of the most destructive
factors on human beings and their health. The data specified an upsurge of stress for teachers
and school administrators in Eastern Kentucky school districts. Stress was reported to be
detrimental to teachers and school administrators and made Kentucky schools less conducive to a
positive learning environment for children (Wright, Ballestro, 2012).
Organizational factors and school climate. Dworkin (2001) implicated that there are
several structural and organizational factors involved in teacher burnout. To mention only a few
one might cite the deteriorating public confidence in public education tends to undervalue the
teaching professional, especially in progressive industrialized nations. Opinion polls over the
past 30 to 40 years reveals that the public deems schools are not performing anywhere as well as
they did in the past. Frequently, the aptitude of public school teachers is cited as a contributing
factor (Dworkin, 2001).


Crother, Kolbert, Kachmar, Kanyongo, Lipinski, Koch (2011) examined the sample of
US educators’ external locus of control which was suggestively correlated with job stress
severity, job pressure severity, insights of the lack of general administrative support and feelings
of the severity of lack of administrative support. Thus in the American sample, with increased
levels of an external LOC, an individual was more probable to report experiencing job stress and
job pressure severity as well as perception of a severe lack of administrative support. A more
even-handed standpoint may help diminish teacher stress and burnout by providing educators
with an astute sense of control while controlling the internalization of unrealistic expectations of
the individual society that all children can display satisfactory performance simply by
empowering teachers to make it happen (Crother, Kolbert, Kachmar, Kanyongo, Lipinski, Koch,
The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2009) worked with
schools across the United Sates on problems of school climate. Numerous common themes
materialized throughout the investigation of school climate. A study of teachers revealed that
several felt inaccessible and overwhelmed with work. Teachers reported a lack of
communication from the administration and specified that they were uncertain of how best to
meet the learning needs of students (Center for Comprehensive School Reform and
Improvement, 2009).
Din, TuFail, Sherren, Nawaz, Shahbaz (2012) cited that classroom climate is significant
in teacher motivation. If a teacher perceived the classroom as a safe, healthy, happy place with
supportive resources and facilities for teaching for optimum learning, he/she tends to contribute
more than projected in the process of management, administration and the total improvement
(Din, TuFail, Sherren, Nawaz, Shahbaz, 2012). Classroom management is a critical component


affecting a teacher’s job performance in the didactical process for the student learner and teacher.
In classrooms, teachers facilitate a plethora of educational information while attempting to
provide significant instructional substance to students with various personalities, cultural, and
ethnic backgrounds. Nevertheless, these challenges can spiral to levels of trepidation, therefore
paralyzing the teacher’s capacity to efficiently instruct and guide students in his/her own learning
experience (Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2003). Andrea, Demetros, Saliva (2007) asserted
teaching is a delicate occupation that entails explicit performance in the classroom. Teachers
need emotional, physical and spiritual balance. Our society presumes teachers to be well
rounded pedagogically and emotionally. Teachers experience pressures and stressors such as
taking work home, problematic students, demanding classes, deficiency of administrative
support, stress from parents, teachers’ appraisals, social seclusion, job improbability, integration
of intelligence and technology, students’ and parents’ bullying (Andrea, Demetros, Saliva, 2007).
O’Donnell, Lambert, Christopher, and McCarthy (2008) suggested that teachers have the
challenging mission of responding to the detailed requirements of different children as well as
the entire class. Teachers have the responsibility of executing certain requirements to ensure that
students are academically proficient at the end of the school year (O’Donnell, Lambert,
Christopher, McCarthy, 2008). In the United States, teachers are often considered glorified
babysitters and high clerical workers rather than professionals (Martinez-Garcia, Slate, 2009). In
2009, the Oregon School Board (2009) reported that in the last two decades of educational
development, teachers are regarded as central to both the problems of education and resolutions.
Educational researchers and school leaders face the challenge of motivating teachers to high
levels of performance (Oregon School Board, 2009).


Budget constraints and teacher motivation. Severe budget cuts continue to impact
teacher morale throughout the country. Some districts are lacerating budgets to the bare bone
and eliminating teachers while increasing classroom sizes (Oliff & Lechman, 2011). It is
projected that teachers will be required to do more with less and discover ways to survive the
carnage of the austerity climate resulting in more draconian budget cuts. This problem
contradicts a teacher’s ability to perform his or her job efficiently when at any given time job
layoffs could be forthcoming. The impact of substantial budget cuts also reduces resources that
teachers and students desperately needed to guarantee meeting benchmarks set forth by the
district and the state.
Granger (2013) noted that teachers currently face countless challenges in today’s global
environment of fast-paced technological transformation; school is no longer a place for rote
memorization. In the 21st century it is progressively significant for teachers to encourage critical
thinking skills in addition to providing information (Granger, 2013). As caregivers of education,
teachers are expected to do more with less and still produce a product that will contribute
globally, nationally, regionally and locally to communities being served. Teachers are charged
with the responsibility of creating an equitable environment in the classroom for all students
while developing instructional strategies consistent with curricular reform.
Gilyard, R., Puckett, J., McBride, L., Swersky, A., and Shaddix, J., (2012) reported that
tightened fiscal austerity at the state and federal levels are in contravention with the desire of
local stakeholders when determining if budgets should be increased or reduced (Gilyard, R.,
Puckett, J., McBride, L., Swersky, A., and Shaddix, J., 2012). Smith (2012) reported that Texas
eradicated more than Five billion in funding from public education in 2012. This report signified
25,000 employees were elimiated from the state’s school districts affecting 6,200 additional


elementary school classes (Smith, 2012). The National Education Association (2010) indicated
that public schools don’t have the funds to pay the salaries of their educators, repair leaky roofs,
or change their moldy textbooks. Hostile legislatures would love to redirect deteriorating funds
for public education to private and charter schools. Moreover, the deep cuts have created
furlough days for some teachers and salary cuts for California teachers (National Educational
Association, 2012). Boyer, Hamil (2008) suggested that with the unstable economy and
ambiguous times, it is more imperative than ever for our nation’s children to obtain a suitable
education and training that will permit them to attain good employment and generate the revenue
required to live (Boyer, Hamil, 2008). Battle (2009) cited that American educational leaders
pursue the charge of educating children regardless of race, class, or economic status in order to
become a more industrious nation (Battle, 2009).
The results of budget reductions were reported by D’Amico (2012) during a survey
conducted by the Texas American Federation of Teachers. In this research, a total of 4,017
respondents and superintendents were surveyed. The web poll conducted from April 13, to May
7, 2012 reflected a total of 4,017 respondents, representing 97% of school employees. Of the
total respondents, 84% were teachers, two percent were teacher aides, two percent were parents
and one percent were concerned citizens. The study revealed the impact of budget reductions in
larger class sizes, loss of significant services for struggling students and increased discipline
problems, as a result of the $5.4 billion reduction in state funding to public education.
Responses to the surveys from school employees and superintendents indicated conditions
showed drastic deterioration of employee morale as a result of the 2011 budget cuts.
The survey revealed 94 percent of respondents reported they were “much more likely” or
“more likely” to be politically active in supporting candidates who pledge to restore public


education funding. It was stated that 88 percent said their district laid off employees this year
while 32 percent identified cuts of 100 or more positions. 85 percent indicated cuts included
teachers and 48 percent were uncertain about the number of layoffs for the subsequent year. 87
percent said that teacher positions were at jeopardy for elimination whereas 86 percent of
respondents said that their class sizes increased this year. 56 percent said they expected their
class sizes would escalate even more next year (D’Amico, 2012).
D’Amico (2012) further noted the key survey findings of the Superintendent Survey
reflected 273 districts with 63 percent of responding districts will resort to greater use of reserve
funds/fund balance to alleviate the effects of state budget cuts in the upcoming school year. The
responding districts, 43 percent, plan to further cut teaching or other positions during the 20122013 school year. Most cuts were for teaching positions in core subject areas at the elementary
school level. Superintendents, composing 73 percent, expected their district to increase class
sizes next year in response to state budget cuts (D’Amico, 2012).
During the 2013 legislative session Tomlinson (2013), the Texas State Senate passed a
$94.6 billion budget revamping public education. The two-year expenditure proposal signified
an eight percent increase from the previous budget in 2012, which included a $15 billion in
government spending, and $5.4 billion for public schools (Tomlinson, 2013). MacLaggan (2013)
stated the new budget is a compromise between the House and Senate that included an additional
$3.4 billion to minimize a portion of the $4 million budget cuts in schools. Budget cuts were
apparent once again 2011 (Tomlinson, 2013).
Haynes (2011) asserted in the face of economic ambiguity and stiff international
competition the national policy community merged around the significance of graduating all
students in preparation for college and careers. To attain parity with the highest performing


nations, government and educational leaders must address the confounding and persistent
problem of low-performing high schools. The drive guarantees unbiased opportunities for all
students and demands solutions not only to elevate the level of students’ preparedness, but also
to address achievement gaps based on race/ethnicity and income that exist across all levels of the
system (Haynes, 2011).
Background of the Problem
Motivation and accountability. Ofojebe, Ezugoh (2010) quantified that teachers’
motivation is a way of empowering teachers in the profession and encompasses the perceptions,
variables, methods, approaches and activities used by the administration for the purpose of
providing a climate that is conducive to the satisfaction of the numerous needs of the employees,
so that they may become satisfied, dedicated and effective in performing their task. When
teachers are highly motivated and ample consideration given to them, it enhances the value and
quality of the educational system by elevating its standards to ensure quality teaching and
learning results and instructional delivery (teaching); teachers’ job satisfaction and productivity.
(Ofojebe, Ezugoh, 2010).
Pink (2009) specified that individuals must be accountable for their work. Garcia, Slate
(2009) claims that today’s culture requirea grander knowledge and skill to survive and be
effective; therefore, standards for learning are currently higher than ever (Garcia, Slate, 2009).
Thurlow (2006) postulated that accountability pervades education in the United States. It
focuses on both the processes and products of education. Responsibility is dispersed to
individuals, groups, educational leaders, administrators, teachers, other school staff, and students.
Educational accountability aims at either the processes or results of education. A desired goal is
recognized (e.g., compliance) with the legal mandates of providing special education, highly


qualified teachers, improved student performances, and measures are acknowledged for
determining whether the goal is met (e.g., a checklist of indicators that the legal mandates have
been met, a target of 90% correct for teachers taking an assessment of current knowledge and
skills, a target of 60% of students performing at grade level by the end of each school year.
Benchmarks for determining whether the goal has been met can encompass specific determinants
of ways that the goal may and may not be met (e.g., deciding how many indicators in the
checklist must be marked to be considered meeting the legal mandates, determining the detailed
content that does not count for specific types of teachers, determining how to calculate the
percentage of students performing at proficient level, and how to define grade level performance)
(Thurlow, 2006).
According to Thurlow (2006), accountability emerges in many ways in educational
systems. One type of educational accountability system is that in which the school is held
responsible for the performance of its students. Another type of educational accountability is a
system in which teachers or administrators or individual school personnel are held answerable
for the facets of the educational process that are most often used as ways to modify the processes
of education. Whether the school or individual teachers or administrators are held responsible,
the educational accountability approach is termed system accountability.
Thurlow (2006) pointed out that educational accountability may also be individuals
responsible for their own performance. For example, students may be held responsible for their
performance in school (such as through promotion tests or graduation exams). Teachers may be
held responsible for their performance on content and pedagogy through entry examinations or
periodic tests or knowledge and skills (Thurlow, 2006).


Texas Education Agency and reforms. The Texas Education Agency (2012)
implemented the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) organized an extensive range of
evidence relating to the performance of students in each school and district in Texas. This
evidence is placed into the annual AEIS reports, which are available each year in the fall. The
indicators measuring Texas schools for the 2011-12 school year are:

Outcomes of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) note: for
2011-12, TAKS is only accessible for grades 10 and 11;
Exit – level TAKS Cumulative Passing Rates;
Progress of Previous TAKS Failers;
Attendance Rates
Annual Dropout Rates (grades 7-8 and grades 9-12)
Competition Rates (4 - year and 5 – year longitudinal)
College Readiness Indicators;
o Completion of Advanced/Dual Enrollment Courses;
o Completion of Recommended High School Program or Distinguished
Achievement Program
o Participation and Performance on Advanced Placement (AP) and
International Baccalaureate (IB) Examinations,
o Texas Success Initiative (TSI) – Higher Education Readiness Component
o Participation and Performance on the College Admissions Tests (SAT and
ACT), and
o College Ready Graduates (Texas Agency, 2012).

Performance on each of these indicators is disaggregated by ethnicity, special education,
low income status, limited English proficient status, at risk status, district, region, and state and,
beginning in 2008-09, by bilingual/ESL (district, region, and state, in section three of reports.
The reports provide widespread data on school and district staff, finances, programs and student
demographics. The accountability rating is visible on every AEIS report. No Accountability
ratings were provided in 2012 (Texas Education Agency, 2012).


Since the inception of the AEIS, numerous changes occurred either through legislation,
recommendations from advisory committees and the Commissioner of Education, State Board of
Education actions, and recommendations from the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA) researchers
and analysts. The level of detail on the AEIS is plausible thanks to the broad amount of school
data collected in Texas. Through its Public Education Information Management System
(PEIMS), the TEA yearly collects a comprehensive range of information on over 1,200 districts
(including charters), more than 8,000 schools, 320,000 plus educators, and over 4.9 million
students (Texas Agency, 2012).
The Texas Education Agency (2013) state accountability system collects data and report
ratings for more than 1,200 school districts and charters, and more than 8,500 campuses. The
ratings disclose that nearly 93 percent of school districts and charters throughout Texas attained
the rating of Met Standard while 6.5 percent rated Improvement Required. Districts, campuses
and charters obtained one of three ratings under the different accountability system; Met
Standard; Met Alternative Standard; or Improvement Required. The Commissioner of Texas
Education, Michael Williams stated, “A transition to a new accountability system emanates with
a prodigious deal of uncertainty.”(Texas Agency, 2013)
The revised (TEA, 2013) system uses several indicators to provide greater factors on the
performance of a district or charter and each specific campus throughout the state. The
performance index framework comprises four areas:

Student Achievement – Denotes a picture of performance across all
subjects, on both universal and alternative assessments, at an established
performance standard.


