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Parts of Term Paper - Term Paper

A term paper is a task that helps a student to improve his research, writing and analytical
abilities. This improves your written communication skills which will facilitate you in your
eventual career. Term papers, irrespective to the subject, format and language possess four
parts. These four parts of term paper include introduction, body, conclusion and

It is the most concerning among all parts of term paper, because it is the first impression of
your term paper on your reader so, it should be the best and flawless. An introduction
identifies and declares your term paper topic and explains its importance. So, it should be
adequately informative, understandable, concise and interesting, hence it enhances the
readers curiosity for further reading.

This part of term paper is regarded as the explanation one, where you explain your
complete topic in interconnected paragraphs. Here, you can add relevant examples, facts
and figures, statistical analysis, researched data and human survey reports to prove your
topic. It is actually every thing in between introduction and conclusion.


Another part of term paper is conclusion. It is the part where the writer again emphasizes
on the topic sentence but it should not merely repeat the introduction, rather it must
explain in detail what has been discussed, learned, and proven in the term paper. It should
be considered deeply because it embosses a long-lasting impression on the reader. We
advise you not to repeat the entire topic in this part of term paper, because the readers are
already familiar with the subject. You just make a concise and sufficient summary of your
research and elucidate what the reader can benefit for this knowledge received.

Last but not the least is bibliography. This part of term paper is hectic for most of the
students, but I advise you that try to note all of the references at the time of research. If you
have all references, you dont have to worry at the time of writing.
This part of term paper should follow the format advised by the teacher and be careful
because this part of term paper is highly concerned with your marks. Here, you have to
write the references of books, articles, internet resources and journals which are consulted
in term paper. The bibliography should follow the chosen style (MLA, APA, Turabian, Chicago,

A term paper on any of the topic must have these four parts to be successful.


Is Partial-Birth Abortion Moral?

The practice of abortion was widespread in ancient times as a method of birth control. Later
it was restricted or forbidden by most world religions, but it was not considered an offense in
secular law until the 19th century. During that century, first the English Parliament and then
American state legislatures prohibited induced abortion to protect women from surgical
procedures that were at the time unsafe, commonly stipulating a threat to the woman's life
as the sole exception to the prohibition. Occasionally the exception was enlarged to include
danger to the mother's health as well.

Religious Point of View

In all three of the world's major religions, Christianity, Islam and Judaism, abortion is not
permitted. These religions advocate that abortion can only take place if there is a threat to
the life of the mother. Another stipulation entails that after three months of pregnancy
abortion can not take place, for after that time period the fetus is given life.

In a passage from the bible (2 Kings 24:2-4) it is stated that, "The Lord sent Babylonian,
Aramean, Moabite and Ammonite raiders against him. He sent them to destroy Judah, in
accordance with the word of the Lord proclaimed by his servants the prophets. Surely these
things happened to Judah according to the Lord's command, in order to remove them from
his presence because of the sins of Manasseh and all he had done, including the shedding of
innocent blood. For he had filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, and the Lord was not willing
to forgive." (Manasseh, Israel's chief executive, had committed one particular sin-advocating the killing of children.) The laws of religion condemn the ending of any human
life, no matter what form it is in.

Abortion, as a practice, is strictly prohibited, even in the most liberal of religions. Although
the opposition would argue that it is against the concept of "the freedom to choose, but the
religions are very clear on this front. The pro-choice movement states that it is a woman's
choice whether or not she wishes to give birth to the child in question, for it is her body and
therefore, her right to choose what to do with it. But the religious leaders have reiterated the
word of God, which is very clear on the subject.

Legal Point of View

No matter how you look at it, partial birth abortion is murder. If we look at the legal
viewpoint, where the battle for life now stands, we see that the laws have followed the whim
of the government in office. Legislative action in the 20th century has been aimed at

permitting the termination of unwanted pregnancies for medical, social, or private reasons.
In the late 1960s liberalized abortion regulations became widespread. The impetus for the
change was threefold: (1) Infanticide and the high maternal death rate associated with
illegal abortions, (2) A rapidly expanding world population, (3) The growing feminist
movement. By 1980, countries where abortions were permitted only to save a woman's life
contained about 20 percent of the world's population. Countries with moderately restrictive
laws-abortions permitted to protect a woman's health, to end pregnancies resulting from
rape or incest, to avoid genetic or congenital defects, or in response to social problems such
as unmarried status or inadequate income-contained some 40 percent of the world's

Abortions at the woman's request, usually with limits based on physical conditions such as
duration of pregnancy, were allowed in countries with nearly 40 percent of the world's
population. In the United States, legislation followed the world trend. The moderately
restrictive type of abortion law was adopted by 14 states between 1967 and 1972. Alaska,
Hawaii, New York, and Washington legislated abortion on request with few restrictions. In
1973 the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Roe v. Wade, declared
unconstitutional all but the least restrictive state statutes.

