Vector Spaces

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Vector Spaces

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MJ03

8

1

2

A=

3

1

1

2

3

2

1

3

5

3

11

.

14

17

[7]

1

2

is denoted by e. Show that there is a solution of the equation Ax = Ae of the form

The vector

1

1

p

q

, where p and q are to be found.

[4]

x=

1

Question 8

1

At the outset, almost all responses showed the accurate reduction of A to the echelon form and the correct

determination of its rank. Beyond this initial stage, responses divided into two categories in the first of which

the echelon form was used as a means of determining a basis for the null space. Thus the better

candidates, the minority, worked directly from equations x y 2z + 3t = 0, y + 3z + 5t = 0 and so

established expeditiously a possible form for . The less inspired, and much more error prone, method

which was adopted by the majority, was to start with Ax = 0 with the given form of A without reference to the

echelon form previously obtained. This led to two independent linear equations in both of which there were

no zero coefficients and many candidates were then unable to work accurately from this situation to a correct

possible form of .

For the final part, less than a quarter of the candidature worked from

p 1

1

8

q - 2

3

5

l

m

=

+

+

1 - 1

- 1

0 ,

1 - 1

0

- 1

In contrast, the majority ignored the version of obtained and so loaded themselves with a much more

formidable task. They first evaluated Ae as (2, 6, 4, 2)T and then went on to solve, in some way, the

system Ax = (2, 6, 4, 2)T with xT preset to (p, q, 1, 1). The success rate for this strategy was less than

50%.

Answers: Rank of A = 2,

1 8

3 5

A basis for the null space is , ,

- 1 0

0 - 1

p = 17, q = 18.

ON03

Three n 1 column vectors are denoted by x1 , x2 , x3 , and M is an n n matrix. Show that if x1 , x2 , x3

are linearly dependent then the vectors Mx1 , Mx2 , Mx3 are also linearly dependent.

[2]

1

y1 = 5 ,

7

2

5

y2 = 3 , y3 = 51 ,

55

4

1 4

3

P = 0

2

5.

0

0 7

[2]

(ii) Find a basis for the linear space spanned by the vectors Py , Py , Py .

1

Question 3

[2]

In general, this question was not well answered. Some candidates appeared not to know the difference

between linear dependence and linear independence. Moreover, many failed to see the relevance of the

first result to what was required in part (ii).

To begin with, there were a number of different strategies in evidence. The first was an attempt to produce

an argument such as

i xi = 0

i Mx i = 0 , so that xi linearly dependent not all i are zero

However, many candidate responses along these lines were defective in that there was no mention of the

requirement that not all i are zero.

Other candidates argued that as xi linearly dependent det(x1 x2 x3) = 0, then det(Mx1 Mx2 Mx3) =

det[(M(x1 x2 x3)] = det(M) det(x1 x2 x3) = det M.0 = 0, so that Mx1, Mx2, Mx3 are linearly dependent.

A further strategy, which was attempted by a few, was to argue that x1, x2, x3 linearly dependent e 0

such that (x1 x2 x3) e = 0 M(x1 x2 x3)e = M.0 = 0 (Mx1 Mx2 Mx3)e = 0 Mx1, Mx2, Mx3 are linearly

dependent.

Such arguments, however, were seldom complete so that as a general conclusion it is clear that most

candidates had only a limited understanding of the syllabus material appertaining to this question.

(i)

The majority of valid responses showed a linear dependence such as 9y1 2y2 y3 = 0. An

alternative strategy is to show that det(y1 y2 y3) = 0 and most working was both accurate and

complete in this respect. Likewise the correct reduction of the matrix (y1 y2 y3) to the echelon form

so as to establish its rank, followed by a properly argued conclusion, featured in some responses.

(ii)

By this stage of the question, it should have been clear to candidates that the basis of the specified

linear space must consist of exactly two linearly independent vectors and could therefore be given

immediately as {Py1, Py2} in numerical form. However, many responses showed the evaluation of

{Py1, Py2, Py3}.

