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Lecture 10

From mechanics of materials:

F kyA
x The resultant force is:

F=kyA

R kydA k ydA
First moment of area

The resultant moment is:

M ky dA k y dA
2

Second moment of area / moment of inertia


3

Moment of inertia about the x-axis:

I x y dA
2

dA

Moment of inertia about the y-axis:

I y x dA
2

Geometric property and


depends on its reference axis.
the smallest value occurs at the
axis passing through the centroid.

x
Which has the largest moment of
inertia about the x-axis?
Which is harder to rotate about
the x-axis?

It measures the ability of


cross-section to resist bending.
the larger the moment of inertia
the less bending will occur

It measures the resistance to


rotation about an axis

METHOD

y
y1

Choosing a differential element

x1
y2

dy
dx

x2
x

METHOD

Choosing a strip such that the


distance of all parts of the strip
to the axis is constant. (Strip is
parallel to axis)

y
y1

x1
y2

dy

I x y 2 dA
y 2 x2 x1 dy

x2

y2

y1

I y xel dA
2

x
NOTE: x or y here is not the y-coordinate of the
centroid! In this derivation, all x or y in the strip
for the term x2 or y2 should be at the same
distance from the axis

x2

x1

x1 x2

x2 x1 dy
2
2

METHOD

y2

Similarly

I y x 2 dA
x 2 y2 y1 dx
x2

dx
x1

y1

x1

x2

Find the moment of inertia of a rectangle with


respect to one of its base

When using the form y2dA, all parts of the


strip must have the same distance to the axis

I x y 2 dA
h

dy
y
x
b

y 2 bdy
0
1 3
bh
3

METHOD

Recall that the moment of inertia of a rectangle with respect to


its base is (1/3)bh3
The moment of inertia of a differential strip perpendicular to
and touching the axis is then
OR, if the strip is not touching
y

y2

dy

y
dx

dx

1 3
dI x y dx
3

y1

x
x1

x2

1 3 1 3
dI x [ y 2 y1 ]dx
3
3

J O r dA

x
r

dA

Polar moment of inertia wrt pole O

J O x y dA

J O x dA y dA
2

JO I x I y

It measures the resistance to rotation about a point

kx
O

x
x

Concentrating the area into a strip such that it has the same
moment of inertia wrt x-axis as the original,

I x kx A
2

Ix
kx
A

Radius of gyration wrt y-axis

ky
O

x
x

Similarly, for the y-axis

Iy = k A
2
y

Iy
ky =
A

Radius of gyration wrt x-axis

y
y

ko

Similarly, concentrating the area into a ring such that it has the
same polar moment of inertia as the original,

J O ko A ko
2

JO
A

ko k x k y
2

Find the polar moment of


inertia of a circle wrt its
center

dJ O u dA
2

du
u
O

dA 2udu
2
r 3
Jo dJ o u (2udu) 2 0 u du
r
0

JO r 4
2

Determine the moment of inertia with


respect to the x and y axes.
2.5
2

x = ky2

1.5
1
0.5

y = 0.25 x

0
0

y2 = kx

100 mm
150 mm

100 mm

Find the moment


of inertia of the
shaded area about
the x-axis.

Find k.
At x = 150, y = 100, thus k = 200/3 and the
equation of the curve is
y2 = (200/3)x

Using horizontal strips, we can use the form:

y2 = kx

I x y 2 dA
A

y
y

Thus,
100

100
100

x = 150

2 2 1

2 150

100

3 2

200

I x 40 x10 mm
6

Alternatively, the moment of inertia of the top


half is the same as the moment of inertia of the
bottom half. The moment of inertia dIx of the
differential strip is:

y2 = (200/3)x

1 3

3 2

Thus,
y

1
=
3

150
0

200

1/2

= 20106 4

x = 150

Since we only got the moment of inertia of the


top half, we multiply it to two:
= 40106 4

Find the moment of


inertia of the shaded
area about its vertical
centroidal axis.

y = 2 sin x

Reference: Beer, F. B., Johnson, E. R., and Eisenberg, E. R., 2006. Vector Mechanics for
Engineers: Statics. 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill.
21

Assume x is a centroidal axis


Inertia of the shaded area about the x axis is

I X ' ( y ' ) dA
2

A
x

dA
y
r

Since y = y + b, then

I X ' ( y b) 2 dA

z
Parallel-axis theorem always involves
one centroidal axis!

y 2 dA 2b ydA b 2 dA
A

I X ' I X Ab

Similarly

x
a

x
C

I y ' I y Aa

Since

dA
r y

J z ' I x ' I y ' , then

x
b

J z ' ( I x I y ) A(a 2 b 2 )

JO ' = J O + Ad

Since integration is a summation


of small areas, composite areas
can be used
n

I ( Specified Axis ) Total I1 I 2 I 3 ... I i


i

The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given axis


is obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the
component areas A1, A2, A3, ... , with respect to the same axis.
We use the parallel axis theorem to get the moment of inertia
about a non-centroidal axis

0.9 m

Find the moment


of inertia of the
composite area
about the x-axis.

