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408-Environmental pollution and Industrial waste management

Wastewater treatment
ORIGIN OF WASTEWATER
Wastewaters can be classified by their origin as domestic wastewater and industrial
wastewater. Any combination of wastewaters that is collected in municipal sewers is
termed as municipal sewage. Domestic wastewater is that which is discharged from
residential and commercial establishments, whereas industrial wastewater is that which is
discharged from manufacturing plants. The pollutants in domestic wastewater arise from
residential and commercial cleaning operations, laundry, food preparation, body cleaning
functions, and body excretions. The composition of domestic wastewater is relatively
constant.
Industrial wastewater is formed at industrial plants where water is used for various
processes, and also for washing and rinsing of equipment, rooms, etc. These operations
result in the pollution of the nearby aquatic systems because some of the products and
byproducts are discharged, either deliberately or unintentionally into them.
Normally, wastewaters are conducted to treatment plants for removing undesirable
components which include both organic and inorganic matter as well as soluble and
insoluble material. These pollutants, if discharged directly or with improper treatment,
can interfere with the self-cleaning mechanisms of water bodies. The capacity for selfcleaning is due to the presence of relatively small numbers of different types of microorganisms in the water bodies. These micro-organisms use as food much of the organic
pollutants and break them down into simple compounds such as CO 2 or methane, and the
micro-organisms produce new cells also. But often either a pollutant does not degrade
naturally or the sheer volume of the pollutant discharged is sufficient to overwhelm the
self-cleaning process. Also, the microbial population can be destroyed by toxic wastes
discharged into the waterway. If that happens, the pollutant concentrations will build up
and reach high enough levels that will prevent re-establishment of a microbial population.
The water quality thus becomes permanently degraded.
Various constituents of wastewater are potentially harmful to the environment and to
human health. In the environment, the pollutants may cause destruction of animal and
plant life, and aesthetic nuisance. Drinking water sources are often threatened by
increasing concentration of pathogenic organisms as well as by many of the new toxic
chemicals disposed of by industry and agriculture. Thus, the treatment of these wastes is
of paramount importance.
Wastewater Composition
Depending on the amounts of physical, chemical, and biological constituents of
wastewaters, they may be classified as strong, medium, or weak.

Table 1. Typical composition of domestic wastewater
Constituent
Concentration
Strong
Medium
Solids, total
1200
700
Dissolved solid, total
850
500
fixed
525
300
volatile
325
200
Suspended solids, total
350
200
fixed
75
50
volatile
275
150
Settleable solids (ml/1)
20
10
Biochemical oxygen demand, 5-days, 20°C
300
200
Total organic carbon (TOC)
200
135
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
1000
500
Nitrogen (total as N)
85
40
Organic
35
15
Free ammonia
50
25
Nitrites
0
0
Nitrates
0
0
Phosphorus (total as P)
20
10
Organic
5
3
Inorganic
15
7
Chlorides
100
50
tt
Alkalinity (as CaCO3)
200
100
Grease
150
100
t
All values except for settleable solids are expressed in mg/l.
tt
Values should be increased by amount in carriage water.

Weak
350
250
145
105
100
30
70
5
100
65
250
20
8
12
0
0
6
2
4
30
50
50

Typical compositions for domestic wastewater are given in Table 1. The compositions
and concentrations are highly variable, and hence, the table is intended only to serve as a
guide and not as a basis for design. Data on typical characteristics of municipal sewage in
some urban cities of India are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Composition of sewage in some urban cities of India
Constituent
Delhi Kanpur
Madras
Hyderabad Ahmedabad
Suspended solids (mg/l)
354
560
550
985
148
TDS (mg/1)
803
1000
1170
723
1600
BOD, at 20°C (mg/1)
203
255
352
339
133
COD (mg/1)
377
532

― ―
Nitrogen (total as N) (mg/1)
28.5
73.9
59.2
50.9
27.3
PO4 (mg/1)
13.7
2.5
25.3


Chlorides (mg/1)
147
114
259
104
300
pH
7.5
7.0
7.4
7.4
7.5
TDS = total dissolved solids; BOD = biochemical oxygen demand; COD = chemical
oxygen demand

The composition of industrial wastewater is quite varied, its constituents ranging from
organic solvents, oils, suspended solids to dissolved chemical compounds. Table 3 lists a
number of potentially polluting chemical substances released by different industries.
Most of the chemicals are toxic and some are even suspected of causing cancer. Such
"cancer suspect agents" include 4-nitrobiphenyl, 4-aminodiphenyl, α- and ß-naphthylamine, methyl chloromethyl ether, benzidine, 3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine, ßpropiolactone, 4-dimethylaminoazo-benzene, N-nitrosodimethylamine and vinyl chloride.
Another important aspect of industrial wastewaters is that some of the chemicals are
valuable enough to warrant recovery. This aspect of recovery has taken on a new
perspective in recent years and the recovered substance can either be recycled within the
plant, or offered to other companies for use as basic or intermediate chemicals.
Table 3. Major pollutants in various industries
Pollutants
Industry typet
Organic
Proteins
(1), (2), (3), (4), (13)
Carbohydrates
(1), (2), (3), (5), (6), (13)
Fats and oils
(1), (2), (3), (4), (7), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13)
Dyestuffs
(3), (4), (5), (6)
Organic acids
(6), (13)
Phenols
(3), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11)
Detergents
(1), (3), (12), (13)
Organo-pesticides
(2), (13)
Inorganic
Acids
(3), (6), (10), (11)
Alkalies
(3), (6), (7), (8), (10), (11), (12)
Metals
(3), (5), (6), (10), (11), (13)
Metallic salts
(4), (5), (10), (11), (13)
Other salts
(1), (3), (4), (5), (6)
Phosphates, nitrates
(1), (3), (4), (5), (6)
Bleaches
(3), (5), (12)
Sulphides
(3), (4), (7), (8)
Cyanides, cyanates
(8), (10), (11)
Chromates
(4), (7), (10), (11)
Minerals (china clay and soil)
(1), (5), (13)
t

Industry type: (1) dairy, (2) food processing, (3) textiles, (4) tanning, (5) paper making,
(6) chemical, (7) petro-chemical, (8) coke ovens, (9) industrial oil
production, (10) engineering, (11) metallurgy, (12) laundry and (13)
agriculture.

Characterization of wastewaters (Dara 1, p.70)
Waste waters are characterized on the basis of various physical, chemical and biological
characteristics apart from flow data details:
(1) Physical Characteristics. Colour, odour, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), insoluble
substances (settleable solids, suspended solids), corrosive properties, radio-activity,
temperature range, foamability, etc.
(2) Chemical Characteristics. Chemical oxygen demand (C.O.D.), pH, acidity or
alkalinity, hardness, total carbon, total dissolved solids, chlorine demand, known organic
and inorganic components such as Cl-, S2, SO42-; N, P, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, As, surfactants,
phenols, hydrocarbons oils and greases.
(3) Biochemical characteristics. Biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.), presence of
pathogenic bacteria etc., and toxicity to man, aquatic organisms, plants and other life
forms.
The actual methods used for the treatment of a waste depend upon the characteristics of
the particular waste.
Suspended solids. The suspended solids are determined by filtering an aliquot of the
sample through a previously weighed sintered crucible or a tared Gooch crucible and
drying the crucible at 103 0C to 105 0C to constant weight. The difference in weight
indicated as mg/l gives the suspended solids content of the sample.
Settleable solids. The settleable solids content of a sample is obtained by allowing 1 litre
of the sample to settle for about 1 hour at 20 0C in an Imhoff cone, which is a tapered
conical tube. The volume of settleable matter in the cone is recorded as ml/1. The
settleable solids may also be expressed in mg/l which can be calculated by the difference
between mg/l suspended solids minus mg/l non-settleable matter determined by the
procedure described as above.
Total Solids. The total solids content of a sample is determined by evaporating a known
volume of the sewage or waste water sample, and drying the residue for 24 hours at 103
0
C to 105 0C, followed by weighing. This gives the total solids content of the sample,
which includes the dissolved as well as suspended solids.
Dissolved oxygen (DO). The measurement of DO gives a ready assessment of purity of
water. The determination of dissolved oxygen is the basis of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen
Demand) test, which is commonly used to evaluate the pollution strength of waste waters.
The determination of DO content is also essential for maintaining aerobic conditions in
the receiving waters and also in the aerobic treatment of sewage and industrial waste
waters.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Biochemical oxygen demand represents the
quantity of oxygen required by bacteria and other microorganisms during the biochemical
degradation and transformation of organic matter present in wastewater under aerobic
conditions. BOD test is a very valuable test in the analysis of sewage, industrial effluents
and grossly polluted waters. In spite of the inherent limitations, the BOD test is still
valued as the best test for assessing the organic pollution. BOD is considered as the major
characteristic used in stream pollution control. It gives very valuable information
regarding the purification capacity of streams and serves as a guide-line for the
Regulatory Authorities to check the quality of effluents discharged into such water
bodies.

grab samples are useful in determining the effects of extreme conditions of the waste during the time composite samples are being collected or when the wastewater flow is intermittent. suspended solids. the volume of the grab sample collected is proportional to the flow. particularly when there is a need to collect wastewater samples at regular. it should not be used as a basis for treatment. Any contaminant which might form a stratified layer in the waste stream is completely missed by such devices. However. Manual sampling is particularly advantageous when visible changes such as colour variation. operating personnel can collect grab samples and analyze the effect of these changes on the waste stream. the type of analysis to be made and the conditions of storage. the flow rate of wastewater at sampling point is determined with a flow meter each time a portion of the composite sample is collected. sewage and industrial waste samples to determine their pollutional strength.. A composite sample can be obtained by collecting individual samples at frequent intervals and mixing them together. 313) Wastewater sampling and analysis form an important part of any water pollution control programme because the identification of the pollutants and pinpointing their concentrations are vital to the selection of a proper treatment process. while others collect small samples in individual containers. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed. The grab sample shows only the prevailing conditions at the time of sampling and cannot represent average conditions. Composite samples provide more meaningful data when the composition of the waste varies with either time or flow. When such changes do take place. it is better to obtain a sample that is too large rather than one that is too small as the analyst may wish to run additional tests or check the reliability of his earlier results. Wastewater Sampling and Analysis (CS Rao 3. Composite samples can be collected either manually or with automatic samplers on the basis of flow or time. It is of . grab samples of a fixed volume can be manually taken at given time intervals and composite sample obtained. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of the oxygen equivalent to that portion of organic matter present in the waste water sample that is susceptible to oxidation by potassium dichromate. a minimum volume of 1 to 2 litres is collected in grab sampling. The time allowed between collection and analysis of a sample depends on the nature of the sample.Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Automatic devices can be used to obtain composite samples. while the total composite volume is between 2 and 4 litres. Some of these devices continuously collect one large composite sample. the time and effort involved in the analysis will be completely wasted. p. However. If the flow rate varies. Hence. frequent intervals throughout the day. In automatic devices the sample pickup line is generally placed below the surface of the water to obtain as representative a sample as possible. two types of samples can be taken: (1) the grab sample. and (2) the composite sample. Usually. This is an important and quickly measured parameter for stream. The sampling method used should be one that gives a representative picture of the quality of the waste stream. When wastewater flow and composition are relatively uniform. SAMPLING Generally. floating oil. occur in the waste stream. otherwise. etc.