2 13

Answer: (ii) 45 , 7 .

49 14

MJ04

10

x

x

y

y

A ,

T:

t

t

where

3

5

A=

6

1

0

2

3

3

7

6

9

2

7

.

+2

(i) Show that when 6, the dimension of the null space K of T is 1, and that when = 6, the

dimension of K is 2.

[4]

x1

y

1 , where x , y , are

(ii) For the case 6, determine a basis vector e1 for K of the form

1

1

1

1

0

integers.

[2]

x2

y

2 , where x , y , t are integers, such

(iii) For the case = 6, determine a vector e2 of the form

0

2

2 2

t2

that {e1 , e2 } is a basis of K .

[3]

5

1

5

1

, e = , show that x = e + k e + k e is a solution of the

(iv) Given that = 6, b =

10

1

0

0

1 1

2 2

15

1

equation Ax = b for all real values of k1 and k2 .

[3]

Question 10

This question highlighted much erroneous thinking with regard to the fundamentals of linear spaces and

systems of linear equations.

(i)

Many responses lacked clarity and frequently the impression was given that the candidate did not

understand what was required. In fact, a, simple way to proceed is to obtain an echelon form, such

5

2 1 4

0 5 6 11

. It is then a simple matter to deal with the cases 6 and = 6 . In

as

0 0

0 + 6

0 0

0

0

this respect what was required were arguments such as 6 dim(K ) = 4 r (A ) = 4 3 = 1 and

= 6 dim(K ) = 4 r (A ) = 4 2 = 2 . However, few candidates supplied such detail.

(ii)

(iii)

x = 7 + 7, y = 6 11, z = 5, t = 5.

This not only provides a check of the result for e1 obtained in part (i), but also enables a result for

e2 to be written down.

1 5

1 5

In general terms, it was expected that the candidate would verify clearly that A = = b , and

1

10

1 15

then set out working such as, Ax1 = Aeo + k1 Ae1 + k2Ae2 = b + k10 + k20 = b, for all k1, k2.

(iv)

Some responses appeared to proceed along these lines though, it must be said, many such

arguments were incomplete in some important way.

7

6

Answers: (ii) e1 =

; (iii) e2 =

5

11

0 .

ON04

1

1

2

5

0

1

10

2

1

2

13

6

7

.

10

29

[4]

Question 1

Most candidates produced a complete and correct response to this question. The most popular strategy was

to reduce the given matrix, A to the row-echelon form and then to use the dimension theorem to argue that if

K is the null space of T, then dim(K) = 4 r(A) = 1. However, some candidates, in defiance of the rubric,

obtained the echelon form of A directly from a graphic calculator and so did not gain full credit. Yet others

did not obtain an echelon form, but instead stopped the reduction process immediately a row of zeros had

been obtained. This too led to loss of marks.

4

0

A popular alternative strategy was to show from the echelon form of A that spans K, and hence that

1

1

dim(K) = 1. Actually, this vector can easily be obtained by working with linear equations based on the

original form of A. However, among the few candidates who employed this strategy, there were some who

did not complete their working by showing that within a multipicative constant no other non-zero vector

satisfies Ax = 0.

MJ05

11

1

A = 1

2

3

1

2

2

1 .

[4]

x + 3y + 2 = 1,

x y = 0,

2x + 2y + = 3 + 2.

(i) Show that if 1 then S has a unique solution. Find this solution in the case = 0.

[3]

[3]

[2]

Question 11

Not all candidates attempted to answer the four parts of this question in a systematic way and so good

responses were very much in a minority. In fact, there was a lot of poorly presented work in evidence

together with a number of elementary errors. Because of the sequential nature of the reduction of a matrix to

the echelon form, it is essential that the working be checked at each stage, especially as conclusions

appertaining to the system of equations depend in an obvious way on the final form of the reduction.

