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REPORT:

LAB 1
CE5337-NON DESTRUCTIVE
TECHNIQUES

BY:
GROUP-3
C.SHASHI KALYANCE13B014
CH .NAGARAJU-CE13B015
G.SNEHA SAGAR-CE13B020
P.JASHNAV-CE12B096

1. REBOUND HAMMER AND PULSE


VELOCITY ON CONCRETE CUBES
Rebound Hammer:

INTRODUCTION: Rebound Hammer Test is performed on concrete tubes to find


out their compressive strength using the Schmidt Rebound Hammer as per IS :
13311 (Part 2) 1992 and (ASTM C 805-79). ]. This device is universally used
because of a hardened steel hammer impacted on the concrete by a spring.The
underlying principle of rebound test is that the hammer measures the rebound of
a spring-loaded mass impacting against the surface of the sample.The rebound
of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its mass
strikes.When the plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface
of the concrete, the spring-controlled mass rebounds and the extent of such a
rebound depends upon the surface hardness of the concrete. The surface
hardness and therefore the rebound is taken to be related to the compressive
strength of the concrete. The rebound value is read from a graduated scale and
is designated as the rebound number or rebound index. The compressive
strength can be read directly from the graph provided on the body of the
hammer. Schmidt rebound hammer is that it is useful in assessing concrete
uniformity and in comparing one concrete against another, but can only be used
as a rough indication of concrete strength in absolute terms
PROCEDURE:
1. Before commencement of the test calibrate the hammer on an anvil given by
the manufacturer.
2. Set the instrument into Q mode (that is in strain energy mode) before the
start.
3. Apply light pressure on the plunger so that it gets released from the locked
position and allow it to extend to the ready position for the test.
4. Place the plunger perpendicular to the surface of the concrete and gradually
apply pressure until the hammer impacts.
5. Take 3 readings at different points every time and avoid taking readings near
the centre of the cube.
6. Repeat the above steps for 2 sides of the cube.
RELEVANT STANDARDS:Impact Energy for Rebound Hammer for different
applications
S.N
O

Application

Required Impact
Energy(N.m)

Testing Normal Weight Concrete

2.25

Lightweight Concrete or small and

0.75

impact sensitive concrete


3

Mass concrete like roads,air fields


etc

30

PULSE VELOCITY ON CONCRETE CUBES with varying load:

INTRODUCTION: An ultrasonic pulse velocity test is an in situ, non destructive


test, to determine the quality of concrete or masonry or rocks. the strength of
any material is determined by measuring the velocity of the ultrasonic pulse
wave passed through it. This equipment gives the time elapsed for the pulse to
pass through it and higher velocities gives us an preliminary idea of the
homogeneity of the object.
Procedure:
1. Ultrasonic test equipment consists of electronic circuit which generates
pulse and a transducer converts electrical signal into mechanical signal
having oscillating frequency in the range of 40 kHz to 50 kHz.
2. Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the instrument zero.
The pulse time for the bar is engraved on it. Apply a smear of grease to
the transducer faces before placing it on the opposite ends of the bar.
Adjust the SET REF control until the reference bar transit time is obtained
on the instrument read-out.
3. Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is recommended that the 0.1
microsecond range be selected for path length upto 400mm.
4. Pulse velocity: Apply couplant to the surfaces of the transducers and press
it hard onto the surface of the material. Do not move the transducers
while a reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals and
errors in measurements. Continue holding the transducers onto the

surface of the material until a consistent reading appears on the display,


which is the time in microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel the
distance L. The mean value of the display readings should be taken when
the units digit hunts between two values.
5. Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to prevent the two
transducer leads from coming into close contact with each other when the
transit time measurements are being taken. If this is not done, the
receiver lead might pick-up unwanted signals from the transmitter lead
and this would result in an incorrect display of the transit time.
6. Repeat the experiment with varying the load on cubes until failure.

STANDARDS:

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:
The concrete cube of 25 cm x 25 cm x 25 cm were casted specially for the test
and the cubes were tested in a compression machine.

Schmidt Rebound Hammer


apparatus

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

OBSERVATIONS:
group 7:
Rebound Hammer(Q)
Load(in kN)

UPV(s)

Velocity (m/s)

2.7

30.9

4854

100

31.4

4777

200

30.9

4854

Side1

Side2

26.5

29.5

24

28.5

28

28

23

27.5

20.5

20.5

29.5

26

300

31.1

4823

400

31.4

4777

500

33.4

4491

600

35.9

4178

24.5

30.5

29.5

24.5

30

23

35

32

29.5

23.5

32.5

27

DISCUSSIONS:

The values from UPV show that the velocity reduces as the load increases,the
velocities for all except one are greater than 4.5km/s which means concrete
quality is excellent.
The rebound hammer values range from lowest of 20.5 which corresponds to
2000psi and to maximum of 35 which corresponds to 4500psi.The huge variation
may be due taking readings at same point repeatedly,improper handling of the
instrument.The values of rebound hammer did not clear follow any pattern but it
can seen there is an increase in the final values which shows that the rebound
hammer test is not completely reliable.