sample should be 6 months acidified Nitrogen (Kjel. if any. In the latter case. for Kjeldahl nitrite) nitrogen which is unstable Phenol 1. but also the analytical data can be processed and translated by a computer for further use and application. Table 8.1 Preservation of wastewater samples Parameter Preservation method Maximum holding period 0 BOD Refrigeration at 4 C 6 hours COD 2 ml H2SO4/L 7 days 0 Colour Refrigeration at 4 C 24 hours Cyanide pH of the sample raised to 10 or higher with NaOH 24 hours Fluoride None required 7 days Metals No specific preservation. Several municipalities also use continuous monitoring systems for their treatment facilities. refrigeration at 4 0C 7 days Sulphide 2 ml zinc acetate/L 7 days 0 Odour Refrigeration at 4 C 7 days Turbidity None available 7 days Caliform Sterilized bottle. 24 hours refrigeration at 4 0C Phosphorus 40 mg HgCl2/L. in case there are great variations in flow and/or characteristics. For example. Table 8. monitoring is done so that the quality and quantity of the discharge can be proportioned according to the assimilative capacity of the water body and for maintaining its quality standards.prime importance that special preservation methods are used for samples that are not to be analyzed immediately. industries find it desirable to continuously monitor water quality of rivers and lakes which are used as sources for water supply or for disposal of waste effluents. ammonia. METHODS OF ANALYSIS Various methods are available for analyzing wastewaters. Often. loss in either precision or .1 gives special handling requirements for several wastewater characteristics. These methods largely involve standardized procedures that are often complicated and time-consuming. no specific preservative.0 g CuSO4/L+H3PO4 to lower pH to less than 4. the sampling frequency should be so adjusted as to obtain a representative sample.Add 40 mg. This ensures that the characteristics to be analyzed are not changed between collection and analysis. Many continuous monitors are so sophisticated that not only the analyses can be performed automatically and continuously. HgCl2/L. 36 hours bacteria refrigeration at 4 0C The sample from industrial wastewaters should be representative of the industry. refrigeration at 4 0C 7 days except dahl. Sometimes simpler rapid methods can be substituted with little.

It is usually determined by Winkler's methods. Oxygen content of one bottle is determined immediately. which is based on the reaction of dissolved oxygen with manganese ions to form a precipitate of manganese dioxide. Two standard 300-ml BOD bottles are filled completely with the wastewater of which the BOD is to be measured and the bottles are sealed. The interference problems can also be overcome by using DO analyzers with membrane electrodes. chemical and biochemical activities prevailing in the water body and.1) The manganese dioxide is then treated with iodide ions when iodine is liberated in an amount chemically equivalent to the original dissolved oxygen. The other bottle is incubated at 20 0C for 5 days in total darkness. Detailed individual procedures are available in standard references. (5-day BOD) value of the sample. permanganate and the alum to remove interferences due to nitrite. The DO level in water depends on physical. The brief analytical procedure is outlined below: 1. such as nitrites. Test procedures often followed in practice are illustrated here briefly for specific constituents. ferrous iron and suspended solids. To eliminate these interferences. . the DO of a sample of known oxygen content. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) The most widely used and accepted measure of biodegradable organic content of wastewater is the 5-day. after which its oxygen content is measured. it is one of the important parameters for assessing the purity of the water body. The dissolved oxygen. 2. The plastic membrane has the selective ability of allowing oxygen to diffuse through but preventing interfering ions. usually by titrating it with sodium thiosulphate.2) The liberated iodine is determined. respectively. which is determined by the Winkler method. The difference between the two DO values is the amount of oxygen that is consumed by microorganisms during the 5 days and is reported as the BOD. 4. 20 0C BOD value. thus.3) The presence of nitrites or iron in +2 oxidation state in the solution can interfere with the original DO determination. A fall in DO level is one of the first indications that a water body is polluted by organic matter. 3. reacts with the metal electrode and causes a cell current which is directly proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample. after diffusing through the membrane. MnO2 + 2I¯ + 4H+ → Mn2+ + I2 + 2H2O (8. Mn2+ + O2 → MnO2 ↓ (8. These include the use of azide. several modifications of the basic method have been proposed. The analyzer is calibrated by measuring. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC MATTER Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Surface waters of good quality should be saturated with dissolved oxygen.accuracy. 2S2O3 2¯ + I2 → S4O62¯ + 2I ¯ (8.

4) sample blank where D* = dilution factor. however. So. biological population. Similarly. During digestion. oxygen concentration. thus making the test indeterminate. the presence of algae in the wastewater affects the BOD test by leading to higher BOD values even when the test is performed in darkness. hence. an incubation of about 20 days is needed for nearly complete breakdown. Because of the slowness of the nitrification process. When the standard 5-day/20 0C conditions are used. the COD test results are higher than those of BOD tests carried out on the same sample. hence. are impossible to reproduce in the test.. phosphate buffer. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) In the COD test. The actual environmental conditions of temperature. many industrial wastewaters contain toxic materials which interfere with the growth of microorganisms thus making the BOD test unreliable or even inapplicable without the addition of suitable inoculum. In addition. the oxidizing bacteria of the BOD test are replaced by a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. Nitrogenous nutrients can create problems in the BOD test. BOD measurements are more complicated than the simple procedure given above. the oxygen demand of the nitrifying bacteria is assumed to be negligible in the standard 5-day incubation period at 20 0C. and. trace elements. the chemically oxidizable organic material reduces a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of dichromate. often the sample is diluted with high purity water to prevent total depletion of DO. A blank is run on the diluting water so that the oxygen demand of the seem material can be subtracted from the results. the remaining dichromate is titrated with standard ferrous ammonium sulphate solution. The BOD 5. The diluting water is made up of deionized water to which appropriate nutrients. approximately two-thirds of the carbonaceous material is broken down. A sample of the wastewater containing organic material is mixed with an excess of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid and the mixture is heated under total reflux conditions for a period of 2 hours. . Dichromate has advantages over other oxidants in oxidizing power and applicability to a wide variety of samples. etc. and seed organisms (usually settled domestic sewage) are added. If inorganic substances such as chlorides and nitrites are present in the wastewater. gives a measure of the total oxidizable organic material in the sample.In practice. is calculated from the following equation: BODs (in mg/L) = D* [(DOt=0 ─ DOt=5) ─ (DOt=0 ─ DOt=5)] (8. high enough to deplete all the dissolved oxygen in the sample before the end of 5 days. The wastewaters may have a high oxygen demand. but it is now being replaced by the chemical oxygen demand (BOD) test for research and plant control purposes. The COD test does not distinguish between organic materials that are biodegradable and those that are not. Due to this. care must be exercised in extrapolating the test results to the actual stream oxygen demands. has been in use for many years for monitoring the quality of stream pollution involving oxygen sag. The amount of potassium dichromate reduced gives a measure of the amount of oxidizable organic material. they interfore with the COD test since they are also oxidized by dichromate and create an inorganic COD that leads to an error in the measurement. The BOD analysis. despite its limitations.

which is then measured by a flame ionization detector. the steam is condensed and removed. In this test. the carbon dioxide can be reduced to methane. which is below the temperature at which organic matter is oxidized. nitrite and nitrate. Nitrogen.S. DETERMINATION OF INORGANIC SUBSTANCES Nitrogen The important chemical species containing nitrogen in wastewater systems are ammonia. All the above forms of nitrogen can be measured analytically by colorimetric techniques.. The concentration of CO2 is directly proportional to the concentration of total carbon present in the original sample and it includes both organic and inorganic carbon.A. Because of this advantage. hence. . the normal proportion of nitrogen-containing compounds is relatively constant: NH 4+ 50─60%. CO 2 is swept into a nondispersive infrared analyzer. Alternatively. which measures the amount of CO2. Water is vaporized and the carbonaceous matter is oxidized to CO 2 and steam. Usually. an empirical correlation between TOC and COD or BOD. Ammonia exists in aqueous solution as one of the intermediate compounds formed due to microbiological activity. there may be a measurable concentration of these ions following biological treatment due to the occurrence of nitrification. These two forms of nitrogen are often combined in one measure. Aerobic decomposition eventually leads to nitrogen in the nitrite (NO 2─) and finally nitrate (NO3─) forms. and nitrites and nitrates 0─5%. organic nitrogen is a potential source of ammonia because deamination reactions that occur during the metabolism of organic compounds release ammonium ions. which is tied up in high energy compounds such as amino acids and amines. which is measured by a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. and nitrite interference can be overcome by adding sulphamic acid to the dichromate solution. is known as organic nitrogen. Inorganic carbon can be measured separately using an acid catalyst at 150 0C. Although the contribution of nitrites and nitrates in domestic wastewaters is negligible. A flow diagram for a dual combustion tube total carbon analyzer is shown in Fig. organic nitrogen. Organic carbon content can then be obtained by subtracting the inorganic carbon from the total result. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Total organic carbon test is based on the oxidation of the carbon of the organic matter to carbon dioxide. 8.1. that is specific to a particular plant operation. a few micro-litres (5 to 10 µ1) of the aqueous sample are injected into a combustion tube containing a catalyst and heated to 900°C in a constant flow of air. Outside the combustion tube. organic nitrogen 40─59%. The TOC test can be performed in a relatively short period of time (few minutes) compared to BOD and COD measurements and. For domestic wastewaters in U.Chloride interference can be eliminated by adding mercuric sulphate to the sample prior to the addition of other reagents. offers a valuable supplement to BOD and COD estimations. can be established and from this it is possible to obtain a tentative estimate of the plant performance quickly. known as Kjeldahl nitrogen.