2

1 3

About half of all candidates reduced the matrix A to 0 4 3 and so could determine r(A), the rank of

0 0 1

A, immediately, both for 1 and for the special case = 1 . The rest arrived at a correct conclusion for at

least one of the above cases, even though there were errors in the working.

For the first part of part (i), it is only necessary to point out that the system has an unique solution if r(A) = 3

which was proved previously to be the case for any 1 . However, most candidates ignored their previous

working and started again, or began with the unnecessary evaluation of det A.

2

1

1 3

1 together with setting = 0

0 0 1 3 + 3

will lead immediately to the required solution. Nevertheless, only a minority of candidates systematised their

working in this way.

Both parts (ii) and (iii) can be answered expeditiously using R, but again most candidates ignored their

earlier working, even if relevant to the problems here. A common error was to argue that [det(A) 0

system has a unique solution] [det A = 0 system has an infinite number of solutions.]

Answers: rank of A = 3 when 1 , rank of A = 2 when = 1 ; (i) x = 1, y = 2, z = 3.

ON05

11

1

4

A=

6

14

1

3

6

12

2

5

13

23

3

16

.

13

45

[3]

0

2

Ax =

(*)

[5]

Hence show that there is no vector which satisfies (*) and has all its elements positive.

[3]

Question 11

1

0

Most candidates began by reducing A to an echelon form such as E =

0

1

1

0

0

2 3

3 4

1 5

0 0

The better candidates then deduced that the dimension of the null space is 1 and hence, using an equation

of the form Ex = 0, easily obtained a result for the vector e. They also obtained a correct result for x0 in a

systematic and clearly intelligible way from the given equation (*). Candidates who did less well with this

question generally had more difficulty in obtaining e than x0. Their method did not involve a separate

consideration of Ex = 0 but instead, they generally worked with the 4 linear equations represented by (*) in a

haphazard way.

The final part of this question showed up a general deficiency in the understanding of inequality arguments,

as was the case in Question 5 (iii). The majority of candidates started from the general solution

1 2

1 11

, or, at least, something like it. Many subsequent arguments were either incomplete or

x=

1 + 5

erroneous. Thus some considered only > 0 and < 0 but not = 0 . Others got as far as considering the

two key inequalities 1 11 > 0 , 1 + 5 > 0 but still were unable to complete a convincing argument. In fact,

1

1

these 2 inequalities taken together imply that <

and > which is clearly impossible.

11

5

Answers: 3;

1

2

1

11

x0 = , e =

5

1

0

1

MJ06

4

1

2

A=

5

1

3

6

5

2

4

10

8

3

5

.

14

11

[3]

Let M be a given 4 4 matrix and let S be the vector space consisting of vectors of the form MAx,

where x 4 . Show that if M is non-singular then the dimension of S is 2.

[4]

Question 4

Responses to the first part of this question were generally complete and correct, but in contrast very few

candidates made any significant progress with the remainder.

Candidates generally established the echelon form

1 1

0 1

0 0

0 0

2 3

0 1

0 0

0 0

for the matrix A and hence obtained the dimension of RT, the range space of T. Some, however,

unnecessarily worked with the transpose of A and so increased the risk of introducing errors into the

working.

For the last part of this question, suppose that b1, b2 are basis vectors of RT and consider the linear form

L = Mb1 + Mb2. Since M is given to be non-singular, then M1L exists and equals b1 + b2 which, since

dim(RT) = 2, cannot be the zero vector unless and are both zero. Thus Mb1 and Mb2 are linearly

independent and so dim(S) = 2.

ON06

5

2x + 3y + 4 = 5,

4x + 5y = 5a + 15,

6x + 8y + a = b 2a + 21,

has a unique solution.

[3]

Given that a = 3, find the value of b for which the equations are consistent.

[3]

Question 5

Most candidates had a clear idea of what was expected of them. The most popular strategy was to attempt

to reduce the matrix

5

2 3 4

5a + 15

4 5 1

6 8 a b 2a + 21

4

5

2 3

0

1

9

5

25

.

