HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm

DIgSILENT PowerFactory ∗

Abstract
This paper discusses the modelling of an
HVDC link for a 400 MW offshore wind farm
consisting of DFIG wind turbines. Voltage
source converters (VSC) are used for the
HVDC connection. The paper covers load
flow calculation and time-domain simulation
(RMS and EMT).

1

Content

This document presents a model of a high
voltage direct current (HVDC) system. Simulations are performed and the results are discussed. The simulations show the behaviour
of the HVDC system in the case of onshore
and offshore faults.

2

Base Model

In the Base Case of the HVDC Offshore
Wind Farm example, a model of an offshore wind farm is represented. The wind
farm consists of 80 wind turbines connected
via a voltage source converter high voltage
direct current system (VSC HVDC, Figure
5) to a 380 kV onshore transmission network. Each wind turbine has a nominal
active power of 5 MW. The machines are
equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG, wind turbine type 3). Only 10
of the 80 wind turbines are modelled as individual machines (these are represented in
∗ DIgSILENT GmbH, Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9, 72810
Gomaringen, Germany, www.digsilent.de

DIgSILENT PowerFactory, r1337

the “Detailed Feeder” single line diagram).
The remaining 70 turbines are aggregated
into four DFIG models: three models representing 20 parallel machines and one representing 10 parallel machines. This approach offers a compromise where detailed
studies of the explicitly modelled feeder can
be carried out but where the overall the size
of the system is reduced. The wind farm
model was built using a Template of a wind
turbine model from PowerFactory’s global library. The template includes models of the
main elements of the wind turbine (Generator and Transformer), as well as the additional dynamic models which represent the
controllers, PLL etc. during dynamic RMS
and EMT simulations. The asynchronous
generator model used for the DFIG contains
the simulation equations for the frequency
converter used on the rotor. Hence only one
connection is needed to connect the generator to the network (the frequency converter
is connected internally). The HVDC link was
modelled using the VSC element in PowerFactory . The control structure is of a generic
type. A description of the control structure
used is given in chapter 4. A short description of the usage of the HVDC system in
other projects is given in Section 5. The
Base Case has been configured for a load
flow calculation. For all other kinds of calculation or simulation, please refer to the other
Study Cases (see section 3).

3

Calculations and Simulations

The following sections will describe the results which can be obtained using the dif-

1

The second VI panel shows results of the two HVDC terminals. Please press the Calculate ShortCircuit button ( ) to execute the shortcircuit calculation. For the study cases described in the following subsections. The first VI panel contains results of the wind turbines and the fault current. The results are visible after the simulation has finished.4 the RMS/EMT Simulation toolbox should be selected as shown in Figure 1. The DFIG wind turbines in the faulted feeder supply a controlled fault current even after the feeder is disconnected (after 150 ms). The fault is defined via a short-circuit event. shunt elements and filters are ignored in the positive sequence). the DIgSILENT Complete Method is used to calculate their short-circuit contributions. which express the stress on the grid elements. Since the IEC 60909 standard does not reflect the fault behaviour of modern wind turbines. 3. By pressing Execute the simulation initialises. due to the impedance of the three winding transformer. The quantities Ik00 . The voltage drop at the HVDC AC terminal is not below 0. In addition. The results are presented in the two virtual instrument (VI) panels “Windpark res” and “HVDC res”.1 s and is cleared after 150 ms by a second event which removes the fault. The RMS simulation method is used. This is possible 2 . To run time-domain simulations as described in Section 3.3 Onshore Fault RMS In the study case “04 Onshore Fault RMS” a simulation of a short-circuit in the onshore network is presented. based on the k factor setting and the max. The fault location is the node “Onshore Slack”. 3. settings have been applied which take the short-circuit contribution of the wind turbines into account accurately. Accuracy is achieved by using current iteration to calculate the transient short-circuit current Ik0 . settings have been selected for the Complete Method short-circuit calculation which are similar to those of IEC 60909 (c = 1. The simulation can then be started by pressing the Start Simulation button ( ) and executing the command. The results show that the short-circuit can be handled without tripping the HVDC connection. all settings in the project are already correctly configured.8 p. The fault starts at 0. Finally the protection scheme disconnects the wind turbines (see Figure 2). The RMS simulation method is used for this example.2 Offshore Fault RMS In the study case “03 Offshore Fault RMS” a simulation of a short-circuit in the offshore network is presented. loads. The required dialogue is accessible via the button Calculate Initial Conditions ( ). In this current iteration the additional reactive currents provided by the wind turbines are taken into account precisely. In this study case. This is possible because the fault is in the 33 kV medium voltage network. r1337 command dialogue! 3. The results show that the offshore wind farm is not affected by the fault. Ib . The fault is defined via a short-circuit event. The results are presented on the two virtual instruments (VI) panels “Windpark res” and “HVDC res”. The first VI panel contains results of the wind turbines and the fault current. magnetizing currents of transformers. Please note that the option ’Current Iteration’ has been activated on the ’Advanced Options’ page of the short-circuit DIgSILENT PowerFactory. The second VI panel shows results of the two HVDC terminals.1 Short-Circuit Calculation In the study case “02 Short Circuit Calculation” of the HVDC Offshore Wind Farm example the short-circuit calculation is presented.1 for max. are calculated. A simulation has to be initialised first. Ith etc.0 s and is cleared after 150 ms by opening the breaker which connects the detailed feeder to the Sub A/A1 terminal. current of each turbine/converter.u. The fault location is the node “Term b” located in the detailed feeder (first node).2. The fault starts at 0.3 and 3. 3. shortcircuit currents. Ib and Ith are calculated on the basis of Ik00 and Ik0 . capacitances of lines.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm ferent study cases of the project “HVDC Offshore Wind Farm”.