the extinction coefficient of which can be measured spectrophotometrically. The intensity of the purple colour is directly proportional to the nitrite concentration and can be read on a photometer. The ammonia in the distillate is reacted with Nessler's reagent (potassium mercuric iodide.2─18 mg. which produces a yellowish-brown colloidal dispersion. Nitrates can also be reduced to nitrites with zinc under controlled conditions and the nitrites determined colorimetrically. a separate analysis of the nitrite is required so that this value can be subtracted from the results of the cadmium procedure. The intensity of the colour is proportional to the phosphate concentration in the solution. H2PO4─). Nitrogen present as nitrate can be analyzed by reducing it to nitrite or ammonia. One such method in popular use is the cadmium reduction method where the nitrates are quantitatively reduced by cadmium to nitrite. ammonia is treated with phenol and hypochlorite in the presence of a catalyst to produce the blue coloured solution of indophenol. The total ammonia content is measured after neutralizing the excess sulphuric acid. Another method of measuring the ammonia content in the sample is the phenolhypochlorite method. Phosphorus Phosphorus exists in wastewaters as orthophosphate (PO 43─. HPO42─. Since this method gives the sum of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. and the chromotropic acid methods. In this method. However. such as RNA. The colour intensity is directly proportional to the amount of NH 3 present. The standard technique employed for the determination of ammonia is the Nessler methods. Orthophosphates are assimilated by bacteria during their-growth process.5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3-pyrazolone to the nitrite solution which forms a nitroso derivative. polyphosphates must undergo enzymatic hydrolysis to the ortho form before they can be assimilated. Other techniques of the determination of nitrogen are the Brucine. The colour can be compared visually to standards or can be estimated photometrically. The vanadium method is quite useful for determining phosphate concentrations in the range of 0.Kjeldahl nitrogen is determined by digesting the sample in sulphuric acid when the organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. which is reduced using vanadium. This is also an important constituent of industrial wastes. These methods involve treating the sample with ammonium molybdate under acidic conditions to form molybdophosphoric acid. which is then determined by employing one of the sensitive methods previously described. A simple and rapid method consists of the addition of 1. or stannous chloride or ascorbic acid when a coloured complex is formed. The stannous chloride method is highly sensitive and concentrations as low as 3 µg/L can be . The organic phosphate is present in molecules. The method is very sensitive but is time consuming. Determination of nitrogen present as nitrite is based on the diazotization of sulphanilic acid with nitrite followed by its combination with N-(1-napthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form a purple azo-dyes. The orthophosphate is determined using colorimetric methods. polyphosphate. and organic phosphate. the neutralized sample is first distilled to separate the ammonia from interfering substances. DNA and nucleotides. K2HgI4). The nitrite thus produced is measured by the diazotization method. The intensity of colour is proportional to the ammonia concentration. In this technique. phenoldisulphonic acid.

lead and zinc are the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and colorimetry. This decrease in intensity with the sample is a measure of the concentration of the element. In using colorimetric method for determining the concentration of individual metals. In this technique. Alkalinity Alkalinity in wastewaters is due to the presence of bicarbonates. 8. etc. it is generally necessary to destroy the organic matter with acid digestion. and automated for monitoring effluent streams. chromium. The detection limits for some selected toxic metals are given in Table 8. The total phosphorus can be measured by the procedure previously outlined for orthophosphate and the amount of the organic phosphorus present is obtained by subtracting the inorganic content from the result. The atomic absorption system consists of a light source which emits light of a particular wavelength. Since metals form complex ions with organic matter present in wastewater. Chromium determination involves oxidation of the metal to the hexavalent state and its reaction with diphenylcarbazide in acidic medium when a red-violet product is obtained whose intensity can be measured photometrically. Trace Elements The standard methods used for determination of toxic heavy metals like cadmium. In addition. and a detector. The colour intensity is then determined by a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. The light intensity passing through the flame is reduced as light is absorbed by each atom of the element. The amount of polyphosphate is obtained by subtracting the amount of orthophosphate originally present in the sample from the result. Acid digestion also eliminates possible interference from cyanide. bicarbonates are most common. since they are formed by the action of carbon dioxide on the basic materials such as the salts of calcium and potassium in the soil. care must be taken to eliminate interference from other metals occurring simultaneously in the waste sample. A schematic diagram of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer is given in Fig.2. a prism to separate and isolate the emission lines. These metals give a red/pink coloured complex which can be extracted in a suitable solvent such as carbon tetrachloride or chloroform. an atomizer burner unit for introducing the sample into the flame. carbonates and hydroxides of metal ions such as calcium. . nitrite. sulphite. sodium and potassium. light from a source lamp of an exact wavelength necessary to excite the atoms of a particular trace element traverses the sample which is atomized in a flame. and passes through a prism where the desired wavelength is isolated. Diphenylthio-carbazone (dithizone) is the colorimetric reagent used for the determination of cadmium. Of these. salts of weak acids and ammonia present in wastewaters also contribute to the total alkalinity. magnesium. lead and zinc. Polyphosphates are hydrolyzed into orthophosphates in an acidic medium and the excess acid is neutralized before the addition of ammonium molybdate solution. The technique is quite rapid.detected. The measurement of organic phosphorus is done by first oxidizing the organic matter so that phosphorus is released as phosphate ion. the amount absorbed is detected by the photomultiplier tube. The ascorbic acid method on the other hand is slightly less sensitive and the minimum detectable concentration is approximately 20 µg/L. highly selective. sulphide.2.

An alternative procedure for measurement of suspended solids makes use of a continuous flow nephelometer. When a pH of about 4. chemical treatment of wastewater. the titration is carried out using phenolphthalein indicator until it becomes colourless. The suspended solids are retained on the filter and their minimum diameter is about 1 µm. 8. Analytically. inorganic sources are iron and manganese compounds. Colour may be of organic or mineral origin. carbonates or hydroxides. therefore. chemicals and . etc. This result is used to calculate the total alkalinity. humic compounds. it is one of the major parameters used to evaluate the quality of domestic and industrial wastes. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Suspended Solids The determination of suspended matter is extremely important in the analysis of wastewaters. Colour and Odour Colour and odour are important parameters from the standpoint of aesthetics. Determination of alkalinity is of importance in water softening.3. or both. This end point is known as phenolphthalein alkalinity or bicarbonate equivalence point. Fig. The suspended matter contained in domestic wastewaters and in many industrial wastes is largely organic and is.3 gives an approximate classification of solids found in medium strength wastewaters. bicarbonates are present in the original sample along with hydroxides and carbonates. responsible for a significant portion of the oxygen demand. the term total solids in wastewater refers to the matter that remains as residue after evaporation and drying at 103 to 105 0C.. Usually.Alkalinity is measured by titrating the sample with a standard acid such as N/50 H 2SO4. tannins. In such cases the sample is titrated with methyl orange indicator and the titration is carried out beyond the phenolphthalein end point. but the determination is subject to considerable error if proper precautions are not taken. The colloidal solids range in size from 10-3 to 10-6 mm. The suspended solids concentration is an easily measured parameter. Organic sources include algae. there occurs a colour change from yellow to red indicating carbonic acid equivalence point. bicarbonates.3. while dissolved solids are smaller than 10 -6 mm and exist as molecules and ions in solution. Hence. corrosion control. and in removal of ammonia by air stripping. The total solids can he classified as filterable solids and suspended solids. and the inorganic fraction that remains as ash is termed "fixed suspended solids" or "non-volatile suspended solids" (NVSS). This occurs at a pH value of 8. which is observed in the case of hydroxide. The filterable solids are those that are able to pass through a specified filter and consist of colloidal and dissolved solids. Of the suspended solids. The suspended solids (also filterable solids) may be further classified on the basis of their volatility at 600 0C. or carbonate. In almost all the cases gravimetric methods are used such as filtration through a Gooch crucible.5 is reached. which may be due to any of the three alkaline ions. the settleable solids are those which settle in a cone shaped container (Imhoff cone) in a definite time period. If the pH of the original sample is higher than 8. The measurement of light transmitted or light scattered by suspended particles can be correlated with the actual suspended solids concentration. The organic matter that is oxidized at this temperature is known as "volatile suspended solids" (VSS). the results are expressed in terms of CaCO3.

dyes from various industries. Removal of the suspended matter from the sample by filtration is not recommended because of the possibility that the filter may adsorb some colour and thereby cause error in the measurement. . present in polluted waters when pathogens are. therefore. Evaluation of odour is. BACTERIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS From public health standpoint the bacteriological quality of water is as important as the chemical quality. The coliform group of bacteria has the ability to ferment lactose or lauryl tryptose broth and produce gas. dependent on the olfactory senses of the tester and on his ability to distinguish between different levels and kinds of odours. The test is conducted by inoculating the broth by multiple portions of a series of decimal dilutions of the water sample. often impossible and impractical to isolate and identify positively the odour causing materials. but the most popular method is based on determining the content of "indicator organisms" in it. some other organisms also ferment the broth under certain conditions and. therefore. and readily identified and enumerated by simple laboratory techniques. Objectionable odours in water are caused by algae and decaying vegetation. It is. The testing is based entirely on arbitrary comparison since no absolute unit or base exists for odour. However. A stock solution containing 500 mg/l of potassium chloroplatinate. Since TO is a function of temperature. This group is normally nonpathogenic. Colour is measured by comparison with known standards. A variety of procedures have been devised to measure the bacteriological quality. The odour causing substances are usually present in very small quantities and are often very complex. which is given by. In such cases the sample is centrifuged to separate the solids and analysis is made on the clear portion. with cobalt chloride added as a tinting material. the test temperature should be reported in all cases. Coloured water made with potassium chlorophtinate when tinted with cobalt chloride closely resembles colour of many natural waters which are yellow-brownish in appearance. amines and sulphides also cause bad odour. is usually prepared and this is assigned colour of 500 units. unable to multiply under conditions when pathogens do not multiply. additional growth reactions must be carried out to confirm the presence of coliform group. thus. until a dilution is obtained which has a barely perceptible odour. ml of sample + ml odour-free water TO = -----------------------------------------------ml of sample It has been recommended that odour tests be run at 40 and 60 0C. The principal indicator organisms used are the coliform group of bacteria. The result is usually expressed as the number of coliform organisms per unit volume of the sample. The result is expressed in terms of the "threshold odour number (TO)". This offers a simple test of the presence of coliform organisms. or might be present. Then a series of working standards is prepared from it by dilution. The standard test method is the threshold dilution method in which the odour bearing sample is diluted successively with odour-free water. Some inorganic substances such as mercaptans. Suspended matter in water can interfere with the measurement of colour. The intensity of colour in water is measured against these standards by direct visual comparison.

