By Shoson


First Stage Aryan Pioneering

Seen culturally

and historically,

can be determined


and the Cradle
an expansion

in the pioneering

of Buddhist


process of three stages

and colonialization

of India by the

Aryan people.
The first stage is the pioneering

into the regions around

period at the beginning

the five rivers (Punjab)


of the Indus River. This region


the Kashmir


is contiguous

along the upper

with Central

with its purple mountains

one finds Taxila

but it also



in particular,





of Ancient

and the co-existence,


of the Aryans,




Gandhara, where

as well as commerce.


of politics,

for hostile


economics and

Asia and India.

So, in the first stage, the representative


came to have a free

the exchange,


a center of culture



and crystal waters

along the upper streams of the Indus River, and through

of the Aryan

was Taxila.

we have-the



city symbolizing
As examples

of the pioneering

hymns of the nomadic



the historicopeoples who

and we can also learn


great deal from the excavated culture of the pre-Aryan areas of the
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappd. Again, consecutive to this stage, there follows
the Buddhist
a great



about Gandhara.
a famous


of the age of Kanishka,



Taxila, which
of learning,




which saw the building


Asia and centering

up to that time had been the capital and
also came, under


rule, and in

which he later made his capital, and where carved




of this





Gods, the Kushana,"

can still find today

of the Iranianians,

were opened;


Asia, Buddhism


was there




its always


of Northern



who was

of the





of the western









the statue





Han, nor
Rome, had



of the Maitreya

was erected, the monks of India then brought

300 years



to distant

in his


of the

vinaya, and men finally crossed the river. The erection


old m.en of the land



who set out from


who was dispatched

and he also notes





of the Maitreya

(in 402), and

(佛 國 記)


of Central

to China, Korea,

to Asia and

Fa Hsien,





to the statue


by the

and developed,




the routes

come to this land,




in 399, paid his respects

in Darel

more than

of the Greek colonies,




of its fountainhead


king, we

to equal Gandhara

and with the vigorous


and Japan in succession,


of the oriental

Son of

nor the period which saw the co-existence
Asian culture. By the Graeco-

fields in Buddhism


of Kings,

with Central

Art which



of his




not even the culture

and the fusion of Buddhism





(S. Miyamoto)

this fact. There seems to have been nothing

the thought




the reign of Kanishka,



the sutras and

of the statue was

and can be calculated

back to the period of King P'ing of the Chou People. Because of this, it
is said that




of the

the propagation





of the Great Teaching





a work





(大 唐 西 域 記,

巻 三)

of the Arhat








The Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, Ancient India, Chap. XXII., "The
Scythian and Parthian Invaders," by E. J. Rapson, p. 582, Cambridge, 1922.

Sir Charles

Eliot, Hinduism

and Buddhism,

Vol. III, p. 213.

later. of world history of the cultural Asian great significance exchange expansion from the viewpoint of Indian culture with core. In more readily the Sarasvati beautiful the having a name meaning goddess Indian Desert. (S. Laos." West. The Aryan Middle Kingdom and the "Middle Way": Prayaga. this land was gradually from the region where In (Himalaya) the east from the Middle Kingdom. Indonesia. Miyamoto) (3) This account later became the canonical authority for Chinese records. the Symbol of the Middle Kingdom The " Aryan second Middle stage is the Kingdom" period which (Mashyadesa 中 國) Laws of Manu (Manavadharma-sastra. to the understanding of the original Buddhist art of those days. 4. Its essence is the less than together of Early Buddhism." of the promulgation history Buddhism at its is no greater nor Aryan pioneering and colonization. regarded on the atapatha-brahmana fire. one crosses over to the present -994- west.". 14-16). into the the point where . The in recent times of Dr. the Vindhya Prayaga (Allahabad) (I. Series of Oriental have contributed were also thought up. of the south. this Middle Kingdom is limited to the Himavat Mountains god of the at construction terms. River. published greatly Rome. II." which further Burma. disappears Allahabad. Vinasana (3) ont he east. going east as very sacred. Agni-vaisvanara. the towards saw the Kuru-Panchala. considered to be the territory north. Cambodia has a very history of Mahayana Buddhism. and of speech. and the famous expression of "The Great Doctrine moving gradually to the east. Guiseppe Tucci." and the Buddha's Doctrine moves excavations in a eastwardly and research in East and direction. and started out did not cross opened and Aryanized understandable River.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL trine has been always BEARINGS towards the East. Malaysia. and it may be said that its relative importance that of the compared to the of the in a new sense. And according sacred to the on the and was called Videha. 21-22). but ultimately the Sadanira of the II. Such a "history of the propagation with the "history expanded throughout and Vietnam. and other IsMEO publications. Tailand.

Moreover." then a map was made of the Aryan Middle Kingdom and the Buddhist Middle Kingdom. 1946). Konpon Chu to Ku (Fundamental Middle and Voidness.p. 1 "The Aryan and Buddhist Cultural Sphere" (Sanseido. -993- . one may discover while in the Ganges culture the prototype of Panchara there (3) To begin with. in the vicinity of the Kuru Country along the upper reaches of the Jumna. and the home of the Thera Upagupta. of the the birthplace the symbol of heroism. BEARINGS (Garnga) Rivers flow together. New Delhi. pp. and appended map. may have been due to a yearning Aryan (S. Agravana) of the the location of the Tai Mahal Temple. has been enlarged and nourished by the twin rivers of the Jumna and Ganges. and it elucidated in the historical development the intellectual construction of the concept of the Middle. Rivers in China. we can now understand life of the Aryan Middle Kingdom. In the Ho and Yangtze Jumna is the great artery Now. and the Hwang Indian rivers.) (Daiichi Shobo. Miyamoto) Knowing that Mathura for the antiquity (Madhura). Daijo Bukkyo no Seiritsushiteki Kenkyu (Historical Studies on the Formulation of Mahayana Buddhism. religious teacher of King Asoka. the historical formulation was made clear of the process in which the new universalism sprang up from the Aryan nationalistic thought: the three stages of the Aryan Middle Kingdom.). which classified the common zone of the two Middle Kingdoms. together form the strategic how the cultural center facing the Jumna River. 14. ed. studies were made on the "peaples nation and the thought of the Middle. in lap. Panchala. one of the seven wonders of the world. 367-375. in Jap. Chudo Shiso oyobi sono hattatsu (The Thought of the Middle Way and Its Development. by the present writer. This is also clear in the case-of the Nile River in Egypt. II. of the Republic the capital Homeland. the Upanisads and Buddhism. it was clarified what sparked the new culture of the Aryan invaders and the Middle Way of the Buddha. 1954)." as "philosophical considerations on the Middle. occupying the territory of Kuru Panchara. what is noteworthy Jumna culture of the Aryan fatherland. And in the doctorate dissertation. Of the two of Kuru and Ganges is that of about Kuru and Panchala? life of Kuru.) (Hozokan. The building of India. 1943). Krsna. and the area which had deen newly opened up as the Buddhist Middle Kingdom. in Jap. and Agra (Agra.(4) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL the Jumna and the of the present Ganges capital of Indraprstha.

