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The two-sample procedures described last week only apply when the two samples are

independent. However, you may want to perform a hypothesis tests to data that are related.

Some examples of related (non-independent) data include: before and after, observed vs.

predicted, right vs. left, identical twins, etc. Pairing is a good idea when you expect greater

variation between the pairs when compared to variation within a pair.

In a similar fashion to the two-tailed hypotheses from last week, we can define a mean

population difference, d, as 1 2, a test the null hypothesis:

Ho: d = 0

Ha: d 0

The test statistic for Ho is a t-statistic:

t=

d

,

sd

where d = mean difference and s d = standard error of the mean difference. Thus, the paired-

sample t-test is essentially a one-sample t-test. Note, however, that each observation in one

sample must be correlated to one and only one observation in the second sample. The pairedsample t-test does not have the normality and homogeneity of variances assumptions as with the

two-sample t-test, but it does assume that the differences are normally distributed.

Example: We want to compare ground versus air-based temperature sensors to determine the

earths temperature, which is important for agricultural modeling, etc. Ground-based sensors are

expensive, and air-based (from satellites or air-planes) of infrared wavelengths may be biased.

We collected temperature data from ground and air-based sensors at ten locations, and we want

to test if they are different. We will test the following hypothesis:

Ho: d = 0

Ha: d 0

= 0.05

d=

Location

Ground (oC)

Air (oC)

Difference (di)

46.9

47.3

-0.4

45.4

48.1

-2.7

36.3

37.9

-1.6

31.0

32.7

-1.7

24.7

26.2

-1.5

22.3

23.3

-1.0

49.8

50.2

-0.4

40.5

42.6

-2.1

37.7

39.4

-1.7

10

35.5

37.9

-2.4

15.5

= 1.55 oC

10

sd =

sd

n

0.7706

10

= 0.24 oC

t-statistic: t =

d 1.55

=

= 6.458

sd

0.24

Decision Rule: If t 2.262 , then reject Ho; otherwise, do not reject Ho.

Conclusion: Since 6.458 > 2.262 (P < 0.001), reject Ho and conclude that the mean

difference between ground and air-based sensors at these ten locations is significantly different.

We can also test one-tailed hypotheses for the mean difference in a manner analogous to that of

the two-sample t-test (see Zar p. 181) for an example.

Just as we calculated confidence intervals in preceding chapters, we can also obtain confidence

intervals for the mean population difference: d t (2 ), s d .

Example: Continuing with our earlier example of temperature sensors, we can obtain a 95%

confidence interval for the population mean difference:

We can also determine power of the test and necessary sample size for a specified level of

precision as we did for a one-sample t-test (chapter 7). Simply substitute d for X , and s d2 for s2.

This is the non-parametric analog of the paired t-test, also known as the Wilcoxon PairedSample Test. It is used for paired-sample testing with ordinal data. The procedure for this test

is:

1. Compute di for each pair

2. Rank d i s the absolute values of the differences (assign tied ranks as before)

3. Calculate the sum of the ranks for: a) positive differences, and b) negative differences

4. Apply appropriate decision rule (critical values from Table B.12):

T+ or T T (2 ),n , then reject Ho

When Ho: Population 1 Population 2 and Ha: Population 1 > Population 2, and if

T T (1),n , then reject Ho.

When Ho: Population 1 Population 2 and Ha: Population 1 < Population 2, and if

T+ T (1),n , then reject Ho.

Example: Lets redo our previous example using the non-parametric test:

Ho: Ground based sensors = Air based sensors

Ha: Ground based sensors Air based sensors

= 0.05

Signed Rank of d i

46.9

47.3

-0.4

1.5

-1.5

45.4

48.1

-2.7

10

-10

36.3

37.9

-1.6

-5

31.0

32.7

-1.7

6.5

-6.5

24.7

26.2

-1.5

-4

22.3

23.3

-1.0

-3

49.8

50.2

-0.4

1.5

-1.5

40.5

42.6

-2.1

-8

37.7

39.4

-1.7

6.5

-6.5

10

35.5

37.9

-2.4

-9

Sum of Ranks:

=0

= 55 .

Decision Rule: If T+ or T T0.05(2 ),10 = 8 , then reject Ho; otherwise, do not reject Ho.

Conclusion: Since T+ = 0 < 8 (P < 0.005), reject Ho and conclude that the mean difference

between ground and air-based sensors at these five locations is significantly different.

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