if its intended use is drinking. Table 8.by the filter and the filter is then exposed to nutrients which promote the growth of coliform while inhibiting that of other organisms. colour). but only as guidelines that can be used for preliminary judgements. These standards are continuously revised as more and more is learnt about the effects of water constituents on proposed uses. which reflect the current state of knowledge of various water constituents. One is the memrobrane-filter technique and the other is the most probable number (MPN) technique. The coliform density is reported in terms of (total) coliforms per 100 ml. in spite of these and other limitations. In the membrane-filter technique. For example. Hence. the coliform test has provided a valuable and reliable technique for evaluating water purity. nitrates. The coliform bacteria are captured . and reduction of coliforms to low concentrations or even to zero may not always indicate that the water is safe.) and toxicity (metals. quality standards are set.47 per mi at which aY is maximum. Nevertheless. they do have certain limitations. these standards should not be used as absolute limits. The caliform colonies appear pinkish in colour and their count is made with the aid of an optical device. The specific purpose for which the water is used usually controls the requisite water quality. odour). chlorides. Based on the criteria. From the above result. etc. The most probable number of coliform organisms is a statistical estimate of their density and is based on the examination of a number of portions of different sizes of the water sample for the presence of coliforms. while water for cooling purposes can . In other words the MPN per 100 ml is 47. In addition. Although the coliform bacteria meet some of the criteria for indicator organisms. organics). health (bacteria. water should meet certain quality criteria with respect to the appearance (turbidity. These and similar criteria are established by health or other regulating agencies to ensure that the water quality in a resource is suitable for the proposed use. From a knowledge of the number of portions of different sizes giving positive or negative results for coliforms.Two methods are generally used for obtaining the number density of coliform organisms in the test sample.3 summarizes several quality criteria and their standards for drinking water as suggested by the following agencies: (1) Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) (2) World Health Organization (WHO) (3) United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Standards have been prepared for raw waters to be used as a source for various industrial applications. After 24 or 48 hours of incubation. some viruses and several other organisms may survive for longer periods than coliforms. a known volume of water sample is passed through the filter that has a very small pore size. potability (taste. the number of coliform colonies is counted and their density is determined. Water used in food and beverage industries will need to meet standards similar to those for drinking water. Coliforms often grow in treatment facilities or water bodies and the tests can reveal higher populations even though pathogens are far less likely to multiply under the same environmental conditions. the MPN can be determined from the following equation13. the most probable number is 0. WATER QUALITY STANDARDS The analyses required of water samples depend on the intended use of the water.

Table 8.3 Table 8. and not the maximum concentrations that could be tolerated. Table 8. The values listed are the maximum concentrations of different constituents in the raw surface waters used in the specified industry.4 .4 illustrates the water quality characteristics of raw surface waters that have been used as source for various industrial operations.contain much higher concentrations of impurities.

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oxidation ditch process. 197.K.K. electrodialysis. p. tanneries. Current industrial environmental status. Environmental management EIA. Datta. Rao. pharmaceuticals. neutralization) [2.S. coagulation. Waste water treatment. True/ False questions Book Reference 1. soap and detergent manufacturing. Guidelines and discharge standards of various industries permit system for discharge/emission. equalization. p. trickling filters. Procedures for undertaking EIA and their evaluation.70]. Datta. S. 1]. Environmental chemistry and pollution control. Advanced or tertiary treatment (evaporation. Book Reference 1. 2. Secondary (Biological) treatment (aerobic: aerated lagoons. Primary treatment (sedimentation. K.3. Environmental chemistry. Book Reference 1. P. effects and treatment options): Book Reference 1. iron and steel manufacturing. Rao and A. P. effects and treatment options): Pulp and paper. activated sludge process. C. anaerobic: sludge digestion. M. Sludge treatment and disposal [3]. characteristics. characteristics. Wastewater from some typical industries (Wastewater sources. Dara. Dara. fertilizer.S. Recovery of materials from process effluents [3]. ion exchange. Environmental pollution control engineering.N. p. Wastewater treatment Origin of wastewater [3. textile. photochemical industry. Characterization of wastewaters [1. Multichoice questions. electrolytic recovery. 5. B.313]. 197. p.1]. thermal and nuclear power plants..N. water pollution -41. Methods and equipment used in wastewater treatment: Preliminary treatment. chemical precipitation.282]. 282-285. 3. S. (Wastewater sources. 6. M. sugar industry. reverse osmosis) [2. oxidation pond. 313-327. Waste water treatment. p.1]. p. chloro-alkali industry.S. sludge treatment and disposal) [2. 251 . p. Sharma. adsorption. 70-87. Rao and A. Wastewater sampling and methods of analysis [3.

The quality standards usually depend upon whether water will be reused or discharged into a receiving stream. Commonly used chemical processes are precipitation. Other physical and chemical processes such as air stripping. and disinfection. also known as the biological treatment. Thus the industries join the municipalities to contribute to the "pollution" of the natural bodies of water. Biological processes utilize biochemical reactions. 333 ) BASIC PROCESSES OF WATER TREATMENT The purpose of wastewater treatment is to remove the contaminants from water so that the treated water can meet the acceptable quality standards. and dissolved inorganic salts. chemical or biological processes or their various combinations depending on the impurities to be removed. chemical or biological. or are emptied into the municipal sewers. These processes are usually grouped as the primary treatment. These principally comprise screening. and are used only when water produced is required to be of higher quality than that produced by conventional secondary treatment so that the treated water can be reclaimed and put to some form of direct re-use. inorganic nutrients and salts. p. Introduction: While a huge amount of water is required for different industrial processes. organic matter that is soluble or in the colloidal form is removed. Physical processes are based on exploitation of the physical properties of the contaminants and are generally the simplest forms of treatment. ion exchange and membrane processes like reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are also important in certain particular cases. the normal life of a stream or the normal functioning of sewerage and sewage treatment plants. The wastewater treatment processes are generally grouped according to the water quality they are expected to produce. only a small fraction of the same is incorporated in their products and lost by evaporation. The advanced waste treatment processes are expensive. These processes. The industrial wastes either join the streams or other natural water bodies directly. Available wastewater treatment processes can be broadly classified as physical. Chapter 4: Wastewater treatment of various industries INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT 9. flotation and filtration. which consist of a series of unit operations. are applied in different combinations and sequences depending upon the prevailing situations of influent concentration. In the secondary treatment. These processes are employed to remove residual soluble nonbiodegradable organic compounds. Primary treatment removes identifiable suspended solids and floating matter. sedimentation.0. typical examples are biological filtration and the activated sludge process. Thus these wastes affect in some way or other. trace contaminants of various types. including surfactants. and the tertiary or the advanced waste treatment. the rest finds its way into the water courses as waste water. Advanced waste treatment may involve physical. Chemical processes utilize the chemical properties of the impurities or of the added reagents. composition and condition and specifications of the effluent. coagulation. oxidation and reduction. due to . the secondary treatment.-------------------------------Chapter 3: Wastewater treatment (CS Rao 3. carbon adsorption. Much attention is now given in India on the treatment of industrial wastes.

which though not toxic. (c) Acids or alkalis which make the receiving stream unsuitable for the growth of fish and other aquatic life there. alcohol. if there are any. The selection of a particular process depends on various factors like the following: (i) Self purification capacity of the streams. and the municipal sewage treatment plants can be designed to handle any kind of industrial wastes. in mixing the industrial wastes with domestic sewage. these pollutants can be classified as follows: (a) Organic substances that deplete the oxygen content of the receiving streams and impose a great load on the biological units of the sewage treatment plant. Whenever an industrial waste is decided to be discharged into a sewage treatment plant. petrol etc. process intermediates. are aesthetically objectionable when present in the water supplies. Different types of liquid wastes originate from various types of industrial processes. which cause damage to the flora and fauna of the receiving streams. The characteristics of the industrial wastes not only vary with the type of the industry. chlorides. Streams can assimilate certain amount of wastes before they are "polluted". (ii) discharge of the wastes into the municipal sewers for combined treatment. the industrial wastes are very difficult to generalize. Thus we have three alternatives for the disposal of the industrial wastes viz (i) The direct disposal of waste into the streams without any treatment. which not only render the streams unsightly. but also from plant to plant producing same type of end products. and (iii) separate treatment of the industrial wastes before discharging the same into the water bodies. 9. and (ii) a cost study for the final choice of the particular method of treatment.1. subjected to pollution. the treatment plants are to be designed after (i) a thorough investigation of the characteristics of the wastes. process by-products. (iv) Technical advantages. (d) Toxic substances like cyanides. but interfere with the self-purification of the same. affect the municipal treatment processes and some times endanger the safety of the workmen. and the operations of the sewage treatment plants. A list of the toxic substances from some selected industries is given in Table 9. (ii) Permissible limits of the pollutants in the water bodies. (Tolerance limits for the inland surface waters. final products. and cause serious difficulties in the operation of sewage treatment plants. nitrogen etc. if it is decided to treat the industrial waste either independently or along with the domestic sewage. if any. as given by ISI are shown in Table 1.3) (iii) Economic interests of both the municipalities and the industries. (b) Inorganic substances like carbonates. Characteristics of the Industrial Wastes: Unlike the domestic sewage. (e) Colour-producing substances like dyes. . that render the water body unfit for further use and some times encourage the growth of some undesirable micro-plants in the body of water. established by law. acetylene. process chemicals. and impurities in raw materials and process chemicals.1. The pollutants include the raw materials. sulphides.its growing pollution potential arising out of the rapid industrialization of the country. After a thorough economic and technical appraisal. special attention must always be given to toxic components of the waste. (f) Oil and other floating substances. Broadly.