4.MEASUREMENT OF DEPTH BY IMPACT


ECHO
Introduction:
Impact-echo is an acoustic method for non-destructive evaluation of concrete
and masonry.
We have used German made setup containing HP laptop installed with Viking
software
It just identifies and quantifies problems with in a structure but is not a 100%
sure shot black box which testifies an issue inside.
Its based on the use of impact-generated stress (sound) waves that propagate
through concrete and masonry and are reflected by internal flaws and external
surfaces.Impact-echo can be used to determine the location and extent of flaws
such as cracks, de-laminations, voids, honeycombing, and de-bonding in plain,
reinforced, and post-tensioned concrete structures.It can provide thickness
measurements of concrete slabs with an accuracy better than three percent, and
it can locate voids in the subgrade directly beneath slabs and pavements. The
method can be used to determine thickness or to locate cracks, voids, and other
defects in masonry structures where the brick or block units are bonded together
with mortar.
Principle:
It works on the basis of reflection of waves on interaction with a different
medium in its path. On interaction with a new medium, wave gets both diffracted

and reflected. This reflected wave is caught back again in receiver and the time
gap is measured which gives the distance of flaw/other material from the
transmitter based on pre-defined calibrated velocities in that medium.
Experimental Description:
All the necessary connections for using the Viking software was done initially and
then with the help of Hammer of medium size is used as impact generator or
Transmitter. On pre-marked measuring points, transducer is placed vertically to
receive the signal which is analysed by Vikings software. After analysing the
graph shown on the software screen, we measure peaks that correspond to
depths of change in medium which are supposed to be cracks, flaws or
boundaries of testing specimen.

Experimental data:
Serial No
Frequency(in KHz)
Distance(in mm)
1
8.79
231
2
2.93
694
3
4.39
463
4
8.79
231
5
8.79
231
6
8.79
231
7
7.81
260
8
6.84
297
9
7.33
278
10
8.30
245
11
8.79
231
12
8.79
231
Please refer to the attached image that contains the original observation
data taken on the date of experiment.

Results:
The average of all the depths calculated from the observed values as
301.91mmbut the actual depth of beam is 250mm.
However, I wanted to discard values corresponding to 2.93 KHz and 4.39
KHz as their depth measures 694mm and 463mm which are no way near
to the practical reality of 250mm.
Excluding these 2 experimental values from the observed data,

The above shown figure only contains the summation of squares of


deviation of values from their mean and hence the value is again divided
by 10(total no of values) to get the variance.
Standard deviation is obtained by taking a square root of variance!
Average of depths calculated is 246.6mm which is very near to
the actual value of 250mm.
Error % = (250-246.6)/250 * 100 = 1.36%
Variance = 516.84
Standard Deviation= 22.734 mm

3.
Crack Depth Measurement in a
Stepped Beam - Indirect UPV
Method:
Introduction:
Surface opening cracks often occurs in concrete structures. They may appear
as a consequence of several degradation mechanisms such as repeated loading,
differential settlement, chemical attacks, drying shrinkage, and freeze-thaw
cycles, among others. While in some cases, surface opening cracks may only

affect the aesthetics of the concrete surface, in most cases they are an indication
of structural distress and/or decreased durability
Crack depth determination can be performed non-destructively by the timeof-flight diffraction technique. In this technique, stress waves are generated on
one side of the crack, with wave arrival times monitored by a transducer placed
on the opposite side of the crack. Stress waves can be generated by a
mechanical pulse, such as given by ultrasound equipment, or by mechanical
impact, as in the impact echo technique. Crack penetration depth is determined
assuming a particular wave propagation path.
Although there are other techniques available to measure crack geometric
characteristics, the use of ultrasound with the time-of-flight refraction technique
is very simple, easy to perform, and gives a rapid indication of the extension of
cracking. Crack depth estimation by the time-of-flight diffraction technique using
conventional ultrasound equipment can be performed assuming a direct travel
path of the stress wave from the transmitter transducer to the receiver
transducer, passing through the crack tip. The transducers are placed on
opposite sides of the crack.
Graphically-based methods to estimate crack depth:
The transducers are placed in locations equidistantly from the surface
opening crack along a chosen line at least four positions. Time of-flight readings
are performed at each transducer arrangement. Assuming the same ultrasonic
pulse velocity in all wave travel paths, the time-of-flight can be expressed by:

Given stepped beam with crack on the top portion.