Student Progress – Provides an opportunity for varied campuses to
demonstrate progress made self-regulating of overall achievement levels.
Growth is appraised by subject and student group. (All Students; Student

by Race/Ethnicity; English Language Learners; Special Education)
Closing Performance Gaps – Highlights improving academic attainment of
the economically disadvantaged student group and the lowest performing
race/ethnicity student groups at every campus or district. (All

Economically Disadvantaged Students; Student Groups Race/Ethnicity)
Postsecondary Readiness – Encompasses measures of high school
completion, and beginning in 2014, State of Texas Assessments of
Academic Readiness (STARR®) executed at the postsecondary readiness
standard. (All Students; Student Groups by Race/Ethnicity; English
Language Learners; Special Education) (Texas Agency, 2013).

Implications of federal legislation. According to Finlayson (2009) the No Child Left
Behind Act, implemented under the Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education
Act was enacted by President George Bush in January, 2002. The NCLB, commonly referred to
as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, redefined eligibility requirements
associated with the receipt of NCLB contained historic changes in the funding of schools,
particularly those schools designated as Title I in that the legislation incorporated new measures
of accountability among school systems (Finlayson, 2009). Hirsch (2003) noted that No Child
Left Behind established new standards for teacher quality constructed on the theory that if
teachers know their subject content they will be effectively prepared to teach all students.
Numerous students have teachers who are not proficient in the subjects they teach. The
proportion of these students escalates in high-poverty communities (Hirsch, 2003). Jimerson


(2003) emphasized that rural districts are economically distressed causing obstacles to conform
to NCLB. To be able to conform to NCLB, it is essential to have a hefty financial amount
allotted and, unfortunately, poor rural districts are at a hindrance. NCLB’s perception by nature
creates home-grown control misleading and unattainable. Rural schools located in inaccessible
areas produce problems in enticing new educators, in retaining educators in meeting the NCLB
requirement. (Jimerson, 2003).
Jimerson (2003) further noted NCLB is principally a suburban-urban law. In general, the
law is unresponsive to countless needs and problems of rural schooling. It tends to overlook the
realism of rural places. It permits little room for the standards of rural communities. It puts
small schools in a defenseless place. In spite of this rural-insensitivity, some states, especially
those with substantial rural populations, have recognized areas of NCLB that can be exclusively
difficult for rural districts and established ways to diminish the impending of negative impact
(Jimerson, 2003). Dessoff (2010) pointed out that politicians are fretful about President Obama’s
strategy to renovate the NCLB law, indicating that it fails to reflect rural problems (Dessoff,
Texas Classroom Association (2012) described the “Highly Qualified” requirements of all
teachers of principal academic subjects. It has been essential for all teachers to be highly
qualified by the close of the 2006-07 school year, with teachers recently hired after the first day
of instruction for the 2002-03 school year required to be “highly qualified” when hired. Districts
must use at least 5 percent of their Title I, Part A funds to assist teachers become “highly
qualified.” The Act stipulates that principal academic subjects are English, reading or language
arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history
and geography. To be “highly qualified” under NCLB Act, a teacher must have:


A minimum of a bachelor’s degree, And

Full state certification (includes probationary certificates in certain
circumstances, and for charter school teachers, state certification
requirements explicit to charter school), And

Exhibit competency in the principal academic subject area assigned

Demonstrating competency may differ from elementary and secondary
teachers, as well as for new and experienced teachers. According to the
TEA, passing the TExES EC-4, EC-6, or 4-8 generalist; TExES EC-4, EC6, or 4-8 bilingual generalist; or TExES EC-4, EC-6, or 4-8 ESL generalist
will achieve the requirement (Texas Classroom Teachers Association,
Texas Education Agency (2012) indicated under the accountability requirements is the No
Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all public schools, whereby all public school campuses, school
districts and campuses, and the state are obligated to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).
AYP standards measures three benchmarks: Reading/Language, Arts, Mathematics, and either
Graduation rate (for high schools and districts) or Attendance Rate (for elementary and
Middle/Junior high schools). If a campus, district, or state that is receiving Title I, Part A funds
miss the mark on meeting AYP for two sequential years, that campus, district, or state is subject
to certain requirements such as offering supplemental education services, offering school choice,
and/or taking counteractive actions (Texas Agency, 2012).
Bunting (2007) proposed that much of teaching is now determined by data (i.e., test
scores) and dictated by “best practices” that teachers are losing self-confidence in their own


creativeness. Regardless of these disastrous disadvantages of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the
important work of teachers remains unaffected. (Bunting, 2007). Zaho (2012) specified of those
surveyed 29 percent deemed the Bush-era education law has worsened education in America.
Compared with 16 percent who assumed it has improved the system. 38 percent said NCLB
hasn’t made much of a difference, while 17 percent are not familiar enough with the policy to
rate its effectiveness. 28 percent indicated it has made education better and 48 percent claimed it
is worse (Zaho, 2012). According to Huffington Post.com (2012) the state of Texas launched
school accountability, as a trial, has applied to unravel itself from portions of the federal NCLB
mandate, the same law that investigated ultimately yielded. Texas declared with 40 other states it
desired out since the Obama administration offered to waive parts of the law in exchange for
implementing elements of the White House education agenda (Huffington Post.com, 2012).
Mellon (2012) submitted that virtually all school districts and various elite schools in the
Greater Houston area failed to meet harsher federal academic objectives this year, perplexed
parents, aggravated educators and endorsing calls for changes to the No Child Left Behind law.
Texas Education Agency show that 71 percent of districts and practically half of all schools
statewide are falling short under the federal system. In the Houston Independent School District,
the largest in the state, the number of failing campuses more than doubled subsequently previous
year to 169. 36 percent of the district’s schools met the federal standards (Mellon, 2012).
Finlayson, 2009 noted at its foundation, NCLB blame schools and curriculum for student failure,
but critics asserted that other factors are also at fault, including: class size, old and damaged
school buildings, hunger and homelessness, teacher absenteeism and lack of healthcare
(Finlayson, 2009).


Texas Education Agency (2013) clarified that Commissioner of Education Michael
Williams has pursued clarifications from the U. S. Department of Education (USDE) regarding
USDE’s authority to waive explicit requirements of the Elementary and Secondary Education
Act, universally known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Impending changes would
comprise of assessments for math in grades 3, 5 and 8; and reading in grades 3, 5 and 8. Present
federal law entails testing for math and reading for all students in grades 3 through 8. The intent
of the legislative authors of House Bill 866 drafted the bill to decrease the testing burden and
costs for students, teachers, parents, and schools by decreasing the quantity of required testing
for students in grades 3 – 8 who are high performing.
The National Governors Association for Best Practices (2010) implied that teachers,
parents and community leaders have weighed in to help construct the Common Core State
Standards. The standards evidently communicate what is projected of students at respectively
each grade level. This permits teachers to be prepared to know exactly what they require to
assist students learn and establish individual principles. The Common Core State Standards
focus on core theoretical understandings and techniques starting in the early grades, thus
enabling teachers to take the time needed to teach core concepts and procedure and to give
students the opportunity to master them (National Governors Association for Best Practices,
Council of Chief State School Officers (2010). According to Harris Interactive (2012) the
overview of the Common Core State Standards, educators in 46 states and the District of
Columbia are currently being called to transform their professional practice further to certify that
all students- not just some- master content and are competent to apply knowledge that will
prepare them for achievement beyond high school in college or professions (Harris Interactive,


Parents and community stakeholders. According to Bennell, Mukyanuzi (2005)
teacher status is profoundly influenced by the attitudes of the community towards the general
value of education and the association between schools and community. But, as a consequence,
teachers are susceptible to parental and community belief (Bennel, Mukyanuzi, 2005).
Henderson, Whipple (2013) explicated that countless communities face challenges, from
unemployment to redevelopment to immigration to poverty. It is significant to improve
respectful relationships amongst teachers and families and to connect how they engage families
to improving student education (Henderson, Whipple, 2013).
Statement of the Problem
Jehangir (2012) postulated if teachers are not motivated and have low performing
students they cannot provide superlative efforts. Today’s teachers are inundated with classroom
management, discipline issues, severe budget cuts, fewer resources, deficiency in global
preparedness, and meeting school and district target goals and objectives (Texas American
Federation of Teachers, May 2012). These concerns impact the teachers’ ability to execute their
jobs and affects the academic achievement of students. Teachers’ negative attitudes, attendance,
and retention rate overwhelm the heart of each of these problems faced by teachers today (Stone,
2003). These problems create a more dissatisfied working and learning atmosphere for both the
students and teachers.
Alam, Farid (2011) further noted, teachers play a central role in the learning process of
students, who revere teachers and try to imitate them. Motivation of teachers is important since
it directly affects students. Amongst those factors are as follows:

Personal/social factors
Classroom environment


Socio economic status
Student’s behavior
Examination stress
Self-confidence/personality of teacher

Students’ learning depends on the effective teaching; hence we need to know the factors that help
in the enhancement of teachers’ motivation (Alam, Farid, 2011).
Floristeanu (2009) noted that teachers play an imperative role in guiding individuals
towards the unearthing and improvement of talents, as well as valorizing the proliferation
prospective and the individual welfare. Teachers support students to obtain enormous range of
knowledge and proficiencies needed as specialties in a field. Motivation is the proper internal
force reassuring the satisfaction on a long term with a profession, correspondingly in that of a
teacher. Teachers play the role of intermediary amongst the continuing development world and
students that are about to enter this world. In the framework of encounters they have to face in a
global and digitalized world, teachers increase standards for the level of hopes of which
achievement can spawn professional satisfaction (Floristeau, 2009).
Bishay (1996) measured the levels of job satisfaction and motivation by a study sample
of 50 teachers. From that sample 12 teachers were randomly beeped by special pagers 5 times a
day and for 5 days. Teachers completed surveys, on attitude and activities while each beep was
examined using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). 190 reports were formed on teachers
daily experiences. Job satisfaction and motivation correlated significantly with accountability
levels, gender, subject, age, years of teaching experience, and activity. Based upon the findings,
it seemed that satisfaction of higher-order needs is key for job satisfaction (Bishay, 1996).


Kocabas (2009) claimed that teachers are accountable for their schools, directing
students’ attention and interest in learning. The zeal of the teacher in daily activities has a
substantial impact on increasing the student’s motivation levels (Kocabas, 2009). There is a need
to develop full potential for all students and establish that as the focal objective for school
districts. Teachers must meet those goals and objectives by efficiently instructing students to pass
standardized proficiency testing. When teachers and students do not achieve the school and
district objectives, the school can become more vulnerable in potentially receiving poor ratings
of performance that could impact its future.
Education is essential to the growth and development of all children in the United States.
Despite the ethnicity, religion, culture or socio-economic status, all children have the right to
learn and become contributors to society (Battle, 2009). Unfortunately, the nation is faced with
economic improbability, volatile global competition, and the demand for a strong educated
society to maintain the technological society of the 21st century (Haynes, 2011). U.S. Council on
Foreign Relations (2012) indicated the United States’ breakdown to educate its students leaves
them unqualified to compete and threatens the country’s ability to flourish and thrive. The report
implied that America spends more in K-12 public education than numerous other developed
countries. Its students are not equipped to compete with their global peers. There are successful
individual schools and hopeful reform endeavors but the nationwide statistics are dismayed:

More than 25% of students fall short of graduation from high school in four years. For
graduation African American and Hispanic students, this figure is looming 40%.

Only a quarter of U.S. students are skilled on the National Assessment of Educational


The United States is a nation of immigrants with eight in ten Americans speaking only
English and a declining number of schools teaching foreign languages.

Overall, the deficiency in preparedness creates threats on five national defense fronts: economic
development, competitiveness, physical safety, intellectual property, and global consciousness
(U.S. Foreign Relations, 2012).
Regardless of all challenges, it is essential for teachers to forge ahead and endow learning
experiences for all children. In quintessence, these challenges affecting teachers will engender
negative attitudes, poor attendance, and retention that will impact the student’s academic
Student academics have severe problems in America and teacher motivation is the
solution to student achievement (McBride & Kristonis, 2008). Kocabas (2009) reported
education is a process of behavioral modification and growth that emerges throughout every
phase of life. Teachers are a vital part of the progression. The edifice of a student’s enviable
behavior is straightforwardly linked to the teacher’s motivation levels, attitude, and behavior. A
low motivation level in the teacher, who holds a noteworthy position in the educational process,
has a detrimental impact on achieving excellence in education (Kocabas, 2009).
The North American Association of Educational Negotiators, NAEN (1999) suggested
that educational leaders must discover ways of retaining and motivating teachers in the field of
education. The response of this problem has been an assortment of inducement plans such as
merit pay and career ladders to intentionally obtain maintain the preeminent teachers. This
research suggests that teachers enter the field of teaching with a heart to facilitate the educational
process for children and young adults (NAEN, 1999). Harde, Sullivan, and Roberts (2008)
indicated teachers enter the career because of their aspiration to observe and sustain the


substantial, poignant and academic development of the students. Teacher performance is
measured by student achievement. It’s important to note, a motivated teacher is empowered to
work at all levels and becomes more eager to grow in instructional practices (NAEN, 1999).
If teachers improve attitudes it can construct a healthier work and school environment for both
teachers and students (Simmons & Masschelein, 2008). Making such improvements can result in
stress diminution, low self-esteem, and eventually moribund morale (O’Donnell, Lambert, &
McCarthy, 2008). Addressing these problems can help teachers deal efficiently and effectively
with the challenges they encounter everyday so that the overall school goals can be met.
Motivation plays a significant role in this outcome. When teachers are motivated, reaching
personal and professional goals seems unproblematic. As a result, there is an increasing amount
of industrious staff that is encouraged, motivated, refreshed, invigorated, and empowered to
recognize change while improving their performance that will have an unswerving impact on
student achievement, negative attitudes, attendance, and retention.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ perceptions and of the major
dynamics of intrinsic or extrinsic motivational factors impacting their work outcomes in a rural
school environment and determine whether or not such perceptions differ according to gender
and ethnicity.
Research Questions

Is there a significant impact of motivational factors improving teacher work outcomes
in a rural school environment?