for the removal of dissolved inorganic materials are: (i) Reverse osmosis (Hyper filtration). . or both. which affect the planning for a industrial waste water treatment plants are (1) the discontinuous and some times seasonally discharged wastes. The rising air bubbles attach themselves to the suspended particles and thereby increase the buoyancy of the particles. The important factors. amenable to biological treatment. and Floatation. When the characteristics of the waste vary in a day and also the discharge rate is not uniform or continuous. in a fixed proportion to the flow of domestic sewage or the stream. and the nature of the constituents present in it. when the conditions permit. as done in the case of sanitary sewage. employed in the Industrial wastes treatment. Sedimentation tanks are to be provided only when the waste contains high percentage of settleable solids. known as proportioning. (iii) Chemical oxidation. When the industrial waste is treated along with the municipal sewage or discharged into a stream. (2) high concentration of the waste. the waste may be subjected to another prior unit operation. the waste may require Equalization before it is subjected to the treatment. The above processes may be carried . Proportioning consists of the control of the discharge of the waste into the receiving sewer or stream. some requires only chemical treatment without any biological treatment. the treatment may consist of any one or more of the following processes. Before an industrial waste is subjected to a chemical or biological treatment. the waste requires Neutralization in the neutralization tank. Depending upon the mode of discharge of the waste. Floatation is employed to separate fine particles with very low settling characteristics. may require prior chemical treatment.Characteristics of the wastes from some selected Indian Industries are given in Table 9. Floatation consists of creation of fine air bubbles in the waste body by the introduction of air to the system. Some of the chemical and physicochemical processes. 9. The particles thus lifted to the liquid surface are removed by skimming. which produces an effluent of fairly uniform characteristics.out partly or entirely in a municipal sewage treatment plant along with the domestic sewage. (i) Equalization (ii) Neutralization (iii) Physical treatment (iv) Chemical treatment (v) Biological treatment. (ii) Electrodialysis. This helps not only in protecting the treatment device from the shock load but also in improving the sanitary quality of the treated effluent. Neutralization may be carried out in the Equalization Tank. Some of the industrial wastes. it may be required to separate the suspended matter by physical operations like Sedimentation. or by processes very special for the industrial waste water only. When the waste contains excessive amount of acid or alkali (particularly acid). Treatment of Industrial Wastes: The treatment of industrial waste water may be accomplished in part or as a whole either by the biological processes. or in a separate treatment plant. Equalization consists of holding the waste for some pre-determined time in a continuously mixed basin.2.2. and (3) Nonbiodegradability and toxicity of some wastes.

Air stripping involves the passage (down flow) of a liquid waste through a packed tower. Chemical precipitation consists of coagulation either by alum or ferric salts as well as treatment by lime. When the waste water is passed through such cells. When a permeable membrane separates a dilute and a concentrated solution. Adorption involves the passage of pre-treated waste water through fixed bed Activated Carbon column. (vii) Thermal reduction. (viii) Air stripping. The separation of substances in this process requires sets of alternate cation and anion permeable membranes in between the electrodes as shown in the following schematic diagram (Fig. In this type of treatment. pre-treatment of the waste such as Activated carbon adsorption or chemical precipitation followed by some kind of filtration is necessary. and is used only as a tertiary treatment unit. and chemical oxidation and precipitation required additional facilities for the treatment of large quantity of sludge produced. through the membrane to establish an equilibrium.(iv) Chemical precipitation. Thermal reduction involves the burning and thereby oxidation of some refractory and toxic substances (like organic cyanide).1). The regeneration of the exhausted bed is accomplished by oxidizing and thus removing the adsorbed organics in a furnace at a temperature of about 925°C. This process is a modification of aeration process used for the removal of gases from the waste water. In electrodialysis. . Electrodialysis also requires some pretreatment as in Reverse Osmosis. The chemical oxidation consists of addition of chemicals like chlorine and ozone to reduce the BOD loading on the subsequent biological process. are also recommended as potential adsorbents. (vi) Ion exchange. Ion exchange involves similar passage of waste water through a fixed bed synthetic ion exchange resin bed. So. colour and odour. where the waste water containing dissolved salts are filtered through a semi permeable membrane such as cellulose acetate at a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure. cyanide etc. where some of the undesirable cations or anions of the waste are exchanged for Sodium or Hydrogen ions of the resin. Ion exchange bed requires regeneration. alternate cells of concentrated and dilute wastes are formed. the osmotic pressure drives the water molecules from the dilute solution. the chemical treatment should be provided only when it becomes unavoidable. which is equipped with an air blower at the bottom. or to reduce substances like ammonia. and special care should be taken for the treatment of the waste produced due to regeneration. FId. the flow of ionic substances is initiated by providing an electrical potential between two electrodes and the substances are filtered by using an ion-selective membrane ahead of the electrodes. 9.1 : Schematic Diagram of Electrodialysis Process. fly ash etc. This natural response is reversed in the reverse osmosis process. The chemical and physico-chemical treatments involve a significant recurring cost. to remove non-biogradable organics like synthetic detergents. 9. Other commercially available materials like clay. (v) Adsorption.

. Zinc. The design criteria for the conventional biological treatment processes may be different for different types of industrial wastes. As such these must he pretreated chemically before the waste is subjected to biological treatment. Special care should be taken in regard to the toxic wastes. only the principles of industrial waste treatment are described. the BOD : N : P ratios . So far. If the ratio is greater than 0. the biological process is by far the most desirable treatment process. along with their characteristics will be dealt with in the subsequent chapters. have been identified. Toxicity may be of acute or chronic type. other methods are suggested for the treatment. formaldehydes etc. The methods of treatment of wastes from some typical industries.5 : 0.When the waste substances are biodegradable. while the commonly available microbiological population fails to achieve the biological oxidation. the selection of the particular process depends on the effluent requirements and the characteristics of the waste. For a balanced growth of microorganisms in a reactor. and often found in well manured soil. cyanides. It must be borne in mind that before a treatment policy is fixed up for a particular industry the age of recycling and reclamation (recovery) of the waste must be considered. For effective biological treatment of this type of wastes nutrients are added to the reactors in the form of Urea. So. and may be to humans. if the ratio is less than 0. the performance data of similar type of waste may be used for design. the waste needs acclimatisation for biological treatment. Most of the industrial wastes do not contain sufficient amount of nutrients for good microbial growth. Chromium etc.6. The treatability of an industrial waste may be assessed by conducting laboratory tests on BOD/COD ratio. some micro organisms which are phenolytic in action. The system parameters for particular type of industrial wastes may 'be determined by laboratory experiments. Superphosphate or any other compound containing Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Some of the toxic wastes like phenols. some special type of microorganisms do well. development of suitable microbial culture containing specific group of organisms is necessary. plants.3 to 0. animals or to microorganisms responsible for aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment. with or without acclimatisation. Seggregation of strong wastes from the weak wastes some times reduces the problem. yield to acclimatised growths of normal or special type of bacteria. interfere with the biological oxidation by tying up the enzymes essentially required for microbial growth. for the effective metabolism of some complex organic substances. if the ratio ranges from 0.3.of 100 : 5 : L in aerobic systems and 100 : 2. and are employed in the activated sludge treatment of coke oven effluents). the wastes are bioiogically treatable without acclimatisation. under a controlled condition. The acclimatisation involves the gradual exposure of the waste in increasing concentration to the seed or initial microbiological population. Some other toxic metal ions like Copper.5 in anaerobic systems are to be maintained. for a better management of Industrial waste waters.6. In the absence of any actual test result. In some cases. (As for example.

oil and grease if they are present in considerable quantities. hand raked or mechanical raked screens. but are very effective in reducing the suspended solids and . acting like strainers as the waste water moves beneath them in an open channel.e. These are costlier. The velocity of the water is then reduced in a grit-settling chamber of a larger size than the previous channel. The modern mechanical screens cum filters include rotary. Different types of these screens are available. gravity type units and circular overhead fed vibratory units.Methods and Equipment used in Waste Water Treatment (Dara p. The principal objectives of preliminary treatment are the removal of gross solids (i. as compared to the conventional bar screens. large floating and suspended solid matter. cloth. which include bar screens (described above). Large quantities of floating rubbish such as cans. self-cleaning. drum screens and wire rope screens. grit. 72)1 The various methods used in sewage and industrial waste water treatment are as follows: (i) Preliminary Treatment. wood and other larger objects present in waste water are usually removed by metal bars. Removal of gross solids is generally accomplished by passing waste water through mixed or moving screens.

Sedimentation. for possible use in land-filling. ordinary skimming methods are ineffective. The suspended matter can be removed efficiently and economically by sedimentation. If the waste waters contain appreciable quantities of oil and grease. then it is advisable to remove as much of these as possible. road making and on sludge drying beds.43 . The sedimentation tanks are designed to enable smaller and lighter particles to settle under gravity. instead of screening. a long detention time helps in mixing and balancing (or equalizing) of the various wastes and safeguards against unduly heavy loads being passed on to the biological purification plants subsequently. the wastewater is passed through a tank with a detention time of 30 minutes and fitted with paddles rotating at an optimum peripheral speed of 0. An efficient sedimentation system is expected to remove about 90% of the suspended solids and 40% of organic matter (thus reducing the BOD). they may be removed with the help of chemical reagents in primary sedimentation tanks. In waste waters containing larger proportion of industrial wastes. Finely divided suspended solids and colloidal particles cannot be efficiently removed by simple sedimentation by gravity. In such cases. mechanical flocculation or chemical coagulation is employed. The grit settling chambers are periodically disconnected from the main system to remove the grit manually. In Mechanical flocculation. If the sedimentation tank is poorly designed the overflow may contain solid particles or the underflow may be more dilute than desired. Grit. being heavier than organic solids. This step is aimed at reducing the strength of the waste water and also to facilitate secondary treatment. in the preliminary treatment itself to avoid adverse effects on the rest of the plant. Sedimentation aids. can be separated from organic solids by careful regulation of the flow velocity in the grit tanks. about 50% of the suspended solid matter is settled out within two hours of detention time.BOD. gritty materials and excessive quantities of oil and grease. the next step is to remove the remaining suspended solids as much as possible. This process can be rendered more efficient by aeration. Sometimes. This is achieved by passing the waste water through skimming tanks where oil and grease are skimmed off. The settled sludge is removed from the sedimentation tanks by mechanical scrapping into hoppers and pumping it out subsequently. the gross solids in the sewage are cut into small pieces with the help of macerators or comminutors. In such cases. as in wool-scouring wastes. Grit (or detritus) is removed in the early stages of treatment in grit channels or tanks to safeguard against any damage to pumps and other equipment by abrasion and also to avoid settling in pipe bends and channels. The clear liquid produced is known as the overflow and it should contain no readily settleable matter. If the oil and grease are in emulsified condition. In a well-designed continuous flow sedimentation tank. This process is particularly useful for treatment of wastes containing high percentage of settleable solids or when the waste is subjected to combined treatment with sewage. chlorination or vacuum flotation. The most common equipment used include horizontal flow sedimentation tanks and centre-feed circular clarifiers. (ii) Primary Treatment After the removal of gross solids.