Vol. broadens culture. 84. rather than the confrontation of caucasian and negroid. that occurred after they had adopted this natural of India. words. vanno zone of Kosala. concept suddhim. p. the commemo- in particular Background Himalaya inherently cultural what the whole Natural (5) cooperation symbolizes On the throughout the great next. watered Range. gradually and from gathering in the waters of the Gunti. As the victors they were successful management. The motivating grand and magnificent Natural setting woven section. The Aryan people subjugated the dark indigenious slaves of them. II.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL is the rates inception Aryan motherland the Aryan Malla is Kuru and and Videha. which the point of the Magadha produced out the culture sufficient to give content to the Indian out of the Great Himalaya Range and the Great Ganges. other hand. point the Jumna on. 84. the cradle of Aryan Universalism. 148. Great Ganges of Pataliputra so to speak. the name of Ganges. Assalayana. N. from which a still newer four castes and is the Ganges comes Jumna. 88-89 and p. background In the first place. Gogra and Gandak. Miyamoto) spirit ranges and forms out through Ganges Universalism. up the secured a labor system of four caste people in their control and force served by the black which is the (4) Majjhima-Nikaya (M. and set social organization of Vol. II. Madhura . pp. concerted river base Buddhistic Yn other and the central the (S. flow under and Ganges flow together.) 93. Thus. may be said to have begun rotating with Magadha as its central axis. part of the has (catuvannim of India.N. -992- central and made slaves. congenial Homeland the Paflchara the of Aryan the affectionate. and the so-called five Rivers (panca-nadi) flow together and become the where all this occurs is in the neighborhood Kingdom. M. which went so far as to envelop the co-existence of white and black. BEARINGS and equality (4) samasama) of all of the third period. by the rivers of the Upanisad movements towards of the purity cattaro the of India which And early of the of Sakiya. and what Jumna.

Its and broadly speaking. . of the Punjab. indeed. However. (udicya- (madhya-desa) (pracya desa). the Aryan culture Brahmanas.991- had the Vindhya the pioneering Mountain of the warm. this which manner they s. Miyamoto) constructed in (民 族 の 生 活 圏). which during. their So much There. the life aphere of people (S. it was also non- aryanistic. since towards the "Western be the "Middle the third would be the "East Region" of North with the Peaks." region place which of the peoPle the second stretches Region" to the cold climate. the direction the first would Middle 心)" and lodged. in comparison out straight three Region". Here they produced. had won for the first time in the long history of their life. up by the Aryan invasions of the Himalaya would (初 which suited the white Aryans life.(6) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL the. this northern along "original was this the first period and secure for a long time. groups who realized for the first time the it was also the peaceful towards a formation the (Arya-varta). because the "Southern Range which served as a natural Region" obstacle. as the ancestral of the Aryan nation was deeply engraved who were weak towards the sphere (priya) which had come to pervade their daily after and desired spirits. and meant became the "Eastern the framework desa). The region been opened of "the and colonialization". Region" of the opening in conformity with. of their became Kingdom. Again. The ancient were "Middle Then. stages Consequently. in the history Region and the Eastern Region was more attuned Kingdom newness was non-brahmanistic. . for they named this area "The Sacred Land of the Aryans" that of the people's congenial lives. Aryans. ideal place "Northern the mountains frontier intention the tropics yet compatible cultural had the dwelling as they next advanced on to open up new territory. This sacred land. cooperative spirit of affection they had sought for and brilliance of the Vedas and andd Northern while the newer to the newly risen royalty and rich. was truly The Aryan Middle BEARINGS Kingdom. was. which is the splendour And this is even more evident. of Aryan pioneering be the "Northern Kingdom" Region" Brahmanistic. then the The Middle Kingdom India. home was the native place of these people.

" The banks of this usually River. Aryan Middle living zone the region of the Punjab to the Northwest. advancement.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL zone became retrogressive. to King BEARINGS was Asoka (dakkhi.990- . "middle taken to signify and colonization (中)" the fertile in the agricultural covering the middle of the Himalaya Range to the north. called (Krsna) Region" River. It has some Mihinda. in the living exchange and cultural trans- and culture. both culture fluidity. was the and cultural progress. it can be said to be another It might be more correct to think that one can find. In this way. and originality. and since what was unopened the eyes of the Aryans eastern region. that is the Avanti southern region." thought. and the because not only did they proceed to enlarge the area. enlargement. However. and the Kings of Satavahana. in the period while there were designations for the living . who transmitted to Ceylon. relation both Buddhism sion" (S. and and Aryan the frontier Nagarjunikonda opening pioneering out by moving from the northwest is a conspicuous line between Kingdom "Southern who had of all lie along the of the Southern to a later period. in the pioneering. and was the region the Godavari and the Kistna between the region extensive of Andhra relations Area. of "Aryan Middle Kingdom. aryanized and to Pince much scriptures however. were so that there of the Aoryans and non-Aryans. Consequently. remains it says in the Buddhist Southern Region being fertile. the were called the "Kings of the Southern of Amaravati Kistna Region belongs carried what was the meaning has been the contrast of the to the southeast. the ones who formed the orthodox school were the Buddhist monks of this region. were directed cultural with a different intellect opening. frontier was always stretched out moving toward the eastern area. and the Vindhya mountains range to the south. The Southern region was regressive. formation eastward. (daksina-patha) ref eyed to the region of the Deccan Plateau. imitation. and in the period of "Ten Points Vinaya Transgres- by the Vajjiputtaka. this faster. with Nagarjuna. Later. and Maharastra. but as there also was contact. confrontation. the Accordingly. Miyamoto) (7) Of course. approximately 100 years after the Buddha's demise.

the For of the Sutra shedding Middle born. N. p. what about the of the "Middle pioneer's Country" culture. I. 191. second until of the As with Kingdom been opening lasted newer Middle yet be a period and which the not BEARINGS the of the Aryan process Middle of development (中 道) from the middle country (中 國) is Country towards elucidated in (6) the state of development Now. Northern Regions. 7 Pavarana. Vol. N." yet. pp. VIII. to be experience thought. Vol. Miyamoto) (中 國). p. 58 Sambuddha. been Middle opened way was and because (無 師 濁 悟). S. new older this arduous towards (S. 108 Gopaka-moggallana. It far of this. Vol. III. III. 18. the Upani- speculations takes of culture it always Buddha's of has opened "Enligh- enlightemment way which not been (5) had taught. M. -989- . abundant (初心). is said new and In this way. concept concept the east of the third stage. not This enlightenment. will and and developing. from "from a it was period was a long it was period of born. original and and to be and had of fostered and posture original have the of the construction the being too.) XII. of the Third the of intention unexplored without for sentiment the "original tenment of the substantiated supported its born the the the fermenting the Way necessary period a process period and Middle the confrontation Middle after the transitional Six teachers was and between stage. the direction was and and the to with Kingdom However.N. The nistic Buddha This constructed of Lotus (種 熟 脱). of new desires. of creation of seed. had not clearly defined the Middle way to the in and been so deeds said known. 66. maturation of thought when tenacious merits Way" a completely time from the Middle Middle period forward Kingdom Middle Stage." The teachers first the boundaries. of the frontiers East. free as of the the the Brahma- thought to be "An individual also the to Kingdom live. of the Chinese? As indicated (5) Samyutta-Nikaya (S. 8.(8) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL e xperience (中 道) that of had there advance Kingdom of the exchange Eastern and the was Way" ought culture period and royalty of the Second of and thought individuals the primitiveness. continuing resulting Region to be placed sadic stage Flower.