What major dynamics of motivational factors impact teacher work outcomes in a
rural school environment?

What major dynamics of motivational factors negatively impact teacher work
outcomes in a rural school environment?

What major dynamics of motivational factors positively impact teacher work
outcomes in a rural school environment?

What intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall success of
teacher motivation and job satisfaction?

Research Hypotheses
H1: There will be a significant difference based on gender on the impact of motivational
factors improving teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H1: xx1 = xx2
H2: There will be a difference by gender on major dynamics of motivational factors
impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H2 : xx1 = xx2
H3: There will be a difference by gender on major dynamics of motivational factors
negatively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H3: xx1 = xx2
H4: There will be a difference by ethnicity on major dynamics of motivational factors
positively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H4: xx1 = xx2
H5: There will be a significant difference based on years of experience in teaching on
what intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall success of
teacher and job satisfaction. H5 : xx1 = xx2
Null Hypotheses

There will be no statistical difference between genders on the impact of motivational
factors improving teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.


(H01: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between genders on major dynamics of motivational
factors impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment
(H02: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between gender on major dynamics of motivational
factors negatively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.
(H03: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between ethnicity on major dynamics of motivational
factors positively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.
(H04: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There will be no significant difference based on years of experience in teaching on
what intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall success of
teacher and job satisfaction.

(H05: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

The Significance of the Study
This importance of the study is to provide data that will help administrators understand
teachers perceptions and experiences of major dynamics of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational
factors impacting work outcomes in a rural school environment. Throughout the years of
educating children in the U.S., teachers are met with their personal and professional challenges.
This study will provide administrators a road map of what is needed to guide teachers to
effectively perform through motivation. In view of the fact that teachers are at the head of seeing
students daily, it would be appropriate for administrators to better understand what motivational


needs should be addressed to better understand the daily challenges and to empower both
teachers and students to achieve.
Ample research is documented about student motivation in education and miniscule
concentration on understanding teacher motivation (Butler, 2007). According to Mertler (2001),
these and additional research seem to indicate that there exist motivation and satisfaction
problems in the teaching profession. It is likely that many of these teachers are not incapable of
performing well. Perhaps it is the case that many are unwilling to perform well; i.e., they are
unmotivated, possibly as a result of their dissatisfaction with their chosen careers (Mertler, 2001)
Perrrachoine, Rosser, Peterson (2008) asserted that investigation on job satisfaction in the
field of education has discovered both the concerns (outcomes) and experiences (influences) of
teacher satisfaction. Research has studied at least three potential outcomes (retention, attrition
and absenteeism) and at least three major influences (demographic variables, job-role related
characteristics, and work experiences) (Perrachoine, Rosser, Peterson, 2008). Ololube (2006)
noted that the relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term
growth of any educational system around the world. They rank alongside professional
knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable
determinants of educational success and performance (Ololube, 2006).
According to Ololube (2006) needs satisfaction and motivation to work are vital in the
existence of teachers because they form the central motive for working in life. Whereas nearly
each teacher works in directive to satisfy his or her needs in life, he or she relentlessly agitates
for need satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this environment is the capability of the teaching job to
meet teachers’ needs and develop their job/teaching performance. Ololube (2006) evaluated the
differences and relationship between the level of teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and their


teaching performance in Rivers State of Nigeria. The results exposed that teacher interrelated
sources of job satisfaction appear to have a grander impact on teaching performance. As teachers
are also dissatisfied with the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits,
materials rewards and advancement (Ololube, 2006). Hardre', Sullivan, Roberts (2008)
conversed that teachers enter the profession because of their heartfelt aspiration to observe and
support the physical, emotional and intellectual development of their students. Yet a teachers’
performance is measured essentially by student attainments.
Mertler (2001) specified that we, in the field of education, must take attempts to improve
the levels of motivation-and ultimately the levels of satisfaction-of our classroom teachers.
Limitations of the Study
1. The survey used in this research The Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey is
updating and contributing to research on teacher motivation based on developing
information noted by educational researchers.
2. Every teacher surveyed will not respond to all The Teacher Motivation and Job
Satisfaction Survey questions.
3. The study is limited by the obligation of teacher participants to respond to the survey
questions straightforwardly.
4. School districts and researchers primarily using the Texas Motivation and Job
Satisfaction Survey may terminate expending the assessment instrument in the
forthcoming future.
Delimitations of the Study
The following preferences were made by the investigator in regards to the population,
sample size and survey used in this inquiry. Delimitations of the study are as follows:


1. This research is limited to a rural school district in the south east part of Texas.
2. The inquiry will be limited by the researcher to a study population collected of
individual teachers working in the southeast school district.
3. The study is based on participants’ own experiences and perceptions.
4. The data collection is limited to the cooperating school district under evaluation.
Definition of Terms
Extrinsic motivation – promoted by factors external to the individual. Extrinsically
motivated individuals work on tasks because they believe that participation will result in
desirable outcomes such as praise or reward (Portal.com, 2003; 2012).
Intrinsic motivation – refers to motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake.
Intrinsically motivated people perform tasks and engage in behaviors because
participating in activities is reward enough (Portal.com, 2003; 2012)
Attendance –is used to define the number of individuals present on a particular day at
work. An attendance policy provides the guidelines and expectations for employee
attendance at work as defined, written, disseminated, and implemented by an
Attitude – the sense of value one has when completing tasks.
Retention – the intention to return to a school based on thought process and emotional
Self-Esteem – The value of one’s self and ability to feel entirely secure mentally,
spiritually, and emotionally.
Motivation – is the basic energy for all of one’s determinations. Motivation refers to the
underlying forces of one’s behavior, which comprises his/her needs, desires, and
willpowers in life (Cadosales, 2009).


Motivational Factors – is human behavior drivers interrelated to work’s intrinsic nature,
but not inevitably to environment or surrounding circumstances. Achievement,
advancement, autonomy, personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and the work itself
are all likely motivation factors (http://thelawdictionary.org/motivating-factors/)
Teacher Job Satisfaction – is interrelated to levels of intrinsic empowerment and
teacher’s emotional relation to his or her teaching role (Zembylas, Papanastasiou, 2006)
Teacher Job Dissatisfaction – is contributed to by work overload, poor pay and opinions
of how teachers are regarded by society (Zembylas, Papanastasiou, 2006)

Chapter II
Literature Review
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (2011) specified that an estimated 3.7
million full time-equivalent (FTE) elementary and secondary school teachers were affianced in
classroom instruction in fall 2011. A pattern of annual upsurges in total public elementary and
secondary school enrollment began in 1985, but enrollment steadied between 49.3 and 49.4
million during the period 2006-2011. Generally, public enrollment rose 25 percent, from 39.4
million to 49.9 million, between 1985 and 2011 (NCES, 2011). NCES (2013) designated about
65 percent of public schools had teachers or staff with individual or teaching assignments. Amid
public schools, 76 percent of primary schools, 61 percent of middle schools, 46 percent of high


schools, and 49 percent of joined schools had teachers or staff with these assignments. Among
private schools, 39 percent overall, 51 percent of city schools, 44 percent of suburban schools, 23
percent of town schools and 25 percent of rural schools had teachers or staff with individual or
teaching assignments (NCES, 2013).
Texas public schools hired more than 320,000 teachers plus about 70,000 additional
professional staff members such as principals, central office administrators and others. The
Texas Education Agency offers an extensive range of services that assist educators do their jobs.
Those occupations include accrediting education, certification, issuing teaching certificates,
issuing curriculum standards and textbooks and providing standardized student assessments.
Educators need to function effectually and proficiently as they work with the state’s 4.7 million
students (Texas Education Agency, 2013). Beesley (2011) indicated that approximately 740,000
teachers (23 percent of the nation’s employees) work in rural school districts (Beesley, 2011).
Year to year, city and state standards become even more demanding which heightens the
level of academic rigor within schools. As the academic rigor increases, more is expected from
administration, teachers, and students. The administration are pressured to lead the school in an
efficient manner at all times, teachers are to hold students accountable and set an established
learning environment for them, and students are to perform at high levels.
Unfortunately, the core group that are mainly affected and experience an insurmountable
amount of pressure from all angles are the teachers. Their job is very crucial since they are
expected to translate the standards into the classroom to meet the needs of all students
individually and together as a whole. Presently, budget cuts have limited the amount of resources
in schools and, as a result, it adds more weight and stress on teachers. Teachers are still required
to implement the standards and have their students produce in and out the classroom. Being


pressured consistently can affect teacher morale. This is why it is essential to have professional
development, to nurture the abilities of the teachers, and provide support to counteract negativity
and embrace positivity. Remaining positive is a difficult ordeal especially when there are
negative entities present. Being motivated is a vital component for teachers to get the job done
and be confident in doing so.
Mertler (2001) postulated that proficient teaching professionals are being misplaced to a
variation of other occupations. Nevertheless, numerous teachers who have endured in the
classroom have become dispirited toward the work they are responsible to perform. Regrettably,
the individuals most affected by this predicament are their students. These students are being
deprived of opportunity to engage and learn from high percentages of these teachers who have
the aptitudes to be proficient and successful (Mertler, 2001).
Historical Perspective
According to Graham, Weiner (1996), the first major scientific study on theories of
motivation had its foundation around 1930. Educational psychologist have withdrawn from the
quest of universal conception of behavior to a consideration of theories of achievement behavior
and values that influence augment achievement strivings. The researchers specified there was a
shift in the types of theories and principles suggested, from those conceiving of the individual as
machine like, without conscious awareness of volition and controlled by environmental forces,
to insights of individuals as rational scientists, decision makers, information processors, selfdetermining and having other physiognomies related with an active mind (Graham, Weiner,
Graham, Weiner specified three eras where scientific studies of theories of motivation
was observed. The Mechanistic Period: 1930 -1960, the Arrival of Cognition: 1960 – 1970, and


Contemporary Motivation. Graham, Weiner (1996) conversed about the influx of cognition in
1960 through 1970. In 1969, four theoretical approaches ruled motivation such as
associationistic theory (John Watson), drive theory (Hull and Spence), cognitive-theory (Kurt
Lewin and John Atkinson) and psychoanalytic theory (Sigmund Freud). Comprehensive
research areas analyzed in the 60’s encompassed exploratory behavior, affiliation, balance
(dissonance), frustration, and aggression.
Graham, Weiner (1996) further noted detailed concerns of educational psychologists
also represented in the 1930’s to 1950’s, included praise and reproof, success and failure,
knowledge of results (feedback), cooperation and competition, and reward and punishment. In
contrast to the themes related with drive theory, the concern of educational psychologists were
less obviously tied to any formal origins of motivation. The investigational examination of
motivation was associated with the exploration for the motors of behavior and was linked with
mechanical theories such as instinct, drive, arousal, need, and energization (Graham, Weiner,
The Oregon School Boards Association (2009) reported in the 1980’s, the fact that state
governments and local school districts endorse an assortment of incentive plans intended to
recruit, reward, and retain preeminent teachers. Merit pay and career ladders were projected to
provide financial incentives, various work, and advancement opportunities for veteran teachers.
These, along work environment premiums for problematic assignments and grants or sabbaticals
for research and study, were estimated to improve teacher performance and motivation (Oregon
School Boards, 2009). Schunk, Pintrich, Meese (2006; 2012) proposed that numerous early
views interrelated motivation with inner forces: instincts, traits, volition, and will. Behavioral
(conditioning) theories view motivation as an increased or continual level of responding to


stimuli brought about by reinforcement (reward). Mertler (2001) discussed several previous
studies examining teachers’ levels of satisfaction, as well as other concerns correlated to that
Characteristics of a rural school district. Jimerson (2003) described the characteristics
of a rural district as being the following:

Districts tend to be small, thus the quantity of students who take any particular exam is
small. Low numbers of “test-takers” generate special statistical encounters in using state

assessment strategies to make reliable and valid conclusions about academic performance
Rural schools are underprivileged and often have enormous focus of minority children
where students are from poor families and communities do not achieve as well
academically as those from advantaged experiences. Achieving (AYP) “adequate yearly
progress” aims at reaching 100% adeptness within 12 years will be challenging leaving

students susceptible to “achievement gap”
Insufficient and inequitable small rural districts agonize from competing for qualified
teachers, updating facilities in poor environments, and declining enrollment syphoned off
per-pupil state aid, retaining more liability on local communities
Robinson, Blaine, Pace (2004) conducted a study in three rural Iowa community school

districts devising fewer than 600 students in K-12 as indomitable by district enrollment data
available from the Iowa Department of Education. The study established the following:

Students, teachers, administrators and staff at all the schools involved specified positive

feelings such as, “Everybody knows everybody”.
Teachers noted their small class sizes permitted them to get to know their students
Schools are the focus of the community with its sports and music often a central source of
entertainment in the area.