1.5 m

x
1.8 m

Solution

I x I x1 I x 2
0.9 m

where

I xi I xi Ai di

Components:
PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

1.5 m
1

I x1 I x

2
A1d1

1.8 m
2

I x 2 I x A2 d 2

Solution

I x I x1 I x 2

bh3 bh
I x1
(1.8) 2
36 2
(1.8)(0.9)3 (1.8)(0.9)(1.8) 2
I x1

2.66085m 4
36
2
I x2
I x2

bh3
2

bh(0.75)
12
(1.8)(1.5)3
2
4

(1.8)(1.5)(0.75) 2.025m
12
ANSWER:

I x 4.68585m

150 mm

75 mm

x
50 mm

100 mm

60 mm

Determine the moment


of inertia of the area
with respect to the xaxis.

150 mm

75 mm

The moment of inertia of the figure is the


moment of inertia of the large rectangle minus
the moment of inertia of the small triangle and
the semicircle.

50 mm

d2

100 mm

= 1 2 3

d1

1
225 1503 = 253.125 106 4
3
1
2 = 75 503 = 3.125 106 4
3
1 =

60 mm

2
1

To get I3, the form Ix1 = r4/8 is the moment of


inertia about x1 and is not a centroidal axis of
the semicircle, thus we cannot use this in the
parallel axis theorem to get Ix of the semicircle
directly. We can, however find the moment of
inertia with respect to the centroid, Ix,centroid first

3
y

150 mm

75 mm

x
50 mm

1 = + 1 2

d2
d1

100 mm Xcentroid of

2
r = 60 mm

semicircle

x1

60
8

60
= +
2

4 60
3

150 mm

75 mm

x
50 mm

= 1.42245 106
d2

100 mm

d1
60 mm

Using the parallel axis theorem again to get the


moment of inertia of the semicircle wrt x.

3 = + 2 2
2
1
3

60
3 = 1.42245 106 +
2

4 60
150
3

3 = 89.12388 106 4
Thus, the total moment of inertia is

= 253.125 106 3.125 106 4


89.12388 106 4
= 160.88 106 4

1. Beer, F. B., Johnson, E. R., and Eisenberg, E.


R., 2006. Vector Mechanics for Engineers:
Statics. 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Determine the
moment of inertia
of the shaded area
about the x-axis.
y2 = 100 - x
x
100 mm

I x y dA
2

Ix =

10
0

y2 (100 - (100 - y2 ))dy

I x y dy
10
0

y
y2 = 100 - x
x

ANSWER:

I x 20 x10 mm
3

100 mm

100 mm

Determine the
radius of gyration
of the shaded area
with respect to yaxis.

Solution
100 mm

I yT I y1 I y 2
where

100 mm

Components:
1

I y1 I y

I y2 I y

I yi I yi Ai di

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM


2

bh3 bh 100
2
A1d1 I y1 16.67 x106
36 2 3

I y2

(100) 4
8

39.27 x106

Solution
I yT I y1 I y 2
Radius of Gyration

ky

I yT
AT

I yT 55.94 x106

AT A1 A2

(200)(100) (100) 2
AT

25.71x103
2
2

ky
ANSWER:

55.94 x106
25.71x10

46.65mm

k y 46.65mm

y
150 mm

75 mm

50 mm

100 mm

60 mm

Obtain the
moment of
inertia of the
composite area
about the y-axis

y
150 mm

75 mm

50 mm

I yT I y1 I y 2 I y3
I yi I yi Ai di

where

100 mm
PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM
60 mm
1

Components:

I y1 I y A1d12

I y2

I y2 I y
I y 3 I y A3d3

b1h13
I y1
b1h1d12
12

b2 h23

b2 h2 d 2 2
12

I y3

r 4 r 2
8

d 32

Solution
(150)(150)3
I y1
(150)(150)(75) 2 168.75 x106
12
(100)(75)3
I y2
(75)(100)(187.5) 2 267.1875 x106
12

(60) 4 (60) 2
I y3

(60) 2 25.447 x106


8
2
I yT I y1 I y 2 I y3 410.5x106 mm 4
ANSWER:

I yT 410.5 x10 mm
6

Find the moment of


inertia of the
shaded area about:
a) y-axis
b) x-axis

75 mm

x2 = 25y
x

Find the moment of


inertia of the
shaded area about:
a) y-axis
b) x-axis

75 mm

x2 = 25y
x

a) Moment of inertia about the x-axis, Ix


Using horizontal strips:

y
x=75, y=225

225

x2

= 25y

2 25

1/2

= 244.06106 4

x
y

Alternatively, we can use vertical strips:


x

x=75, y=225

=
1
=
3

1 3 1 3
1
3 2
3
75
0

2
3
225
25

= 244.06106 4

x2 = 25y

b) Moment of inertia about the y-axis, Iy


Using vertical strips:

y
x

x=75, y=225

75

=
x2 = 25y

2
225

25

= 12.66106 4

x
y

Alternatively, we can use horizontal strips:


x=75, y=225

x2 = 25y
y

=
1
=
3

1 3 1 3
1
3 2
3
225

25

1/2

= 12.66106 4

03