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0 Introduction 2 2.0 Bellow Types 4 – 13 5.0 Bellow Pressure Thrust 2–3 4.0 Internal Sleeve Requirement 13 Appendix A 14-15 Applicable Revision: Prepared: Date: First Edition: R0 Prepared: DNL Date: File Name:C.0 Cover Sheet 1 1. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev.0 Application 2 3.0 System Design Considerations 13 6.34 Checked: Approved: Date: Date: Checked: AKB Approved: Date: Server: Pune: KUMUS 207 Directory.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. : R0 Page : 1 CONTENTS Page 0.Pune: Refer\Pi\Training Manual Date: VKO: KUMUS 209 VKO: Refer\Training Manual .

) create unacceptable process conditions (e. • When conventional solutions (e. The longitudinal Pressure Force acting at each capped end is: Pf = πPD / 4 2 . : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. thereby requiring external attachments to transfer these longitudinal loads to its connected piping for maintaining the overall stability of the piping system under question. The convolutes are designed strong enough to withstand the internal pressure of the system. expansion loops etc.0 APPLICATION: The Bellows are generally employed in a piping system in one of the following situations: 3. BELLOW PRESSURE THRUST: The end anchors in a piping system employing a Bellow requires special considerations owing the large imbalance axial force generated due to internal system pressure acting on the bellow convolutes. • When it is not practical to limit the piping induced loads on the terminal nozzles of the connected equipment within admissible limits by conventional methods.g. At the same time the inherent weakness of the Bellow to transfer the longitudinal force across its ends. A Bellow element employed in a piping system is an assembly of generally more than one convolute in series. Pumps etc. : R0 Page : 2 INTRODUCTION: In a piping system a Bellow is like a sealed spring. Turbines. To understand the above phenomena let us consider a straight length of pipe of internal diameter D capped at its both ends and subject to an internal pressure P (refer Fig. • When the equipment such as Compressors. necessitate isolating the mechanical vibrations from being transmitted to the connected piping. It is therefore imperative that a proper assessment of the imbalance Pressure Thrust of the Bellow and its effects on the piping end terminals be evaluated prior to using the Bellow on a piping system of large diameter and sizable internal pressure.-1A below).0 DOC No. As a result of this extreme flexibility the Bellow as such is highly incapable of absorbing any longitudinal loads by its own. Sealed because it is required to contain the fluid pressure which is flowing through it and spring because it is required to respond to the movement of the connected piping without offering appreciable stiffness to the piping system. expansion loops etc.) for maintaining the system stresses within acceptable limits. 2.0 • When the space constraints do not permit providing adequate flexibility by conventional methods (e.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited 1. excessive pressure drop).g. g. at the same time the typical contour of the convolute assembly allows it to flex under thermal movement of the connected piping.

The magnitude of above force will be combined longitudinal force acting at the Bellow inside diameter and the imbalance pressure thrust acting on the side-wall.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. of the convolute. The net Pressure Thrust to be absorbed by the End Anchors. It is therefore necessary to provide end anchors (refer Fig 1D below) to counter the pressure force acting at the ends and thereby stopping the bellow convolute from flattening. Since the above Bellow does not have any appreciable longitudinal stiffness it will tend to straighten out as shown in Fig 1C below resulting into rapture of the convolutes. therefore it based on the Mean Diameter of the bellow and is given by p π Dm / 4 2 where : Dm = Mean Diameter of the bellow P = System internal pressure. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. Now let us introduce a Bellow in the middle of the above pipe section (refer Fig 1B). due to incorporation of the bellow in a straight pipe line. : R0 Page : 3 The above longitudinal force is carried in tension in the Pipe wall and the system remains stable with the opposite and equal force acting at the capped end balancing each other. .