Teacher positions are occupied by young, single teachers who, after teaching one or two
years, who would receive a teaching and coaching position in a larger community that
compensated more and presented a wider variety of social opportunities for a single
individual (Robinson, Blaine, Pace, 2004).
Motivation defined. Motivation is defined the rational process that stimulates an

organism to act (Merriam-Webster’s, 2012). From this stimulus, an emotional reaction is aroused
and directs a definite behavioral response (NDT Resources, 2000). Motivation influences a time
of reflection and pushes an individual toward acting on their particular situation. The pressures in
life can naturally coerce an individual to buckle and push away any feelings of going against the
grain (Burnim, 2008). Conforming to what society expects is an easier route in comparison to
devising a unique plan according to specific ambitions and interests (Conger & Benjamin, 2006).
In order to achieve personal goals, it entails a high level of focus and ability to remain patient
and positive throughout one’s journey. The presence of motivation plays a great role in remaining
centered and concentrated on continuing a path towards success. It fuels the behavior to move
with an intensity of excitement and energy.
Daniel (2013) denoted motivation is an internal drive to create an effort. It is perceived
as a stimulation component that is originated by a need or aspiration for to improve or finish a
task or objective (Daniel, 2013) Din, Tufail, Sherren, Nawaz, Shahboz (2012) specified that
motivation is defined as an inner state that provokes, express and sustain behavior a definite
period of time. Definitions of motivation fluctuate prominently comparatively due to the
complication of concept and because many authors tend to define motivation in terms of explicit
discipline theories. Nevertheless motivation is one the most important mechanisms of learning.
It embraces a crucial role in the teaching learning process (Din, Tufail, Sherren, Nawaz,


Shahboz, 2012). Schunk, Pintrich, Meese, (2006; 2012) postulated that it is the process whereby
goal-directed activity is initiated and persistent. Contemporary cognitive views postulate that
individuals’ thoughts, beliefs, and emotions effect motivation. Motivation is consistent with the
cognitive effort on learners’ thoughts and beliefs and that captures the fundamentals considered
by most researchers and practitioners to be crucial to motivation (Schunk, Pintrich, Meese, 2006;
2012). Felix (2011) clarified that motivation can be defined as an internal condition that arouses,
directs, and maintains behavior Felix, 2004). Inayatullah, Jehangir (2012) cited that motivation
is defined as a dynamic force that entails an individual to take specific actions in order to attain
definite goals. Motivational level of individuals are diverse like perception, attitude of everyone
is different. For example a person feels famished, and as a reaction that individual eats so that
the feelings of hunger lessened (Inayatulla, Jehangir, 2012).
Ryan and Deci (2000) refer to motivation as an act of being moved to do something. An
individual who experiences no momentum or encouragement is far less enthusiastic when
compared to someone who is energized or stimulated to reach a specific goal. Although two
individuals may internalize information presented to them differently, being exposed to some
level of motivation forces one to stop and think about one’s present life situation. It is a source of
guidance that helps one to envision and act on any adjustments that need to be made to have a
more fruitful life.
Motivational theories. Research on human motivation postulates that motivation plays
an important role in the performance of role and/or career performance in all job classifications.
The most salient motivational theories during the last half of the 20th century are:

Expectancy theories – Motivation is determined by a person’s insights or beliefs
regarding the affiliation between his or her conduct and the consequences of that


behavior, and the personal satisfaction or dissatisfaction which the person assumes to
experience as an outcome of obtaining those results (Egbema, Uche, Fiberesima,

Christiana, 2011).
Needs Based Theory of Motivation – provided hierarchy of factors that motivate an
employee such as physiological/basic needs, safety and security, belongingness and
affiliation, self-esteem, and self-actualization (Shah, Rehman, Akhtar, Zafar, Riaz,

McClelland Theory (1965) called the learned or acquired needs theory posits that
people learn their needs through life experiences; they were not born with them. The
theory builds on the much earlier work on Henry Murray (1938), who theorized that
people acquire an individual profile of needs by interaction with environment (Brown,

Sargeant, 2007).
Equity Theory – asserts that the central way a person assesses his job is by equating

his own work experiences with those of other people (Ofojebe, Ezugoh, 2010).
Atkinson’s Theory of Achievement – the tendency to approach an achievement
through achievement, success at task and incentive values of success (Graham,
Weiner, 1996).

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. According to Ashiedu, Scott-Ladd (2010) the
fundamental factors that motivate people to go into or leave the teaching profession are
numerous and intricate and range from intrinsic to extrinsic factors. (Ashiedu, Scott-Ladd, 2010).
Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser (2008) conferred that job satisfaction is impacted by an extensive
variation of factors. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (1966) of job satisfaction has influenced a
sum of studies concerning teachers’ job satisfaction. In his work, Herzberg posited that job
satisfaction has influenced “intrinsic factors” or “motivators” linking to actual job content or
“what the person does” and by “extrinsic factors” or “hygienes” related with the work


environments or “the situation” in which the individual does the work. Illustrations of motivator
factors for teachers would be teaching and working with studies (intrinsic) and working
conditions such as salary levels and role overload (extrinsic) (Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser,
Brown, Sargeant (2007) described the hygienes related to job context (work environment)
and relations, and working conditions. Motivators are related to job satisfaction when present,
but not dissatisfaction when absent. Hygienes are associated with job dissatisfaction when
absent, but not with satisfaction when present.
Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser (2008) explained examples of motivator factors for
teachers would be teaching and working with studies (intrinsic) and working conditions such as
salary levels and role overload (extrinsic). According to Herzberg, extrinsic hygiene factors,
which are external to what a person does, do not contribute to job satisfaction but rather to job
satisfaction. Alternatively, the presence of intrinsic factors or motivators lead to more
satisfaction but their absence does not lead to job satisfaction (Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser,
Chandra, Cooper, Cornick, Malone (2011) disclosed that Fredrick Herzberg developed
his theory that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by dissimilar work factors.
Those factors linked with job satisfaction were intrinsic and include things such as achievement,
recognition and responsibility. Herzberg entitled the factors ‘motivators’, Those factors related
with job dissatisfaction were extrinsic and comprised things such as company policy,
administration, interpersonal relations, working conditions. Herzberg entitled these factors
“hygiene factors” (Chandra, Cooper, Cornick, Malone, 2011). Oregon School Board Association
(2009) implied that these factors are work context factors that meet standard needs. They


include working conditions such as class size, discipline conditions and obtainability of teaching
materials; the quality of the principal’s management; and basic psychological needs such as
money, status, and security. Overall, context factors clear the path of the debris that blocks
effective teaching. In sufficient supply, these factors prevent dissatisfaction. Even the greatest
intrinsically motivated teacher will become disheartened if the salary doesn’t pay the mortgage
(Oregon School Board Association, 2009).
Ryan and Deci (2000) distinguished two types of motivation as intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation is taking pleasure in doing an activity for its innate fulfillment rather than for
some detachable cost. It exists within individuals and when dealing with other human beings.
“It’s the sort of motivation that you get when you’re doing something you enjoy; when the task
itself is its own reward” (Luke, 2012). Extrinsic motivation is doing an activity to attain some
divisible effect (Ryan, Deci, 2000). The authors used the Self-Determine Theory to differentiate
between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The theory establishes extrinsic motivation as having
characteristically impoverished forms of motivation and some of which symbolize energetic,
agentic conditions (Ryan, Deci, 2000). In other words, behavior can be performed with anger,
bitterness, confrontation, and apathetic or otherwise an attitude of eagerness that replicates an
internal acceptance of the significance of an assignment. The first illustrations involve behavior
displaying outer power or control and the latter demonstrating an emotion of preference and
personal approval. The factor of this type of motivation is external and provides perceptive ways
on how an assignment will be obtained and performed. “This is the motivation which gets you to
plough on with something you don’t like all that much…because you know there’ll be a reward
at the end” (Luke, 2012).


Schwartz (2009) reviewed the evidence that incentives extrinsic to the tasks at hand
whether directed to teachers or to students-can demoralize intrinsic motivation to teach and to
learn, subsequent in worse performance than would have resulted without extrinsic incentives.
Incentives schemes proposed to improve teacher performance, as measured by the performance
of students on standardized tests, may or may not essentially improve performance (Schwartz,
According to Pink (2009), Deci established and completed in two additional
investigations that when cash is used as an external incentive for various activity, the subjects
lose intrinsic interest for the activity. Rewards can provide a short-term enhancement—just as a
jolt of caffeine can keep you cranking for a few additional hours. But the impact wears off—
and, worse, can decrease a person’s longer-term motivation to endure the project (Pink, 2009).
Shaver, Milkulincer (2012) argued that when the incentive of an activity has been internalized,
regulation is said to be external. The conduct is endorsed compliantly and is experienced as
controlled. Such behavior is regulated externally by threats of punishment or offers of materials
rewards (Shaver, Milkulincer, 2012).
According to Johnson (2004), for all of its potential rewards, teaching is uncertain work.
In some professions goals are clear and explicit, and success is easily measurable.
Schoolteacher, teaching does not have such straightforward outcomes. Schools are charged with
the social, emotional, and moral development of children. Teaching goals are hard to define, in
turn making their attainment hard to measure (Johnson, 2004).
Ryan and Deci (2000) propose that intrinsic motivation through the SDT inherently exits
in humans and relations connecting individuals and assignments. This behavior is executed
through curiosity and fulfillment of instinctive psychological needs for proficiency and


independence. Intrinsic motivation presents itself as an internal factor and provides ways of
understanding inner connection toward an assignment that will be executed. The researchers
assessed several studies that precisely indicated societal circumstances that support intrinsic
motivation and aid internalization and assimilation of extrinsically motivated assignments. SDT
signifies the conception of intrinsic motivation which refers to the motivation to employ in
behavior for the inborn joy that such an activity gives, as distinguished from extrinsic
motivation. Oregon School Board Association (2009) illustrated that work content factors are
intrinsic to the work itself. They comprise opportunities for professional development,
recognition, challenging and various work, enlarged responsibility, achievement, empowerment,
and authority (Oregon School Board Association, 2009).
Shah, Rehman, Akhtar, Zafar, Riaz (2012) studied major factors for the job satisfaction of
employees and it articulated the relationship among reward and recognition, satisfaction with
supervision and the work itself with the job satisfaction and as a result of the intrinsic motivation
of employees while working with an educational establishment. Descriptive statistics were used
to conclude the central tendency of the data and trend of the variables. Outcomes showed
suggestively positive relationship between reward and recognition, satisfaction with supervision
and the work itself, with job satisfaction as well as a very positive and significant relationship
was also observed between job and satisfaction and intrinsic motivation (Shah, Rehman, Aktar,
Zafar, Riaz, 2012).
Skaalvik, Skaalvik (2010) specified that teachers are often motivated by morals, ethical
motives, and intrinsic motivation. The researchers noted that teachers certainly interconnect and
exemplify values. It is anticipated that teachers are most contented when they can teach in


congruence with their own educational beliefs and standards and less comfortable if they have to
signify values that are not persistent with their individual values (Skaalvik, Skaalvik, 2010).
Motivational factors. Wyk, (2011) clarified that motivation is a purposeful practice that
managers can use to study human potential and aptitudes. Establishments cannot compete
successfully without motivated employees. Low motivation levels in a workforce reflect poorly
on the general impression of the organization. Motivated employees on the other hand will
guarantee that the company flourishes. Increased motivation will result into a “feel good” factor
spread throughout the association (Wyk, 2011).
Teacher motivation. Din, Fail, Sheree, Nawaz, Shahbaz (2012) detailed that teacher
motivation obviously has to do with teachers’ attitude to work. It has to do with teachers’
attentiveness in student discipline and control specifically in the classroom. The teacher is the
individual that deciphers educational viewpoint and objectives into knowledge and skill and
transmit them to students in the classroom (Din, Fail, Sheree, Nawaz, Shahbaz, (2012).
Gupta, Gehlawat (2013) specified that motivation is another factor which impacts the
performance of teachers. Every employer desires to employ positively motivated people who
want to work and will continue to try hard through the overall period of employment. Schools
need highly motivated teachers so as to achieve their goals and produce good citizens. It is one
of the numerous factors that go into a teacher’s performance. It includes the factors that cause,
channel and sustain the performance of teachers in a specific unswerving direction (Gupta,
Gehlawat, 2013).
Panisoara (2008) deliberated that in current years the challenge of motivation for the
teaching career developed a compelling circumstance not only for the development of the


educational system as such. But we can affirm without exaggeration that even the societal
progress in a constructive direction can be assumed from the point of view of this area of
research. Motivated teachers lead to motivated students. Teachers who are not motivated might
effortlessly lead to the experience of negatively influencing the motivation of students they are
working with (Panisoara, 2008).
Uche, Fiberesima, Christiana (2011) randomly designated a sample of 150 teachers from
10 secondary schools in Ogba Egbema Noloni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The
researchers investigated the relationship between motivational factors and teacher’s performance
on the job. The results detailed that there is a significant relationship between motivational
factors and teachers’ performance and a significant relationship existing between teachers
experience and their job performance. Some validations such as providing highly motivated,
hardworking and effectual classroom teachers, inspire the spirit of enquiry and creativity in
teachers, aid teachers to fit into the societal life of the teaching profession etc., were also
highlighted that have consequences for educational practice (Uche, Fiberesima, Christiana,
According to Jesus, Lens (2005) current studies demonstrate that teachers undergo more
than other professional groups from the occupational lack of motivation. Teacher motivation is
an imperative concern for educational leaders and managers because teacher motivation has a
central influence on student motivation. A common teacher’s complaint is the struggle of
keeping students motivated to learn in the classroom: How much more problematic is it if the
teachers themselves are not motivated? Teacher motivation is vital for the fulfillment and
performance of teachers themselves. When the overall importance of having motivated teachers
is contrasted with the common lack of teacher motivation, an overweight disparity is obvious: In