Noting that induced early abortions had become safer than childbirth and holding that the
word person in the Constitution of the United States "does not include the unborn," the Court
defined, within each of the three stages of pregnancy, the reciprocal limits of state power
and individual freedom: (a) During the first trimester, the abortion decision and its
effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant woman's attending
physician. (b) After the first trimester, the State, in promoting its interest in the health of the
mother, may, if it chooses, regulate the abortion procedure in ways that are reasonably
related to maternal health. (c) For the stage subsequent to viability, the State, in promoting
its interest in the potentiality of human life may, if it chooses, regulate and even proscribe
abortion, except where it is necessary, in appropriate medical judgment, for the preservation
of the life or health of the mother.

Analysis and Arguments

Opponents, supported by the religious institutions the world over, in particular the Catholic
church, of the 1973 Supreme Court ruling, argued that a fetus is entitled as a "person" to
constitutional protection, and attacked the decision on a variety of fronts. State legislative
bodies were lobbied for statutes narrowing the implications of the decision and
circumscribing in several ways the mother's ability to obtain an abortion. A nationwide
campaign was instituted to amend the Constitution to prohibit or severely restrict abortion.
"Right-to-life" groups also engaged in grass-roots political activity designed to defeat
abortion proponents and elect abortion opponents.

Abortion became, rather than simply a legal and constitutional issue, a major political and
social controversy. Many state legislatures passed laws imposing additional procedural
requirements on women who sought abortions; federal court decisions holding these new
statutes unconstitutional usually followed each legislative initiative. The Reagan
administration (1981-1989) and the Bush administration (1989-1992) supported the right-tolife position, as did many of their appointees to the federal judiciary. The Supreme Court,
though sharply divided, generally declared unconstitutional those laws it found to place an
undue burden on a woman's right to obtain an abortion. In 1991 the Court had upheld a
Reagan administration executive order banning abortion counseling at federally funded

Fulfilling a campaign promise, President Bill Clinton reversed this ban in January 1993.
President Clinton vetoed a 1995 bill, which would have banned partial-birth abortions.
Congressional supporters of the right to life vowed to override the President's veto. In
September 1996, they finally failed to do so. What people seem to forget is just how horrible
partial birth abortion really is. Partial-birth or D&X abortion is a particularly horrific form of
late-term abortion, in which the child is delivered live until only the head remains in the birth
canal. The abortionist then uses a pair of scissors to rip a wound in the base of the living
child's skull. He inserts a tube into the wound and sucks the helpless child's brain out with a
vacuum pump. The now-dead infant's skull collapses and the body is removed the rest of the
way from the mother.

Whilst God and his teachings take a backseat, our heads of state are busy playing up to their
voting public. Despite the support the H.R. 1833, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, received
from both sides of the aisle (passed both houses of Congress with bipartisan support in late
1995), President Clinton acted on behalf of his most radical pro-abortion allies and vetoed
the Act.

There are no two ways of looking at it. Our religions state clearly that partial birth abortion,
is nothing short of murder. It is condemned by God Almighty himself, and no matter how
much people scream about the freedom of choice, it will never justify the loss of an innocent
life. The Partial Birth Abortion procedure is one of the many proofs of how extreme the socalled "pro-choice" movement is. The President's veto of the ban of this gruesome procedure
not only contradicts the votes of both houses of congress and the convictions of 71% of the
American people, but it proves how dangerous the "pro-choice" mentality is. They, who put
choice above life at one stage, will find it hard not to do the same at later stages. A very fine

line is crossed when someone decides it is ok to kill an unborn child and no one is safe on
the other side of that threshold.


"Abortion," 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation.

The US legislation and Abortion, Robert J. Levy

The Abortion controversy, Christopher Tietze

Abortion: Should it be allowed, Cyril C. Means, Jr.

Priests for Life Blasts Clinton on Veto, Father Frank Pavone, International Director of "Priests
for Life"

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