The remaining arrangement of the Main Anchors. The other end of the Bellow is accompanied by First Alignment Guide G1 (as close as possible to the below) followed by Second Alignment Guide G2 at a distance of 14 D (as per EJMA recommendation). The Bellow is locked between the end anchors (Main Anchors) and is normally located close to one of the above Main Anchors. followed by the Intermediate Guides (located as per the normal support span) if required as per the length of the line. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. : R0 Page : 4 BELLOW TYPES: • • • • • Simple Expansion Joint. The application of this type is normally not recommended and will perform satisfactory only within certain limits.2 Single Element Bellow installed in a straight line with an offset.0 Expansion Joint for absorbing axial displacement. resulting into bending moment in the piping. 1. Universal Expansion Joint. First and Second Alignment Guides and rest of the Intermediate Guides remains same as that of the Bellow installed in a straight line. The axial pressure thrust of the Bellow is transmitted to the Main Anchor through the offset.1 Single Element Bellow installed in a straight line A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-2) below.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited 4. Figure-3 . Following paragraphs illustrate the typical situations for employing the above type of Bellows depending upon the application and configuration of the piping profile. The Second Alignment Guide G2 is. Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint. Gimbal Expansion Joint. Figure-2 1.0 DOC No. SIMPLE EXPANSION JOINT: 1. Hinged Expansion Joint. A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-3) below.

: 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. The arrangement is generally employed in the situations where the linear expansion of the line is of a very large magnitude.5 Three Element Bellow employing a main anchor in the middle. Figure-4 1.3 Double Element Bellow employing an intermediate anchor in the middle when installed in a straight line A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-4) below. reducer) A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-5) below. . installed in a straight line at the interface of changed line size (i. The Bellow assembly consists of 2 elements separated by an Intermediate Anchor.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Figure-5 1. The middle anchor between the 3 Bellow Elements in this case is required to be designed as Main Anchor for the axial thrust imposed by the Bellow of the branch pipe. : R0 Page : 5 1. which cancels out between the 2 Bellow Elements. installed at the junction of the branch connection A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-6) below. The remaining arrangement of the Main Anchors. The arrangement is similar to that of Double Element Bellow on a straight pipeline except that the middle anchor between the 2 Bellow Elements is required to be designed as Main Anchor for the differential axial thrust of the 2 Bellows employed on each side of the Reducer. First and Second Alignment Guides and rest of the Intermediate Guides remains same as that of the Bellow installed in a straight line. Thereby absorbing the linear expansion of the 2 sections of the pipeline individually.4 Double Element Bellow employing a main anchor in the middle. It may be noted that the above Intermediate Anchor need not be designed for the bellow axial force.e.

at the same time allowing the expansion of the shorter leg. only as Intermediate Anchor.1 Single Element Bellow employing a directional anchor. The Main Anchor near the Bellow is a Directional Main Anchor (DMA). angular rotation and combined movement 2. The Anchor on the shorter leg is required to be designed.0 Expansion Joint for absorbing lateral movement. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. The Bellow is located at 1 end of the longer leg and thereby absorbing the linear expansion of the longer leg as axial displacement. installed in the longer leg of L shaped piping profile A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-7) below. which prevents the pipe end from moving axially. The remaining arrangement of the First and Second Alignment Guides and rest of the Intermediate Guides remains similar to that of the Bellow installed in a straight line to prevent the straight pipe of the longer leg from rotating/ buckling. : R0 Page : 6 Figure-6 2.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. which is absorbed by the Bellow as a lateral deflection. Figure-7 .

at the same time allowing the expansion of the long leg. installed in the shorter leg of L shaped piping profile A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-8) below. by employing a tied Bellow (in the shorter leg) the need of the Directional Main Anchor (DMA) is eliminated.3 Single Element Bellow employing a tie rod in place of a directional anchor. Only 1 Guide is required on the longer leg for alignment purpose. The Bellow is located in the shorter leg and thereby absorbing the linear expansion of the longer leg as lateral displacement.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Figure-9 .2 Single Element Bellow employing a directional anchor. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. which prevents the pipe end from moving axially. Owing to tie rods the bellow can only absorb lateral deflection (other than its own axial growth) and hence the axial growth of shorter leg must be accommodated by the flexibility in the longer leg. which is absorbed by the Bellow as a lateral deflection. The Anchor on the longer leg is required to be designed. installed on the shorter leg of L shaped profile A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-9) below. : R0 Page : 7 2. This is a modified arrangement wherein. only as Intermediate Anchor. The Main Anchor near the Bellow is a Directional Main Anchor (DMA). Figure-8 2.