are absorbed on two or more particles. Sometimes. if there is no sufficient alkalinity.m/s. (ii) By reducing the charge on the particles and thus reducing the repulsive power of the like charges on the particles. In chemical coagulation. the chemicals used for coagulation are well mixed with the wastewater in baffled channels followed by mechanical flocculation before sedimentation. acrylic or methacrylic acids and their derivatives. FeSO4. Flotation technique is used in paper industry to recover fine fibres from the screened effluent and in the oil industry for the clarification of oil-bearing waste. the particles float to the surface where they can be readily removed. the finely divided suspended solids coalesce into larger particles and settle out. Pre-aeration for about 10 minutes before sedimentation is also found to help in the removal of entertained gases like CO2 and H2S and improved flocculation and separation of oil and grease. Owing to their selective property. thus drawing them together. cold-rolling. In such cases. the sewage or other waste water is treated with certain chemicals which form a floc (flocculent precipitate) that absorbs and entrains the suspended and colloidal particles present. Flotation Flotation may be used in place of sedimentation. Alum is the most popular coagulant used both in water and waste water treatment. Specialised equipment such as Clariflocculator is also available. metal finishing.Cl (mixture of ferric sulphate and chloride). For best results. followed by rapid mixing for 4 to 6 minutes. care should be taken in selecting the most suitable polyelectrolytes. followed by gentle agitation or slow stirring for about 40 minutes. This has the effect of increasing the buoyancy of the particles. chemical coagulants such as aluminium and ferric salts or polymer coagulant- . The sequence of operations in the chemically aided coagulation are (a) Addition of lime. and hydrolysed high molecular weight polymers having molecular mass of 10 4 to 106 of acrylamide or acrylonitrile) are the most commonly used coagulant aids. Polyelectrolytes are generally used in dilute solutions (~0. Under this gentle stirring. Coagulation is the most effective and economical means to remove impurities. other chemicals called "coagulant aids" are also used in very small quantities to promote the formation of large and quick settling floc and thereby enhancing coagulation. having long chain molecular structure. An increasingly important application is the thickening of the sludge obtained from activated sludge process. primarily for treating industrial wastewaters containing finely divided suspended solids and oily matter.7H2O (4) Ferric chloride and (5) Chlorinated copperas. in addition to the coagulants. and pharmaceutical industries. It is also used for treating effluents from tannery. (b) Addition of coagulants. Al 2(SO4)2·18H2O (3) Copperas FeSO4. (c) Addition of coagulant aids. To aid in the flotation process. Activated silica and polyeletrolytes (such as polymers of cyanamide.25 ppm). wherein flocculating chamber is a part of a sedimentation tank. as a result. the separation can be speeded up by aerating the effluent whereby air bubbles are attached to the suspended matter. The synthetic coagulant aids work by the following two mechanisms: (i) The coagulant aids. Particles of density very close to that of water are very difficult to settle in normal sedimentation tanks and take a long time for separation. The coagulants in common use are (1) Hydrated lime (2) Alum.

oxygen. ii) Oxidation of dissolved organic matter to CO2. They bring about the following sequential changes: i) Coagulation and flocculation of colloidal matter. In order to obviate this problem. Acidic wastes are usually neutralized by treatment with lime stone or lime-slurry or caustic soda. bacteria and other microorganisms consume organic matter as food. secondary treatment reduces BOD. Some industries produce different types of wastes. different streams of effluents are held in big holding tanks for specified periods of time. only those materials were considered that might be removed by some type of physical or mechanical action. as it is commonly referred to. depending upon the type and quantity of the waste. Hence. Each unit volume of waste is mixed thoroughly with other unit volumes of other wastes to produce a homogeneous and equalized effluent. These processes may be aerobic or anaerobic. Biological or secondary treatment. which is then converted into nitrite and eventually to nitrate. the primary treatment processes are largely ineffective in removing it. storing them in separate holding tanks and mutual neutralization by mixing them in appropriate proportion is the cheapest method. and some means of achieving contact between the bacteria and the organics. In aerobic processes. uniform treatment is not possible. the principal requirements of a biological waste treatment process are an adequate amount of bacteria that feed on the organic material present in wastewater. This organic material still represents a high demand for oxygen which must be reduced further so that the effluent may be rendered suitable for discharge into the water bodies. oxygen supplied to the bacteria is consumed under controlled conditions so that most of the BOD is removed in the treatment plant rather than in the watercourse. Thus. The residence time in the flotation tank is about half an hour. In secondary treatment. These chemicals increase the flocculent structure of the floated particles so that they can easily entrap the air bubbles. and iii) Degradation of nitrogenous organic matter to ammonia. . In biological treatment. having different characteristics at different intervals of time. Equalization. However. Highly acidic or highly alkaline wastes should be properly neutralized before being discharged. Since much of the organic material in wastewater may be colloidal or dissolved. It also removes appreciable amounts of oil and phenol. Aeration or mechanical agitation with paddles usually give better mixing of the different unit volumes of effluents. the dissolved and colloidal organic matter present in waste waters is removed by biological processes involving bacteria and other micro-organisms.aids are often used. Thus. Alkaline wastes may be neutralized by treatment with sulphuric acid or CO 2 or waste boiler flue gas. SECONDAR Y (BIOLOGICAL) TREATMENT So far. Neutralization. is very similar in concept to the natural biodegradation of organic matter by aerobic bacteria. commissioning and maintenance of secondary treatment systems are expensive. If both acidic and alkaline wastes are produced in the same plant or at nearby plants.

Germicidal and resistant organics. therefore. can be used to remove organic substances from wastes. the wastewater is brought into contact with a mixed microbial population in the form of a film of slime attached to the surface of a solid support medium . such as hydrocarbons and ethers. can carry out the digestion of complex organic wastes. The effluent from primary sedimentation tanks is first subjected to aerobic oxidation in systems. and convert into simpler compounds such as CO2. such as . Certain micro-organisms. In both cases the organic matter is metabolized to more stable inorganic forms. Whereas in the biological-film system. oxidation ditches or oxidation ponds. In the activated sludge system the wastewater is brought into contact with a diverse group of microorganisms in the form of a flocculent suspension in an aerated tank. odour and higher residual BOD. slaughter house etc. after prolonged acclimatization periods.. The process is less expensive but the final effluent is less satisfactory. Under anaerobic conditions (i. Some of the commonly used biological treatment processes are described below: (i) Aerated Lagoons. is subjected to anaerobic digestion in the sludge digesters. temperature. The hydrolyte organisms convert complex organic compounds to simple and low-molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. These are then converted by methane bacteria to CO 2 and CH4. the activated sludge process is gaining popularity and is preferable to the biological-film system because of its reliability and suitability for handling large volumes of wastewater. Anaerobic treatment is mainly employed for the digestion of sludges. therefore. H2O. in presence of dissolved oxygen and in proper environmental conditions. can be oxidised by aerobic biological treatment. The effluents from primary treatment processes are collected in these tanks and are aerated with mechanical devices. nitrates and sulphates which are non-pollutants. Anaerobic treatment process can be carried out in depth without the need for large surface area. certain groups of micro-organisms. trickling filters. hydrolyte and methane forming organisms. The most popular means of treating domestic sewage has been the biological-film system because of its ease of operation. in the absence of dissolved oxygen or gaseous oxygen). The process can be applied to most types of substrates excepting a few like lignin and mineral oil.. activated sludge units. such as cyanides and phenols also can be destroyed by special types of micro-organisms.g. and because of the high degree of treatment achieved. This process. were treated by this method economically and effectively..e. absence of oxygen and toxic materials. However. with a few exceptions. Then the sludge obtained in these aerobic processes. as compared to that from aerobic treatment. such as aerated lagoons. However. polythene or rubber. These are large holding tanks or ponds having a depth of 3-5 m and are lined with cement. organic liquid wastes from dairy. Almost all organic substances. It can take place in mixed or enriched cultures and can. which are then agglomerated and removed from the waste by settling. also known as trickling filters. Complex cell tissues and protein materials are also synthesized during this process. The efficiency of this process depends upon pH.Two of the most commonly used systems for biological waste treatment are the activated sludge system and biological-film system. e. because of the dark colour. waste loading. utilise organic waste as their food. be maintained easily on large scale. together with that obtained in the primary sedimentation tanks.

a part of it gets detached and carried away along with the effluent. over which wastewater is sprinkled uniformly on the entire bed with the help of a slowly rotating distributor (such as a rotary sprinkler) equipped with orifices of nozzles. coal. made of well-graded media (such as broken stones. comprising of bacteria and aerobic micro-organisms known as "Zooglea". for about 2 to 6 days. BOD removal to the extent of 90% could be achieved with efficient operation. When the thickness of the film on the medium increases. the effluent from the trickling filters is allowed to settle in a settling tank to retain the sludge particles and is then discharged. The operation and maintenance are relatively simple. the waste water trickles through the media. is formed on the surface of the filter medium. Thus. coke.floating aerators. The filter is arranged in such a fashion that air can enter at the bottom. The major disadvantages are the larger space requirements and the bacterial contamination of the lagoon effluent which necessitates further biological purification in maturation pond or by secondary sedimentation and sludge digestion. a healthy flocculent sludge is formed which brings about oxidation of the dissolved organic matter. counter current to the effluent flow and a natural draft is produced. (ii) Trickling Filters. which thrive on the nutrients supplied by the sewage or the waste water. The organic impurities in the waste water are adsorbed on the gelatinous film during its passage and then are oxidised by the bacteria and the other microorganisms present therein. The trickling filters usually consist of circular or rectangular beds. During this time. 1 m to 3 m deep. Hence. synthetic resins. A Schematic representation of a typical Trickling filtration process is given in Fig. gravel or clinkers) of size 40 mm to 150 mm. . PVC. A gelatinous film. 8. The sludge is then pumped to the sludge digestion unit.