the other one controls the offshore converter.8 p. The control objective of the reactive current can be selected via an input parameter. 3.4 Offshore Fault EMT In the study case “05 Offshore Fault EMT” a simulation of a short-circuit in the offshore network is presented. The active current control path is marked in red. 4 HVDC Control The HVDC control is based on a generic structure. The chopper control with the two DC valves is marked in red. This leads to more precise results. The results show that the short-circuit can be handled without tripping the HVDC connection. The power which cannot be transmitted to the onshore network is consumed by the chopper resistors (see Figure 3). 4. The second VI panel shows results of the two HVDC terminals. Finally the protection scheme disconnects the wind turbines (see Figure 4). The difference between RMS and EMT simulation is that the EMT simulation takes the inductive and capacitive behaviour of lines and transformers into account via differential equations (electro-magnetic transients).1. The EMT simulation method is used for this example. This allows the combined voltage/reactive power droop control to increase the reactive current to the maximum value. It consists of two separate composite models: one controls the onshore converter with its chopper resistors. The first VI panel contains results of the wind turbines and the fault current. The block definition of the onshore controller is shown in Figure 7. The control uses a first order lag filter (low pass) on the measured AC voltage and on the measured reactive power. the voltage via a droop or the reactive power (via a PI controller). These are the “Main Controller” and the “Current Controller”. The fault location is the node “Term b” located in the detailed feeder (first node). due to the impedance of the three winding transformer. The DFIG wind turbines in the faulted feeder supply a controlled fault current even after the feeder is disconnected (after 150 ms). u < (u0 − U t)) the reactive current is prioritised and the active current is limited. The onshore converter switches to a reactive current priority mode during the fault. The control objective of the active current is the DC voltage. All controllers will be described in the following sections. The fault is defined via a short-circuit event.1 Onshore Converter Control The composite model of the onshore converter control is based on the frame definition “Frame onshore VSC” which is displayed in Figure 6. But during and up to 500 ms after faults (i. During normal operation the current limiter prioritises the active current (id) and limits the reactive current (iq).HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm because the wind farm is decoupled from the onshore AC network via the DC circuit. Each block represents an element in PowerFactory . the reactive current control path is marked in green and the current magnitude limitation block is highlighted in blue. 4. r1337 simulated with the RMS simulation. It can control the active current as well as the reactive current.u. The fault starts at 0. Besides the chopper control. This phenomenon cannot be DIgSILENT PowerFactory. The results are presented on the two virtual instrument (VI) panels “Windpark res” and “HVDC res”.e. The voltage drop at the HVDC AC terminal is not below 0.0 s and is cleared after 150 ms by opening the circuit breaker which connects the detailed feeder to the Sub A/A1 terminal.1 Main Controller The onshore converter is a voltage source converter. The filter time 3 . The active current is limited during this time via the current limitation (see Section 4 for further controller description). The results include the DC component of the shortcircuit current. there are two more controllers in the composite model. It can be set to control either the voltage (with a PI controller). This is possible because the fault is in the 33 kV medium voltage network. This can be changed via the input parameter ’MODE’.