After accounts adopt the they China all. Daisetz T. and making a map of the confrontation of thought from the first in India. of being period their of it is an interesting In the and BEARINGS attempt peoples. Chap. 12) has a verse mouth of Purusa middle that the priestly (Original Vaisya clearly When the English were born from the Man). of harmony (北 独). Chap. (7) Age of the Nandas and Mauryas. And. The Commemoration Volume of Dr." in Buddhism and Culture. however. -988- . (7) was the building as the founding of "a strong the commoner both legs-this autonomy kingdom. 1952). 55-92. "The Logic of Relativity as the Common Ground for the Development of the Middle way.). Miyamoto) diametrical of Indian and did not have to seek the (西 戎). ed. ruled India. Nilakanta Sastri (Banaras: Motilal Banarsidass. which occupies a position between the left and right wings. to these to enrich concerned less East special a great greatly Much (9) opposition History. Raychaudhuri. (6) With a grasp of the developmental process from the Middle Kingdom to the Middle Way during the transition of the second and third stages of Aryan pioneering and colonization. toil and. these they were of different ideals anew further the a we see that there served not were co-existence flexibility to the with was (東 夷). pp. and. home country in the land of their invasions. Suzuki's Ninetieth Birthday. both eyes and the labor-slave ref ects the social order which Sudras from preserved the of the sturdy conquerors. 1. that North (S.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL by the names South of (南 攣) the middle. naturally. Bukkyo no Konpon Shinri (The Fundamental Truth in Buddhism. and revolutions occupied the hostile ideas.). C. its capital. for the of much the position that with the other extent in freedom. victors.Empire of Magadha. the standpoint of the Middle Way of the Buddha. edited by K. was Calcutta on. onesidely Country. 1956. by the present writer. I. (X. A. from of the priority Brahmins The Rg-Veda." (dhurva madhyama dis).. I. "Buddhist Reality: The Middle way and Nirvana" (Sanseido. p. self-examination there was. 9. was clarified. 67-69. merely the the and Barbarians the and West took the position broad view of the Middle ceremonies. Kyoto: Otani University 1960) pp. . 10. number the other Aryans life the in of rituals. of the peoples there What in China four directions. the warrior Ksatriya from both its arms." by H. in Jap.

its contemporary of pride as a cultured Mohandas Karamchand nation. as well as that of the late Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri (on January 25. sacred -987- The ashes of were streamed and dissolved into the Great of the Aryan Prayaga. For there. Miyamoto) by the English its independence. the "Wheel of the Truth" (Dharmacakra) of the Asoka stone pillar which now symbolized the initial turn of the Wheel of the Truth by the Buddha and the Great Wheel of the Truth of Asoka. the new Indian independence. . service to their motherland of the eternal In this way. ground Middle land of many Kingdom prideful lives deeds. Gandhi (1869-1948). free India moved its Kingdom. of the Aryan Middle and French. by solemnizing at the site of the ceremony.(10) the THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL Ganges However. aspect along should intention with the oneness and equality be that of an India worthy The cremation ceremony of Mahatma Because independent to found a nation of the of India. just as if to restore the capital of Kuru. who gave his life in service of his mother country during recent between India and Pakistan-all of Prayaga. capital River which had BEARINGS been invaded at the time of winning to the homeland (S. the tradition on and is commemorated climax in the Jumna. the original purity of the blood and culture of the Aryan people dwells. has り の 初 心) tradition influenced was the national on the day of the formation the former President. Indraprastha. the hero of Indian Independence. India has been possessed of the original Aryans. and the original intention to erect a domain (國 造 reason. 1966). And not with out of the very ancient and sacred Aryan Prasad image of the new India. That is to say. the dangerous which symbolizes these heroes who had rendered into the sacred waters Ganges. for the consecrated Middle Country However. Rajendra engraved. that of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964). of the were performed peace negotiations at the sacred the Aryan Middle Kingdom. (1884-1963). they built the capital in New Delhi. made clear another great significance to those at home and abroad. not too far from their old capital. and adopting that Dharmacakra for the National Flag of India.

As for the colonies of the white Aryans. the Brahmanic village of Thuna. and fulfilled the function of being a transitional intermediary for the intellectual culture. which answered the needs of the period. the free spirit. Kosala. by the Brahmins. and the concept of oneness and equality. 197. the owners of the new thought rich in common sense. p. The Aryan frontier in this period had reached Videha. there is the "period of the Ancient Upanisads" as represented in the Chandogya and the Brhad4ranyaka. and situated on the drainage basin of Gunti. the village of Setakannika. Outstanding in this respect were the thinkers of the royalty. The Non-dualistic Middle-way The Middle period Kingdom. or the desire of conquest. the profile appears of new thought. The New Age had not been influenced by colonization by power alone. and something which might serve a useful purpose to the society of the period was needed. 12. I. the Sallavati River: to the south. and the rise of the wealthy class who set into motion the economy. did not meet the times. such as the cultivated path. Malla and Videha in the same latitude as Kuru-Paflchala. Miyamoto) Upanisads (11) and The of Buddhism. or the onesided and flat egoism of the Aryans. the advocacy of the supremacy of rituals alone. the Usiraddhaja Mountains. the ancient home of the Aryans. For example. to the west. Mahavagga V. and its principal area continued on to Sakiya. The Brahmins of Kuru-Paflchala had understood the Brahman section(8) The Boundaries of the Buddhist Middle Kingdom were: to the east the great forest of the Kajangala village. the clime of the regions of the rivers of the upper reaches of the Ganges along the foot of the Himalaya mountains seems to have agreed with them. Rapti. occurs stage between period the period of the Buddhist of the Aryan Middle King- glom (Majjhima-janapada). At that time. -986- . Gogra. BEARINGS Mysticism Pragmatism of the Upanisads and the third (8) of the (S. Vinaya.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL III. and to the north. Vol. Cammakkhandhakam pancamam 13. In the new universalism which appears for the first time in the Upanisads. the broad and rich culture. to the southeast. and the Gandak.

