Chapter 3 Assessing Learning by Modeling

Assessment Assessment

Knowledge Construction


Assessing Learning by Modeling

Critical Thinking




What is learning in education today?


Test Scores

Multiple Choice Recall

Education today has come under the scrutiny of the public to achieve standardized levels for students learning. This method of assessment has left us with a school system that suffers financially for poor results. In response to this many educators have focused more on test results which in itself results in time spent lost preparing for the test and not learning. Add to this the student attitude toward these test result in memorization and multiple choice recall instead of problem solving skills. The system fails to gauge the student¶s assessment of conceptual change. Through research it has been found that students verbalize problems in order to fit them into a form that they can rationalize and solve. This is a Mindtool students use to model the information given to create their answer. Other Mindtool¶s need to be identified and taught to build student confidence and foster an ability to work through problems. It is the author¶s intention to identify other methods that students can develop and it is these models that should be used to determine a student body¶s level of learning. Teachers must learn to convey their assessment in a way that accounts for the ability to solve problems without

first knowing the answers. These rubrics must be created by each educator in their area of specialization to determine a student¶s capabilities to learn.

Assessing Conceptual Change With Student-Constructed Models
Mind Tools

Experts Systems

Semantic Networks


Systems Modeling Dynamic Modeling

Hypermedia Knowledge Bases

Scaffolded Computer Conferences

Top of Assessing Learning by Modeling

Assessing Knowledge Construction Q. How do most schools and teachers assess student learning?
Assessing learning and thinking that results from modeling with mind tools Knowledge assessed through other methods (essays, examination), along with modeling, must assess y Knowledge construction and meaningful learning If students use Mind tool to model phenomena, but are assessed by tests of recall, they will infer Mind tools don¶t count. Assessing knowledge construction y y y y Building models requires learners to construct their own knowledge Assess the kind and extent of knowledge, not regurgitation of ideas If learning is personalized models will differ, so don¶t judge by similarity Common knowledge need not be the goal of education As learning changes so should assessment of learning y y Emphasis on self assessment and alternative forms of assessment Opportunities for students to express their knowledge Self assessment process y y Students assess their project before submitting Rubric must be included

A. Most schools and teachers spend too much time preparing students to preform well on tests, rahter than teaching critical thinking skills. Learning and assessment with out Mind tools and modeling Professor lectures, shows Power point Students take notes, study notes and text book

Assessme nt through

Learning Assessed using Mind tools and modeling

Students discuss ideas for projects

Lecture w/ power point presents

Individual or group research


Student discussion

Critical thinking skills developed
Concept for project

Provides memorab le Project created Assessme nt by Project presented

Sample Rubric for assessing knowledge construction To what extent do student manipulate objects, make observation, and reason from those experiments? Observation and reflection Students rarely think about or Students often stop and record the results of action think about the activites in taken during activites which they are engaged Learner Interactions Students manipulate none of the variables or controls in the environments Originality of interpertations Knowledge basses included teachers ideas or textbook material with no original interpertation Curisity/Interest/Puzzlement Learners engage in learning activities only because they are required.

Students share frequest ovservation about their activites with peers iand nterested adults Students manipulate all of the variables or controls in the environments Knowledge basses included ideas that were conceived, organized and represented by students Learners are consistently striving to resolve the disparity between what is observed and what is known, operating on a scincere desire to know Learners routinely wrestle with new experiences becoming experts at identifying and solving problems

Students manipulate some of the variables or controls in the environments Knowledge basses included some orriginal ideas but were bassed on included teachers or textbook Learners are frequently motivated by a sincere curiosity about the topic

Constructing mental meodels and Making meaning Learners rarely create their Learners are often own understanding expected to make sense of new experiences and develop theories

Top of Assessing Knowledge Construction

Assessing Self-Regulation
The purpose of assessing is not to provide society with the information t needs to judge those who created/designed the model, but rather to enable the learner with feedback with their progression of learning and to help the learner better direct their learning. In order to use mindtools, the learner must require and foster self-regulation. The learner must their own goals, determine their own activities, and self regulate based on their goals. In order to being and continue this process, they need to assess what they know (articulation) and identify how able they are to learn a particular skill or subject (reflection). Most importantly, they must assess their own knowledge growth.

Assessing Self-Regulation
(Must assess their own knowledge)

Set own goals

Determine activities to

Self regulate base on

Goal directedness

Articulation of goals as focus of activity

Mind-tools used to support

Learning how to learn

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Assessing Collaboration


What is collaboration?

Minimally engages with others

Accepts roles and responsibilities

How do you assess learners?
Engages with others Some division of roles and responsibility

Interaction Among Learners

Distribution of Roles and
Minimally divides roles and responsibilities

Interaction with People Outside of School

Social Negotiation

Minimally engages with others outside of school

Engages with others outside of school

Minimally confers with team members

Often confers with team members

Confers with team members

Collaboration: When working together or collaboratively on mindtools, learners will produce better models and will learn more during the process. Assessment: Students should not be evaluated independently, if they are using mindtools collaboratively. ³The conditions, performances, and criteria for the assessment should replicate those stated in the learning goals and used during instruction´ (Jonassen p.32). Therefore, removing collaboration from evaluation would violate the most basic of assessment premises. Interaction Among Learners: How well does the learner engage with peers? Does the student engage or does the student minimally engage with peers? The following rubric criteria are listed: ³Little of the learner¶s time is spent gainfully engaged with other students/ Learners are often immersed with peers results in success´ (Jonassen p.32). Interaction with People Outside of School: How well does the learner engage with others outside of school? Does the student engage or does the student minimally engage with peers outside of school? The following rubric criteria are listed: ³Students rarely seek information or opinions outside of school/ or Students consistently seek information and opinions of others outside of school´ (Jonassen p.32). Social Negotiation: How well does the learner confer with others in order to complete tasks? Do the students confer and agree, often confer and agree, or minimally confer with team members? The following rubric criteria are listed: ³Little evidence that learners work together to develop shared understanding of tasks or of solution strategies/ Learners are often observed in the process of coming to agreement on the nature of problems and on best course of action/ or Learners collaborate with ease. Negotiations become almost invisible, yet the ideas of all team members are valued´ (Jonassen p. 32).

Distribution of Roles and Responsibility: How are student¶s roles and responsibilities divided? Are the roles and responsibilities accepted or shifted by team members? The following rubric criteria are listed: ³Roles and responsibilities are shifted infrequently. Most capable learners accept more responsibility than less capable/ Roles and responsibilities are shifted often, and such changes are accepted by both the most and least capable/ or Students make their own decisions concerning roles and responsibilities, freely giving and accepting assistance as necessary´ (Jonassen p. 32). Top of Assessing Collaboration

Assessment of Critical Thinking for Learning Mindtools

Critical Thinking Assessment

Student¶s ability to Evaluate

Rubrics to evaluate student knowledge Uses relevant information
Student¶s ability to Analyze

Student¶s ability to Connect Ideas

Uses irrelevant information

Cannot describe relationships

Understands cause & effect

Unable to recognize elements or main ideas

Able to classify information or recognize main ideas

Critical Thinking Assessment

Mindtools encourages critical thinking of which the outcome should be assessed. A student¶s critical thinking process is difficult to evaluate because it is context dependent; different subjects requires different critical thinking skills. Developing a rubric offers the best solution to evaluate the critical thinking students use while constructing models with Mindtools (Jonassen, 2000,).

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