short, while teacher motivation is essential to the teaching/learning process, countless teachers
are not highly motivated (Jesus, Lens, 2005).
The researchers Jesus, Lens (2005) examined teacher motivation through the lenses of
different cognitive-motivational variables and one indicator of teacher lack of motivation, that is,
the lack of proficient engagement. The learned helplessness model assumes that the stressed
teacher was primarily motivated for success but was exposed to consecutive, overwhelming
failures. If these failures were accredited to internal and established factors and the teacher
learns that results cannot be controlled, regardless of individual actions taken, a general
expectancy of external control. A similar situation can transpire if the teacher constructs
external, unstable and uncontrollable attributes to expound professional successes (Jesus, Lens,
Teacher job satisfaction. Zembylas, Papanastasiou (2006) noted that the central factor
found to provide job satisfaction of teachers is working with children. Further factors involved
developing warm, individual relationships with students, the academic challenge of teaching and
autonomy and independence (Zembylas, Papanastasiou, 2006). Griffin (2010) discussed that
work inhabits an essential position in individual’s lives, and with the difficulties of inflation,
outsourcing, shrinking labor supply, and slowdowns in the economic expansions, etc., the role
that a job plays in a person’s life takes high priority. Subsequently, the level of satisfaction that a
person experiences as a consequence of his or her job can have a momentous impact on those he
or she interacts with. Teachers have an immense power on their students (Griffin, 2010).
Dickens (2010) argued that school districts across the country make many decisions that impact
teachers’ satisfaction both positively and negatively. Huysman (2008) specified that
commitment and enthusiasm are essential elements of job satisfaction which are compromised


when teachers recognize that their experience, talents, and knowledge are dismissed,
disregarded, or underutilized. Teachers must sustain an adequate level of job satisfaction to
maintain their enthusiasm and commitment for not only the teaching career but also for their
pupils. Experiencing enthusiasm and commitment inspires teachers to effectively prepare
themselves to convey information and skills and supplements their capacity to generate a quality
learning environment crucial for students to succeed (Huysman (2008). Brown, Sargeant (2007)
explicated that a satisfied worker leads to higher productivity because of less commotions such
absenteeism, exodus of virtuous employees, and occurrences of disparaging behavior (Sargeant.
2007). Floristeau (2009) explained that motivation and satisfaction, substantiated that
motivation is the true central force guaranteeing the satisfaction on a long term within a career,
correspondingly in that of a teacher (Floristeau, 2009)


Teacher job dissatisfaction. The Harris Interactive (2012) conducted The MetLife
Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership with 1,000 U.S. K-12 public
school teachers and 500 U.S. K-12 public school principals through comprehensive telephone
interviews. The Harris Interactive indicated through (2013) the MetLife Survey of the American
Teacher specified that teacher satisfaction has deteriorated 23 percentage points since 2008, from
62% to 39%, the lowest level in 25 years. Half (51%) teachers felt under excessive stress several
days a week, an upturn of 15 percentage over 36% of teachers reporting that level in 1985. Less
satisfied teachers are more likely than very satisfied teachers to be in schools where budgets
declined in the last 12 months (61% vs. 47%) and to ascertain sustaining an adequate supply of
effective teachers (58% vs. 43%) and generating and maintaining an academically rigorous
learning environment (66% vs. 56%) as perplexing or very challenging for school leaders. Less
satisfied teachers are more likely to be positioned in schools that had regressions in professional
development (21% vs. 14%) and in time for collaboration with other teachers (29% vs. 16%) in
the last 12 months. Approximately all teachers (97%) give high marks to other teachers in their
schools (Harris, Interactive, 2012).


Teacher’s negative attitudes. Attitudes impact one’s level of production both on a
personal and professional basis. Consistently being negative impacts not only the production but
also the efficiency and accuracy when completing tasks. A positive attitude contributes to an
individual being open at all times and not harping on the flaws of a project but the potential it
may have. The North American Association of Educational Negotiators (1999) indicated for the
past twenty years that teachers have been analyzed as essential contributors to the problems of
education and their resolution. Educational researchers and administrators have faced the
challenge of motivating teachers to elevate levels of performance. Marzano et al. (2012) implied
most people distinguish that attitudes and perceptions persuade learning. Many occurrences in
the learning experience have warranted the influence of our attitudes and perceptions related to
the teacher, other students, our own capabilities, and the significance of assigned tasks. When our
attitudes and perceptions are positive, learning is improved, when they are negative, learning
suffers. It is the mutual effort of the teacher and student to work collectively to sustain positive
attitudes and perceptions or to transform negative attitudes and perception. The author suggested
that an efficient and proficient teacher constantly strives to sway attitudes and perceptions to the
degree that students are not knowledgeable of the endeavor (Marzano et al., 2012). Gorrow
(2004) specified that today’s educational environment has impacted the most dedicated educators
within the classrooms due to school goals and expectations increasingly becoming unrealistic
with time. Educators are expected to perform in any and every predicament put before them no
matter the difficulty or challenges at hand. Brilliant teachers lose their motivation and no longer
benefit from teaching (Gorrow, 2004).
Pink (2009) designated the beginning point for any dialogue of motivation in the
workplace as a simple fact of life: Individuals have to make a living: Salary, contract payments,


various benefits, are incentives and what the author calls “baseline rewards.” If someone’s
baseline rewards aren’t acceptable or reasonable, the concentration will be on the injustice of the
condition and fretfulness of the situation andyou will receive very little motivation altogether
(Pink, 2009).
Sorenson (2012) advocated that if a teacher has a negative attitude towards education, his
profession or his students, it may pressure his performance as an educator. A teacher’s belief
system can impact students. Thompson, Warren, and Cater (2004) designated this blueprint of
teacher behavior on attitudes and beliefs is often recurring and, over time, disadvantageous to the
academic and emotional accomplishment of students.
Teacher’s attendance. Nadeem, Rana, Lone, Maqbool, Naz, and Ali (2011) explained
that teachers are the most vital element of any structure of education. Teachers must be part of
the answer, not part of the dilemma. Jacobs and Kristsonis (2007) proposed absenteeism is an
absolute loss to the educational organization. Wisconsin Association of School Boards, WASB
(2011) reported newer research found a correlation between teacher attendance and student
achievement. Three Harvard researchers established that “10 additional days of teacher absence
reduce student achievement in fourth grade mathematics by at least 3.2% of a standard
deviation” (WASB, 2011, p. 1). Likewise, a study that analyzed rural, urban, and suburban
districts resolute that each 10 days of teacher absence abridged “student achievement by 1% or
2% of a standard deviation” (WASB, 2011, p. 1).
Miller (2008) indicated that typically, teachers are absent between nine to ten days per
year. Students are taught by substitutes or assigned teachers for approximately two-thirds of a
given school year. The effects are felt financially and disproportionately. For example:

5.3 percent of teachers are absent on any given day.


The use of substitute teachers and associated administrators to be utilized as an alternate
for the absent teacher cost an excessive amount of $4 billion per year.

Every 10 absentees lower mathematics achievement by the same as having a teacher with
one year to two years of experience instead of a teacher with three or more years.

Teachers are absent at a higher rate in areas that serve low-income students more than
affluent communities (Center for Progress, 2008).


Teacher retention. According to Curtis (2012) teacher shortages have existed for several
years. Even in today’s economy, with teacher lay-offs in abundance, lack of mathematics and
science teachers still occur (Curtis, 2012). Mckinney, Berry, Dickerson, Campbell-Whately
(2007) noted that recruiting and retaining quality teachers specific for high- poverty schools in
urban areas is a nationwide issue, especially in light of the “No Child Left Behind” federation
legislation. The educational realities damaging effects of poverty, and human desolation
habitually depress low- income communities can prove to be quite overwhelming for many
teachers new to the vocation and significantly contribute to high levels of teacher absenteeism,
attrition rates, and teacher shortages (Mckinney, Berry, Dickerson, Campbell-Whately 2007).
Garcia, Slate (2009) further notes that annually, teachers enter, leave, and move within the K-12
teacher workforce. A high level of teacher turnover infers that an organization has major
complications and can cause volatility and thus lead to additional difficulties


According to Gadson (2010) hiring and sustaining highly qualified teachers has been a
challenge for many rural school districts. Lower salaries, working conditions, and geographic
locality are several of the challenges rural districts face when staffing their schools. Southeast
Center for Teaching Quality (2003) supports rural districts have challenges recruiting teachers
because they largely have lesser salaries, they frequently neighbor wealthier areas, and teaching
is a low-wage occupation. Research confirms that teacher salaries are 11 -17 percent lower in
rural schools nationwide. Conflicting to the belief that the cost of living is lower in rural school
areas, research illustrations that it is more expensive to dwell in poor communities, where quality
of life is less of a motivation. Numerous rural communities have no appropriate local housing,
and teachers must sustain reliable cars in areas without public transportation (Southeast Center
for Teaching Quality, 2003). The challenge of employing teachers in rural areas are compounded
by competition from larger districts located in metropolitan areas. Gadson (2010) performed
mixed-methods study to determine to what degree certain factors impact teacher retention in one
rural school district. Highly qualified teachers having 5 to 15 years’ experience in the district
were invited to partake in the study. Qualitative data was collected through interviews with five
teachers, one district-level administrator, and one principal were randomly selected from the
qualified participants. The outcomes proposed that teachers’ decisions to continue with the
district are impacted by their knowledge of their positions, job satisfaction, and needs of their
students. Administrators specified they deem teacher retention is impacted by job security, job
satisfaction, and principal and collegial support (Gadson, 2010).
Perrachoine, Rosser, Peterson (2008) postulated that one of the fundamental challenges is
retaining competent teachers (Perrachoine, Rosser, Peterson). Dickens (2010) explained that
statistics indicate a substantial number of teachers leave the profession in the first five years of


experience. McCaw, Freemon, Philhower (2002) revealed in an environment of emergent
enrollment, reduced funding, and unfunded mandated state and national programs, urban and
rural school districts find it progressively problematic to entice and maintain qualified teachers
(McCaw, Freemon, Philhower, 2002). Greiner and Smith (2006) signified that teacher shortages
have become a concern nationwide. This isdue to fewer people entering the teaching profession,
rising retirement numbers, and the growth of school age populations (Greiner & Smith, 2006).
Berry, Petrin, Gravelle,and Farmer (2012) stated as a consequence of teacher shortages and a
lesser professional pool from which to draw, rural administrators may employ teachers who are
inefficiently experienced or incongruously certified in order to fill vacancies. Insufficient
certification is one aspect that contributes to increased teacher attrition (Berry et al., 2002). The
National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, NCTAF (2002) reported the following:

Turnover for teachers is considerably higher than other professions.

One third of America’s teachers leave the field during first three years and half leave after
five years (National Center for Education Statistics, 1999-2000).

Teachers leave low-income communities at a higher rate.

In the State of Texas between 1993 and 1996, 19% of the state’s new teachers left the
profession after their first year (NCTAF, 2002).
According to NCTAF (2002), the United States generates a sufficient number of teachers

to meet the needs of the communities. The scarcity problem may be understood better as a crisis
of teacher desirability, allocation, and retention. There are shortages of people eager to work at
the wages and under the working environments offered in explicit locations. States that offer
higher wages in conjunction with policies are supportive of education and teaching. States that
have a greater number of teacher preparation institutions have fewer problems hiring teachers.