since the former mysticism had been closed to them.(12) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL ally as words. How much did the mystical tradition of the great forest texts and philosophy. (in Chand. that: Truly. liberation of the royal education of the new period. Up. For. King Pravahana man) which gives Jaivali of Panchala and transmigration and the five fires birth to all things. the truth and religion and brought out the -985- and reality for everyday with the ethics and enlightenment science of in everyday acti- . 3-10). are the achievements while being bred in this mystical non-dualistic voured to convert finally towards and proceeding of the Buddha who. they were guided by these new concepts to produce of liberation. philosophy. Among these. I. e. atmavaisvanara) of the Kekaya Clan in Northern in all men by King India. 14. had also endea- a type of mysticism open to the masses. is said to speak dharma. And further. there is the of the self (universal self.. Again. ears. opening a new period. held the new theory (samsara). consciousness concepts Videha BEARINGS was appeared: able and the mind. the theory Up. Up. There up their own paths. eyes. both of these are one and the same. there was King Janaka of to achieve enlightenment by Ya- on the omnipresence of the Brahman. the new of the atman frontiers. i. dharma itself is satya. the man who speaks satya and the one who speaks dharma is said to speak satya. (kar- of the two paths All these class were the driving of action new concept of force for the enlightened it says in the Brhad. and thus made as a thinker of the kingly class. V. who jnavalkya's teachings manifest his sagacity knowledge Asvapati (S. 15-20) that the atman formed from the consciousness in the state of deep sleep as reached by King Ajatasatru is the primaeval reality (satyasya satyam). 4. tied up the philosophy the social period. Therefore. And that brought about an advance of a step or two towards life. later. I. together with the new concepts of liberations such as the oneness of the Brahman and the self (Brahmatmaikyam) influence and persuade the young thinkers who next appear? Whether it be Shakyamuni the Buddha or Mahavira Jina the Great Hero. Miyamoto) vital life force. and the esoteric doctrine (in Brhad.

liberation experience of mediation caused life experience. -984- next the which period. as well a close which into to the of Again. Fourfold tion dharma Truth of the analytical and of religious systematized the Middle and Way realism them in the them. (nirodha-marga). with a modern he may also be said to have the first to make religion character. and there is also a clearcut distinction between some revolutionary realism construc- (duhkha-samudaya). Miyamoto) (13) vities. tion had granted (中 the Way concepts of suffering In the enlightenment concept of the Middle Way of non - ideals. applied and observations and the way to religion sense. to the principle and satya. is the as the movement one finds was and in a principle. which connect and of the to him the power of synthesis. opening up a . banner concept transformed the function the Middle philosophy is the bond and for the realization non-dualism of Buddhism and the Ganges of the are harmoniously experience of the Upanisads. The concept of the Aryan of Buddhism-these on both before mated reality and the concepts of extinguishing of the Buddha. which The concept of an Aryan Middle Kingdom of a particular its "middle of from (中 道) fully matured distinction way. The Buddha. the mystical the Middle It is as if the Himalaya was of the which has the twofold which are the Middle Kingdom. Upanisads blended. the non-dualism 國) to it the scientific method of concept and cause of phenomena. enlightened dualism between medical treatment. stages are respectively origination. there in adherence moving the therein Upanisads was subliand And then. process. lines performed or the and realiza- and the Middle Way linked and continued and after. (中). the manifest the primitiveness there was born of humanistic there new period. of the cism to common there desire is the and maturation. Buddhism. While the earliest person to give a contemporaneousness was the Buddha.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL BEARINGS (S." non-dualistic Way In this as well as similarities the fact that there were three towards in the fruition from of experience which of mysti- stages that and idea. But we must not overlook distinctions.

becomes distinctly and control of that singular came to be regarded surpassed. numerous by India's of colonization cities appeared which Already made black indigenious natural setting and pioneering it was instead possible people from who had time lived there on end. in such a concept of Mother Nature. Now the the existence of non-productive cultural And the existence of a great number of also. Af to the surrounded area. India and River included thread as something manifest. great rate. came to be the white Aryan wavering therefore of the period up to that were enlarged. and a new social of the economy. who had become the on the scene as the newly also. Miyamoto) Pioneering is further by the upper reaches mountain Aryans the there natural center of of Eastern of Coexistence stage. apPearing concept that the self and others are born together harmoniously. earth. maintainers in and man are linked people point did not answer the needs of the time. by the "scope Stage BEARINGS (Sahgha) and the charity undertakings of donations was also flourished. sky. desire to subjugate in the period from (S. appeared the warrior joined and in each region. as cultural communities surpassing figures in this new period. setting of the stage. became abundantly intercourse and powerful mass class which society the that all are equal was born. was due to -983- such historico-social . the period itself tolerated liberally men and religious mendicants. together. In this way. the of the expansion of the (イ ン ド的 大 自 然)" the Historico- of management Great Ganges heaven. religious shot forth held the power of money and finance. The areas of farming and animal husbandry trade and buds. at an accelerated setthi). and an Indian region the self-awakening The Middle Way. they seemed to have something class. the leading affluent carried increased clans (fresthi. out. The Third social In the Kingdom the Bearings third from Aryans. and the Himalayas great In this period. And in the fields and politics.(14) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL IV. arisen economically. and both the volume and scope of foreign as the wealthy of thought the called the White insignificant. formed watered in peaks. its realistical Middle of the Five Rivers.

he would have continued his great trip. since he spent the latter part of his life. and entered Nirvana at Kusinara (Kusinagara). the great massive existence of religious mendidants (paribbajaka. and may have become. 196-7. and then coming down to the south only as far as Buddhagaya. regardless of their social standing. The first place he preached. 自 然 法 爾. could participate freely in social activities. or University kamma). but it must be said that his thought and deeds have long remained. outside the city of Benares (Baranasi). Shakyamuni surely must have been among these free. -982- 自 然 法 爾). liberal thinkers. And. Even the field was opened that women. philo- of Hawaii Press. before reaching his destination. by means of the footsteps of his entire life. pp. later. and sannyasin) of the Aryan Middle Kingdom. the Buddha spirit of the Aryans. 45 years. climbing at least 800 kilometers. However. has some connection with the sannyasin of the four periods of life (asrama: brahmacarin. naturalness. while those of most of the others of his time have long vanished with the passage of time. In this way. who were free to make pilgrimages to the various lands. vanapsastha. was Sarnath. . parivrajaka). (gotta). at the end he went north in order to be close to his homeland. East and West (Honolulu: 1962). Crossing the Ganges from the foot of the Himalayas.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL BEARINGS (S. he fell ill on that trip. in making further religious travels and pilgrimages. 105-6. In particular. another 200 kilometers to the north. moreover. and he may be said to have spent his entire life in (9) accordance with the With reference law (9) of birth Dharmata-yukti. naturalness to the ultimate stood in the pioneering matter of (jati) (dharmata truth for human beings. Miyamoto) (15) bearing. grhastha. nor family 法 爾 道 理. reality (carana. a lubricate for the life of coexistence. and held that it was not a but conduct ultimate sophy and Culture. how high did his footprints really climb after all? As might be expected. after attaining Satori at Gaya. the Buddha truly endeavoured to bring about the social edification of coexistence in the Middle Way with the objective that all men can become the Buddha. so great that we do not know how much it contributed just to liberalize thought.