food processing. Flavo bacterium. To overcome this problem. sometimes called a secondary settler or a clarifier. depth of the filter. Wastewater after primary treatment enters an aeration tank where the organic matter is brought into intimate contact with the sludge from the secondary clarifier. However. The efficiency of the filter depends upon the composition of the waste. This sludge is heavily laden with microorganisms which are in an active state of growth. as compared to the "Activated Sludge Process" and can recuperate more promptly from an overdose of toxic materials. solids-liquid separation following aeration. Aerobic bacterial species. worms. distillery. The essential features of the process are: an aeration stage. and synthesize new bacterial cells. is separated in a settling tank. Algae. spore forming bacteria and bacillus are mostly present in the upper layer of the filter. the waste water may be diluted with the effluent from the previous treatment. low-energy compounds such as NO3. strength of hydraulic loading. The trickling filter has greater resistance to toxic waste. brewery. Trickling filters produce effluents of consistent and better quality. protozoan. The metabolic activity is proportional to the temperature of the waste water passing through the filter. Thus. are present in the interfaces of the stones. pH. SO4. petrochemicals. they can afford maximum surface area for the formation of microbial film and their light weight helps in greater economy in laying the underdrain of the filter. colloids and coarse solid organic matter. it is indeed a facultative system. Synthetic plastic media are found to be particularly useful for industrial wastes of higher loading. By and large. The disadvantages of the process include the cost of construction and the need for ventilation ducts for the under drain system. such as Pseudomonas. Facultative bacteria.. (iii) Activated Sludge Process This is the most versatile biological oxidation method employed for the treatment of waste water containing dissolved solids. pulp and paper mills. pharmaceuticals.Although trickling filtration is classified as an aerobic process. e. whereas anaerobic species. The microbial film formed is very sensitive to temperature. cannery. and a sludge recycle system. such as Desulfo vibrio. either in the form of bubbles through diffusers or by surface aerators. insect larvae that feed on micro-organisms are also present. The microorganisms utilize the oxygen in the air and convert the organic matter into stabilized. the efficiency of the filter decreases in winter season. smaller media give better results but they tend to choke easily. ciliates. slaughter house and poultry processing industries. In the settling tank the separated . Moreover.14. temperature. Moreover. the size and uniformity of the filter medium. The effluent from the aeration tank containing the flocculent microbial mass. known as the sludge. senils. shock loads or sudden surges should be avoided lest the efficiency of the filter might be impaired temporarily or even permanently. The process flow diagram for a typical activated sludge plant is given in Fig. The efficiency decreases with increased loading of the waste water.g. Air is introduced into the tank. constant manual attention is not needed for this process. Trickling filters are simple to operate and can produce BOD removal to the extent of 65 to 85%. 9. Alerligens. uniformity of waste water distribution over the filter and proper air supply. depending upon the rate of filtration. CO2. Enterobactericeae and Micrococcus are also present in the trickling filters. fungi. Trickling filters are effectively used for the treatment of industrial wastes from dairy.

. A portion of the activated sludge is recycled to the aeration tank as a seed. If all the activated sludge is recycled. necessary to "waste" some of the microorganisms. It is. then the bacterial mass would keep increasing to the stage where the system gets clogged with solids.sludge exists without contact with the organic matter and becomes activated. and this wasted sludge is the one which is processed and disposed. therefore. the rest is wasted.

The micro-organisms should be provided with essential nutrients. An efficient aeration for 3 to 6 hours is adequate for sewage. including pretreatment and primary settling. The optimum pH range for the process is 6.3 Wastewater characteristics* Suspended slids BOD Ammonia nitrogen Total nitrogen Phosphorus Ultimate oxygen demand Typical wastewater Primary effluent (mg/l) (mg/l) 230 85 200 135 18 16 30 25 13 11 383 276 Secondary effluent (mg/l) 20 20 15 20 10 99 *Based on average treatment efficiencies. These values may vary from plant to plant. about 95% BOD removal is possible.0. The influent ammonia is oxidized by nitrifying bacteria and this reduction is partially balanced by the production of ammonia by the sludge mass. etc are generally present in the waste. sugar. Activated sludge process was used satisfactorily for the treatment of effluents from food processing. whereas for industrial wastes. is an efficient means of removing suspended solids and organic matter from wastewaters.. e. leading to anaerobic conditions. antibiotic manufacturing industries. Other nutrients.g. Activated sludge process produces a high quality effluent with relatively small areas. The total nitrogen content is reduced by approximately one-third. so that most of the phosphorus remains . such as N and P. which are supplied in the form of urea and mono-or di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate. while high temperature increases the metabolic activity to such an extent that the oxygen is consumed fast. 6 to 24 hours of aeration is required for this process. Low temperature slows down the rate of metabolism. Efficiencies of Activated Sludge Process The activated sludge process. textile processing. Table 9. and within any one plant with time.5 to 9. Table 9. K. most of the suspended solids and the BOD materials are removed after secondary treatment. As is seen from the table. Ca. temperature and oxidationreduction potential. The net result is that there is a slight reduction in the ammonia concentration. need for careful attention and sensitivity to shock loads of toxic and organic substances. In the activated sludge process the microbial floc takes the soluble phosphate as a nutrient but the removal efficiency is small (less than 30%). Primary sedimentation in conventional treatment settles only a small percentage of the phosphorus present in wastewater. Other important factors which determine the efficiency of the activated sludge are pH. since its major part is dissolved. With efficient systems.3 presents typical primary and secondary effluent characteristics. etc. The disadvantages include high cost of operation and maintenance. However. Mg. the activated sludge process does a poor job in removing both nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater.

(v) Oxidation Pond. low cost of construction. Waste water. Table 9. tar or butyl rubber. Flavo bacterium and Alcaligenes. An oxidation pond is a large shallow pond (0. 6. vegetable and fruit canning industry. 2. Longer retention times are needed.5 m depth) with arrangements to measure the inflow and outflow.5 m to 1. more More sensitive to shock loadings. such as Pseudmonas. The oxygen requirement for their metabolism is provided by algae present in the pond. Oxidation ditch (Fig. The mixed liquor containing the sludge solids (MLSS) is aerated in the channel with the help of mechanical rotors. The usual hydraulic retention time is 12 to 24 hrs and for solids. about 1 to 2 m deep and lined with plastic. Oxidation ponds are also called waste stabilization ponds.4 gives the major differences between conventional trickling filters and activated sludge systems. utilize the CO2 released by the bacteria for their photo synthesis. and also lists their advantages and disadvantages. and to some extent by flagellated protozoa. The surplus sludge can be dried without odour on sand drying beds. This process is generally used for wastes having low BOD. easy maintenance. The major advantages of the oxidation ditch include simplicity in operation. This can be considered as a modification of the conventional Activated Sludge process. Table 9. it is 20-30 days. 3. in turn. 10) usually consists of an oval shaped continuous channel.uneffected by the secondary treatment.More effective in removing pathogens causing organisms than trickling filters Low operating costs High operating costs (iv) Oxidation Ditch. Stabilization of organic matter in the waste is brought about mostly by bacteria. The algae.4 Comparison of trickling filters with activated sludge systems 1. overall efficiency and flexibility. is allowed into the oxidation ditch. slaughter house and meat packing industry and edible oil refineries. 5. The ultimate oxygen demand (UOD) is reduced by about 75% in the conventional secondary treatment. The wastes enter the pond at one end and the effluent is removed at the other end. operation and maintenance. Trickling filters Bacterial growth is fixed on the media Activated sludge systems Bacterial growth is suspended as a dispersed floc All solids from the settler are wasted Solids from the settler are partially recycled Less sensitive to shock loading. after screening or comminution in the primary treatment. require stable closer process control Produce insects and odours Produce spray clouds Less effective in removing disease. The extended aeration process may be expected to raise the removal efficiency of UOD to about 90%. Most of this reduction is due to the oxidation of the organic carbonaceous material and the remainder is due to removal of ammonia. Most of the sludge formed is recycled for the subsequent treatment cycle. . 4. Oxidation ditch process is used effectively for the treatment of waste water from beetsugar manufacture.

25 m3 of the gas is produced per kg of the organic matter destroyed.6 to 1. The heavy metal ions present in the waste water are precipitated as hydroxides (due to the high pH of the waste water in the oxidation pond) which settle as sludge. Sludge is the watery residue from the primary sedimentation tank and humus tank (from secondary treatment). the organic matter is oxidised by anaerobic bacteria to CH 4. H2S and CO together . About 0. Species of Pseudomonas. Although waste water treatment in oxidation ponds is generally considered as an aerobic process. an adequate natural aeration. Methanosarcina and Methanococcus types of bacteria are responsible for the generation of CH. H2. Methano bacterium. and NH3. CO2 . The waste water present in the upper part of the pond (which constitutes the major portion of the waste) undergoes aerobic oxidation to CO 2 and H2O. H2S is released. 11. Aerobacter. act as anaerobic phase. (2) The digested sludge is safer to be used as manure than the undigested sludge. about 700 BTU/ft3). The advantages of anaerobic digestion process are as follows:(1) Reduction in volume of the waste by about 65%. wherein the sludge is maintained at a temperature of 35 0C at pH 7-8 for about 30 days. The anaerobic digestion process can be accelerated at higher temperatures. The process can withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads. oxidation ponds require larger space. The constituents of the sludge undergo slow fermentation or digestion by anaerobic bacteria in a sludge digester. The process can be used for all types of wastes and any degree of purification can be obtained. CO2. Fig.e. This will enhance the amount of oxygen released. CO2 and some NH3 are liberated as the end products.5 to 30%. facultative and anaerobic processes. . The calorific value of the gas is about 26 MJ/ m3 (i. Any deficiency of oxygen may lead to anaerobic conditions and consequent release of bad odours due to putrefaction of wastes.65 to 80%. (v) Anaerobic digestion. (3) The digester gas obtained has the following percentage composition by volume : CH. The effluent from the oxidation ponds may require disinfection or further treatment in a separate maturation pond before final discharge. N2. in this process. CH4. convert complex organic compounds to low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The schematic representation of the anaerobic sludge digestion process is shown in Fig. Addition of nutrients may be necessary to enhance the growth of algae. This treatment is mainly used for sludge digestion. However. Desulfo Vibrio bacteria reduce sulphates to sulphides and thus. Alcalagenes etc. which in turn increases the rate of purification of waste water. Flavo bacterium.For efficient waste water treatment by this process.. This is the reason why mechanical aeration is also provided at some places in addition to natural aeration. 11..about 5%. The facultative zone exists near the anaerobic phase. The gas can therefore be used as a . Here. Anaerobic sludge digestion process. which settle as a layer at the bottom. Waste treatment by oxidation pond is cheap and the operation and maintenance are simple. This is the reason why oxidation ponds should be shallow. Solids present in the waste. good mixing by wind and proper penetration of sunlight required for photosynthesis of algae are essential. the purification is performed by a combination of aerobic.

slaughter house and paper mill industries have been economically and effectively treated by this process. Fig. the activated sludge contains less than 1% solids. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Handling and disposal of sludge from biological wastewater treatment plants is an important problem and represents about half the cost of most sewage treatment plants. 9. This means that the sludge is composed almost entirely of water and volume reduction is the key to economic disposal. it is useful for treating small quantities of wastes. The operation and maintenance costs are lesser with this treatment. it can be used for power generation. The concentration of solids in the primary sewage sludge is about 5%. containing readily oxidisable dissolved organic solids in liquid form or in finely divided form. the sludge must be stabilized so that its biological activity and tendency towards putrefaction are reduced drastically. In addition to reducing its high water content. and the sludge from trickling filters has about 2% solids. In large installations.fuel to provide the heat required to warm the digestion tanks. (4) Although anaerobic treatment is a slow process.24 paths) Sequence of operations for sludge treatment (Arrows indicate possible flow . That is why some liquid wastes containing soluble organics from dairy.