Most wealthy school districts have a superfluous of teachers while poorer districts that offer
lower wages and less attractive working environment have challenges hiring (NCTAF, 2002).
Johnson (2004) indicated that new teachers obtain slight mentoring and experience insufficient
useful classroom observations complemented by feedback. Although teaching is meaningful and
enthralling work, potential recruits currently find it far less striking than their colleagues thirty
years ago. Prospective teachers are put off by teaching’s low pay and low status, the inexorable
demands of the job, and the conditions of the school as a work environment (Johnson, 2004).
Jimerson (2003) established that teacher shortages are traced in all areas in urban,
suburban and rural communities with demographic differences. Research has suggested that
rural areas, particularly, are discovering it increasingly challenging to interest and retain well
qualified new teachers. Increasing reports document severe teacher shortages, specifically in
some subject areas and in specific locations. In addition, researchers forecast that this shortage
will accelerate intensely over the next decade (Jimerson, 2003).
Hardre', Sullivan, Roberts (2008) conversed that teachers enter the profession because of
their heartfelt desire to witness and support the physical, emotional and intellectual growth of
their students. Yet a teachers’ performance is measured largely by student achievements.
Because motivation influences both development and performance outcomes, educators have a
Oregon School Board Association (2009) depicted that educational leaders should find
ways to retain teachers in the profession and keep them motivated. A motivated teacher, is one
who not only feels satisfied with his or her job, but also is empowered to strive for excellence
and growth in instructional practice (Oregon School Board Association, 2009). Greenlee, Brown
(2009) cited in a study of teacher attrition in Texas, it was projected that the teacher turnover rate
was 15% overall and virtually 40% for individuals in their first three years of teaching. It is


assessed that the entire cost for school districts nationally to recruit, hire, and retrain replacement
teachers to fill the positions is roughly 7.34 billion dollars (Greenlee, Brown (2009).
Ferguson, Johnson (2010) indicated that new teachers begin their careers, they experience
exhilaration, excitement, uncertainty, self-doubt, inaccessibility, and, at times, an overpowering
sense of frustration. To deal with these often conflicting emotions, new teachers may pursue
opportunities to share their experiences with other novices as well as with veteran teachers at
their school (Ferguson, Johnson, 2010).
Mertler (2001) conferred that competent teachers are being lost to a variety of other
professions. In addition, countless teachers who continued in the classroom have developed
apathetic attitudes toward the work they are indicted to perform. Regrettably, the individuals
most impacted by this predicament are their students. These students are being dispossessed of
the chance to learn from a high percentage of these teachers who have the potential to be
proficient and effective. It is essential to gain understanding of the job satisfaction of teachers
(Mertler, 2001).
Huysman (2008) noted that compounding the problem concerning rural teacher job
satisfaction is the burden rural schools face in placing highly qualified teachers in each of their
classrooms in the center of a national teacher shortage. Rural school districts have embraced the
concept of home grown teacher to help ease the teacher shortage. This approach has been
professed to be a program that places teachers in the rural classroom with innate motivation and
job satisfaction, research is fundamentally nonexistent concerning the definite effects of
application (Huysman, 2008).
Huysman (2008) investigated teachers’ beliefs and attitudes impacting job satisfaction in
a rural school district using a mixed methods study to measure 20 factors for job satisfaction


through individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) short method designed by Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1997).
The MSQ measured an employee’s intrinsic, extrinsic, and general satisfaction with his/her job
centered on 20 factors of job satisfaction. The Rural Teacher Satisfaction Survey (RTSS)
encompassed 11 demographic items requesting respondent information by either examining an
applicable answer box by providing a written response. In the RTSS was a question that
acknowledged teachers as “homegrown” teacher or “transplanted.” A homegrown teacher was
defined as one who was employed by a school district who received his/her secondary education
with in the same school district or same school while a “transplanted” was one working within a
school who did not attend secondary school in that school or district (Huysman, 2008).
According to Huysman (2008) research, 95.5% of rural teachers stated a generally high
level of satisfaction, on a scale score of 84 as defined by University of Minnesota Department of
Vocational Psychology. Approximately 85% of rural teacher respondents specified that they
were satisfied and envisioned continuing teaching in the rural district. The 20 dimensions of job
satisfaction related to the psychological needs of workers and were attained through the use of
the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. The study established prior research suggesting that
numerous factors influence job satisfaction with intrinsic satisfaction factors being the
preeminent predictors of overall job satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction factors the utmost
expected to envisage dissatisfaction. Study participants conferred that security, activity, social,
service, variety, and ability utilization were the intrinsic factors ranked highest in contributing to
job satisfaction and the extrinsic factors of recognition, company policies, opportunities for
advancement, co-workers, and compensation most influenced dissatisfaction (Huysman, 2008).
Garcia, Slate (2009) indicated that numerous school districts serving the urban and rural schools,


especially those districts with a majority of minority and low-income students, have a
challenging time satisfying positions and certain accreditation areas lack qualified teachers
(Garcia, Slate, 2009).
Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser (2008) examined 300 randomly selected Missouri public
elementary schoolteachers in grades K-5 having 5 or more years of teaching experience. The
outcomes from 201 respondents recommended that three intrinsic motivators (personal teaching
efficacy, working with students, and job satisfaction) were perceived to significantly influence
satisfaction and retention, while two extrinsic motivators (low salary and role overload) did not
have any consequence. Expending multiple linear regression and qualitative analysis, the results
confirmed that teachers who experienced satisfaction at their school and/or satisfaction with the
profession of teaching were more likely to remain. No relationship was established between
satisfaction with the job seeking, suggesting that retention was indomitable by teacher
satisfaction with the profession and not with work-related duties. The guidance of experiences
concerning teacher demographics and profile characteristics, job satisfaction and obligation to
the profession may in turn, have an influence on proposed teacher turnover (Perrachione,
Peterson, Rosser, 2008). Brown, Sargeant (2007) explicated that studies concerning the
relationship between tenure, defined as length of service, and job satisfaction have displayed
unreliable outcomes. The teachers experienced their lowest job satisfaction between 1 and 3
years of their professional career with it continuously intensifying from the fourth year on
(Brown, Sargeant, 2007).
Johnson, 2004 indicated there is a merging of numerous factors that increase the demand
for new teachers – substantial retirements by veteran teachers, enrollment growth, class-size
reductions, the requirements of NCLB, prospective teachers’ decisions not to pursue a vocation


in teaching, and the attrition and transfer of countless new recruits. Collectively, they create the
circumstances of a “perfect storm” in education, a storm in which valuable teaching proficiency
is lost and never replace, schools undergo repeated interference as new teachers come and go,
and low-income schools are further destabilized by their incapability to attract and retain resilient
teachers (Johnson, 2004). The Harris Interactive (2012) indicated that more principals find it
challenging to retain a sufficient supply of effective teachers in urban schools (60% vs. 43% in
suburban schools and 44% in rural schools) and in schools with two-thirds or more low-income
students (58% vs. 37% in schools with one-third or fewer) (Harris Interactive, 2012).
Salary and merit pay. Miles, Baroody, Regenstein (2011) detailed that more than 80
percent of school operational expenditures pay for compensation, with the maximum of that
paying for teacher compensation (Miles, Baroody, Regenstein, 2011). Hess (2004) disclosed the
argument about how to improve American schooling is that superior teachers are required. The
teaching force is not equivalent to the challenge of the new century. The method in which we
reward and manage this force, the legacy of a period when talented women lacked other
alternatives and would teach in one school for years, serves to deter brilliant candidates while
paying and cloistering ineffectual teachers. Today, just 5.5 percent of traditional public schools
districts report expending pay incentives such as cash bonuses, salary increases, or additional
salary steps to recompense exceptional teaching. Only five states offer retention bonuses to
retain teachers in high-need schools. Meanwhile, majority of education back differential pay.
The 2003 Public Agenda Survey of Teachers established the following:

70 percent maintained giving additional pay to teachers in :tough neighborhoods
with low performing schools”


67 percent maintained it for “teachers who unfailingly work harder than other

62 percent maintained it for “teachers who constantly obtain outstanding
assessments from their principals.”

School districts repeatedly provide fragmentary stipends for coaching or teaching English
as a second language, yet they don’t recompense those teachers who mentor colleagues, evaluate
lessons plans, or otherwise work to make the school efficacious. The profession rescinds too
many spirited practitioners by expecting teachers to enthusiastically sacrifice professional
growth, development and compensation (Hess, 2004).
Dessoff (2010) postulated that salaries are a key issues in most rural districts, which don’t
have the funds to compensate teachers what larger, urban districts would. Districts can’t pay
larger salary supplements like other wealthy districts, the salaries are lesser than in other
districts, limiting the scope and eminence of their candidate pool (Dessoff, 2010). According to
Townsell (2007) it is no secret that teachers in rural schools can assume to have reduced
incomes. While salary is a great deterrent in the recruitment of qualified teachers for small rural
schools, the feeling of isolation is often the first reason cited as one of the negatives when
looking at rural life (Townsell, 2007). Southeast Center for Teaching Quality (2003) implicated
over 31 percent of public schools are rural areas, comprising over 49 percent of public school
systems, comprising over 49 percent of public school systems.
The Oregon School Board Association (2009) specified that the knowledge of merit pay
has a forthright appeal; it provides financial rewards for attaining established goals and
standards. Some researchers have cautioned, conversely, that merit pay may change the
relationships between teachers and students: underprivileged students may pose threats to the


teacher’s ratings and rewards. While merit pay strategies attempts to reward excellent teacher
performance with increased financial compensation, career ladders such as mentor teacher and
master teacher programs and differentiated staffing reforms, popular during the 1970’s and
1980’s are intended to improve work and enlarge teacher’ responsibilities (Oregon School Board
Association, 2009).
The Oregon School Board Association (2009) asserted that merit pay and other incentive
guidelines gained legislative acceptance largely because of their seeming uncomplicatedness.
They were meant to provide external incentives-financial rewards, advancement opportunities,
workplace variety - but did not effectively resolve the problem of teacher satisfaction (Oregon
School Board Association, 2009).


Teacher motivation and the impact on student achievement. Student academic
performance and achievement are serious problems in America. Teacher motivation is the key to
academic success (McBride, A.C., &Kristonis, 2008). According to Kocabas (2009), education is
a process of behavioral modification and growth that transpires throughout every aspect of life.
Teachers are a key component of the process. The construction of a student’s enviable behavior
is directly linked to the teacher’s motivation levels, attitude, and behavior. A low motivation level
in the teacher has a harmful impact on attaining excellence in education (Kocabas, 2009). In
retrospect, it is the student’s responsibility to take charge of his/her own education. Naturally,
when a teacher has an immense amount of confidence in a student, it invigorates his/her spirit to
continue forging ahead. The main issue is if teachers are not content within their own skin
whether personally or professionally, how could they exude a level of positivity for others to
appreciate and embody.
The North American Association of Educational Negotiators, NAEN (1999) implied that
educational leaders must discover ways of retaining and motivating teachers in the field of
education. The response to this problem has been an assortment of incentive plans such as merit
pay and career ladders to intentionally obtain and maintain the preeminent teachers. The research
suggests that teachers enter the field of teaching with a heart to facilitate the educational process
for children and young adults (NAEN, 1999). With this being so, it is essential to nurture that
way of thinking to positively impact the students who are the reason for teaching. It is important
to note, a motivated teacher is empowered to exert forms of superiority and growth in
instructional practice (NAEN, 1999).
If teachers improve attitudes, it can create a better work and school environment for both
teachers and students (Simmons & Masschelein, 2008). Making such improvements can result in


reducing stress, low self-esteem, and eventually in declining morale (O’Donnell, Lambert, &
McCarthy, 2008). These programs will empower and inspire teachers to take ownership of any
improvements on attendance and retention rates (Martinez, Frick, Kim, & Fried, 2010). In short,
addressing these issues can help teachers deal efficiently and effectively with the difficulties they
encounter everyday, so that the overall school goals can be met. Teachers must navigate the fast
pace of the informational age while balancing career and family. They must learn how to
effectively manage everyday obstacles, while balancing career and family to lead to their daily
success. Motivation plays an important role to have this outcome. It can produce an increasingly
prolific staff that is inspired, refreshed, invigorated, and empowered to accept change while
improving their performance that will have a direct impact on student achievement, negative
attitudes, attendance, and retention.
Impact of professional development. Schieb, Karabenick (2011) indicated that to date,
there has been no systematic focus on the factors that influence teachers’ motivation in
professional development, their level of engagement during professional development activities,
and the degree to which teachers’ motivation and engagement in Professional Development
influences their classroom instruction (Schieb, Karabenick, 2011). Jimerson (2003) identified
accessibility as a challenge in offering high quality professional development for faculty
(Jimerson, 2003). Guskey (2002) cited that high-quality professional development is a vital
factor in virtually all modern proposal for improving education. Professional development
programs are systemic efforts to bring roughly change in the classroom performance of teachers,
in their attitudes, beliefs, and in the educational outcomes of students (Guskey, 2002).
Hammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, Orphanos, (2009) investigated that approximately
half of all U.S. teachers are dissatisfied with their opportunities for professional development.


Perhaps because of its briefness, its lack of fit to their needs, or its truncated quality, most
teachers were not fervent about the realism of the professional development they had received.
Only 59 percent found content-related learning opportunities beneficial or very valuable, and less
than half found the professional development they received in other areas, including areas where
they would like more opportunities to learn (Hammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, Orphanos,
2009). Huysman (2008) identified that most teachers are engrossed in being dynamic
participants in the procedures of substantial school based decisions, such as professional
development, curriculum, and general methods linked with schooling (Huysman, 2008).
Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser (2008) conversed that districts could save capital-financial and
human. Instead of expending costly dollars on teacher replacement and employment, these
dollars could be better disbursed on retaining teachers in our schools (Perrachione, Peterson,
Rosser, 2008).
The Oregon School Board Association (2009) pointed out that the interrelation of teacher
motivation and school reform efforts has also been addressed through the issue of professional
development. Customarily, professional development has meant encouraging teachers to
improve pedagogical skills and knowledge of subject matter through innovative academic study
at the graduate level; providing funding for conferences and workshops; and increasing other
training opportunities, including in service programs. Traditional professional development
models such as workshops can be motivational if they provide teachers control by asking them to
establish their own agenda at the opening of a meeting or in service. Countless teachers reply
with great energy when they are engrossed in new perspectives on their own teaching and
learning abilities and provided with opportunities to express themselves honorably (Oregon
School Board Association, 2009).