The End Anchors are required to be designed as Intermediate Anchors only. The arrangement is completely similar to that of the earlier situation except that the Bellow is subject to lateral deflection in a resultant plane derived from the magnitude of the 2 linear expansion components of the longer legs. and hence the axial expansion of the leg (excluding the expansion of the Bellow itself) housing the Bellow is.0 Bellow with tie rod installed in a Z shaped piping profile in a single plane A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch below (refer Figure-10). The above bellow is purely lateral.0 Bellow with tie rod installed in a Z shaped piping profile in two plane A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (refer Figure-11) below. To prevent the longer legs from rotating necessary Directional Guides are provided as shown. : R0 Page : 8 UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT: 1. required to be accommodated by the Flexibility of the adjoining legs.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Figure-11 . Typically the assembly employs 2 Bellow elements tied across. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. Figure-10 2.

Figure 12 PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT As it is evident from the forgoing discussion the axial thrust imposed by the imbalance area of the Bellow under internal pressure is a main concern in designing the Piping System employing such Bellows. The conventional method of designing such systems is by employing Main Anchors to absorb the above axial force. If the ends of these Bellows are locked to each other by a suitably designed tie-rod. Figure-14 and Figure-15 below. It is however not always practical (due to space/ access constraints) to achieve these conventional solutions. The excessive magnitude of the axial force could also become prohibitive in some instances. forces under the same internal pressure. In all the 3 cases the Bellow is capable of absorbing primarily axial movement along with a small amount of lateral movement. but opposite in direction. comes handy in addressing many of such situations.0 Bellow with pantographic linkage A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-12) below. . The working principle of the above Bellow relies on the fact that since both Flow and Balancing Bellow have identical cross sectional area. they will produce equal. Since the axial thrust due to internal pressure is cancelled out between the two Bellows the system requires only Intermediate Anchors wherever applicable. In such case the equipment nozzles must be designed to take the axial force due to Bellow imbalance area. the above equal and opposite forces will cancel out to transmit no axial force on the end terminals of the connected piping. At the same time the above tie rod will not interfere with the Flow Bellow in absorbing axial/ lateral deflections. The Pantographic linkage is provided to distribute the expansion between the 2 Bellows and control their movements. Owing to the limited space between the 2 directly connected equipment nozzles the Bellow is required to absorb axial as well as lateral deflection. which basically is a combination of a Flow Bellow and a Balancing Bellow. : R0 Page : 9 3. The Pressure Balance Bellow design.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev.0 Single Element Bellow installed at the 90 O turning of a piping profile The sketches below show a typical arrangement of 3 such applications (refer Figure-13. 1.

: 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. : R0 Page : 10 .TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited Figure-13 Figure-14 Figure-15 DOC No.

The hinges are designed strong enough to take the axial pressure thrust and also to transmit the piping deflections in a plane perpendicular to the plane of hinge rotation.0 In-line Pressure Balanced Bellow A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-16) below. The piping end anchors are. are involved a Pressure Balanced Universal Joint (with tie rod) may best suit to the situation. : R0 Page : 11 2. at the same it allows the required deflection to be absorbed within the assembly. Each pair of bellow element connected by a segment of pipe will act in unison to absorb lateral deflection in much the same way as universal joint in a single plane. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. The common balancing Bellow effectively nullifies the imbalance axial force of the 2 flow Bellows.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. By a proper design of the tie rods to rotate around its attachment points it is possible to absorb the lateral deflection by the combination of 2 flow bellows where as the balancing bellow is subject to only axial deflection. Each element of the assembly is subject to pure angular rotation by its hinge pin. Figure – 16 3. Where large amount of lateral deflections. . installed on a long line without the possibility of installing the Main Anchors. The above arrangement is typically employed in the situations where the bellow is required to be. The magnitude of the lateral deflection that could be absorbed by a hinged bellow is directly proportional to the length of spool piece connecting the bellow elements.0 Double Element Bellow installed at the 90 large lateral movements O turning of a piping profile for absorbing A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch Fig. Figure – 17 HINGED EXPANSION JOINT Hinged expansion joints are usually used in sets of 2 or 3 elements to absorb lateral deflection in one or more directions in a single plane. therefore required to be designed as intermediate anchors only.17 below.