Properly digested sludge is black with a faint smell of tar. The common methods for thickening are gravity settling and flotation. During the process the bacterial cells are destroyed and a substantial portion of the sludge is oxidized resulting in the reduction of the solid content by about 30%. lime and polyelectrolytes. The sludge can also be thickened by air flotation. shown in Fig.25. Physical conditioning methods such as heat treatment are becoming popular. the sludge is stabilized by digesting it under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In a typical sludge digester. In this manner the combined sludge from primary and secondary settlers can be thickened so as to contain 5-9% solids. In gravity thickeners the sludge is subjected to gentle agitation by means of a slow stirrer which enhances settling. Conditioning The sludge after stabilization may be conditioned to improve its dewatering characteristics. and is stable. Large land areas are required for sludge lagoons and odour problems may occur frequently. 9. digestion. The sludge is aerated in a tank for about 20 days at ambient temperatures. Anaerobic digestion is the most common method in which the organic content of the sludge decomposes to give mainly methane and carbon dioxide and at the same time the bound water is released from the sludge. raw sludge is fed into the active digestion zone and gas lifts the sludge particles and other materials which form a supernatant layer on the top of the digestion zone. This also creates settling and odour problems. particularly the secondary sludge. Aerobic digestion is also used. at the same time the sludge is partially oxidized and completely stabilized. These chemicals bind the sludge particles together and encourage the release of absorbed water. Fig. The normal detention period in standard digesters varies from 30 to 70 days depending upon the temperature conditions.The common unit operations of sludge treatment and disposal involve concentration or thickening. which keeps the system aerobic. The gas is collected at the top and the digested sludge is withdrawn from the bottom. Heat treatment has the advantage of sterilizing the sludge. alum. This is done by adding chemicals like iron salts.24 represents the general flow sheet of sludge treatment techniques in approximately the order in which they could be applied in a treatment scheme. The flotation technique can concentrate the sludge to bring its solids content to 4%. oxidation and safe disposal. conditioning. Concentration The purpose of concentration or thickening is to remove water from the sludge and reduce its volume as much as possible so that the sludge can be handled more efficiently. . and it may be considered similar to extended aeration. The sludge is heated under pressure and after a period of time the gel structure of the sludge breaks down so that the water is released. Digestion After concentration. Often the thickening of activated sludge is complicated by anaerobic action.9. dewatering. particularly under warm conditions when the bacteria in the sludge decompose organic matter and release gases. Sometimes shallow lagoons are employed as digesters.

some sludges may be oxidized to reduce the organic content. Drying beds are also commonly used for dewatering. Another technique. and then subjected to high temperature The sludge from the digester may contain about 90 to 93% water. may be utilized in applications where the sludge is to be incinerated or when a saleable commodity can be produced. vacuum filtration is a continuous process where a rotating drum. In the multiple hearth furnace the sludge passes downward through a series of hearths. The de-watered sludge. after chlorination. is partially submerged in the sludge. . using plate-and-frame pressure filters or rotary drum vacuum filters. When the sludge is introduced. and are oxidized. the liquid is removed at the opposite end (Fig. The combined efficiency of evaporation and incineration in multiple hearth furnaces is about 55%. the sludge particles are dried almost instantly as they are dispersed. In centrifugation. Dewatering takes place by a combination of drainage and evaporation. dumping at selected sites in sea. followed by incineration in the lower ones. Dewatering is accomplished by mechanical methods. Oxidation Before the final disposal. A major problem associated with this process is the control of gases and ash particles which may be generated in drying. Vaporization of moisture occurs in the upper hearths.26). or utilizing as a low grade fertilizer. The solid cake is transported within the bowl and is removed by a screw conveyor at one end of the bowl. although fluidized beds or flash dryers may also be used. Wet oxidation is a process in which the sludge is ground. and after the dewatering period the plates are separated and the sludge cake removed. The various methods used for ultimate disposal include dumping in landfills. filter presses or vacuum filters. It is a batch process.Dewatering The thickened sludge is dewatered for efficient handling and disposal. The cake is deposited on the outside of the drum and is removed by a scraping mechanism. Pressure filtration can produce a cake with a solids content of 25-50%. On applying a vacuum of 80-90 kPa inside the drum. Removal of dried sludge is carried out mechanically. Vacuum filtration yields a dewatered sludge with a solids content of about 25%. can be sent for ultimate disposal. the sludge is pumped slowly with increasing pressure into filter plates supporting a cloth. In pressure filtration. mixed with air in stoichiometric proportions. depending on the solids content. conditioned sludge is added to a rotating bowl that separates the sludge into a cake and a dilute stream. Incineration is usually performed in a multiple hearth furnace. Centrifugation is a compact method which requires careful control of process variables. incineration. Incineration and wet oxidation are the two common methods employed for sludge oxidation. heat drying. which includes pressure filtration and vacuum filtration. the liquid is sucked into the drum. The bed consists of a filtering medium on which the sludge is applied to a depth of upto 250 mm. 9. In contrast to pressure filtration. the most common being centrifugation and filtration. is widely used for dewatering digested sludge. The fluidized bed system consists of a bed of sand fluidized by air. with the consequent destruction of bacteria and a significant reduction in their volumes. The sludge is dewatered in drying beds. which retains the solids. which is covered with filter cloth. Filtration.

TERTIARY OR ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT Table 15.). but the growth of population and industry and its concentration along rivers require that most water be used many times before it reaches the ocean. Acid rain. Sources and effects of pollution by mercury. active and passive. portable/sampling device. Dara Evaporation Ion-exchange Adsorption Electrodialysis Electrolytic recovery Reverse osmosis ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- H-408 Environmental pollution and Industrial waste management 1. the remaining quantities would be disposed of naturally in the river which received the effluent. 4. Analytical techniques. Bhopal disaster. not all of the impurities in a waste water stream are removed by primary and secondary treatment. Thus. Ordinarily. Arsenic and chromium. they may be employed at the beginning (water purification) as well as the end of the human water use cycle. diffusive monitors. Several of these methods are also applicable to industrial wastes where BOD and suspended solids may not be the most important indicators of water quality. Some air pollutants case (London smog. time weighted average and short term exposure limits. Wastewater treatment: . Industrial monitoring. a number of tertiary or advanced wastewater treatment techniques are becoming important. Natural water-Eutrophication. Deposition of Atmospheric pollutants and their effects. Chernobnyl disaster. Activated carbon adsorption Ultrafiltration Electrodialysis Ion exchange Removal of bacteria and viruses Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus Disposal of treated wastewater in spoils Agricultural wastes P. Sampling and Monitoring.1). Case studies-Bioamplification (Minamata disease etc. Air quality standards. In addition.1. exposure. In many cases the increments of pollution remaining after ordinary treatment are too large for natural removal prior to the next use. Methods of monitoring. indicates. etc). and indeed a number of them find much greater use in such applications. Heavy metals and their removal. Concept of threshold limit value. 3. 2. 84. Draeger tubes. although at present only a very small percentage of municipal systems use them (Table 15. lead.

Datta. effects and treatment options): Book Reference 1. trickling filters. thermal and nuclear power plants. 197. thermal and nuclear power plants. S. Waste water treatment. M. photochemical industry. Secondary (Biological) treatment (aerobic: aerated lagoons. P. 197. characteristics. C. soap and detergent manufacturing. chloro-alkali industry. characteristics.S. oxidation pond. Wastewater from some typical industries (Wastewater sources.1]. Fifth edition. chemical precipitation. effects and treatment options): Pulp and paper. Current industrial environmental status. Wastewater treatment Origin of wastewater [3]. photochemical industry. Rao and A. Recovery of materials from process effluents [3].1]. 313-327. Methods and equipment used in wastewater treatment: Preliminary treatment. 6. Environmental chemistry and pollution control. Primary treatment (sedimentation. Characterization of wastewaters. p. sludge treatment and disposal) [2. 5.N. Guidelines and discharge standards of various industries permit system for discharge/emission. Sludge treatment and disposal [3]. Waste water treatment. 6. textile. tanneries. M. Datta. 70-87. Book Reference . Rao and A. textile. (Wastewater sources. effects and treatment options): Pulp and paper. Book Reference 1. Secondary (Biological) treatment. activated sludge process. Methods and equipment used in wastewater treatment: Preliminary treatment. Advanced or tertiary treatment. P. Environmental pollution control engineering. Procedures for undertaking EIA and their evaluation. fertilizer. ion exchange. ---------------------------4. Recovery of materials from process effluents. 4. pharmaceuticals. equalization.K. electrodialysis. Rao.1]. 283-285. Wastewater from some typical industries (Wastewater sources.S. electrolytic recovery. sugar industry. Current industrial environmental status. Environmental Chemistry.K. Advanced or tertiary treatment (evaporation. iron and steel manufacturing. chloro-alkali industry. reverse osmosis) [2. Guidelines and discharge standards of various industries permit system for discharge/emission. fertilizer. De 5. Characterization of wastewaters [2].Origin of wastewater.N. Procedures for undertaking EIA and their evaluation. Sampling and methods of analysis. 3. Primary treatment. p. Dara.K. tanneries. coagulation. adsorption. anaerobic: sludge digestion. characteristics. oxidation ditch process. Sludge treatment and disposal. iron and steel manufacturing. soap and detergent manufacturing. Sampling and methods of analysis [3].. pharmaceuticals. A. sugar industry. 2. neutralization) [2.

p. B. . Environmental chemistry.S.1. water pollution -41. Environmental management EIA. S. p. Dara. K. Sharma. 251 Multi choice questions True/ False questions Book Reference 1.