Human resources and human capital management. Odden (2011) claimed that
education is a people-intensive proposition. By most estimates, 85% of school and district
budgets are devoted to salaries and benefits, a figure that means that the manner in which leaders
identify and develop their most important asset determines to a great degree the success of the
enterprise. In the uncooperative vernacular of policy and research, what was once known as
“human resource management” has become “strategic management of human capital.” That
phrasing may sound a bit cumbersome, but it precisely captures the new philosophy about the
strategic role that managing educator talent plays in a district’s success (Odden, 2011).
Odden (2011) further noted that recruitment, selection, distribution, induction,
professional development, performance management and evaluation, compensation, and career
progression are all reorganized to boost teacher and principal effectiveness in ways that
histrionically improve instructional practice and student learning. In order to achieve current
education goals to educate all children, and exclusively low-income and minority children, to
world-class performance standards, schools need talented and well-prepared teachers and
leaders. But the existing system doesn’t recruit, train, hire, induct, deploy, retain, or purposefully
manage the top talent needed to achieve these goals. These deficiencies are most acute in the
largest urban districts and in many rural districts. The worst issues include:

Lack of a all-inclusive and strategic human resource management system;
Momentous inability to recruit the best and brightest into education;
Struggle staffing high-needs schools, too numerous of which have surplus numbers of

unqualified and ineffectual teachers and principals;
High teacher turnover;
Professional development systems that expend lots of money with diminutive impact on
teaching practice or student attainment; and


Compensation systems that pay teachers for factors unconnected or weakly correlated to
effective training or gains in student learning (Odden, 2011).
Shah, Rehman, Akhtar, Zafar, Riaz (2012) concluded that human resources are the

strategic drivers of the prosperity and success of any organization. Except the organization does
not distinguish the efforts and influences of their employees and reward them accordingly, it
would not be able to master the highest level of motivation and job satisfaction of the recruits.
Reward and recognition is beneficial to the employee in a way it inoculates self-confidence.
Proposing different schemes of rewards is a way of recognizing the efforts of employees which
helps employees to consider on the point that he/she as well as his/her works is being esteemed
by the institution. It also works as an anxiety reliever. When an organization is posing different
sorts of incentives and rewards to the employee, it will recreate many of his/her fears (Shah,
Rehman, Akhtar, Zafar, Riaz, 2012).
Teacher responsibilities and teacher performance. Johnson (2004) pointed out that
teachers struggle to delineate and limit their responsibilities for the children they teach. They are
responsible for teaching academics, but countless children need ample academic support.
Teaching can be isolating work, and it is easy for a teacher to feel as though she is the single
person in a position to assist a particular child (Johnson, 2004). Felix (2011) implied that
teachers face the challenge of satisfying their responsibilities to provide for their students’
behavioral and educational development (Felix, 2011). Townsell (2007) cited that teachers in
rural locations must be able and willing to adjust to the community. (Townsell, 2007).
According to Felix (2011) teacher’s performance is affected by negative criticism and what the
teacher may deem as hypocrisy, the result is a kind of antagonistic behavior. Furthermore,
schools are at risk of closing down and teachers as well as administrators are insecure about their


jobs. With a poor economy and low-performing schools, affected educators are therefore at risk
of losing their jobs. Such conditions breed civil disobedience and the desire for liberty. Some
problems teachers face are being constantly placed on growth plans, being attacked by
principals, and being criticized for even the best job done.
Gratz (2009) indicated a new round of concentration in performance pay has emerged for
the decade, as more states districts have introduced mandates correlated to the ambition for everhigher standards. President Obama and U. S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan have included
performance pay amongst their goals for education. At the 2009 National education Association
(NEA) convention, Secretary Duncan advised teachers to support performance pay. Teacher
performance pay takes diverse forms. Numerous districts pay experienced teachers to mentor
new teachers, assist as curriculum specialists or in analogous posts, or teach in inner-city schools.
The most common and controversial plan is to pay teachers on the foundation of their students’
standardized test scores, Conversely, that test-based pay is more valuable politically than it is
effectively educationally (Gratz, 2009).
Din, Tufail, Shereen, Nawaz, Shahbaz (2012) investigated eight secondary schools of the
District Kohat which included 40 teachers randomly selected as 20 males and 20 female
teachers. The study established that motivational factor obviously recognize the performance
level of the individual. Performance can be very honorable when a person performed their
responsibilities. In fact motivated teachers display their performance very high and achieve their
responsibilities sufficiently. In this way educational institutions attain good standards. It means
that responsibilities are crucial factors in the instructional program for the teachers’ performance
Results demonstrated that majority of the teachers outlook that motivational factors like virtuous


relationships with their colleague, feedback on academic performance, and financial incentive
also influence the motivational level of teachers (Din, Tufail, Shereen, Nawaz, Shahbaz, 2012).
Alam, Farid (2011) examined factors impacting the motivational level of teachers at
secondary school level in Rawalpindi City. A random of 10 schools with 80 teachers were
selected through a questionnaire which comprised of 58 items. Key objectives of the study were
to ascertain the factors accountable for low and high the motivation of teachers, to explore the
impact of stress, to conclude the socio economic status, anxiety in classroom, and consequence
of peer group and examination. The data collected indicated the following:

70 percent teachers of the respondents established that testing was a constraint on
their teaching

86 percent teachers were accountable to their principals for presenting low results
of their classes

88 percent teachers identified that they were blamed for their low outcomes

34 percent teachers deemed that they should be held accountable for showing low

76 percent teachers assumed that students should be held accountable for showing
low results

16 percent teachers stated that teachers should be given incentives according to
their capabilities

50 percent teachers should be rewarded for performing good outcomes (Alam, Farid, 2011
Administrative support. Felix (2011) argued that it is the teachers’ obligation to reduce
behavioral problems and to bring about progress in students’ performance. Nevertheless, how
can the teachers do this without the support from the school administrators? Townsell (2007)


mentioned that rural administrators have struggles hiring qualified teachers who fit in with the
school and community and will remain with the job. (Townsell, 2007) noted throughout the
previous twentieth and early twenty-first century, changes in educational restructuring have
brought about tensions between those practitioners of civil noncompliance and those pursuing
justice (Felix, 2011). Oregon School Board Association (2009) detailed that much of teachers’
work is carried out in self-contained classrooms that segregate them from the support of their
coworkers. Because of this organizational structure, teachers are problematic to manage, do not
receive consistent feedback from others, and often find it difficult to collaborate. Evidently
educational leaders need to find methods to keep teachers in the occupation and keep them
motivated. A motivated teacher is one who not only feels satisfied with his or her job, but also is
empowered to strive for excellence and growth in instructional practice (Oregon School Boards
Association, 2009). Townsell (2007) found that administrators in rural areas must stay wellinformed of student needs, community occasions, and offer adequate motivation for employees
to work efficiently to meet the needs of the students (Townsell, 2007).
Perrachione, Peterson, Rosser (2008) deliberated that school boards, legislatures, policy
decision makers who shape the environments in which teachers work could take a major stride in
encouraging retention by guaranteeing that teachers have a positive school environment, ample
support, and small class sizes. Additionally, other key problems such as low salaries, role
overload, and student conduct must be enthusiastically pursued. Investing money to advance
teacher job satisfaction should not only slow the departure of teachers but also promote the
building of successful learning environments. By closing the teacher-job satisfaction gap,
educators may then have a tool for closing the student achievement gap (Perrachione, Peterson,
Rosser, 2008). Nevertheless, The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (2008)


implied that given the imperative role teachers have in improving student attainment, fortifying
an ample teacher supply in terms of numbers, quality, motivation, and morale is among the most
significant accountabilities of effective school leaders. It is perilous for any leader to institute a
vision and garner the collective motivation and buy-in to see it through (The National
Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2008). Tickle, Chang , Kim (2011) examined the
effect of administrative support on teachers’ job satisfaction and commitment to stay in teaching.
The Staffing Survey teacher questionnaire revealed that administrative support was the most
significant predictor of teacher’s job satisfaction, while teachers’ job satisfaction was the most
substantial predictor of teachers’ commitment to stay in teaching. It was confirmed that
administrative support facilitates the influence of teaching experience, student behavior, and
teachers’ satisfaction with their salary on teachers’ job satisfaction and commitment to stay in
teaching (Tickle, Chang, Kim, 2011).
Theoretical Framework
The researcher will analyze the data using a correlational survey that will be investigated
through the theoretical framework of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s two-factor
theory. Monsour (2007) suggested that two theories, which focus on meeting needs and
evaluating motivating factors. are described in Herzberg’s motivating factors and Maslow’s
growth needs. Maslow and Herzberg provide complimentary theories concerning motivation.
According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (basic and growth needs), one is to meet and
satisfy the basic needs before they select to focus and move to the external needs in relationship
to a higher level of growth. Internalizing your needs and meeting those that are significant
brings peace of mind. Attaining and accomplishing additional needs is icing on the cake, but


must come secondary to your individual needs. When personal needs are equitably satisfied, an
individual reaches the highest-level of achievement called self-actualization.
Accordingly, Frederick Herzberg’s motivator and hygiene factors theory, explicates that
motivating factors increase job satisfaction through recognition, achievement, work itself,
responsibility, advancement and growth (Monsour, 2007). Haizumothman (2009) indicated that
the discussion of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction is basically created from the theory proposed
by Herzberg theory that is called “two-factor theory” or “two-hierarchy of needs”. Both job
satisfaction and dissatisfaction are presumed perilous for the organizations to manage since they
unequivocally impact the productivity as well as the effectiveness of either the teachers or the
school organization performance (Haizumothman, 2009).
Maslow’s Hierarchy and Herzberg’s two-factor theory are several of the most vital
content theories of motivation (Morgan & Baker, 2012). Morgan and Baker (2012) postulated
that theories of motivation characteristically fall into two broad groupings: content theories and
process theories. Content theories focus on those factors within the individual that energize,
direct, sustain and stop behavior whereas process theories concentrate on the overall process of
motivation and its distinct details (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, &Konopaske, 2006). These
theories of motivation would look within the individual teacher to establish how the individual
needs will be met.
According to Morgan and Baker (2012),one of the most widely cited and discussed
motivation theories in teacher education is the need hierarchy model proposed by Abraham
Maslow in 1943 (Kaplan & Maslow, 1998). The hierarchy signifies that the lowest-level needs
are physiological and the highest-level need is self-actualization. Maslow’s hierarchies of needs
are as follows:


Physiological: the need for food, drink, shelter, and relief for pain

Safety and security: the need for freedom from threatening events or surroundings

Belongingness: the need for social acceptance

Love: the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction, and love

Esteem: the need for self-esteem and for respect for others

Self-actualization: the need to fulfill oneself by maximizing the use of abilities, skills,
and potential (Maslow, 1943).
Morgan and Baker (2012) proposed that Maslow’s theory would assume a teacher

attempts to satisfy the more basic needs (physiological) before directing behavior toward
satisfying upper-level needs. An illustration of how an educator may progress through the
hierarchy is when a teacher concludes that he or she is receiving sufficient compensation for his
or her role in the school system; money loses its influence to motivate. The teacher is free to
contemplate on higher order motivators, such as helping students achieve success.
Morgan and Baker (2012) explained Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor content theory of
motivation as dissatisfiers-satisfiers, hygiene-motivators, or the intrinsic-extrinsic factors.
Extrinsic circumstances will reflect the job context, which include pay, status, and working
conditions. The existence of these conditions do not automatically motivate but the absence
results in dissatisfaction. The extrinsic conditions are called the dissaatisfiers. The intrinsic
conditions include feelings of achievement, increased responsibility, and recognition. When these
conditions are present, they build strong levels of motivation that results in good job
performance. These conditions would be called satisfiers, or motivators. These theories of
motivation provide insight into what compels various behaviors in humans, particularly within
proficient educators (Morgan & Baker, 2012).


Ikenyri, Maduenyi (2011) asserted that Herzberg performed several studies to discover
those things that cause workers to be satisfied and dissatisfied. In the study, Herzberg, revealed
the environmental factors that cause workers to be dissatisfied. He denoted these environmental
factors as Hygiene factors. These factors are; company policy and administration, technical
supervision, salary interpersonal relationship. The second factor of Herzberg two factor theories
is motivating factors. He recognized motivating factors as those factors that make workers work
harder. He theorized that these factors are linked with job context and categorized them as
follows: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement. Achievement
is challenging tasks and attaining standard of excellence. From both theories, one would
determine that need satisfiers should be accessible to motivate teachers. Applying job satisfying
factors is consequently essential in the field of education because needs satisfied teachers can
generate a good social, psychological and physical climate in the classroom (Ikenyri, Maduenyi,
Through the use of the Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories, they validate the impact of
motivation on various levels for educators. The researcher differentiates disparities of related
influences through examining the level of job satisfaction, individual motivation, recognition,
relationships, security, achievement, working conditions, and accountability status. The
researcher’s principal reason for using the theoretical framework is to establish the impact of
motivation on teacher’s job performance.
Ikenyri, Maduenyi (2011) claimed that the responsibility of the foregoing is that there is a
connection between motivation, needs satisfaction and job efficiency. Consequently, when
workers needs are met, they will be motivated to be effective in their performance thereby


achieving organizational goal. Several factors are assumed to be need satisfiers that motivate
workers and undeniably teachers to perform satisfactorily (Ikenyri, Maduenyi, 2011).

Chapter III
Identification of Research Method


Kitabevi (2011) postulated that staff motivation is essential in operating any
establishment or organization. Efficaciously motivate teachers can deliver a lot to the institution
or organization. A high-quality teaching staff is the foundation of the running of an effective
institution. Attracting and retaining high quality teachers is a crucial necessity for education
(Kitabevi, 2011). Kitabevi (2011) states the following:
One step in developing a high quality faculty/school is to understand the factors generally
associated with teaching quality and the delivery of academic services. One and foremost of
these factors is job satisfaction, which has been studied widely by organizational researchers.
Satisfaction with teaching as a career is an important policy issue since it is associated with
teacher effectiveness which ultimately affects student achievement. That is to say, in higher
education, teacher job satisfaction should be the main objective of the institution to provide
quality education for students. Understanding the factors that contribute to teacher satisfaction
or dissatisfaction is essential to improve the information needed to support a successful system
(p. 1).
Griffin (2010) indicated that job satisfaction results when intrinsic aspects of work
stimulates spirits of contentment in the worker, and job dissatisfaction results when the extrinsic
factors are considered. How gratified a teacher is with his or her job can have intense impact on
their life and the lives of students (Griffin, 2010). Griffin (2010) noted that several survey
instruments are accessible to quantify job satisfaction; however limited are intended to measure
job satisfaction precisely within the occupation of teacher education. One job satisfaction survey
instrument that has been used effectively with teachers in the past is the “Teacher Motivation and
Job Satisfaction Survey (Griffin, 2010).