Figure-19 . The position of the pipe guides on the axial pipes should provide adequate flexibility to absorb the expansion of the offset leg housing the bellow. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev.0 Three Element Bellow A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-19) below. : R0 Page : 12 1. The above arrangement is typically employed in the situations where the flexibility in Z shaped profile (in a single plane) is not sufficient to absorb the thermal expansion of the offset leg.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Since the axial pressure thrust is absorbed by the hinges the piping end anchors need to be designed as intermediate anchors only.0 Two Element Bellow A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-18) below. Figure-18 2.

No. Figure-20 5. : R0 Page : 13 GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT A typical arrangement of the above application is shown in the accompanying sketch (Figure-20) below.0 The specification for the Bellow shall as a minimum provide technical information as per Specification Sheet given as Appendix-A of EJMA. Generally the ability of Gimble Joint to absorb the lateral movement in any plane is best utilized by employing 2 of such bellows connected together by a pipe spool.29040-PI-UFR-0027 of the Piping Training Manual.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Just as hinged expansion joints offer a great capacity to absorb lateral expansion in a single plane. standards provides necessary guide lines when evaluating the sleeve requirement for the Bellow in view of its resonant velocity. INTERNAL SLEEVE REQUIREMENT: Internal sleeves are recommended when it is necessary to reduce the system pressure drop to minimum. • 6. The same is enclosed as attachment to this chapter. Similar to hinged joint the growth of the offset leg accomodating the bellows must be absorbed by the adjoining piping legs. . The internal sleeves are also required to be provided when flow velocity in the piping system tend to approach the resonant velocity for the Bellow. The structure of the Gimble ic adequately designed to absorb the axial pressure thrust and hence the piping end Anchors need to be designed as Intermediate Anchors only. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev.0 SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: The design of the piping system employing a Bellow shall take into account the recommendations made by EJMA Standard. the Gimbal Expansion Joints offer the same feature in a multiple plane system. The main consideration while employing a bellow is a piping system are covered in Doc.

Quality Assurance Requirements Medium Gas /Liquid Velocity(Ft.EJ Tag No./deg./Vert. 2.) Outside Diameter (in.) Bellows Long.) Lateral (lbs. : R0 Page : 14 APPENDIX A STANDARD EXPANSION JOINT SPECIFICATION SHEET Company : Date : / / / Sheet of Inquiry No. Project : 1.) Angular (deg. 7a 7b 7c 8a 8b 8c 8d 9a 9b 9c 9d 9c 10a 10b 10c 10d 10c 11a 11b 11c 11d 11e 12.) Inside Diameter(in./O.) Angular (lbs.) No./in. (ºF) Installation (ºF) Axial Compression (in.) Axial Extension (in. (In.) Axial Extension (in.) Axial (lbs.) Flow Direction Design (ºF) Max. psig.) Angular (deg.) Angular (deg.D. Test Pressure. psig. Job No.) Lateral (in.) Axial Compression (in./Min.) Lateral (in./in.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Pipe NDE Design Code Reqrd.D.) Axial Extension (in./in. Partial Data Reqrd. 13 14 15a 15b 15c 16a 16b 16c 17 18a 18b 18c 18d 18e 18f 18g 19 Item No.) Expansion Joint Type Fluid Information Design Pressure. 4a 4b 4c 5. : 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev.) Lateral (in. Quantity Nominal Size / I. Vibration Amplitude / Frequency Cont'd…/- . of Cycles Axial Compression (in. 3. of Cycles Bellows Liners Cover Pipe Specification Flange Specification Overall Length (in.Seam Weld NDE Attach.) No. Temperature Maximum Installation Movement Maximum Design Movements Operating Fluctuations Material of Construction Rods (Tie/Limit/Control) Pantographic Linkage Anchor Base (Main/Intermediate) Dimensional Limitations Spring Rate Limitations Installation Position Horiz. 6./Sec.

: 29040-PI-UFR-0034 Rev. .) I. : R0 Page : 15 APPENDIX A STANDARD EXPANSION JOINT SPECIFICATION SHEET Company : Project : 21a 21b 21c 21d 21e 21f 21g 21h Item No.Instrumentation Connection Facing O.EJ Tag No.C.) B. Holes Size Holes Hole Orientation Special Flange Design 20 Piping Sketch : Date : / / / Sheet of Inquiry No.D.(in. Job No.(in.TRAINING MANUAL – PIPING BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT Uhde India Limited DOC No. Purge.) Thickness (in.) No.D.Diameter (in.