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F kyA

x The resultant force is:

F=kyA

R kydA k ydA

First moment of area

M ky dA k y dA

2

3

I x y dA

2

dA

I y x dA

2

depends on its reference axis.

the smallest value occurs at the

axis passing through the centroid.

x

Which has the largest moment of

inertia about the x-axis?

Which is harder to rotate about

the x-axis?

cross-section to resist bending.

the larger the moment of inertia

the less bending will occur

rotation about an axis

METHOD

y

y1

x1

y2

dy

dx

x2

x

METHOD

distance of all parts of the strip

to the axis is constant. (Strip is

parallel to axis)

y

y1

x1

y2

dy

I x y 2 dA

y 2 x2 x1 dy

x2

y2

y1

I y xel dA

2

x

NOTE: x or y here is not the y-coordinate of the

centroid! In this derivation, all x or y in the strip

for the term x2 or y2 should be at the same

distance from the axis

x2

x1

x1 x2

x2 x1 dy

2

2

METHOD

y2

Similarly

I y x 2 dA

x 2 y2 y1 dx

x2

dx

x1

y1

x1

x2

respect to one of its base

strip must have the same distance to the axis

I x y 2 dA

h

dy

y

x

b

y 2 bdy

0

1 3

bh

3

METHOD

its base is (1/3)bh3

The moment of inertia of a differential strip perpendicular to

and touching the axis is then

OR, if the strip is not touching

y

y2

dy

y

dx

dx

1 3

dI x y dx

3

y1

x

x1

x2

1 3 1 3

dI x [ y 2 y1 ]dx

3

3

J O r dA

x

r

dA

J O x y dA

J O x dA y dA

2

JO I x I y

kx

O

x

x

Concentrating the area into a strip such that it has the same

moment of inertia wrt x-axis as the original,

I x kx A

2

Ix

kx

A

ky

O

x

x

Iy = k A

2

y

Iy

ky =

A

y

y

ko

Similarly, concentrating the area into a ring such that it has the

same polar moment of inertia as the original,

J O ko A ko

2

JO

A

ko k x k y

2

inertia of a circle wrt its

center

dJ O u dA

2

du

u

O

dA 2udu

2

r 3

Jo dJ o u (2udu) 2 0 u du

r

0

JO r 4

2

respect to the x and y axes.

2.5

2

x = ky2

1.5

1

0.5

y = 0.25 x

0

0

y2 = kx

100 mm

150 mm

100 mm

of inertia of the

shaded area about

the x-axis.

Find k.

At x = 150, y = 100, thus k = 200/3 and the

equation of the curve is

y2 = (200/3)x

y2 = kx

I x y 2 dA

A

y

y

Thus,

100

100

100

x = 150

2 2 1

2 150

100

3 2

200

I x 40 x10 mm

6

half is the same as the moment of inertia of the

bottom half. The moment of inertia dIx of the

differential strip is:

y2 = (200/3)x

1 3

3 2

Thus,

y

1

=

3

150

0

200

1/2

= 20106 4

x = 150

top half, we multiply it to two:

= 40106 4

inertia of the shaded

area about its vertical

centroidal axis.

y = 2 sin x

Reference: Beer, F. B., Johnson, E. R., and Eisenberg, E. R., 2006. Vector Mechanics for

Engineers: Statics. 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill.

21

Inertia of the shaded area about the x axis is

I X ' ( y ' ) dA

2

A

x

dA

y

r

Since y = y + b, then

I X ' ( y b) 2 dA

z

Parallel-axis theorem always involves

one centroidal axis!

y 2 dA 2b ydA b 2 dA

A

I X ' I X Ab

Similarly

x

a

x

C

I y ' I y Aa

Since

dA

r y

x

b

J z ' ( I x I y ) A(a 2 b 2 )

JO ' = J O + Ad

of small areas, composite areas

can be used

n

i

is obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the

component areas A1, A2, A3, ... , with respect to the same axis.

We use the parallel axis theorem to get the moment of inertia

about a non-centroidal axis

0.9 m

of inertia of the

composite area

about the x-axis.