0 0 a 3 b 7a + 11

From here both parts of the question can be answered immediately. However, there were many arithmetic

errors in the working so that complete success was achieved only by a minority.

Those who worked with equations did less well mainly because their algebra was badly organised. The

syllabus does not demand a knowledge of the concept of the echelon form but nevertheless, it is clear that

its application to problems of this type is more likely to lead to success than the undisciplined implementation

of Guassian elimination.

Answer: 10.

MJ07

OR

1

2

M=

3

2

4

6

10

2

5

8

12

4

9

.

14

22

[3]

[3]

(iii) Evaluate

1

2

,

M

3

4

and hence show that any solution of

5

11

Mx =

17

27

()

1

2

+ e + e ,

3

1

2

4

where and are constants and {e1 , e2 } is a basis for K .

[3]

(iv) Find the solution x1 of () such that the first component of x1 is A, and the sum of all the

[5]

components of x1 is B.

Question 12 OR

Most candidates attempting this alternative were able to reduce the matrix to echelon form and deduce that

its rank was 2. Then, using a system of equations from the reduced matrix, they obtained, mostly

successfully, the basis for the null space.

Almost every candidate getting this far was able to evaluate the matrix product correctly. The next step,

however, caused problems, because many candidates did not appreciate the distinction between showing

that the given form was a solution of the equation and what they were asked to show, which was that any

solution of the equation had the given form.

There were very few good attempts at the last part of the question. This required setting up two equations,

one for A and one for B, both in terms of and . The equations then had to be solved for and . Thus the

solution could be given in terms of A and B.

A

2 2

5

B A 1

0

1

11

1 0

17

2

2

27

1

0

1

3

A

+ B

2 2

ON07

10

1

0

,

b1 =

0

1

1

,

b2 =

0

1

1

,

b3 =

1

1

1

.

b4 =

1

The linear space spanned by b1 , b2 , b3 is denoted by V1 and the linear space spanned by b1 , b2 , b4 is

denoted by V2 .

(i) Give a reason why V1 V2 is not a linear space.

[1]

(ii) State the dimension of the linear space V1 V2 and write down a basis.

[2]

Consider now the set V3 of all vectors of the form qb2 + rb3 + sb4 , where q, r , s are real numbers.

Show that V3 is a linear space, and show also that it has dimension 3.

[3]

Determine whether each of the vectors

4

4

2

and

5

4

2

[4]

Question 10

This question was the least well-done question on the paper. A comment, with some evidence, to the effect

that V1 V2 was not closed under addition was required for part (i). In part (ii) identifying (b1, b2) as a basis

gave the dimension of V1 V2 as 2. Showing V3 is closed under addition was sufficient for the next mark.

Identifying (b2, b3, b4) as a basis and showing the dimension of V3 to be 3 gained the next two marks.

The final part could be tackled as follows.

4

1

1

1 4

4

1

1

1 4

2 = 2 0 3 1 + 5 1 2 V3

5

0

0

1 5

5 4

4 4

2 = 2 +

5 5

1

5

1

x

0

4

0

y

0 and 0 V3 2 V3 or z V3 x = y not true for

0

5

0

t

5

4

2 .

5

MJ08

OR

1

1

2

3

0

3

1

1

3

4

1

0

.

1

1

(i) Determine the dimension of V .

[3]

1

1

2

1 3 1

, , are linearly independent.

(ii) Show that the vectors

1

0

3

0

3

4

[4]

[1]

(iv) State, with a reason, whether W is a vector space.

[1]

x

y

belongs to W then y t 0.