2. r1337 4. In this case the option ’Use integrated current controller’ has to be activated on the RMS page of the ElmVsc. The graphical definition of the chopper control is shown Figure 10. As a result the DC circuit will be charged. There is also a PLL (phase locked loop) measurement device. The output of the second PI controller is then the reference voltage. This reference signal is compared against the measured reactive current. The controller parameters are given in Table 4. In this case. The chopper resistors are needed in case of a fault in the onshore network.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm constant is fixed to 10 ms for the voltage and 30 ms for the reactive power.1. The controller structure is shown in Figure 13. There are measurement devices used for detecting the offshore AC voltage. 4. It will ignite the DC valves of the chopper resistors if the voltage exceeds a certain limit and it will block these valves if the voltage drops again below a defined threshold. The parameters are given in Table 3. The resulting active and reactive power which flows through the converter cannot be controlled (the converter is the slack in the offshore system). 4. therefore the DC chopper has to limit the voltage to an appropriate value. but this element should only be in service for EMT simulations (this is managed in the project via a Variation). The modulation index is controlled via two cascaded PI controllers plus a feed forward path using the measured DC voltage. The control parameters are given in Table 2.2 Common Model of the Offshore Controller The offshore controller has to keep the AC voltage magnitude and the frequency to a constant value. The first PI controller gets the AC voltage deviation as input signal.1 Frame of the Offshore Control Scheme The definition of the frame used for the composite model of the offshore controller is shown in Figure 11. The values of the characteristic are presented graphically in Figure 8. This is done via the input signal “Pm” (modulation index) and “f0” (frequency) of the PWM converter (ElmVsc).2. The graphical definition of the current controller is shown in Figure 9. its output is the reactive current reference. the AC current of the converter and for the DC voltage (positive and negative).3 Chopper Control The Chopper Control has the positive and negative DC voltage as input signals. On the second page (accessed via the button below Cancel or via the ’Advanced 1’ Tap for PowerFactory version 15. DIgSILENT PowerFactory.2 Current Controller The current controller takes the reference currents from the main controller and calculates the modulation index which is passed to the converter. The parameters used in the model are described in Table 1.2 Offshore Control The offshore controller has to build the offshore grid voltage. In the block “Udc Feedforward” the reference voltage (AC voltage Uac ) is divided by the measured DC voltage Udc and multiplied with a constant which depends on the modulation method (see block: Udc Feedforward). 4. This can damage the IGBT valves of the converters. The ratio Uac /Udc cannot be increased in- 4 . This means the controller has to keep the frequency and the voltage magnitude of the AC offshore network at a constant value. It would also be possible to use the built-in current controller of the ElmVsc.1 and later) of the common model of the onshore controller there are additional parameters which represent a characteristic for the current limitation. the power which is fed into the DC circuit on the offshore side cannot be transferred to the onshore AC network by the onshore converter. 4.1.

4. All type references (line types and controller definitions) are linked to the library folder which is located in the template. This means the template should not be deleted after the HVDC-System has been added to the project. Gomaringen. For more information. Berlin. 2008 [3] TransmissionCode Netzund Systemregeln der deutschen ¨ Ubertragungsnetzbetreiber (Network and System Rules of the German Transmission System Operators). all controllers and all types of the HVDC system (see Figure 5). Weise. This function is disabled by default by using very high DC voltage threshold values (the chopper resistor will keep the DC voltage below these values). please read the technical reference paper of the PWM converter element ElmVsc [2]. Weigel. ´ 18th -19th Oct. Germany. Then it can be used via the General Templates button. It has a built-in limitation of the reactive current. M. This template contains all network elements. Canada [2] DIgSILENT Technical Documentation: PWM Converter. r1337 5 . 2010. The “HVDCSystem” has to be marked. After this it can be added to the project by clicking in the single line diagram (please note that the window with the DIgSILENT PowerFactory.3 DFIG Wind Turbine Model The wind turbine models used in this project are generic DFIG (doubly-fed induction generator) models which are provided with PowerFactory . These models can be found in the global templates folder. This can be used as kind of signal to the wind turbines in the network to reduce the active power output. To use the HVDC system in another project the template “HVDCSystem” which is located in the folder \Library\Templates has to be copied into the target project (to the Templates folder). templates has to stay open while adding the template). 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants. VDN. The controller has two additional functions: 1. Pressing the General Templates button will open a new window which shows all available templates. as shown in Figure 14.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm definitely as shown in Figure 12. 5 References [1] S. The feedback of the reactive current (iq) leads to a reduction of the voltage magnitude at the converter. B. The control can raise the frequency in the offshore network in case of high DC voltage. DIgSILENT GmbH. This limitation becomes active only in case of a fault in the offshore network. The block “Udc Feedforward” therefore contains a characteristic which limits the modulation factor Pm to emulate this effect. 2007 HVDC Template The project contains a template of the HVDC system. Quebec. 2. Poeller: “Control of Offshore Wind Farms with HVDC Grid Connection”.

