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Industrial Network Example

DIgSILENT PowerFactory ∗

This paper describes the modelling of an industrial network, which is part of the PowerFactory examples. It has different voltage
levels, and supplies AC and DC loads. Typical calculations for analysing the network are
prepared in the example and described in
the following:
• Load flow calculation
• Short-circuit calculation
• Harmonics calculation
• Motor starting simulation

the equivalent motor represents 10 motors
in total, in the basic grid model a number of
only seven motors in parallel is considered,
since it is unlikely that all ten motors are running at full power at the same time. The variation ”Number of parallel motors” contains
the full ten motors, as it is needed for the
short-circuit calculation.
Due to the huge amount of asynchronous
machines the network has a quite low power
factor. Therefore equipment for power factor correction is used. On Subsystem A a
switchable capacitor bank is used with remote control on ”Terminal HV trf 110/10kV
A”. On Subsystem B an SVC (Static Var
Compensator / System, SVS) is used with
remote control on ”Terminal HV trf 110/10kV

• Over-current protection
• Arc-flash hazard calculation


Description of the Industrial Network Model

The industrial network example contains
two subsystems, each of them is supplied
by an HV/MV transformer. In case of a
transformer outage both systems can be
linked on the MV level. In total the systems consists of three synchronous motors,
14 medium voltage asynchronous motors,
four DC motors, one generation unit (synchronous generator), one emergency generator (synchronous generator) and one low
voltage equivalent motor, which represents
10 LV asynchronous motors. Even though
∗ DIgSILENT GmbH, Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9, 72810
Gomaringen, Germany,

DIgSILENT PowerFactory, r1205


Load Flow

The first study case (”01 - Load Flow”) is prepared to perform load flow calculations. This
enables the user to have an overview of the
resulting voltages as well as the impact of
automatic tap changing of the transformers
and the automatic shunt adjustment to control the power factor.



The rectifiers of the four DC motors are connected via Yy0 and Yd5 transformers to form
two 12-pulse rectifiers. There is another rectifier connected to the busbar of the Priority
Load. The rectifiers are causing harmonic
distortions in the AC grid.


Motor Start”. It is possible to analyse the start of only a single motor. either a simplified static simulation or a precise dynamic simulation can be used. 5 the corresponding result boxes. systems .DC Short-Circuit”. On the prepared Time-Overcurrent diagrams inside the previously mentioned Study Case the characteristics of relays are visible.Part 0: Calculation of currents” [2] IEC 61660-1:1997 ”Short-circuit currents in d. the tripping time of the different relays are displayed in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. ”Asm D-3 Sys B”.Harmonics” there are some predefined harmonic distortion diagrams with the allowed limits shown. r1205 2 . After calculating the short-circuit current on any busbar of the AC network [1]. This enables the complete short-circuit contribution from all machines. According result diagrams are adjusted in the Study Case ”03 . 4 6 DC Short-Circuit Since PowerFactory Version 15.c.1 calculations of short-circuit currents within DC grids up to 250 V are supported [2]. It is also possible to define starting sequences by adjusting different starting times for the individual motors in the dynamic simulation. ”Asm D-4 Sys B” and ”Asm D-5 Sys B” are modeled with different starting methods. Relays of feeders are also equipped with an interlock. For analysing the starting of these motors. The motors ”Asm D-1 Sys B”.Industrial Network Example In the Study Case ”02 . References [1] IEC 60909-0:2001 ”Short-circuit currents in three-phase a. The results may be used to categorize the busbars due to their protection group. The results are reported in the PowerFactory Output Window. ”Asm D-2 Sys B”. Without further measures these distortions would exceed the limits. Therefore local filters are connected to reduce the harmonic voltages to acceptable levels. For the priority busbar user-defined limits are applied. or of several motors (a motor group) at the same time. Motor Start Each motor in the networks has a specific torque characteristic. the actual harmonic distortions can be analysed. which represent some special needs for harmonic sensitive loads. By calculating the harmonic load flow. An appropriate DC short-circuit calculation is prepared in the Study Case ”05 . As described in Section 1 the Study Case ”04 .c. In case of dynamic simulations the results are displayed by means of timedependent result curves in diagrams. auxiliary installations in power plants and substations” [3] IEEE 1584-2002 ”Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations” The industrial network provides various overcurrent relays.Protection / AC Short-Circuit” uses the variation ”Number of parallel motors” with all ten parallel LV motors considered. It is possible to create corresponding Arc-Flash Warning Labels automatically. Protection / AC ShortCircuit 7 Arc Flash The Arc-Flash Hazard Analysis calculation is meant to determine the arc-flash hazard distance and the incident energy to which employees could be exposed during their work on or near electrical equipment [3].