there and I further scores of names of those who entered the order were listed as being from the sudra labor class. Genshi Bukkyo no Kenkyu (Studies on Primitive Buddhism. Furthermore. and even went so far as to enter of the masses when invited to give sermons on Buddhism. As for the condition of Buddhism general headquarters for his distribution international during the period of King Asoka. . but since the original community of Shakyamuni always had contact with the masses by going out into the streets to beg once a day. 310. From such a point. (11)f Vesali. and the nobility and wealthy of the Eastern Region (pracya-desa). Raghavan. depending on this "conduct. Miyamoto) In the equality of the four castes. from our view- point of the." what is the Brahmanistic of the Middle Kingdom (madhya-desa) and the Northern Region (udicya-desa). and anew universalism rose its (10) head. nearly all were down the middle way. the homes. p. for the dispatching of missionary envoys of the world." by S. pp. somewhat more of a cosmopolitan gave to the Buddhism nature. the base and for Asoka's pilgrimages to the Holy Buddhist Lands. were most numerous. and so forth..Jap. speaking. Chatterji and V. friends. position of the lay-buddhists. the left or right. which became a world center for politics. those who entered the Order having regionally come from the country of Kosala which is also placed within the area of the home village kyamuni. there were few who leaned to. economics and culture.(16) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL BEARINGS (S." Hajinkakushobo. "Language and Literature. of Dharma Edicts throughout the Empire.. And further. and moreover. understand that several noble (sangha) of Shakyamuni. who had were many relatives of Sha- and ollowed next by those from Magadha. In the religious many community men of Brahmin. were combined effectively. and wealthy backgrounds. -981- . J. (11) Chizen Aaknuma.). "The Four Classifications in Shakyamuni's Religious Community. of Asoka Asoka pioneered (10) Age of the Nandas and Mauryas. was Pataliputra. 1939. X. 392-393. there are some who criticize Buddhism for leaning towards the right as a religious community. The three regions of the North. the capital of Magadha Kingdom. the Middle Kingdom and the East are classified by a linguistic examination of the Aryans.

And later. Of the five rivers. Great alty nation of the Ganges." Section on Shih Tao-an. a priest generally was named by his teacher. who held his capital in Purusapura of Gandhara. the sames (unprecedented. change BEARINGS the famous times. it says that four rivers enter the ocean. And that is why he has everyone receive the name of Shakyamuni. area of international and who desired India and Central racial cultural equality Asia. it is said that the Ganges in particular has great happiness by performing and prosperity. all should be called sons of Shakya. But Tao-an thinks that the Great Master is the origin and base and that there is no teacher more worthy of respect than Shakyamuni." and of the even spirit before of this "Great the passage had Ocean of the Sakya been translated into (12) In the Kosoden (Biographies of High Priests). So when the four castes become priests. becoming (lonarasa) as far by the the fact that the Ganges flows abbhuta) for the Aryans ocean up to that time. 5. This idea already agreed with the sutras and since then it has become a permanent practice. "Interpretors and Commentators. at the time when Buddhism was transmitted to the (12) Chinese Middle Kingdom. The image of the period during which the Aryan pioneering along the drainage Himalayas into and is fused (ekarasa) and wonder with the River. Since even the Buddha. ablutions and washing in its waters has continued away of sin and vice to the present from ancient times. it stands to with the wish that all men become four castes and the same flavor and community (sangha) became the new slogans forthis period. Moreover. it says:"At the time of the Wei and Tsin Dynasties. L. when they acquired the Ekottara Agama. reason that there Indian taste coming Shakyamuni (同 一噛 威味). in that. and the surnames were not the same. Again. and do not retain the name of the original river. 353). Chap. equality salty taste of the religious for the one flavor was a great who had not known the was drawn by the fasci- as distant is some connection The Ocean. advanced basin of the Great Ganges." (TT. -980- . Part 2.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL the way to the Buddhism (Peshawar) from ancient Central and Northern (S. the legend that Shih Tao-an (312-385) became conscious Clan immediately (繹 氏 大 海). has been sketched and Ganges ex- throughout Magadha. Miyamoto) (17) of Kanishka.

p. into which the great so. by virtue of the Dharma Ksatriya. 55. Miyamoto) had already anticipated is but one example and advocated and testimony that Truth. Atthaka-nipata 2. the Ganges always flowing to the East. Dharma). 15-16. 198-199. 206-207. -979- 91-96 Pacina. Yamuna. as the Five Rivers flow into the Great Ocean and become one flavor and. 1961). and the Vinaya. IV. XLV Magga-samyutta. pp. so. lose the original Brahmana. the same salty taste. 5 Sonatherassa-vagga. there tending toward it. in Jap.. 4 Ganga-peyyala. N. Noble the place Nirvana. Kogen Mizuno. heading toward the Great Ocean. declining. Vol. too. River Ganges flows. pp. names and become theca one taste of the great ocean. too. 10. world. so too the Eightfold always to enter it (nibbana-pona. V. and Sudra. 19 paharada. Now what is especially here are the fourth and the sixth of these unprecedented When the five rivers. just. Vol. Udana. 97-102 . pp. and returning Path and the Four Noble and return Truths to enter it. had come to be writ large (Magadha and the Ganges) (13) Anguttara-Nikaya (A. Samudda. In this way. pp. the members of the Sangha. 20. the Sanngha also becomes the same taste of liberation by virtue of the Dharma and the Vinaya (the sixth unprecedented In addition. Again. N. "The Prototype of the Religious Community System. in the Great Ocean. pp. the Gaiiga. 202. (14) S.)." (Shunjusha. decline. and all become the same priest (the fourth unprecedented Dharma). BEARINGS (S. Vaisya. and son of the Buddha name of their four castes. losing their individual dharmas. and Mahi. 1964). flow into the Great River. (14) nibbana-pabbhara). 38-40. 53. Akira Hirakawa. there required are eight virtues are eight myste- or attha acchariya in the Sangha. Nanden Daizokyo Sosakuin (General Index to theSouthern Tripitaka). When the image of the equality of humanity (in the third stage of pioneering). Part II (Nihon Gakujitsu Shinkokai. itself in both the East and West in the past and present. it came to be taught rious virtues (13) dhamma) (eight unprecendented that just as there Dharmas.(18) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL the Chinese this spirit reveals Buddhist to the Scriptures. tend towards nibbana-ninna. Mahavagga. anther metaphor has been given of the five rivers. Sarabhu.). Uposatha. Genshi Bukkyo no Kenkyu (Studies on Early Buddhism. abbhuta Aciravati.