1.5 m

x

1.8 m

Solution

I x I x1 I x 2

0.9 m

where

I xi I xi Ai di

Components:

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

1.5 m

1

I x1 I x

2

A1d1

1.8 m

2

I x 2 I x A2 d 2

Solution

I x I x1 I x 2

bh3 bh

I x1

(1.8) 2

36 2

(1.8)(0.9)3 (1.8)(0.9)(1.8) 2

I x1

2.66085m 4

36

2

I x2

I x2

bh3

2

bh(0.75)

12

(1.8)(1.5)3

2

4

(1.8)(1.5)(0.75) 2.025m

12

ANSWER:

I x 4.68585m

150 mm

75 mm

x

50 mm

100 mm

60 mm

of inertia of the area

with respect to the xaxis.

150 mm

75 mm

moment of inertia of the large rectangle minus

the moment of inertia of the small triangle and

the semicircle.

50 mm

d2

100 mm

= 1 2 3

d1

1

225 1503 = 253.125 106 4

3

1

2 = 75 503 = 3.125 106 4

3

1 =

60 mm

2

1

inertia about x1 and is not a centroidal axis of

the semicircle, thus we cannot use this in the

parallel axis theorem to get Ix of the semicircle

directly. We can, however find the moment of

inertia with respect to the centroid, Ix,centroid first

3

y

150 mm

75 mm

x

50 mm

1 = + 1 2

d2

d1

100 mm Xcentroid of

2

r = 60 mm

semicircle

x1

60

8

60

= +

2

4 60

3

150 mm

75 mm

x

50 mm

= 1.42245 106

d2

100 mm

d1

60 mm

moment of inertia of the semicircle wrt x.

3 = + 2 2

2

1

3

60

3 = 1.42245 106 +

2

4 60

150

3

3 = 89.12388 106 4

Thus, the total moment of inertia is

89.12388 106 4

= 160.88 106 4

R., 2006. Vector Mechanics for Engineers:

Statics. 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Determine the

moment of inertia

of the shaded area

about the x-axis.

y2 = 100 - x

x

100 mm

I x y dA

2

Ix =

10

0

I x y dy

10

0

y

y2 = 100 - x

x

ANSWER:

I x 20 x10 mm

3

100 mm

100 mm

Determine the

radius of gyration

of the shaded area

with respect to yaxis.

Solution

100 mm

I yT I y1 I y 2

where

100 mm

Components:

1

I y1 I y

I y2 I y

I yi I yi Ai di

2

bh3 bh 100

2

A1d1 I y1 16.67 x106

36 2 3

I y2

(100) 4

8

39.27 x106

Solution

I yT I y1 I y 2

Radius of Gyration

ky

I yT

AT

I yT 55.94 x106

AT A1 A2

(200)(100) (100) 2

AT

25.71x103

2

2

ky

ANSWER:

55.94 x106

25.71x10

46.65mm

k y 46.65mm

y

150 mm

75 mm

50 mm

100 mm

60 mm

Obtain the

moment of

inertia of the

composite area

about the y-axis

y

150 mm

75 mm

50 mm

I yT I y1 I y 2 I y3

I yi I yi Ai di

where

100 mm

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

60 mm

1

Components:

I y1 I y A1d12

I y2

I y2 I y

I y 3 I y A3d3

b1h13

I y1

b1h1d12

12

b2 h23

b2 h2 d 2 2

12

I y3

r 4 r 2

8

d 32

Solution

(150)(150)3

I y1

(150)(150)(75) 2 168.75 x106

12

(100)(75)3

I y2

(75)(100)(187.5) 2 267.1875 x106

12

(60) 4 (60) 2

I y3

8

2

I yT I y1 I y 2 I y3 410.5x106 mm 4

ANSWER:

I yT 410.5 x10 mm

6

inertia of the

shaded area about:

a) y-axis

b) x-axis

75 mm

x2 = 25y

x

inertia of the

shaded area about:

a) y-axis

b) x-axis

75 mm

x2 = 25y

x

Using horizontal strips:

y

x=75, y=225

225

x2

= 25y

2 25

1/2

= 244.06106 4

x

y

x

x=75, y=225

=

1

=

3

1 3 1 3

1

3 2

3

75

0

2

3

225

25

= 244.06106 4

x2 = 25y

Using vertical strips:

y

x

x=75, y=225

75

=

x2 = 25y

2

225

25

= 12.66106 4

x

y

x=75, y=225

x2 = 25y

y

=

1

=

3

1 3 1 3

1

3 2

3

225

25

1/2

= 12.66106 4

03

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