(v) Show that if the vector

[5]

Question 12 OR

Candidates choosing this alternative generally performed less well than those candidates who chose the

other alternative. In many cases little was done beyond the first two parts. In part (i) candidates were well

used to reducing the matrix to echelon form, but some made arithmetical errors or stopped well short and

lost a mark in doing so. The mark for the dimension of V could be obtained nevertheless. In part (ii), the most

popular approach was to show that if a linear combination of the vectors gave the zero vector then the only

solution was the trivial one. A good number, however, used row reduction methods with matrices. A number

of candidates did not appreciate the demands of the phrase show that and thought that a statement of what

linear dependence meant was sufficient. Part (iii) following on from part (ii) should have been obvious, but

some ignored part (ii). In part (iv), W was not a vector space and the absence of the zero vector or nonclosure under addition were sufficient reasons. In part (v), again, show that was misinterpreted by some of

those candidates who made an attempt at this part. The best approach was probably to use row reduction

x

x

y

y

on an augmented matrix to show that V y z t = 0 hence W y z t 0 . Other

z

z

t

t

approaches, via a system of equations, were equally acceptable.

1

1

Answers: (i) 3; (iii) ,

1

0

2

3

0 ,

3

1

3 ; (iv) No, no zero vector or other valid reason.

12 OR

(i) Transform given matrix to an echelon form, e.g.,

1

0

0

2 1 1

1 0

1

.

0 1

1

0 0

0

M1A1

dim(V ) = 3 OR BY EQUIVALENT METHOD If written down with no working 1/3

1

2

1

1

3

1

(ii) 1 + 2 + 3 = 0 1 = 2 = 3 = 0, shown linear independence

3

0

1

4

3

0

1

1

(iii) ,

1

0

2

3

0 ,

3

1

1

3

4

2

3

0

1

1

3

3 4

M2A2

B1

(iv) W not a vector space since W does not contain the zero vector, or equivalent

or not closed wrt addition

1

1

(v) Reduces

1

B1

x

1

y

0

z

0

t

0

x

2 1

yx

1 0

0 4 3x + 2 y + z

y + z + t

0 0

x

y

b V iff y z t = 0 or equivalent method

z

t

b W y z t 0

B1

M1A1

M1A1

A1

1 2 1

x

1 3 1

y

Alternative: suppose = + + (i.e. in V)

3

0

1

z

0 3 4

t

x = ...

y = ...

y z t = ... = 0

z = ...

t = ...

x

y

Hence W y z t 0

z

t

1

2

A=

3

ON08

1

1

3

6

2

7

6

17

3

2

.

17

(i) Show that if = 9 then the rank of A is 2, and find a basis for the null space of A in this case.

[5]

(ii) Find the rank of A when 9.

[2]

Question 6

The vast majority of candidates knew that it was necessary to reduce the matrix A to echelon form and

invariably this was done correctly. Those who worked with rather than 9 were able to use their reduced

matrix in the final part of the question. Finding the basis for the null space of A caused problems for some.

The usual method was to find a two-parameter solution for the two equations and separate the terms. There

were six essentially different acceptable results, each of which could have opposite signs, or constant

multipliers.

5 1

17 5

17 1

3 4

0 3

0 4

Answers: (i) , or , or , or

1 0

4 1

4 0

0 1

3 0

3 1

5 0

3 17

,

or

1 1

0 5

1 0

17 0

4 17

0 17

,

or 4 , 1 ;

0 1

1 5

3 5

(ii) 3.

1 1 2 3

4

0 1 3

0 0

0 9

0 0

0

0

M1A1

5

3

A basis for the null space of A is ,

1

0

(ii) 9 0

r (A ) = 3

1

4

0 , or equivalent

1

A1

M1A1

M1

A1

OR

MJ09

The linear transformations T1 : >4 >4 and T2 : >4 >4 are represented by the matrices M1 and

M2 , respectively, where

1

1

M1 =

1

1

4

7

2

1

7

11

5

2

8

,

13

5

2

5

M2 =

3

13

0

1

1

1

1

3

1

6

1

3

.

1

6

[4]

(ii) Find a basis for K2 , the null space of T2 , and hence show that K2 is a subspace of R1 .

[5]

(iii) State whether W is a vector space, justifying your answer.