Ganga. as and Asian Empire extending (イ ン ド的 な 五 河 喩). to King Kanishka. the out in four directions the to Central of its eternality. and it is said that the Vaksu corresponds and do not Clan" (繹 interest. And they do not return to their original caste name again. (15) one that was thus born. Asoka. Why is this? The reason is that the people in the religious community great ocean. in addition India the Great (19) after having been only Indian. and Sita.). relayed since a great e five river (S. ed. 9. of the Tathagata are like this are like the four great rivers. the leave home to become recluses and to study the way. Vol. etc. Chap. world geography (15) Ekottara-Agama. -978- . was from one lake (Anavatapta. In the abode of the Tathagata. Miyamoto) grew to become one. and the Magadha in its entirety of Kanishka. 22. (ア ジ ア 的 な 四 河 喩)" Rivers. the four river of lose Buddha) of the new period.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL and the man (Shakyamuni culture Then by King became Asiatic In the period Central and "metaphor North of th India metaphor Ganges that and but the Asia the flow Five into the f our rivers. Sect. Asia was built. Sita) have entered the great ocean. Sindhu. I. Sindhu. and the Seta to either the Yaxartes (Sir-Daria) or the Yarkand the sphere of Kanishka River (Tarim River). cf. is perhaps that "Great of Ganges and the Indus Ganges. and the Four Noble Truths II. which indicated it was inherited Buddhism of BEARINGS flavor" of the also Anotatta)." (TT.. 氏 大 The and Northern to the Oxus River which flows into the Aral Ocean... 1. form ultimate The the Great in metaphors. 29. Vaksu. and only the name of the ocean is mentioned. Sukha-duhkam (Chapter on Sorrow and Pleasure). II. Wearing the three robes of the Dharmas. they shave their beards and the hair of their head.. What are the four? The ksatriya. flow Ocean same also Jumna. p.. Ibid. Considered from today's viewpoint. No. they lose their original names. 658 c)." Ocean. This is also like the four castes. Daijo Bukkyo.. "When the four rivers (Ganga. Sakya arouses the boundaries our of Central India.. "Bukkyo Sekaikan no Kakudai" (The Enlargement of the Buddhist World-view. They are said to be priests and sons of Shakya. (16) On the cultural spheres of the Aryans and Buddhists.. the vaisya and the sudra. in Jap. the brahmana. VaksU.. Miyamoto. same flavor 海)…this "four rivers the the indicate the from to the "metaphor constructed. These clearly symbolised (16) Buddhism.

these. -977- . in Mikkyogaku Mikkyoshi Ronbunshu (Collection of Essays on the Study and History of Esoteric Buddhism). kyamuni's BEARINGS its world-view equality (S. throughout by the social framework the common element desired are all of or of being here was (17) See this writer's "Gyo no shutaisei to Bussho chudo" (The Subjecthood of Action. Again.(20) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL has expanded. have the Buddha the world-view remainder in the stanza nature.: Buddha-nature and the Middle Way). Miyamoto) culture has likewise has also become newly broaded. and there Buddhist. the Correct Dharma Even if there be. Again. or the present-day cated by the Sarvastivada India. said to be men who do not believe retribution. It took on a clearly international character and by King Kanishka. that to lack the Buddha-nature. 1965. In Sha- of the four castes. the difference of being caught convenanted of the four (panca-adhisamaya-gotrani) the five grave sins and the person who slanders excluded exception of society. close to the materialistic religion. transcending by religious ethics. in advo- which flourished in North (agotra. the theory the so-called nature. in Commemoration of 1150 years since the Founding of Koyasan. which brings in the original outcastes in the causal they are probably of having no-nature This a-gotra are the focus of Because they are relations of karma world continue forever. Accordingly. with King Asoka. there is the forward-looking posture of the pioneer. pp. therefore. expression In the equality of the present of the five types of natures the fifth of was a desire for the called them icchantika. (sudra) and do not know Nirvana. such as men without and the Vijnanavada. both the person who has commited from the objects of salvation." of the world the work-slaves the problem. 15-16. 無 性) is thought cultural (17) to mind either the sudras or the candala. sketched. is clearly a Brahministic vow of Amida Buddha. desire that the pleasure and secular Lokayata beings without and the lowly class (candala) The Nirvana-sutra the borders is found in the Mahaparinirvana-sutra. it became Asianized. India. "All sentient which of India castes of primitive is transcended to become Buddhism. and the sphere of Buddhist and. and there is the long-cherished desire to link the past with the present.

" that tends the of the Highway Buddha-nature. and Buddha"." in Jap. the four-caste taste of five rivers of Magadha equality went beyond the one salty Buddhism. concept men principle existence in the The Great front Ganges line to the of Aryan village pioneering of Kajangala. the penetrating Buddha-nature. V. the national land can all become the Buddha. even "non-sentient medieval that Tendai "the the in grass Sect. 261-291." of the Nirvana-sutra. non-sentient to the thesemen. (21) and the aim to broaden of salvation. 1961. become the Buddha". -976- . Miyamoto) and transferrence. (草 木 國 土 (18) 悉皆成佛) The the line of demarcation freedom of becoming penetrated that to the "even religious the evil Buddha. "Somoku Kokudo Shikkai Jobutsu no Bussho Ronteki Igi to Sakusha" ("The Significance and Authorship of the Theory of the Buddhanature. trees. 9. The extended and All moreover. and advanced to the "all sentient beings without exception have the Buddha-nature. 2.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL the emancipation.) in Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies." catchphrase all (Dai-Muryoju-kyo). of the Buddhist the Buddha. broadening Honen Buddha. in the the of the Buddhist eastern New Period period boundary may have of the "Bud- (18) This writer. No. over beings can emphasized the become moreover. Vol. "one towards Buddha without and all was that In the constructed exception and further can become a position (非 情 成 佛). Such being the case. pp. nature Buddha" of the of of Shakyamuni. and the one salty taste of the four riers of Kanishka Buddhism. cultivating of the can and Dogen. lived the while Middle while principle and Shinran beings that "all has progressed steadfastly and Pataliputra. the Sukhavati-vyuha-sutra the national bounds the great Iand. as well as "The sentient beings of the ten directions become correctly enlightened" of the Larger China and stepping Japan. the framework conversion BEARINGS (S. Symbol made of the in men non- Buddha- the task can become along a can become and the Way engaged who advocated Nichiren impermanency in the to expand of self-power. that grass and trees. standpoint ineffectiveness become out of the doctrine (佛 性 中 道).