Indirect UPV Technique has been used to measure the depth of the crack.
At first we calibrate the UPV setup
Later the stepped beam member is cleaned and it is ensured that the
surface on which the probe is placed is as flat as possible.
The top surface of the beam is then divided into number of intervals.
The transmitter is then placed on one side of the crack on the top surface
and the receiver is placed at different points on the other side of the crack.
The time taken is measured at the different points.
From the above values we can estimate the depth of the crack.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OBTAINED:


GROUP 3:

The crack is represented by the rectangular shape and the circles represents the
points of measurement. They are 6cm apart. The observed crack depth is around
14cm.
NODES

TIME(us)

a-a
b-b
c-c

138
146
272

GROUP 6 RESULTS:

Depth of
crack(cm)
25.41
17.53
42.11

Error:
44.9%
19%
67%

6
12.3
17.6
6.2
12.6

7
12.8
18.5
18.5
18.5

Time
taken(us)
122
145.6
272.6
165.4
186.1

Crack
depth(cm)
20.51
17.42
45.12
22.23
27.25

Error%
31.7
19.62
68.9
37
48.6

5.
IMPACT ECHO FOR THE SLAB WITH
FLAWS
Introduction:
Impact-echo is an acoustic method for non-destructive evaluation of concrete
and masonry.
We have used German made setup containing HP laptop installed with Viking
software
It just identifies and quantifies problems with in a structure but is not a 100%
sure shot black box which testifies an issue inside.
Its based on the use of impact-generated stress (sound) waves that propagate
through concrete and masonry and are reflected by internal flaws and external
surfaces.Impact-echo can be used to determine the location and extent of flaws
such as cracks, de-laminations, voids, honeycombing, and de-bonding in plain,
reinforced, and post-tensioned concrete structures.It can provide thickness
measurements of concrete slabs with an accuracy better than three percent, and
it can locate voids in the subgrade directly beneath slabs and pavements. The
method can be used to determine thickness or to locate cracks, voids, and other
defects in masonry structures where the brick or block units are bonded together
with mortar.
Principle:
It works on the basis of reflection of waves on interaction with a different
medium in its path. On interaction with a new medium, wave gets both diffracted
and reflected. This reflected wave is caught back again in receiver and the time
gap is measured which gives the distance of flaw/other material from the
transmitter based on pre-defined calibrated velocities in that medium.
Experimental Description:
All the necessary connections for using the Viking software was done initially and
then with the help of Hammer of medium size is used as impact generator or

Transmitter. On pre-marked measuring points, transducer is placed vertically to


receive the signal which is analysed by Vikings software. After analysing the
graph shown on the software screen, we measure peaks that correspond to
depths of change in medium which are supposed to be cracks, flaws or
boundaries of testing specimen.
Data:

Impact echo for the slab with flaws

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Depth
A
321
298
321
379
321
298
379
RM
RM = Record
Missing; All values
in mm

B
155
379
379
97
99
298
99
RM

C
321
321
379
321
298
298
321
RM

D
464
102
379
379
379
298
99
RM

E
321
99
298
279
321
321
RM
RM

F
321
321
298
298
321
99
RM
RM

G
155
116
379
298
379
379
RM
RM

H
321
278
348
298
99
278
RM
RM

Analysis:
Velocity in concrete slab is 4074 m/s which is calibrated using Tomography. It can
also be calibrated using Impact Echo Method however Tomography was used in
time-constraint situations.
Based on the values obtained on the graph which are calculated form
calibrated velocity, it is clearly evident that points B4, B5, D2, D7, E2,
F6, G2, H5 are deviating from the trend implying that they could be
points of flaws in the beam.
Values crossing 350mm are being considered as erroneous as the beam depth is
250mm and this method cant give such deviation from the actual value.
Out of these D2, G2, E2 are along the same line implying that the crack
is along the lines joining all these three points at an approximate depth
of 100mm from surface of measurement.
B4 and B5 gives a scope of flaw at a depth of average 98mm from the
measuring surface.
D7, F6 and H5 makes an interpretation of angled crack that propagates
below these points at an average depth of 99mm from surface.

6.
Ultrasonic Tomography
Introduction:
Ultrasonic tomography uses ultrasound frequency of waves that gets attenuated
on interaction with media change with different di-electric constant.It gives an
overall estimation of what type of material is present inside any testing surface.
Principle:
The attenuation of the ultrasound as it passes through the object can be
measured and allowing estimation of both the attenuation constant and
the index of refraction. More or less, it has its working principle very similar to
Impact Echo Testing but it uses ultrasound waves in the place of P and S waves
generated by impact.
Experiment procedure:
Initially, the surface on which this experiment is carried out is cleaned and made
sure that the surface remains flat. Now the faces which are opposite to each
other are marked as shown in the diagram and made sure that they point on
both faces exactly opposite to each other.The recorded readings are then fed into
the software and the processing is done to obtain the velocity map and the
location of the flaw is identified.