[1]

The linear transformation T3 : >4 >4 is the result of applying T1 and then T2 , in that order.

(iv) Find the dimension of the null space of T3 .

[3]

Question 12 OR

This was much the more popular of the two alternatives, but those candidates trying it found only limited

success. For part (i), most of those attempting the question used row or column operations to reduce the

matrix to echelon form. Some stopped short of this stage and lost one or both marks. Those who got a

correct echelon form mostly found a correct basis for R1. Similarly in part (ii), row operations were used on

the matrix, or its transpose, to obtain an echelon form. From this the basis of K2 was deduced, usually from

a set of equations. Those who operated on the transpose frequently wrote results of the operations on the

a

.

vector beside the matrix. This resulted in

c

a + b + 2c

d

c d

The basis could then be written down from the 3rd and 4th elements, which corresponded to the zero rows in

the matrix. Few candidates obtained the fifth mark by showing that each basis vector was a linear

combination of the basis vectors of R1. In part (iii), the most straightforward justification for W not being a

vector space was to say that it did not contain the zero vector. Only a small number said this. It was not

uncommon for statements to appear which could not be substantiated. Only a handful of candidates got

0 7 14 14

0 18 36 36

, hence

anywhere with part (iv). One way of tackling the problem was to find M2M1 =

0 10 20 20

0 45 90 90

nullity = 4 r(M2M1) = 4 1 = 3. Alternatively, for any vector x, M2M1x = M2(b1 + b2 + b3), where b1, b2,

b3 are any 3 linearly independent basis vectors of R1, 2 of which must be basis vectors of K2. Hence if b1

and b2 are basis vectors of K2, then the dimension of the null space of T3 = 4 1 = 3.

1 0 0

3 0 0

1 1

1 0

1 3 0

0 3 0

1 1

1 0

Answers: (i) e.g. , , or , , ; (ii) e.g. , or , ; (iv) 3.

1

6

1

0

0

1

0

2

1 1

1 1 1

1 7 - 1

2 0

1 - 1

12 OR

(i) Reduces M1 to col echelon form by elementary col operations

or M1T to row echelon form by elementary row operations

0

T

M1

0

0

3

0

0

3

0 1

0

0 7

,

hence

1 1

0

1

0 0

3

0

1

0

0

1

M1

A1

M1

1 0 0

3 0 0

1 3 0

0 3 0

Any correct basis of R1, e.g. , , or , ,

1 6 1

0 0 1

1 1 1

1 7 1

A1

or for (i)

0

Reduces M1 to row echelon form by elementary row operations

0

1

1

0

0

1

2

2

0

2

1

M1

A1

rr(M1) = 3 any 3 li columns form a basis of M1

1 1 1

1 4 7

Any correct basis of R1, e.g., , ,

1 7 11

1 2 5

M1

A1

or

detM1 = 0 (calculator)

M1

rM1 3

A1

M1

Hence basis

A1

0

(ii) Reduces M2 to echelon form by elementary row operations

0

0 1 1

2 1 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

M1

A1

M1

1 1

1 0

1 1

1 0

Any correct basis of K2, e.g., , or ,

0 2

1 1

2 0

1 1

A1

B1

First 4 marks

5

3 13 a

2

2

1 1 1 b 0

0

T

M2 =

1 3 1 6 c 0

1 3 1 6 d 0

1 0

1 0

Basis is ,

2 1

0 1

5 3 13

a

1 1 1

b

0 0 0 a + b + 2c

0 0 0 c d

M1A1

M1A1

(iii) Any valid argument, e.g., W does not contain zero vector so W not a vector space

B1

(iv) For any vector x, M2M1x = M2( b1 + b2 + b3), where b1, b2, b3 are any 3 l.i. basis

vectors of R1, 2 of which must be basis vectors of K2

M1

A1

A1

0 7 14

0 18 36

or M2M1 =

0 10 20

0 45 90

B1

Nullity = 4 r(M2M1) = 3

14

36

20

90

M1A1

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