where should we place the cultural and social diametrical opposite points of such countries as the Magadha Kingdom of the frontier. these non(19)A to Vratya.(22) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL dhist Central BEARINGS Kingdom" (Majjhima-janapada). of the Ganges which Gandak along the Sone (Sona) extends from (Yamuna) both Sakiya in the area of the the two great the mainstream and Now. The Declineof the Kingdom of Magadha (cir. In that case...975- . 1925). the western in thee but further lies boundary.). non-Aryan separated Aryan outcastes And resemblances. pp. ibid. the home of Shakyamuni. i. e. practice and the Siva faith. and to the south. Sinha. 182-184. had acquired ryan elements. Early History of the Spread of Buddhist and the Buddhist Schools (London: Luzac. the two and Rapti (Aciravati). from it has also been Kosala Sakiya was a newly arisen nation was the Aryan situated Middle to the are part southeast they might have had some connection. pp. fifth tributary Kingdom tributary. said to be- of the Gunti (Gomati) River. the third tributary near Benares). xix-xx. Sarayu) while Magadha. are held to be related said that as a cultural water the Aryan sphere from ancient. which continuing and the Ganges on the contrary. while the Kingdom remotely and the neighboring forms which form not only lies along as it gathers Mahi). Age of the Nandas and Mauryas. with the Arhat religious and of Magadha elements of Magadha Secondly. the central land for the new politics. B. and within the Aryan Kingdom. . economics and culture of that time seems to have already been changing to the Magadha Kingdom. Miyamoto) Then. D. as for cultural were bordering countries Middle Kingdom. ibid. (Sadanira. upper reaches which and Kosala from the Brahmin culture of the Aryan Central Kingdom. which is included rivers of the Jumna the Aryan Middle and the fourth rivers of the Gogra (Sarabhu. (S. (whose point of confluence is the Gogra River. these much farther (Ganga). and were within the Aryan cultural times. 9-10. pp. River. its upper reaches. First of all. Sakiya. 32-39. geographic of a region point of difference. becomes larger Hiran. 455-1000 A. P. Its geographical features (19) Nalinaksha Dutt. which Kingdom. both Kosala? of the same latitude as Kuru-Panchala.navati.

besides newly his political (20) Nundo Lal Dey. N. 80. p. VII. and it seems. who years after largest King the that demise built. which records the circumstances resisted economics the strong and society of the Republic of Vajji on the opposite bank of the Ganges. Aciravati. As for this Pataliputra (Pataliputta. Toyoshiso no Ayumi (Footsteps of Oriental Thought. constructed a castle in the Village of Pataligama-(nagara). he moved to this new city from the old capital of Raiagaha been in the latter years of would the plans. A. (Ajatasatru) and commissioned organized the Republic of Vajji two ministers. Sarabhu. nation with point where the five rivers Sarabhu the foreseen the Sunidha and Vassa- a castle there. 114. Vol. Egaku Maeda. the ferry point outside the Capital constructing Rajagaha. pp. in Jap. Buddha's then by the democratic the 218. King movements it notes of Magadha. waters of the Himalaya to form the Great Ganges. 1927). (22) Gangs. Mahi). Ajatasatru. XIII. Candabhaga: Cha Agon (Majjhima-agama) "Seken Fuku-kyo" (TT. 3. Genshi Bukkyo Seitent no Seiritsushiteki Kenkyu (Historical Studies on the Formation of Early Buddhist Canon.). to have (21) Asoka.) p. his capital. King of internationalistic Asoka Lord Range and Mahi) since futuristic (22) and all join together In the first section happenings under alliance collect which of the Girivrajapura). 2. in Jap. The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India (London. 1959. 4. p. I." -974- . 62. because crossing Ganges. pp. 86. throne last years. it is just as if the motive power for new Indian developments to come had been strongly fomenting and stored there. Yamuna. Pataligama. Luzac. Vetravatl. 150-152. (Rajgir. pp. "There are the streams of the five rivers (Gangs. Sarabhu. Mahi.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL would appear to be like the BEARINGS heart-section (S. Miyamoto) of Central (23) India. Aciravati. (21) Hajime Nakamnra. Aciravati. Sarassati. the Buddha. Milindanha. 151-154. Aciravati. Then. Sindhu. Yamuna. Yamuna. Yamnua. 428b). 1954. Vol. of Vesali King Ajatasattu (Vaisali) kara to construct (20) Palibhothra of Megasthenes). 135. and there. Sarabhu. Sankibo Busshorin. Vitamsa. Ganges. Kaname-shobo. Mahi: S. 101. in politics. of the Mahaparinibbana-suttanta. Buddha. 70. underground It would appear to the construct beginning Pataliputra (Panca-nadi: the ascended world's of history. N.

and it became the chief producing trade-the outline of prosperous Pataliputra is thus (23) in the form of a prophecy. II: "After the Buddha entered Nirvana. coming up to the vicinity of Gaya. finally. and built again a small town nearby. may have flourished and the transitional actively undertaken. 1927)". but many saintly men (Ariya) came to dwell there. there described was the imperial passed should place where command that the gate through which be made the Gate of Gotama (Gotama-dvara) he crossed the river. it seems. the Buddha while young to an Aryan education. later going beyond the geographical point of Pataliputra. For. because the number of people was gradually diminishing. only the naming of the Gotama Gate is recorded in the Scriptures. even merchants district of foreign gathered. and History his (London: (24) Daichido-ron (Mahaprajna-paramita-upadesa-sastra). was (24) may have been after the last yejrs of the Buddha. further going south." Yet even more left his homeland which is enveloped the the being the. Truber. pp. One yojana in length and breadth. is so wondrous during the Five Rivers and facing and geographical Buddha period Great purposefully Ganges strange is the fact that the in the mysterious atmosphere going southward for 800 kilometers. Nothing combining Kingdom as this important capital construction area of the Great Ganges the Himalayas. to seek out the place of religious practice for Satori. Vol. 78). J. King Ajatasatru. had sufficiently applied himself Why did he have to undertake (23) E. -973- . 144-157. be made the ferry Shakyamuni and that the place of Gotama (Gotama-tittha). moveover.(24) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL {offices. abandoned Rajagrha. Trench. that it became the largest of all the towns. crossing which as the capital Pataliputra. of the Dharma. strove with BEARINGS all his might to construct (S. In addition to the foregoing. in this paragraph. the ferry place of the Ganges. the village of Pataligama. Thomas. cultural origin which became the world's largest capital of "The of the pure Himalayas. The Life of Buddha as Legend Kegan Paul. however. XXV. Miyamoto) the new capital of Patali- putta: not only did he build quarters for his warriors and ministers in the capital (Agga-nagara). Born and raised in an Aryan environment." (TT. its name was Pataliputra.

