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Solutions to Jan 27-31 homework assignment

PROBLEM 1 ON PAGE 2: Multiplying out the expressions using the rules i1 = i and ii = -1
gives the following:

(1 + 2i)2 = -3 + 4i,
5
1
1
1
-3+4i = - 5 (3 + 4i) because -3+4i = 25 (-3 - 4i).
2+i )2 = 1 (-253 + 36i) because 1 = 3+2i and so ( 2+i )2 = 1 (3 + 4i)2 (3 + 2i)2.
( 3-2i
13
13
3-2i
3-2i
!13

Multiply out each square to see that this is

1
13

(-7 + 24i)(5 + 12i). Doing the remaining

multipications gives the asserted answer.

(1 + i)n + (1 - i)n = 22n/2 cos(n!/4). This can be proved by writing (1 + i) in polar form
as "2 ei!/4 and likewise writing (1 - i) in polar form as "2 e-i!/4.

PROBLEM 3 ON PAGE 3:

3
2
To see that ( -1+i!3
2 ) = 1, note that first that (-1 + i "3) is equal to -2 -2i"3 which is

2 (-1 - i"3). Multiplying again by -1 + i"3 gives 8. Since this is the cube of 2, one gets
the asserted answer.

3
-1+i!3 3
The identity ( -1-i!3
2 ) = 1 is the complex conjugate of the identity ( 2 ) = 1.

6
It follows from the preceding two bullets that ( -1i!3
2 ) = 1.

3
Since (-1)3 = -1, it follows from the first two bullets that (1i!3
2 ) = -1 and so
6
(1i!3
2 ) = 1.

4 #2

x2 = i
1
1
1
1
i , i
2
2
2
2

9 #3

ab

1 a
b

=
=
=

|a| = 1

|b| =
1

|a b|
|1 a
b|

|a|2 + |b|2 2 (ab)


b)
1 + |
a|2 |b|2 2 (a

|a|2 + |b|2 2 (ab)


1 + |a|2 |b|2 2 (ab)


2
ab

= 1 + |b| 2
1 a
b
1 + |b|2 2

(ab)
=1
(ab)

(ab) < |a| |b| = |b|

1 + |b|2 2

|b| = 1

2
(ab) > 1 + |b|2 2|b| = (|b| 1) > 0

|a| =
1


2
ab

= 1 + |a| 2
1 a
b
1 + |a|2 2

(ab)
=1
(ab)

(ab) < |a| |b| = |a|

1 + |a|2 2

2
(ab) > 1 + |a|2 2|a| = (|a| 1) > 0

|a| = |b| = 1


ab

= 22
1 a
b
22

(ab) = 1

(ab)
=1
(ab)

9 #4

az + b
z+c=0
a

bz + a
z + c = 0

b
|a|2 z + a
b
z+a
c = 0

|b|2 z + a
b
z + b
c=0

|a|2 |b|2 z + a
c b
c=0
z=

|a|2 |b|2 = 0

b
ca
c
2
|a| |b|2


z
c
=
z

a
b

b
a

a
det
b

b
a

= |a|2 |b|2 = 0

Problem 1, pg. 11. Prove that

ab

<1
1 a
b

if |a| < 1 and |b| < 1.


This is equivalent to proving that

|a b| < |1 a
b| .

By the formula |z|2 = z z, we see that this is equivalent to proving that


(a b)(
a b) < (1 a
b)(1 ab)
which, upon expansion, yields |a|2 b
a ab + |b|2 < 1 ab b
a + |a|2 |b|2 . That is, we need to prove that
|a|2 + |b|2 < 1 |a|2 |b|2 .
This is equivalent to proving that 0 < (1 |a|2 )(1 |b|2 ) which is true since both |a| and |b| are less than 1.
Problem 3, pg. 11. If |ai | < 1, i 0 for i = 1, . . . , n and 1 + 2 + . . . + n = 1, show that
|1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n an | < 1.
By the triangle inequality, we have that
|1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n an | |1 a1 | + |2 a2 | + . . . + |n an |
= 1 |a1 | + 2 |a2 | + . . . + n |an | < 1 + 2 + . . . + n = 1.
Problem 4, pg. 11. Show that there are complex numbers z satisfying
|z a| + |z + a| = 2|c|
if and only if |a| |c|. If this condition is fulfilled, what are the smallest and largest values of |z|?
We will use the fact that this is the locus of an ellipse with foci at a, a and 2|c| the total distance from any
point to the foci. We are asked to find a point that is a total distance less than 2|c| from a and a. The
total distance from a and a is maximized on the line between a and a. At the point ta, for t real between
1 and 1, the distance from ta to a is |a|(1 t), and from ta to a it is |a|(1 + t). Then, the minimal total
distance is 2|a|. If c < a, then there are no such points that are a total distance 2|c|.
|c|
satisfies these conditions: we want to show
On the other hand, if a c, we can show that z = a |a|

|c|
|c|
that |a| |a| 1 + |a| |a| + 1 = 2|c|, which is clearly true.

The minimal and maximal values for |z| will be on the axes of the ellipse. The maximal value is along
the line between a and a, with direction a, on the major axis of the ellipse. We have already found this
point; it has |z| = |c|. The minimal value is on the minor axis of the ellipse, equidistant (a distance |c|) from
a and a. We can draw a right triangle between this point z, the origin, and a. The legs have lengths |a|
and
|z| and the hypotenuse is the distance from a to z, which is |c|. Then, we have that the minimal |z| is
|c|2 |a|2 .

Problem 2, pg. 15
A triangle A1 A2 A3 with complex coordinates a1 , a2 , a3 is equilateral i the directed angles
satisfy A1 A2 A3 = A2 A3 A1 and the side lengths satisfy A1 A2 /A2 A3 = A2 A3 /A1 A3 . These
two equations are the argument and absolute value of the complex equation
a1 a2
a2 a3
=
,
a3 a2
a1 a3

(0.1)

and so (0.1) is equivalent to A1 A2 A3 being equilateral. Cross-multiply and expanding the


resulting product, we get that (0.1) is true i
a21 + a22 + a23 = a1 a2 + a2 a3 + a3 a1 ,
as desired.

Problem 1, pg. 16
Using De Moivres theorem, we have

n
cos n + i sin n = (cos + i sin ) = cos + i
cosn1 sin + in sinn .
1
n

We can equate real parts on both sides to find the following expressions:
cos 3 = cos3 3 sin2 cos ,
cos 4 = sin4 + cos4 6 sin2 cos2 ,
sin 5 = sin5 + 5 sin cos4 10 sin3 cos2 .

Problem 4, pg. 16
Recall the factorization xn 1 = (x 1)(xn1 + xn2 + + 1). Plugging in h , which we
know to be nonzero, we find that
1 + h + 2h + + (n1)h =

nh 1
= 0,
h 1

(0.2)

by considering that nh = ( n )h = 1. Alternatively, we can expand out De Moivres theorem


and find that both the real and imaginary parts cancel.