Experimental data:

Result:
The analysis is to find out the velocity across various paths and its clearly
indicated in the tables.
Actual velocity of sound waves in concrete as measured by tomography is 4074
m/s and now this is compared with the data analysed from experiment.

Average calculation is shown above in a function on Excel sheet.

Only summation of squares of deviation of values from their average is


calculated here in the above Excel function. This value is later divided by 36(no
of observations) to obtain the variance of data observed. And we know the
square root of variance is standard deviation.
Here are the final results,
From the calculations stated above,
Average of all the velocities measured is 4292.45 m/s,
Error = (4292.45-4074)/4292.45 * 100 =5.089%
Variance is 356.879 m/s,
Standard Deviation is 18.89 m/s.

1. Ultrasonic Pulse velocity


Technique
Introduction: An ultrasonic pulse velocity test is an in situ, non destructive test,
to determine the quality of concrete or masonry or rocks. the strength of any
material is determined by measuring the velocity of the ultrasonic pulse wave
passed through it. This equipment gives the time elapsed for the pulse to pass
through it and higher velocities gives us an preliminary idea of the homogeneity
of the object.
Procedure:
1. Ultrasonic test equipment consists of electronic circuit which generates
pulse and a transducer converts electrical signal into mechanical signal
having oscillating frequency in the range of 40 kHz to 50 kHz.

2. Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the instrument zero.


The pulse time for the bar is engraved on it. Apply a smear of grease to
the transducer faces before placing it on the opposite ends of the bar.
Adjust the SET REF control until the reference bar transit time is obtained
on the instrument read-out.
3. Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is recommended that the 0.1
microsecond range be selected for path length upto 400mm.
4. Pulse velocity: Apply couplant to the surfaces of the transducers and press
it hard onto the surface of the material. Do not move the transducers
while a reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals and
errors in measurements. Continue holding the transducers onto the
surface of the material until a consistent reading appears on the display,
which is the time in microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel the
distance L. The mean value of the display readings should be taken when
the units digit hunts between two values.
5. Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to prevent the two
transducer leads from coming into close contact with each other when the
transit time measurements are being taken. If this is not done, the
receiver lead might pick-up unwanted signals from the transmitter lead
and this would result in an incorrect display of the transit time.
Pulse velocity=(Path length/Travel time)

Interpretation of Results: The quality of concrete in terms of


uniformity, incidence or absence of internal flaws, cracks
and segregation,
etc,indicative of the level of workmanship employed, can thus be assessed using
the guidelines given below, which have been evolved for characterizing the
quality of concrete in structures in terms of the ultrasonic pulse velocity.

Experimental Description and observations: this method is done by three


methods i.e direct ,indirect,semi direct methods.

Ultrasonic pulse velocity equipment is used in the stepped beams by direct


method.(group 1).
Point
s

Time(microsecon Width of
d)
specimen(cm)

velocity(Km/
s)

B1

101.7

46

4.52

B2

102

46

4.50

B3

102

46

4.50

C1

131.8

61

4.62

C2

132.7

61

4.59

C3

132.5

61

4.60

D1

165

76

4.60

D2

164.3

76

4.62

D3

165.3

76

4.59

Ultrasonic pulse
velocity equipment is used in the stepped beams by direct ,in direct,semi direct
method.(group 7).
DIRECT METHOD:

Time(micro second)
15
15
15

Distance b/w transducer and receiver


34.2
33.3
33.5

Velocity(Km/s)
4.38
4.5
4.477

Semi direct method:


Width of
Time(microsecond)
16.74
32.5
49.5

35
67.5
106.5

specimen(cm)

Velocity(Km/s)
4.78
4.8
4.65

Note: The distance given here for semi- direct measurement is the
actual distance between the transmitter and receiver points that is
calculated from the right angled triangle knowing the length and
thickness of the beam.hence it can be directly used for the calculation
of pluse velocity.
In direct method:
Time(microsecond)
15
30
45

Distance b/w transducer and receiver


39.5
97.2
151.7

Velocity(Km/s)
3.8
3.1
2.97

Results and Inference:


From the observed data, we got pulse velocity around 4.5 Km/s to 4.7 Km/s,
which is an indication of good quality of concrete on stepped beams.(group 1).
This tells us that the concrete is having good strength.
But we got different velocities for different methods.by direct method we got
4.3-4.5km/s and semi direct method we got 4.6-4.8km/s so these results were
closer to each other.but in direct method we got around 3km/s.this tells us that
while we were measuring by indirect method ,may be some defets were present
in b/w the transducer and receiver.thats why we are getting low velocity.
Advantages: Using NDT the following can be achieved, 1)No damage to the
structural sample. 2) testing concrete where cores can not be extracted 3)
directly relate the properties of concrete in the structure rather than sampling it
4) detection of cracks 5) determination of change of properties of concrete.