r1337 6 . RMS simulation DIgSILENT PowerFactory.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 1: Activation of the Simulation Toolbox Figure 2: Results offshore fault.

RMS simulation Figure 4: Results offshore fault. EMT simulation DIgSILENT PowerFactory.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 3: Results onshore fault. r1337 7 .

r1337 8 .HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 5: Single line diagram for the HVDC system as modelled in PowerFactory Figure 6: Frame of the onshore HVDC control system DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 7: Onshore converter control structure Figure 8: Current limit characteristic of onshore controller DIgSILENT PowerFactory. r1337 9 .

r1337 10 .HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 9: Onshore converter current control structure Figure 10: Chopper control structure DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

TC 2007 [3] Reactive current gain in fault mode Gain of DC PI Controller Integral Time Constant of DC PI Controller Max.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 11: Frame of the offshore HVDC control system Table 1: Parameters onshore controller Parameter umax x Trudc Droop Ku Kiu Kdu fltMODE K flt Kd Td iqfmax Ut MODE i max Value 1. r1337 Description Max.u. 1 = droop.u.. s p. 1 = ctrl.1 1 1.15 0. reactive current in fault case Voltage Deviation to enable Fault Mode 0 = voltg.u.1 Unit p. 2 = Q ctrl.u. acc.u.1 1 0. Current Limit 11 . ctrl. acc.05 12 100 0 1 2 10 0.001 0.1487 0. p. DIgSILENT PowerFactory. 1/s 1/s s p. MODE. p.u. internal voltage allowed Series reactor impedance DC Voltage Filter Time Constant Gain for Droop Control Gain of PID Droop-Controller (Q and Vac) Integral Constant of PID Droop Controller (Q and Vac) Derivative Constant of PID Droop Controller (Q and Vac) 0 = ctrl. p.

HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 12: PWM Converter Characteristic [2] Figure 13: Controller structure of offshore converter DIgSILENT PowerFactory. r1337 12 .

u. s p.u. DIgSILENT PowerFactory.u. Controller Proportional Gain for Current Controller Integrator Time Const. p.10 Unit p. p.02 1. Controller Reference Frequency Time constant for PT1-Filter Upper Udc Limit for Frequ.00 0.00 0. s p.00 0.u. r1337 13 .u.005 99.HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farm Figure 14: Button to enter templates Table 2: Parameters onshore current controller Parameter Kpm Tpm P min P max Value 1. p.10 1. for Cur.u.03 -0.u.u. Lifting (high value disables function) Lower Udc Limit for Frequ.u.10 0.u.0000 0. Lifting Min Limit Value for Current Limitation Min Limit for Offshore Voltage Max Limit Value for Current Limitation Max Limit for Offshore Voltage Gradient for Frequ. p.u.00 Unit p. Description Threshold for Chopper Connection Threshold for Chopper Disconnection Table 4: Parameters offshore controller Parameter Kuac Tuac Kiac Tiac F ref Tfilter U UdcHigh UdcLow plusFrequ i min Uac min i max Uac max Frequ Grad Value 2.00 0.u.00 0. s p.0020 -3.0000 3.u. 1/s Description Proportional Gain for Voltage Controller Integrator Time Const.u.20 2.70 -0.u. Lifting Value of Frequ. p. s p.70 1. p.20 1. Description Proportional Gain for d & q axis Integral Time for d & q axis min limit Pm for d & q axis max limit Pm for d & q axis Table 3: Parameters chopper controller Parameter UdcUpper UdcLower Value 1. p. for Volt. p.0000 Unit p.