An extensive investigation is to be performed to determine the perceptions of teacher
motivation on job performance. Teachers within the rural southeast Texas school district will be
given a survey full of questions pertaining to motivation and job satisfaction. The data will be
collected from the web-based survey The Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey
created by Craig A. Mertler, Ph.D. An explanation of the methods and resources to be used in the
research project will be provided. The main factors to be determined will be how motivational
factors impact teachers work outcomes in a rural school environment. It is significant that
administrators understand the impact of motivation on teachers’ job performance. Motivational
program series can help to empower educators to address the needs of today’s teachers.
Strategies developed by the researcher could motivate teachers to better guide their students to
attain achievement on their educational journey. It will set the precedent towards understanding
teachers’ perception on motivation overall in a rural school environment.
Research Design
The survey research design will be utilized in the descriptive design of a quantifiable
analysis. The researcher will facilitate a quantitative approach to examine the principal queries
in relation to teacher perceptions with the impact of motivational factors and major dynamics to
determine if such perceptions fluctuate on gender, ethnicity, and years of experience connected to
the impact of a teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. The researcher will obtain
data through the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction self-report survey (Mertler, 2001,
1992). The Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey was developed by Craig Mertler in
1992 and updated in 2001 to bring further focus to rural elementary and secondary school
districts. Topics addressed on the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey are as


1. Overall level of job satisfaction
2. Opportunity to start a new career
3. Peer motivation
4. Peer motivation level
5. Intrinsic motivational factors
6. Extrinsic motivational factors
7. Teacher Demographics
Description of the Target Population
The target population for this investigation is the total teaching staff of a rural
southeastern Texas school district. Participants will be selected from a target population of 580
teachers at 14 schools. According to Texas Employment Agency (2012), there is an average of
46.8% African American, 40.9% Caucasian, 10.7% Hispanic, 0.3% Asian and 8.2% Other. The
total percent of teachers by gender is 79.8% female and 20.2% male. The district serves a
population of 8,898 students with 86.4% Economically Disadvantage, 13.4% Non-Economically
Disadvantage 54.1% at risk where 20.7% are considered Limited English Proficient, LEP,
students with a structured sequence of basic skill in their native language. The student
population’s ethnic distribution is 45.9% African American, 43.3% Hispanic, 3.0 % White, 5.1%
Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.6% Other
Sampling of Participants
A web-based survey will be administered during the month of February 2014 to teachers
in a rural southeastern Texas school district. The target population is 580 teachers and is diverse.
In accordance to Texas Employment Agency (2012), there is an average of 12.5% Beginning
Teachers, 26.4% 1 – 5 Years’ Experience, 14.0% 6 – 10 Years’ Experience, 27.1% 11 – 20 Years’


Experience, 20.18% Over 20 Years’ Experience. The average years’ experience of teachers is
11.4 years and the average years’ experience of teachers with district is 8.5 years. There is an
average of 1.2% teachers hold no Degrees, 83.3% hold Bachelor Degrees and 15.5% hold Master
Sampling Procedure
The researcher will conduct descriptive research study through self-reporting on a 35
item questionnaire. According to Frankel, Wallen, Hyun (2012) a descriptive survey comprises
of probing the same set of questions (frequently prepared in the form of a written questionnaire
or ability test) of a large quantity of individuals either by mail, by telephone, or in person.
Responses are tabulated and reported, in the procedure of frequencies or percentages of those
who respond in a particular way to each of the question (Frankel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012). In
accordance to Gay, Mills, Airasian (2006) indicated that self-report research entails the
assemblage of standardized, quantifiable information from all participants of a population or
sample (p. 163).
This investigation will employ a quantitative research method. In support of this study,
raw data will be obtained from teachers who will participate in the Teacher Motivation and Job
Satisfaction Survey created by Craig A. Mertler, Ph.D. from elementary, middle and high schools
in the rural southeast Texas area. The researcher will analyze the data by using quantitative
research methodologies of descriptive statistics. The information will be scored and the data will
be gathered from the survey to analyze the results of 28 questions and seven demographic
inquiries. The descriptive statistical data using the mean and the median will be reported as
stated by Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2012) to illustrate scores in a distribution. Following the
overall summaries for the total sample, subgroup comparisons will be discussed.


Description of the Instrumentation
The instrument that will be used to perform the study will be a 35-question self-reporting
survey research design called Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey created by Craig
A. Mertler, Ph.D. According to Mertler (2001) the study will determine present-day affairs with
reverence to teacher motivation and job satisfaction. Numerous questions are drawn from
Herzberg’s work theory (Mertler, 2001). Fraenkel & Wallen (2009) indicated that the three most
significant factors to contemplate in choosing a test are its validity, reliability, and ease of use.
The Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey created by Craig A. Mertler, Ph.D. provided
the reliability and validity in 2001 through a significantly increased sample of 969 elementary,
middle, and high school teachers. Previously a pilot test by Mertler (1992)was conducted to
permit the creator to conclude how all-encompassing the questions were understood, to check for
the occurrence of ambiguous terms and to establish the practicality of the response material
provided by the participants. According to Mertler (2001) participants are asked to reply to
numerous sets of questions including their general level job satisfaction and their perception of
peers being motivated or unmotivated. Teachers are requested to rate several factors dealing
with their perceptions of motivation and job satisfaction levels (Mertler, 2001).
Questions in the study will focus on the motivational effects of specific aspects of the
job. After distributing the questionnaire, it is anticipated that the participants will generate
effective feedback from the questionnaire. The questionnaire will consist of three vital areas
including teacher demographics, teacher perception on job satisfaction, and motivational factors
impacting their job performance. The questionnaire includes thirty five questions, four pages and
innumerable data from teacher perceptions on job satisfaction, career choice, teacher motivation,
recognition, potential, supervision, peer relationship, salary, job security, status, interpersonal


relationships, sense of achievement, working conditions, district policies, teacher assessment,
responsibility, advancement, work itself, personal life, interaction with students, sense of
accountability, monetary award, being selected as :Teacher of the Year,” instructional workshops
offered, students with gratitude, opportunities, retirement, student improvement, student
appreciation and permission to purchase additional equipment and supplies. The Teacher
Motivational and Job Satisfaction Survey developed by Craig Mertler (2001) by questioning
teachers in the rural school district about their motivational factors impacting their job
Statistical Technique
The data will be documented into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS) version 17 for the calculation of descriptive and inferential data. Descriptive data will be
utilized by the researcher to describe, summarize display and interpret results. The researcher
will explicate the inferential data by determining what the participants may accept as true. The
researcher will analyze the data through the use of five statistical procedures. Initially,
demographic responses will be tabulated and reported, in the procedure of frequencies or
percentages of those who respond in a particular way to each of the question (Frankel, Wallen,
Hyun, 2012). Mertler (2001, 1992) indicated secondly, the means will be tabulated for each
factor in both item 5 and item 6, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational levels. Frankel, Wallen,
Hyn (2012 illustrated that the mean is another average of all the scores in a distribution. It will
be resulted by adding up all of the scores and the dividing the sum by the total number of scores
(Frankel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012). Third, chi square analyses will be conducted to investigate the
relationships between all demographic data and two specific items (1) the overall level of job
satisfaction and (2) the desire to start over in a new career. Both significant and non-significant


chi squares values will be conveyed. Frankel, Wallen Hyn (2012) described that chi square is
based on a comparison between predictable frequencies and actual attained frequencies. If the
attained frequencies are comparable to the predictable frequencies, then researchers determine
that the groups do not differ (Frankel. Wallen, Hyun, 2012). Fourth, one way Anova’s will be
utilized to conclude the degree to which relationships/and or interaction existed between all
demographic data and two items (1) the overall level of job satisfaction, and (2) the desire to start
over in a teaching career. Both significant and non-significant will be reported. Frankel, Wallen,
Hyun (2012 specified that when researchers aspire to find out whether there are significant
differences between the means of more than two groups, the analysis of variance statistical
technique is used. Variation both within and between each of the groups will be examined
statistically, yielding what is known as an F value, which is verified in a statistical table to
identify if it is statistically significant. The larger the obtained value of F, the greater the
probability that statistical significant exits (Frankel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012). Finally, two-way
Anova’s will investigate to ascertain the degree to which relationships and /or interaction
between the following variables: (1) gender and age on the variable of overall job satisfaction (2)
gender and school gender and age on all 18 factors listed on item 5. (Both significant and nonsignificant will be noted (Mertler, 2001, 1992). The researcher will collect numerical data to
test the hypothesis or answer the questions about the current subject (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2006).
In support of this study, raw data will be obtained from participants that participate in the
Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey created by Craig A. Mertler, Ph.D. The
researcher will analyze the data by using quantitative research methodologies of descriptive
statistics. The information will be scored and the data will be gathered from the survey to analyze
the results of 28 questions and seven demographic inquiries. The descriptive statistical data using


the mean and the median will be reported as stated by Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2012) to
illustrate scores in a distribution.
Teachers will randomly be selected as their names are placed in a pool and chosen by
stratified sampling. According to Gay, Mills, Airasian (2006) stratified sampling involves the

The population is 580 teachers in a rural southeastern school district

The desired sample is 300 teachers in each of the two methods

The researcher will list all members of the population

The researcher will assign individuals on the list consecutive numbers from 000 to
299. Each number must have the same number of digits as each other individual

The researcher will select an arbitrary number in the table of random numbers
from Frankel, Wallen, Hyun (p. A-2).

The researcher will select 3 digits of the number in the table since the population
of 580 represents 3 digit numbers

The selected number must correspond to a number assigned to an individual in the

The researcher will continue the process of selecting the next number in the
column and repeat the process until desired number of individual has been
selected for the sample (Frankel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012).

Guiding Questions


Research Questions

Is there a significant impact of motivational factors improving teacher work outcomes
in a rural school environment?

What major dynamics of motivational factors impact teacher work outcomes in a
rural school environment?

What major dynamics of motivational factors negatively impact teacher work
outcomes in a rural school environment?

What major dynamics of motivational factors positively impact teacher work
outcomes in a rural school environment?

What intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall success of
teacher motivation and job satisfaction?

Research Hypotheses
H1: There will be a significant difference based on gender on the impact of motivational
factors improving teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H1: xx1 = xx2
H2: There will be a difference by gender on major dynamics of motivational factors
impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H2 : xx1 = xx2
H3: There will be a difference by gender on major dynamics of motivational factors
negatively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H3: xx1 = xx2
H4: There will be a difference by ethnicity on major dynamics of motivational factors
positively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment. H4: xx1 = xx2
H5: There will be a significant difference based on years of experience and age in
teaching on what intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall
success of teacher and job satisfaction. H5 : xx1 = xx2


Null Hypotheses

There will be no statistical difference between genders on the impact of motivational
factors improving teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.
(H01: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between genders on major dynamics of motivational
factors impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment
(H02: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between gender on major dynamics of motivational
factors negatively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.
(H03: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There is no statistical difference between ethnicity on major dynamics of motivational
factors positively impact teacher work outcomes in a rural school environment.
(H04: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

There will be no significant difference based on years of experience and age in
teaching on what intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors contribute to the overall
success of teacher and job satisfaction.
(H05: µ1 - µ2 = 0)

Investigating and addressing motivational needs in the southeast rural school district of
elementary, middle, and high schools is essential to all students’ success. Results of the survey


completed by the researcher will indicate what motivational issues impact today’s teacher’s job
performance. When teachers are motivated, students reap the benefits of having a successful
learning experience.
Even though motivation is a vital part of the educational process for both students and
teachers, it is expected for teachers to motivate their students and guide them through a
successful learning experience. Despite the challenges that teachers face in the classroom,
administrators must create and implement programs to address the motivational needs of today’s
If it is anticipated by administrators that teachers are the catalyst and must meet the
demands of increasing educational achievement for students, it is imperative to recognize that
motivation is a significant part of the educational progression for teachers to prevail over the
inundated predicament many are challenged with in today’s classroom.
It is important to comprehend that teachers are overwhelmed with the demands of
increasing and enlightening minds of today’s children. There is no doubt that teachers are having
difficulties with coping with challenges they are faced by today’s schools. It is significant for
administrators and stakeholders to put a program in place to motivate and empower teachers to
stay on the mark to improve attitudes, self- esteem, attendance and overall student achievement.
Therefore, improved teacher attitudes, self-esteem, and attendance are not only anticipated for
the rural southeast school district, but also in other school districts that are seeking meeting the
motivational needs of their schools. It will set the stage for creating an approach that will impact
teachers’ job performance and student achievement while keeping both teacher and student on
their academic and career journey.


The researcher will need to learn more about the motivational needs of the rural southeast
Texas school district. Budget cuts have impacted various motivational programs scheduled by
most school districts in professional development. Therefore the researcher should find other
financial resources to implement the motivational programs for the school district. The
researcher should be prepared to help address how teachers should better motivate their students
to attain achievement.
There are no school districts in the surrounding southeast Texas that motivate their
teachers through motivational programs to better prepare their students for student achievement.
It will be a challenge to survey the administrators and school personnel that are not directly
involved with motivating teachers in their district. Overall, the need has occurred to develop and
implement a motivational program in the rural southeast Texas school district.

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