(S. and as in the trees (三 草 二 木 の 喩) in the (25) Chapter on Medical Herbs (Osadhi-parivarta) of the Saddharma-Pundarika (The Lotus of the True Law). . his and Nanjo. E. The Lotus of the Wonderful Soothill (Oxford: Clarendon Press. for him. Chap. the illu- of Compassion by the Himalayas born into a royal the education and the Ganges and training absoluteness been born symbolized and the pure of a prince possessed which more. the Great River element as he had been born and raised in the of the fact that he left the mountain country. indeed. family backdrop." Because up with the monsoon-like upbringing that all watering of one rain. 124-128. SBE XXI The Lotus of the True Law (Oxford: Claren- don Press. as. pp. 1). and there never before of the Middle way. must have the in him had been heard" and for the first time. -972- Law. of an Aryan royal of two things: by the Himalaya sacredness and Wisdom family at the foot of the Himalayas. and itself was. which ought as the flows without three when he was 29 years Range capped with everlasting wisdom revealed the Aranyaka-Upanisads. 1908). 1930). 125-131. What is himself of Prajna wisdom. by W. pp. infinite sages of figure of and day. attained (pathama-abhisambuddha The Buddha. V.THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL own religious practice. which which The Middle-Way symbolized and receiving vision the Correct Vinaya Mahavagga Principles I. and wisdom arose "of the Dharma (pubbe ananusuttesu a non-aryan Shakyamunii ground. he may have also possessed to be called the mystical Sacred allegory Ganges of the Just herbs The mystical mountains alone have. became the Buddha. for the sake is placed to the deep south. Miyamoto) generative ceasing and the to the philosophical two night and. up until he left home for a life of religion of age. Saddharmapunciarika (St. 1909). VI. pp. of Magadha. snow. the compassionate motherhood of the Great Ganges which is bound things are raised in the of Ganges was a foreign mountains. (25) Kern "Osadhi. Now this enlightenment mination (25) sat down under the Bodhi tree. even selecting of a new enlightenment? his final training farther BEARINGS than the capital at Gaya Rajagaha Enlightenment dhammesu). Petersburg. 126-129.

which religious and (paratma-samata)-any and progressive (S. That was the forward-looking theory and-prosperity. there respect that and all of these are included Now. during the new period. III. -971- (ahetutheory pubbekata-hetu-vada. appaccaya-vada). united the to the in the preceding of the third the the the other together. on such questions suffering in life. people had i. Vibhahga. 367-368. there the or causal relations. and traveled to study at Magadha the Great Ganges. in the frontier of Magadha had also been prevalent the nihilism which self to nothingness. e." other but First of all. (26) environment. Next. I. the Buddha of no-cause-no-conditions did not believe in such a fatalistic (26) A. 173. Kingdom. resigned themselves their past lives and as the individual defects in social god (issaranimmana-hetu-vada).. ahetu-appaccaya-vada. all men can become theory new period step? of jecthood 性). pp. or of ideology. austerities. and there able to clarify lopment. the beings. Vol.(26) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL homeland. of the Middle mutual practiced his views on the becoming The Great Ganges identical BEARINGS the as for the sub- (他 己 の 圭 髄 the teaching self of self and and the other (自 他 不 二 の 中道). N. and felt that it was the result (pubbekata-hetu-vada). of human up to this time. abandons destiny whether doctrine it be the gods. of Then. the Shakyamuni or the discretion of of an omnipotent Of course. issaranimmana-hetu-vada. . in the appeared of (the others. what are the characteristics stage which subjecthood that self and the other are self with and the various cooperative of "selflessness. p. 61. of all things embraces Way of Co-existence. that the Buddha. of race. Miyamoto) symbolizes that the four castes are equal. assitance. compared second stages he was finally and their deve- which was not swayed by the questions of class. worked culture of the first and points out the differences the early buds of the the self self of his self and and the way the was the Middle the as one other) called self put life Way are the equal of non-duality well was into both of the in each standpoint (自 己 の 圭 髄 性) other which for groups could look for peace Aryan period.

origination. a closed theory. Particularly. What is more. there is a tendency for it to become the treatment Moreover. pratyaya) which meant also the social reliance and trust. In such a theory suffering." and (asmin sati idam bhavati. "relational arising" of "relations" opened." became of great advantage for the social struction appearance of the new period. falling there into Opposed of egocentricism is the a compulsion to this. the on" or "relation" (paccaya. Now. against was fulfilled of the causal study of plurality by means the scientific method siteness point. a new window by means the one-cause of the reliance of the original the rich and magnanimous democratic of the way of being of a plurality. or even of the one who converted self. (27) deity. and clarified the multifarious that new expressions of the the one-cause. was completely revolutionary. The fact that a new field was opened. of respect for the "other" and reliance upon the "other. Miyamoto) such nihilism. he steadfastly resisted (S. Then. it is quite (paticca-samuppada. and constructed reality danger which supremacy of the absolute. which of phenomena. a great theoretical was also made to the organization and development new social cooperative. as "dependent becoming. contribution and trust cause of the self. the oneness of the individual the theory of "the other" of becoming (para). there is vividly and . Against the tendency to lock oneself up in the standpoint. which gave was none other than Shakyamuni. a great duty In such a wide. there was invented theory which led to the resuscitation By means of that. compo- looking Buddhist of dependent in stand- origination pratitya-samutpada). of the standpoint of "depending in causality (hetu). selflessness which links together and dependent -970- in one chain impermanency. viewpoint and assertion to be opened against only of the self. asya utpadad idam utpa - dyate).of previous Above THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL BEARINGS karma and the doctrine of the volition of the creating all. while the cause (hetu) forms the basis of scientific investigation and is the essential study of the existence of the individual self. the holds of becoming for asserting and advocated to the great numbers fast to one cause alone. forward natural of society came in the other.

with Special Reference to the studies of Modern Scholars of the World (In Jap. vimoksa)." (moksa. of the Ganges. October 1962. Philosophy Club. in Miyamoto. of Buddhism the liberation Satori substantiate That is. Miyamoto. and (moksa) and the peace of nirvana gave repose to the eternal the satori or "the middle way of compassion and wisdom symbolized by the Great and the Great Compassion Wisdom (悲 智 の (maha-prajna) (Maha-karuna) of the Himalayas. Waseda University. 1-22. while pioneering a new phase of religion in Buddhism. 1-40. "Studies on Moksa and Nirvana. "Bukkyo no Ningen Keisei" ("Human Nature in Buddhism. in the Upanisads. and Nirvana also to Buddhism another face as a religion of salvation. (27) The three formalities on liberation and Nirvana. And Shakyamuni. -969- . Chudo to Nehan (Reality for Buddhism. Waseda University: Bulletin of Graduate Division of Literature. and causing the birth inheriting free Nirvana numbers. pp. Moksa=Nirvana. pp. (27) moreover. Philosophia. -Moksa). Now its origin was 中 道) but he also as a "world religion. giving the free liberation that is. Bukkyo no Shinjitsu. originated the theory of the Middle Way which revolves and rounds out mutually (Moksa=Nirvana.(28) THE HISTORICO-SOCIAL BEARINGS (S. 117-122. (28) Miyamoto. while which is the individual and not only did he newly open the peace of in the here-and-now the happiness of great spirit of mankind and (28) peaceful calm to the soul. 44. Miyamoto) graphically described the aspect of becoming befitting the culture of the new period which is symbolized by the Great Ganges. the Middle Way and Nirvana)." in Jap.. Moksa-Nirvana. which is also both a culture and a philosophy.). Vol. pp. 1960).